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Medical Image Reconstruction Using Wavelets and Multi-Wavelet Methods

Hadeel Ali Azeez Dr. Saad Ali Amin


Coventry University Coventry university
Faculty of Engineering and Computing faculty of engineering and computing
Priory Street-Coventry-CJ1 5FB Priory Street-Coventry-CJ1 5FB
Azeezh2uni.coventry.ac.uk Csx188coventry.ac.uk
Abstract
Medical images transmitted through wireless Iading channels
could lose some oI its inIormation as an entire block. This
paper presents diIIerent reconstruction method based Wavelet
and Multi-Wavelet Ior reconstructing lost blocks inIormation oI
medical images.
Methods evaluation and testing are achieved by reconstructing
diIIerent missing block size and locations Ior Iour diIIerent
medical images. Wavelet based Methods aims to recover
missing blocks inIormation using the correlation between the
lost block and its neighbors while the method based Multi-
Wavelet calculates the average oI missing block boundaries.
The paper also presents the relation between the missing block
size and the quality oI the reconstructed medical images using
the above diIIerent methods by explaining its eIIiciency against
the increase oI the lost block size.
Keywords: Reconstruction, interpolation, wavelet, multi-
wavelet, localization, wireless transmission.
1 Introduction
Medical image analysis provide an environment to distribute
the most modern research results with a special sight on the
related computer vision and application eIIorts, robotic and
virtual reality which related to medical imaging problems.
Medical image processing is considered to be one oI the most
important Iields in image processing. Transmitted MRI and X
rays images through wireless channels sometimes suIIers Irom
diIIusion or block lose and blurring during the transition
process. Transmitting Images block by block could lead to a
sever loss in its blocks which could distort the received image
|1|. The eIIect can be in diIIerent ways; the received image may
be complete but with noise which deIorms its overall quality or
it could lose some oI its blocks. In |2| the rate oI the average
packet loss is 3.6 in wireless environment which represented
in a bursting way as the authors explain.
The most used method Ior retrieving missing blocks
inIormation is by using the Automatic Retransmission Query
protocol (ARQ) Ior a better reconstruction quality but it also
has a number oI disadvantages oI causing network congestion
which aggravate the packet loss |3,4|. There is a another way to
reconstruct the missing blocks inIormation by using the
inIormation Irom the missing blocks neighbors, the location oI
the missing block inIormation is known Irom the Iamiliar
wireless scenarios.
This paper evaluates and compare between Wavelets and Multi-
Wavelets methods to reconstruct these missing blocks above
the medical images. The diIIerence between these
reconstruction methods and how blocks could be reconstructed
depending on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) values explained
in the next part oI this paper.
DiIIerent researches and studies implemented wavelet method
Ior texture synthesis |5|, Reconstruction oI the deIormed edges
during the compression method |6| and the enhancements oI the
blurred edges which caused during the interpolation |7|.
A research oI the commonly used error concealment and
control has been investigated in |8|. In |9| an exploit to the
interlock correlation and how to decrease the squared errors
between the lost blocks and its neighbor are shown. Wavelet
and Multi-Wavelet methods depends on neighbor's inIormation
to reconstruct missing blocks locations.
2 Reconstruction Methods
Since the earliest discovery oI Wavelets it became an important
tool in signal processing implementations which used in image
compression, reconstruction and image de-noising |10|. For a
long time scientists in image processing are Iamiliar only with
Wavelets which generated Irom one scaling Iunction. But
recently scientists came up with new techniques called Multi-
Wavelets which could be generated Irom more than one scaling
Iunction |10|. Multi-Wavelets have many advantages compared
to wavelets, Ior example (short support, balancing
orthogonality, and moments vanishing) all and many other oI
these are important Ieatures in signal processing Iield while it is
not possible Ior Wavelet to acquire all oI these at the same time.
2 Boundary Interpolation Wavelets transform method
(BIWT)

AIter detecting and localizing missing blocks in the received
image it is necessary to retain its inIormation's. The size oI
these missing blocks assumed to be as (NXN) dimension. The
next step is to reconstruct these blocks using the proposed
boundary interpolation method (BIWT) as an experimental
solution Ior this problem |1|. Three diIIerent Wavelet types are
tested inside BIWT method, Haar Wavelet type (HW),
daubechies (db10) and Biorthogonal (bior2.6) all three are
tested in this paper. Fig (1) demonstrates the Ilowchart oI
(BIWT) method.


Fig(1)Flowchart of the proposed Boundary Interpolation
Wavelet Transform (BIWT) method
2011 Developments in E-systems Engineering
978-0-7695-4593-6/11 $26.00 2011 IEEE
DOI 10.1109/DeSE.2011.26
36
2011 Developments in E-systems Engineering
978-0-7695-4593-6/11 $26.00 2011 IEEE
DOI 10.1109/DeSE.2011.26
36
2011 Developments in E-systems Engineering
978-0-7695-4593-6/11 $26.00 2011 IEEE
DOI 10.1109/DeSE.2011.26
36
2011 Developments in E-systems Engineering
978-0-7695-4593-6/11 $26.00 2011 IEEE
DOI 10.1109/DeSE.2011.26
36

Haar wavelet transIorm considered being one oI daubechies


Iamilies which is symmetric and has explicit expression in the
discrete Iorm; it is considered the only wavelet which is
symmetric between all the Iamilies, simple and associated to
the mathematical operation beside it is acting like prototypes
Ior all other Wavelet types. The most important advantages oI
Haar wavelets are the eIIiciency oI its memory because it is not
using a temporary array beside its simplicity and speed. Haar
wavelet transIorm decompose the discrete signal to the halI oI
its length as a two sub-signals, the Iirst sub-signal is the average
while the other one is the variation in running time. Haar
Wavelets are reversible which could overcome the edge
problems related with other wavelet types |11|. Daubechies
wavelet is deIined like (HW) by calculating the diIIerences and
the running average, It has Iair Irequency responses but non-
linear phase response. Biorthogonal wavelet is Irom the
symmetric Wavelets Iamily's supporters. AIter detecting and
localizing block locations take the nearest row which lies above
the lost block and call it (N), this row has the same column size
oI the localized lost block, i.e., (1*m ) as shown in Iig(2). AIter
that take the nearest row below the localized missing block
which has the same column size oI the missing block and name
it (S),i.e.,1*m . See Iig (2), Then Take the nearest column to the
right oI the missing block which has the same row size oI the
missing block and name it (E), i.e., m*1.Take the nearest
column to the leIt oI the missing block which has the same row
size oI the missing block and call it (W), i.e., m*1. See Iig (2)
below.

Fig (2) A, S, E, and W places
Calculate the 1-D discrete wavelet transIorms Ior all the
surrounding elements by calculating both approximate and
detail values; approximation is the low Irequency components
whilst details are the high Irequency components coeIIicients.
Both oI them have dimension equals to one-halI oI its original
size (m/2), detail coeIIicient values are translated as additional
elements with each oI the new low Irequency components
having m dimensions Next Nnd, Snd, End, and Wnd all are
vectors oI length m given zero values. By calculating the 1-D
inverse discrete wavelet transIorm to the new value oI the
approximation and the detail coeIIicients, the new values oI N,
S, E and W is calculated and it is oI size 2*m then downsample
the N, S, E and W new values. The last thing to do is to
reconstruct the missing blocks aIter Iollowing the equation
below:-R(i,j)(N(i)W(j)S(m-i1)E(m-j1))/2 where
i1..m, j1.m, R denotes to the reconstructed missing
blocks as shown in Iig (3).

Fig (3) missing blocks reconstruction

2.2 Image Reconstruction Using Multi- Wavelets
Another reconstruction method based Multi- Wavelet (MW).
MW has a number oI Iilters which is used to combine many
needed attributes like symmetry and orthogonality, but because
oI design limitations these attributes cannot be achieved or used
at the same time with Wavelets. Multi-Wavelets used to
overcome Wavelets system limitations; it could merge all the
needed transIorm attributes together which give Ilexibility to
the design options. Because oI this Ilexibility Multi-Wavelets
used Ior to reconstruct images. It is needed to backup the low
resolution oI the missing blocks Irom the original neighbor
blocks which considered a good step during transmission
process, it is important to Iind a method which could adapt all
oI these Ieatures to reconstruct these missing blocks.
2.2.1 Multi-Wavelet Averaging method
(MWA)
In MWA method, the high Irequencies elements are
reconstructed almost perIectly while the low Irequency
elements assumed to be already Iound. This method depends
basically on averaging the high Irequency elements Ior the
surrounded eight neighbors' Ior the missing block. Fig (4)
shows the MWA method Ilowchart.

fig(4) MWA method flowchart
MWA method reconstruct missing blocks by Iinding the 8-
nighboures Ior it as explained in Iig (5). During the
reconstruction process the eight nighbours surrounded the
missing block is used, these are: Top (T), Bottom (B),
Right(R), LeIt(L),Right-Top(RT),RightBottom(RB), LeIt-
Top(LT), and LeIt-Bottom(LB) as explained in Iig (5).

Fig (5) the eight surrounding sub-bands for the missing
block
get the output results aIter applaying the 2-D DMWT above T,
B, R, L, RT, RB, LT, LB. Finally average the high Irequency
components Ior the eight tiels to get the high Irequency
components Ior the missing block.
3 Methods Implementation
Medical image reconstruction is one oI the most important
topics which help the doctors to give better diagnoses then
proper treatments Ior their patients. This section demonstrates
the methods implementations using Iour diIIerent medical
images using diIIerent NXN missing block size and locations.
The eIIiciency oI each used method are measured using Signal
to Noise Ratio (SNR) values Ior each missing block which
located in diIIerent locations oI the tested image. The used
medical images are (knee bone, kidney, shoulder bone, and
pelvic bone) as shown in Iig (6) below.

Fig (6) original medical images
It is assumed that these images are transmitted through the
wireless environment and during that transmission Iour blocks
oI its inIormation are lost through the wireless Iading channels;
37 37 37 37

the missing blocks are oI NXN sizes distributed in diIIerent


locations as shown in Iig (7) below.

Fig (7) missing blocks locations and sizes


This paper evaluates the reconstruction quality Ior three
diIIerent block size oI (small, medium and large). The purpose
behind using diIIerent block size is to test the methods
reconstruction quality, the lost blocks are considered to be
small oI size (100) when N10, while it is oI size (324) when
N18 and (900) oI large size when N30.
3.1 The Used Data
DiIIerent used reconstruction methods dedicated to reconstruct
Iour diIIerent medical images, three diIIerent Wavelet types are
used like (Haar, db10 and bior2.6 Wavelets) and Multi-Wavelet
method. Several images are reconstructed with Iour missing
blocks. Some images using small blocks oI size (100) another
images using medium blocks oI size (324) or large blocks oI
size (900). The quality oI the reconstructed blocks is diIIerent
depending on the eIIiciency oI the used reconstruction methods.
3.2 Wavelet Testing Results
a) Reconstruction Using Haar Wavelet (HW)

The quality oI HW testing results Ior small, medium and large
missing blocks is diIIerent depending on the size oI the lost
inIormation as shown in Iig(8).

Fig (8) Haar Wavelet reconstruction using three different blocks
of four missing blocks above four medical images a) missing
blocks locations b) reconstruction for 10x10 size c) reconstruction
for 18x18 size d) reconstruction for 30x30 size .
Fig (8-a) Shows the location oI the missing blocks, Iig (8-b) is
the testing results oI a small blocks reconstruction using HW
which is almost perIect to the original images in Iig (6) whereas
in Iig (8-c) when the missing blocks are oI medium size, the
reconstruction using HW method becomes less eIIicient and a
little bit blurred. Fig (8-d) shows a poor reconstruction quality
when using large missing blocks which leaves some oI block
inIormation unreconstructed.
Table (1) shows HW SNR results Ior small missing blocks oI
size (100) using diIIerent medical images.

Table (1) HW SNR average results when block size10
Table (2) is the SNR average value Ior medium missing blocks
oI (324) sizes, the values are less eIIicient compared with the
SNR average values Irom table (1) as shown below:

Table (2) HW SNR average results when block size18
Table (3) shows the SNR average values using HW method Ior
large blocks oI (900), the results shows a noticeable decrease in
the SNR values compared with SNR average results Irom table
(1) and table (2).

Table (3) HW SNR average results when block size30
Table(1) SNR average results are the best compared with the
SNR average results in table (2) and (3) when medium and
large missing blocks oI size (18x18) and (30x30) are used
respectively.
From all the above it is obvious that HW reconstruction
method almost perIect with small missing blocks but it becomes
less eIIicient with the increase oI the blocks sizes which leads
to the Iact that the smaller the missing block sizes the better the
reconstruction when using HW.
b) Reconstruction Using Daubechies Wavelet (Db10)
When using db10 reconstruction testing results quality Ior
small, medium and large missing blocks is diIIerent depending
on the lost inIormation blocks sizes as shown in Iig (9).

Fig (9) Daubechies wavelet reconstruction using three different
block of four missing blocks above four medical images a)
missing blocks locations b) reconstruction for 10x10 size c)
reconstruction for 18x18 size d) reconstruction for 30x30 size .
Iig (9-b) shows a good reconstruction quality oI small blocks oI
size (100) using db10 whereas in Iig (9-c) when the missing
blocks are medium oI size (324), the quality oI the
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reconstructed missing blocks using db10 method becomes very


poor and blurred with some unreconstructed black areas.
In Iig (9-d) large missing blocks oI (900) size are reconstructed
with a bad quality. Table (4) shows the SNR reconstruction
results using db10 method Ior small missing blocks oI (100)
above diIIerent medical images.

Table (4) db10 SNR average results when block size10
In table (5) all SNR average values become less than zero when
medium blocks oI size (324) are used which make it less eIIicient
compared with the SNR average values in table (4).

Table (5) db10 SNR average results when block size18
Table (6) shows the SNR average values Ior large missing
blocks oI (900) sizes where all the values are less eIIicient Irom
table (4) and table (5) results.

Table (6) db10 SNR average results when block size30
Reconstruction quality oI large block size is the worst
compared with the small and medium missing blocks sizes.
Using db10 method shows a bad reconstruction quality to the
human visual display Ior all block sizes but it is the worst Ior
the large block size.
From all the above results it is clear that reconstruction using
db10 Wavelet method is less eIIicient Irom HW method.
c) Reconstruction Using Biorthogonal Wavelet (Bior2.6)
Reconstruction quality when using bior2.6 wavelet method Ior
small, medium and large missing blocks is diIIerent depending
on the lost inIormation blocks sizes as shown in Iig (10).
Fig (10-b) shows a good reconstruction quality Ior small blocks
oI size (100) using bior2.6 method. In Fig (10-c) when the
missing blocks sizes are medium oI size (324), the
reconstruction quality becomes less eIIicient and blurred with
some unreconstructed areas.
Fig (10-d) shows the reconstruction oI large missing blocks oI
(900) size using bior2 Wavelet method.

Fig (10) Biorthogonal Wavelet reconstruction using three
different block of four missing blocks above four medical
images a) missing blocks locations b) reconstruction for 10x10
size c) reconstruction for 18x18 size d) reconstruction for 30x30
size.
The reconstruction quality is in its worst condition compared
with the two small and medium missing blocks inIormation.
Table (7) display the SNR average reconstruction results using
bior2.6 wavelet method Ior small missing blocks oI size 10x10
above Iour diIIerent medical images:

Table (7) bior2.6 SNR average results when block size10
Table (8) shows that most oI the SNR average values become
less than zero when medium blocks oI size (324) are used
which make it less eIIicient compared with the SNR average
values Irom table (7).

Table (8) bior2.6 SNR average results when block size18
Table (9) shows the SNR average values Ior large missing blocks
oI (900) sizes where all the values are less eIIicient Irom table (7)
and table (8) results.

Table (9) bior2.6 SNR average results when block size30
Using bior2.6 method shows an accepted small blocks
reconstruction quality but bad reconstruction quality Ior
medium and large block sizes compared with HW method Ior
the small, medium and large block sizes. Both HW and bior2.6
are considered to be better than db10 Wavelet methods
depending on the evaluating testing results.
From all the above results can see that db10 considered the
worst reconstruction method with all missing blocks sizes
Iollowed by bior2.6 which makes HW is the best between all
the used Wavelet methods.

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3.3 Reconstructions Using Multi-Wavelet Method (MWA)


Reconstruction quality using MWA method shows a perIect
reconstruction as shown in Iig (11).
In Iig (11-b) where the missing blocks is small oI size (100), MWA
reconstruction method shows a perIect reconstruction quality almost
the same oI the original image. In Iig (11-c) where the missing blocks
are oI medium (324) size the reconstruction quality keeps the same as
when using small blocks. In Iig (11-d) MWA method is used to
reconstruct large missing blocks oI (30x30), the reconstruction quality
keeps perIect as it is Ior small, medium and large block sizes.

Fig (11) Multi-Wavelet reconstruction using three different
blocks of four missing blocks above four medical images a)
missing blocks locations b) reconstruction for 10x10 size c)
reconstruction for 18x18 size d) reconstruction for 30x30 sizes.
Using MWA reconstruction method shows an excellent reconstruction
quality Ior the human visual display using diIIerent missing blocks
sizes and locations.
Table (10) lists the SNR average results reconstruction using MWA
method Ior small missing blocks oI size (100). The SNR average
results are high which explains the perIect reconstruction quality
based MWA.


Table (10) MWA SNR average results when block size10
In table (11) medium missing blocks oI size (324) are used, the
SNR average results using MWA method still showing
approximately the same average results with a simple diIIerence
compared with the SNR average results in table (10).
Table
(11) MWA SNR average results when block size18
Table (12) large missing blocks oI size (900) are used, the SNR
average results oI MWA method still showing approximately the
same average results with a simple diIIerence compared with the
SNR average results in table (10) and table(11).

Table (12) MWA SNR average results when block size30
Reconstruction quality using MWA method shows a perIect
reconstruction with a high SNR average testing results Ior
small, medium and large missing blocks.
4 Methods Comparison and SNR data Analysis
Comparison oI diIIerent reconstruction methods is achieved by
comparing the quality oI its reconstruction using the human
visual display Irom the Iigures below beside overall SNR
average values in table (13). BIWT and MWA methods
compared using diIIerent medical images oI (knee, shoulder,
pelvic bone and kidney), some images tested Ior small blocks
sizes and other images tested Ior medium or large block sizes.
Comparison achieved by using same block size and location.
Figures (12, 13 and 14) demonstrates the comparison tests Ior
small, medium and large block size Iollowed by the overall
SNR average table which holds the calculations oI the overall
SNR values Ior all medical images every one with Iour missing
blocks oI same size each time.
Fig (12) shows knee image with Iour equal missing blocks oI
size (100). To test the reconstruction methods the Iourth block
has been extracted to see its close reconstruction quality.

Fig (12) comparison between BIWT&MWA methods for
small missing block of 10x10 sizes above the knee image.
Reconstruction using HW Ior the small missing blocks is better
than when using db10 and bior2.6 but MWA method is better
than the three wavelet methods as shown in Iig (12) HW
reconstruction quality is almost near to the quality oI the MWA
method using small missing blocks.
In Iig (13) third block is extracted Irom the shoulder image to
compare the eIIiciency oI the used reconstruction methods Ior
medium block oI size (324).

Fig (13) comparison between BIWT&MWA methods for
medium missing block of 18x18 sizes above the shoulder
image
40 40 40 40

Reconstruction using HW Ior medium missing blocks is better


than when using db10 and bior2.6 but MWA method is better
than the three wavelet methods, HW reconstruction quality
becomes less eIIicient using medium blocks compared with the
small reconstructed blocks.
In Iig (14) Iirst block is extracted Irom the kidney image to
compare the eIIiciency oI the used reconstruction methods Ior
large block oI size (900).

Fig (14) comparison beten BIWT&MWA methods for large
missing block of 30x30 block size above the kidney image.
Reconstruction using HW Ior large missing blocks is better than
db10 and bior2.6 between Wavelet Iamilies but MWA method
keeps the best among the three wavelet methods as shown in Iig
(14). HW reconstruction quality becomes very week and
ineIIicient Ior large blocks reconstruction compared to the
small and medium blocks reconstruction while MWA method
keeps stable and good with diIIerent block sizes.

Table(13) average of four missing blocks for 10x10, 18x18
and 30x30 block sizes for the four medical images using HW
db10, bior2.6 and MWA methods.
Table (13) shows the average results using diIIerent medical
images with Iour missing blocks (4x4) Ior each block size
calculated by the used reconstruction methods. MWA
reconstruction shows the highest SNR average values among all
used reconstruction methods Ior small, medium and large
missing blocks. SNR average values Ior MWA method using
diIIerent block sizes are approximately near to each other.
5 Conclusion
Evaluation oI diIIerent reconstruction methods based Wavelet
and Multi-Wavelet transIorms shows that the size oI the
missing block inIormation aIIect on their evaluation tests and
reconstruction quality positively or negatively. Testing results
oI BIWT methods Ior small, medium and large block size
shows that HW is the best between them due to the high SNR
average values Ior the reconstructed blocks that`s because HW
has two taps oI low and high Irequency Iilters which helps to
keep the pixel values within the area oI the nearest pixels while
the high and low Irequency Ior the daubechies and biorthogonal
having more than two taps which helps to keep the pixel values
more distributed and out to the vicinity oI the nearest pixels,
however BIWT method Iailed to give a perIect reconstruction
Ior medium and large missing blocks.
The other tested method was Multi-Wavelet Averaging (MWA)
method based Multi-Wavelets provides a better medical image
reconstruction than wavelet method Ior all block sizes oI small,
medium and large missing with a high SNR results which
makes MWA method more dedicated to serve the medical Iield
compared with the BIWT SNR values which have a good
reconstruction quality when using small block size but it
becomes less eIIicient with the increase oI the lost block size.
Multi-Wavelet systems are more eIIicient Ior reconstruction
processes since it could possess many Ieatures that works
together then give a better reconstruction results besides
preserving the time unlike Wavelets |13|. Multi-Wavelets gives
a perIect perIormance while recovering image boundaries, it
gives a high approximation order in vanishing time and a higher
perIormance Ior the image processing science than Wavelets.
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