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Marine and coastal engineering

Services for terminals, ports, harbours, coastal development and special marine structures

Anton Petersen Senior Vice President Bridge, Tunnel and Marine Structures +45 56 40 28 88 ape@cowi.com

Ole Juul Jensen Director Marine and Coastal Engineering +45 56 40 29 06 ojj@cowi.com

Thomas Dahlgren Vice President Marine and Foundation Engineering +45 56 40 26 69 thda@cowi.com

Sanjeev Dhar Marketing, Marine India +91 124 409 2500 svd@cowi.in

Stanley M. White, P.E. President Managing Engineer Ocean and Coastal Consultants, Inc. +1 203 268 5007 stwh@ocean-coastal.com

Dale E. Berner, P.E. President Ben C. Gerwick, Inc. +1 510 839 8972 deb@gerwick.com

Jesper S. Damgaard, Managing Director Gulf Marine +9714 339 7075 jeda@cowi.com

Mogens A. Hviid Senior Project Director +974 55 879 246 (Qatar) +961 70 580 800 (Lebanon) mah@cowi.com

COWIs services COWI currently provides services within 33 areas of engineering, environmental science and economics.

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Picture on front page: Snhvit terminal, Norway. Photo: Allan Klo

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COWI group
COWI A/S is a leading international consultancy firm founded in 1930. The COWIfonden (the COWI foundation) is the majority shareholder and is totally independent of any third parties. The foundation supports research and development in various fields of consultancy activities. COWIs head office is in Kongens Lyngby, 12 km north of Copenhagen, Denmark. COWI is a multidisciplinary firm providing services of the highest quality in the fields of engineering, environmental science and social economics. COWI employs more than 6,100 staff of which 3,200 are based outside Denmark in subsidiaries, branch offices or projects offices. A high percentage of the employees are professionals holding PhD, MSc or BSc degrees in civil, structural, geotechnical, mechanical or electrical engineering and other academic areas such as geology, hydrology, chemistry, biology, agronomy, sociology, economics and planning. The annual turnover is at present (2011) EUR 575 million (USD 825 million). About 2/3 of the companys turnover is generated outside Denmark in more than 100 countries around the world. Transportation COWI has more than 80 years experience in transportation consultancy covering all phases of infrastructure projects from initial planning and feasibility studies over design, construction and commissioning to maintenance management and rehabilitation.

Marine and coastal engineering The COWI group provides consultancy and design services within the field of marine, geotechnical and coastal engineering from five centres of excellence with a total of 18 offices for marine staffs and works. The total staff in this field of engineering is presently about 330 and increasing. The total annual turnover on international marine and coastal projects is approximately USD 60 million which makes COWI a leading international company in this specialised field. Marine and coastal centres COWIs marine and coastal engineering centres reside in COWIs head office, Copenha-

gen, Denmark; Ben C. Gerwick, Inc. (BCG), Oakland, California, USA; Ocean and Coastal Consultants, Inc. (OCC), Trumbull, Connecticut, USA; COWI India, New Delhi and Chennai and in COWIs offices in UAE and Qatar. COWIs marine and coastal teams are thus collaborating in a very integrated fashion to develop and deliver the services for our clients. For many projects this means that we, by use of todays ways of communication, are able to ensure that we can call upon our best expertice in the company irrespectively of the country of the project, the client and the COWI office responsible for specific project.

Key staff and contact information: 4


Marine and coastal consultancy services and expertise covering all project phases Investigation phase Geotechnical investigations Bathymetry & topography Underwater engineer diver inspections Condition surveys Feasibility phase Generation and development of ideas Feasibility studies Studies of infrastructure needs Layout studies Assessment of design data Remediation concept development Cost estimation Construction and procurement scheduling Environmental impact assessment Design phase Establishment of design basis Study of oceanographically conditions Design data studies Geotechnical assessments Durability design Civil and structural design Mechanical and electrical installations Operational risk assessment Tender phase Development of tender design Management of tender procedures Value engineering Preparation of contract for construction Construction phase Construction management Quality, environmental and safety management Construction risk management Interface coordination Programme and budget control Site supervision Contract and claims management Operation and maintenance (O&M) O&M management systems Inspection of structures and installations Ranking of maintenance and reinvestment needs Repair and strengthening design
Carsten Srensen cns@cowi.com P. N. Ananth pnan@cowi.com Ashish Lamba ahl@cowi.in Bradley Allen Syler brsy@cowi.com Bushra Hussain buhu@cowi.com Hossam Abdella hoal@cowi.com Nigel Pickering nipi@cowi.com Jrgen S. Steenfelt jos@cowi.com Jes Bojsen Abild jba@cowi.com Jrgen Juhl jju@cowi.com Jan Rnberg jkro@cowi.com Camilla Odgaard cmn@cowi.com Brian Foged bfo@cowi.com Lars Hansson lrh@cowi.com

Torben Bang tba@cowi.com

Kaj Nykjr Jensen knj@cowi.com

Stig Balduin Andersen sia@cowi.com

Thomas Gierlevsen thgi@cowi.com

Jrn H. Thomsen jot@cowi.com

Karsten N. Madsen kom@cowi.com

Henrik Hostrup-Pedersen hhp@cowi.com

Hanne L. Svendsen hsv@cowi.com

Christoffer Truelsen chtr@cowi.com

Daniel James Kennedy dake@cowi.com

Mads Jrgensen mpj@cowi.com

Christoffer Brodbaek cxb@gerwick.com

Sam Yao, Dr. sy@gerwick.com

Ted Trenkwalder twt@gerwick.com

Henrik Dahl hkd@gerwick.com

John E. Chapman Bryan N. Jones joch@ocean-coastal.com brjo@ocean-coastal.com

Douglas A. Gaffney Abdelaziz Abdalla Rabie doga@ocean-coastal.com asar@cowi.com

Stephen A. Famularo safa@cowi.com

Usama M. Saied usax@cowi.com

Marine and coastal consultancy

The COWI Group has, over the past years, strengthened and developed its capabilities in marine and coastal engineering both by organic growth and acquisitions. The organic growth has taken place both by hiring staff with international experience and many new graduates. The staff in the six centres of excellence and sixteen offices is truly international with a multicultural background in education, language and nationality. Experience The COWI Group possesses extensive international experience in all aspects of port, marine and coastal engineering. This experience is documented by the many successful, completed projects on six continents of the world, from California in the west to Korea and Australia in the east and from Tierra del Fuego, Argentina in the south to Greenland in the north. Focus has been on developing the relationship with our clients with the aim of providing added value to the clients projects. The very diverse, multidisciplinary and multicultural background and professional experience have been brought to bear for the benefit of our clients and the projects we work on. Quality management COWIs marine and coastal services are ISO 9001 certified. All design activities are carried

out in accordance with the individual project quality plan tailored to meet the specific requirements of each project. Services and expertises COWIs services cover the whole life cycle of a project from the early ideas over studies and design to the operation phase and rehabilitation or decommissioning. Our services range from professional advice on a specific problem to comprehensive planning and total engineering design and implementation of large scale projects. Our involvement in complex and demanding marine projects over the years has led to the

development of particular in-house knowledge. Marine terminals, ports, waterfronts, manmade islands, breakwaters can be mentioned as special fields of experience. Clients COWI works for public and private infrastructure owners as well as for contractors. We advocate a close dialogue with the contractor (BOT and design-build projects) in order to take all data into account and to optimise the design and construction. Understanding our clients needs and combining this with our knowledge and experience to successful project completion is our goal.

Main types of marine and coastal structures Ports and harbours Container terminals General cargo Ferry and roll-on-roll-of berths Access channels and waterways Navy Small craft harbours Fishing harbours Supply bases Marinas and pleasure craft harbours Marine terminals Oil and gas (LNG) terminals Bulk terminals Cruise terminals Coastal/waterfront development Land reclamation Coastal flood mapping Coastal protection Man-made islands Dredging Breakwaters Beaches Special marine structures Foundations for offshore wind turbines Water intake and outfall structures Confined disposal facilities Locks and dams Dry docks

Quality management system certificate and certification conditions, ISO 9001

Marine terminals

Oil and gas COWI offers completely integrated services relating to oil and gas marine terminals. This includes layout planning, operational and maintenance philosophy, marine construction, electrical systems and mechanical installations. We plan and manage site investigations, undertake the assessment of geophysical data and define design parameters. We analyse meteorological and oceanographic data and use numerical wave and hydrodynamic modelling software to define design water levels and wave conditions and to calculate wave disturbance at the terminal. COWI uses selected sub-consultants for vessel manoeuvring studies to define dimensions for approach channels and turning basins. Planning of the berthing head arrangement is based on the project specific vessel range together with loading/unloading requirements. We perform in-house dynamic mooring analyses including vessel downtime assessment. Facilities design includes berth and loading facilities, breakwaters, access trestle and pipe racks/conveyors. Physical model tests are made by subconsultants, who have worked with COWI for ages. In addition, facilities design includes tug berths, construction docks, buildings, electrical and mechanical installations, including security features and emergency shutdowns.

Contractor's designer, Shoaiba new tanker terminal, Saudi Arabia

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) project, Idku, Egypt

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) project, Idku, Egypt

Services Offshore geotechnical investigations

Design of pipe racks and bridges Design of buildings, road/ drainage and associated infrastructure

Bathymetric and topographic investigations Mooring and berthing analysis and layout Dredging plans Materials specifications Design of block wall structures Design of pile-supported structures Design of up to 11 arm loading structure and associated structures

Project period 2003 - 2009 Clients


Technip, Chiyoda, Snamprogetti, Archirodon Construction, Qatar Petroleum, Fluor Corporation, Exxon Mobil

Ras Laffan Marine Terminals, Qatar Ras Laffan Port, Qatar was built in the early 1990s and is now becoming the worlds largest liquefied natural gas (LNG) exporting port. The port was designed as an export facility for LNG, Condensate and Sulphur derived from the processing of gas landed from the North Field Gas Reservoir situated 67 km NNE of the Port. Ras Laffan is currently expanding the original port facilities and has identified the
Expansion of port of Ras Laffan

need for both new LNG berths as well as new multi-user liquid product berths from which gas-to-liquids (GTL) products can be exported. COWI has, so far, been involved in the planning, design and construction of the following marine terminals: Liquid product berths 1A and 1B Liquid product berths 3A and 3B LNG berth 3 LNG berth 4 LNG berth 5 LNG berth 6 The liquid product berths were designed to enable simultaneous berthing, mooring and loading of two vessels from 20,000 to 300,000 DWT. The berths have a common approach jetty with approach road and have pipe racks on either side leading from the lee breakwater to the loading platform area. The loading platform accommodates 11 loading arms for each berth. The berths are constructed using mass concrete blocks and consist of breasting

and mooring dolphins, quick release hooks, catwalks for access to the mooring dolphins, navigation lights, fenders, fire fighting facilities, ship-to-shore gangway and lighting amongst other topside facilities. The buildings consist of a common control building, an electrical substation and a firewater pump house as well as pipe racks and other piping structures. The LNG berths were designed to enable berthing of LNG carriers up to 267,000 m3. LNG berths 3, 4 and 6 were constructed using mass concrete blocks some of which weigh up to 700 t. The berths consist of a loading platform with topside structures and equipment, mooring and breasting dolphins, catwalks, berth furniture as well as an access causeway. LNG berth 5 was also designed for LNG tankers up to 267,000 m3 but by using pile supported structures and constructed outside the existing main breakwater before the new main breakwater was in place. Due to the rough seas during construction, pile supported structures were selected for this berth.

Ruwais third NGL train jetty project, Abu Dhabi, UAE The GASCO plant is expanding the export facilities at their Ruwais plant in Abu Dhabi, UAE with a third train export line and the construction of two new berths for export of natural gas liquid (NGL). The berths shall accommodate LPG carriers with a capacity of up to 125,000 m3. The work included design of jacket structures to be installed in 10-17 m water depth, design of module support frames to accommodate topside facilities and design of a 700 m long access trestle to the new loading berths.

Services Review of project basis including berth layout study and the geotechnical investigations Execution of dynamic mooring analysis Preliminary and detailed design of steel structures Construction support Design of jacket structures to be placed on 10 - 17 m water depth Design of module support frames to be supported by the jacket structures Design of 0.7 km E-W trestle and access platforms Project period 2006 - 2010 Client Archirodon Construction (Overseas) Co. S.A.

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Large liquid terminal port, New York Harbour, USA Consulting engineering services for a large multipurpose liquid terminal facility in the New York Harbour area have been provided since 1994, including marine engineering, dredging, permitting, and program management services. The facility has six recently dredged deepwater tanker berths and twelve barge berths. The services include underwater investigation with registered professional engineer (PE) divers. In the last 5 years we have been responsible for rehabilitation of piers and wharfs, emergency repairs, dredging, and environmental remediation.
New York Harbour liquid terminal facility

Services Underwater investigation with PEdivers

Moored vessel analysis Hydrographic survey Maintenance dredging Project period Ongoing Client Large Liquid Terminal Operator

Gabbro berth Mesaieed, Qatar

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Bulk terminals Like other ports and port terminals the study and design of bulk terminals rely on general marine engineering and special expertise on the systems for handling of bulk. The latter is normally tailored to the actual type of bulk material to be loaded or unloaded at the terminal. Otherwise bulk handling terminals can be made at long quays like general cargo or container berths or at jetty structures quite similar to the ones used for oil and gas terminals. The design thus requires knowledge of the requirements associated with the specific type of bulk material and the various types of handling systems, ranging from traditional grab handling to various types of conveyor belts to systems using pipes for pumping of the material in question. The designer works with suppliers of such special systems to develop optimum solutions. COWI undertakes all types of services for bulk terminals ranging from planning, layout studies, hydraulic studies, surveys, environmental assessments, feasibility studies, conceptual and detailed design, tender documents, contracting and contract supervision and management.

Olivine terminal, Greenland

TAKREER Sulphur Plant in Ruwais, UAE

Ruwais sulphur expansion, Abu Dhabi, UAE TAKREER has been expanding the production and berth facilities at their plant in Ruwais with a new berth for the export of granulated sulphur. The new berth accommodates vessels up to 65,000 DWT. The project involved construction of berthing and mooring dolphins, quadrant beam and support trestle, landreclamation and pivot foundation for shiploader. Also met-ocean study, dynamic mooring analysis, detailed design of marine facility, tendering and construction support are included.

Services Met-ocean study Dynamic mooring analysis Detailed design of marine facility Tendering and construction support Project period 2006 - 2009 Client Pegasus TSI Inc.

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Photo: Mogens Bech

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Ports and harbours

The services for ports and harbours are thus multidisciplinary in nature and include, in principle, the same studies and design tasks and types of civil engineering structures as other marine structures. However, of special importance is the specific use of the ports and harbours and which boats or ships they shall accommodate. Each type of vessel and operation and type of loading or unloading equipment has its specific requirements. Such requirements come from experience and are defined in the International Navigation Association (PIANC) guides, such as Criteria for Movements of Moored Ships is Harbours, the preparation of which was headed by COWI staff.

Port of Copenhagen The Port of Copenhagen A/S undertook a large port development project that includes a new ferry terminal in Sndre Frihavn (Southern Free Port) and planned for construction of commercial and residential buildings on the former DANLINK sites. The development includes relocation of ferries operated by DFDS Seaways away from the congested Copenhagen City. As the clients representative COWI provided multidisciplinary services and project management, which included the following components: Planning and design of quay structures and piers in 9 m water depths Dredging plans Traffic analysis on the terminal area Testing of the proposed layout using 3D real time ship navigation simulation at the Danish Maritime Institute (FORCE) EIA (environmental impact assessment) and environmental screening Estimate of construction costs including maintenance using successive calculation Soil logistics (recycling of polluted soil as landfill within the project area).

COWI, together with the client, have implemented a commercial document control program. Through the internet, this gives all project participants full accessibility and control of digital documents and drawings from the planning phase to the final phase.

Services Project management Conceptual design Prequalification of contractors Tender documents Contracting and supervision Review of contractors design Traffic analysis

EIA Cost estimate Digital document management Project period 2000 - 2003 Client Port of Copenhagen A/S

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Container terminals Container terminals are normally made in connection with a long straight quay as the terminal requires quite a width perpendicular to the quay to make room for container cranes at the quay front and for transport laterally along the quay and finally for storing/stacking of containers in the container yard. Container vessels are becoming larger and larger and the latest development in vessel size implies vessels up to 400 m in length and a draft fully loaded in the order of 16 m, thus requiring depth at the quay front of about 17 m. The quay structures for a container terminal are thus quite similar to the ones used for other types of port terminals with the exception that, most often, the crane rails require piles as foundation. These piles can be an integrated part of the quay structure. Otherwise the designer of a container terminal works closely with the operator to develop a tailored optimal system for the specific terminal including the requirements to container cranes and the special type of equipment required for moving and stacking of containers such as straddle carriers. A container yard has very heavy traffic and the design of the heavy duty pavement requires special attention.

Services Planning of the terminal operational


concept

Site surveys Environmental assessment Design of marine works Specification of container handling
equipment. Preparation of tender documents and tender assistance

Design of onshore works including


pavement, roads, mechanical, electrical and buildings

Project period 2007 - 2010 Client


Mesaieed Industrial City

Detailed design of container terminal, Qatar

Berths 7A and 7B container terminal, phase 1 and 2, Mesaieed, Qatar QP/MIC has expanded the berth 7 at Mesaieed Port (located 40 km southeast of Doha, Qatar) into a dedicated container terminal.The berth is for 4,000 TEU Panamax vessels. The new quay wall is a block wall designed with un-reinforced precast blocks for a water depth 13.5 m. The quay wall is supporting rail for STS-cranes. The landside rail is supported by a reinforced crane beam on bored concrete piles.
New container terminal, Port Atonome de Cotonou, Benin

Services Existing structure condition survey and assessment Bollard and fender systems improvements Crane girder and piling strengthening Wharf embankment bulkhead design Operational and seismic analyses

Construction document design Construction assistance Completed 2007 Client Port of Oakland

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Wharf embankment strengthening berths 35-37, Port of Oakland, CA, USA As part of the Port of Oakland 15 m channel deepening project, the port has strengthened the Evergreen Terminal (berths 35/37) with the construction of a new waterside crane girder and sheet pile bulkhead wall. As the prime consultant for the structural analysis and design of wharf improvements we performed: new concrete crane girder, concrete piling, steel sheet pile bulkhead wall, fenders, bollards, crane rail, crane anchors, crane stops, seismic monitoring, cable trench and utility vaults and trenches. The work included development of design criteria for future crane loads, vessel moorings, seismic and geotechnical analyses, electrical design of crane and communication requirements, mechanical design of potable and fire water, drafting, construction phasing, cost estimates, and specification writing.

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Marinas and small craft harbours The planning, development and design of marinas and small craft harbours utilises COWI's experience in geotechnics, hydraulics and marine/coastal structures. For marina design COWI has experience in developing the project from the initial surveys and studies through preliminary and detailed design to tendering and construction completion. COWI has in-house experience covering the core competencies required for marina planning and design which are: Demand studies consisting of transport trend analyses, traffic forecasting, financial evaluation and boat mix assessments Layout planning and studies including terrestrial and bathymetric surveys, geotechnical investigations, environmental impact assessments, numerical modelling of various hydraulic aspects such as sedimentation and wave disturbance assessment, definition of spatial requirements, optimisation of berth layouts and protection measures such as breakwaters and slope protection Infrastructure design being the design and specification of pontoons, walkways, access ramps, moorings, navigation aids, slipways, shiplifts, maintenance and service areas, utilities and security, buildings and roads and fuel and pump-out facilities

Services Numerical modelling of wave disturbance and current conditions for optimisation of new foreharbour Analysis of expected down time due to wave disturbance Assessment of sedimentation conditions Full bridge navigation simulations with new foreharbour Numerical modelling of sediment spill and spreading during dredging operations Geotechnical investigations Conceptual design of new foreharbour, incl.design of two new breakwaters and breakwater head caissons Conceptual design of future expansion Investigation of legal bindings, regional and local planning aspects and requirements to an EIA for the port expansion Project period 2006 - 2008 Client Port of Frederikshavn, Denmark

Improvement of navigation conditions and future expansion of the Port of Frederikshavn, Denmark The Port of Frederikshavn is among the 10 largest ports in Denmark and has plans for further expansion. The improve navigation condition and to meet the future demands, COWI has developed concept designs for a new foreharbour and a furture expansion of the northern part of the Port.

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Wave disturbance modelling in harbour

Wave height coefficients

Halul Harbour refurbishment, Qatar Halul Harbour is located on the southern side of Halul island 80 km east of Qatar. The refurbishment of the harbour commenced with a review of hydraulic design conditions and numerical wave disturbance modelling to determine the environmental parameters for the breakwater design. The wave disturbance modelling was undertaken using MIKE 21 BW. Several different arrangements of the western breakwater were modelled to minimise the wave disturbance within the harbour. Based on these findings and with consideration to navigation, optimisation of the breakwater layout was then completed. Following the agreement of the layout detailed design of the western breakwater was completed using CORE-LOC units as the primary armour. Further, 3D physical modelling was used to confirm the breakwater design. Technical and material specifications were also produced.

Services Numerical wave modelling Physical modelling Engineering design of marine structures Technical specifications and drawings Project period 2001 - 2002 Client Archirodon Construction (overseas) Co. S.A. Dubai
Tuborg Syd waterfront development, Denmark

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Coastal engineering and waterfront development

Coastal engineering Coastal engineering is a special field within civil engineering. It includes the physical processes of the sea and coastal regions and the movements of sediments due to the water in motion. It further includes the interaction between interventions and man-made structures and the physical environment. It is this complexity that makes coastal engineering such a special field compared to many other civil engineering disciplines and what fascinates coastal engineers. The engineer or designer often has to be imaginative and exercise personal judgement in calculations in order to arrive at correct and yet still acceptable structural solutions.

The structures are founded on the sea bed or on the shoreline and exposed to water level changes, currents and wave impacts. Further, the site and the area around the structures are, in many cases, subject to morphological changes which have to be analysed and understood prior to construction. It is our strong aim to work with nature rather than against it. This may be taken as our mission statement within coastal engineering. It is, therefore, natural for us to try and minimise the use of man-made structures on a shoreline and attempt to use beach nourishment wherever possible. In line with this mission we will, when working on marine projects, seek solutions attempting to minimise human intervention, i.e. placing a port or similar installation where it requires the least movement of materials, by, for example, selecting the site and distance from the shoreline such that the quantities in breakwaters and other structures as well as dredging and filling volumes are minimised. Further, it is our aim to seek solutions that involve the smallest possible changes in the natural, physical as well as flora and fauna environment. Numerical models are more and more used as a tool and COWI has strong in-house capabilities in this field as described elsewhere.

Palace Seawall, Muscat, Oman

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Irish Rail sea defence works A significant section of the Irish rail network lies close to the shoreline and is subject to ongoing coastal erosion, instability of coastal defence structures and wave overtopping, especially along the east coast between Dublin and Wicklow. Iarnrd ireann (The National Irish Rail Company) is currently implementing a longterm plan for protection of the coastal railways, as part of the Cuttings and Embankments programme. Since 2000, COWI has carried out a feasibility study for coastal defence works as part of this Cuttings and Embankments Programme. The study produced a 10-year strategy, in which geotechnical and coastal defence works

were planned and prioritised. The project programme included the following coastal projects: Malahide Causeway Sorrento Point Bray Head Ballygannon (south of Greystones) Kilcoole The Breaches Six Mile Point (Newcastle) Five Mile Point Rogerstown Causeway Merrion Gates to Blackrock Rosslare Strand A variety of geotechnical and coastal defence works are adopted in order to suit the local site conditions.

Heavy rock berm structures have been applied to the coastal defences in areas of steep rocky headland where the railway line runs in a series of embankments and rock cuttings supported at their base by masonry retaining structures. At several locations, the railway runs on top of what is thought to be ancient littoral berm formations. These are fronted by sandy beach and with low hinterland. At these locations, the coastline is subject to rapid coastal erosion. Therefore, new revetments have been established. In order to preserve the amenity of the beaches, the new revetments have been partially burried into the beach and the reconstructed dunes have been planted with marram grass. At other locations, rock and concrete block revetments behind the beach protect the track.

Services

Feasibility study Design of protection works Tendering and contracting of work Construction supervision
Project period 2000 - 2009 Client

Iarnrd ireann

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Breakwater projects COWI is an international name in the design of breakwaters. Our experience reaches from fundamental scientific research to numerical model studies and physical model testing to design and supervision of construction. COWIs staff has more than 35 years experience from over 150 international breakwater projects in 5 continents. The experience includes all types of breakwaters from rubble mound to caisson. In addition, the experience includes an extensive variety of armour units such as quarry rock, cubes, grooved cubes, dolos, tetrapods, accropodes, and CORE-LOC. COWI uses its in-house capabilities in numerical modelling of wave propagation as the basis for defining design waves and then for the configuration of breakwaters and to perform conceptual analyse and design. We specify and supervise 2D flume tests and 3D physical model tests. If ground conditions are poor, state-of-theart soil structure interaction analysis software is used to analyse the breakwater foundation and define soil improvement works as necessary. We also study and design caisson breakwaters including numerical and physical modelling, soil-structure interaction modelling and design of the caissons using IBDAS, COWIs own integrated design and analysis software tool.

Main breakwater armoured with CORE-LOC. LNG project at Idku, Egypt

Rock breakwaters for coastal protection

Placing of CORE-LOC

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Waterfront developments Waterfront developments include both the development of existing ports and harbours for residential purpose and the study and design of large-scale dredging and reclamation works. We specialise in developing projects from master planning, surveys, environmental impact assessments, design of edge structures and reclamation, preparation of tender documents to supervision and construction management.

The Lagoons, Dubai, UAE The Lagoons was a landmark project, and situated at the end of Dubai Creek, north east of the Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary. It comprised of seven man-made landscaped islands representing the seven Emirates of the UAE, which, together, provide extensive navigable waterfront. It is a mixed use waterfront development to accommodate both high-rise and low-rise residential and commercial buildings, five star hotels, resorts, marinas, a planetarium, a theatre and art centre as well as the iconic Opera House on the existing island. Positioned adjacent to Dubai Festival City, with the Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary to the south-west and the sixth crossing to the north, the development holds a prime location along the Dubai Creek. Transportation around the islands is to be supported by a series of bridges and causeways as well as public transport facilities. The development has approximately 40 km of waterfront land.

Block work quay wall built in the dry for The Lagoons.

Rendered image or vision for The Lagoons.

Services Several kilometers of concrete block work quay wall and revetments Navigational locks providing access to the impounded lagoons
Navigable canals and waterways Excavation, dredging and reclamation Hydraulic studies

Mechanical water quality system Navigational locks 8 marinas scattered around the site with a total capacity of more than 800 boats

Dellis Cay development, British West Indies The developer O Property Collection is currently developing a multiple facility tourist complex with low-level hotels and condos on the island of Dellis Cay, part of the Turks & Caicos Islands. In 2006 COWI was appointed as marine consultant, utilizing our services to review all existing documentation of the project, interview associated parties and prepare a preliminary assessment of the existing Master Plan. Assessment & Design of marine works associated with Dellis Cay Development, Turks & Caicos, British Virgin Islands. MIKE21 numerical modelling of the hydraulic environment including the impact of hurricanes, resulting in the development of a protection strategy and definition of design flood elevations for the island. Preparation of alternative concepts, cost estimation and production for a master plan for marina cay reclamation (70 acres) and detailed design and tender documents for 1.5 km of beaches including beach nourishment, detached rubble mound breakwaters and timber groynes, a cargo handling jetty & ro-ro berth and a 50,000 m3 saline lake with tidally driven flushing system.

Project period 2008 2010 Client Sama Dubai LLC

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The Pearl Qatar The Pearl, a project in Qatar, involved detailed design of the reclamation works for the 400 hectares new island requiring approximately 13.5 million m3 of fill and the associated sea defence structures for the 40 km of new shoreline. Numerical hydrodynamic model studies were carried out to determine the hydrodynamic design basis. The development includes private beaches along most of the perimeter which adds to the aesthetics and exclusiveness of the development. Various concepts have been developed to create a variety of beach environments that are optimised to suit the local conditions and requirements.

Along the shores facing north and east relatively long pocket beaches have been created. The sand is retained between groyne structures. Private open beaches have been separated by beach breakwaters at one of the shorelines facing southwest. Generally, terraced beaches have been used where the wave impact is oblique and an open beach would be eroding. The terraced type consists of a low crested revetment behind which a sand beach is constructed. Concrete block gravity quay walls are used in the western cove (Porto Arabia) and along the channels in the Venice type development (Qanat Quartier) at the north-west shore to facilitate mooring of boats and to create the confined channel system.

Each of the Isola Dana islands feature a private beach, harbour and terraced beach fringed by a low crested revetment. COWI has, subsequently to the island design, rendered technical assistance during construction and made design of the marinas.

Services Bathymetric survey Geotechnical site investigations Environmental management plan Design assistance during construction Design of marinas Design of culverts Design basis

Conceptual design Detailed design Tender and contract documents Technical assistance Project period 2003 - 2008 Client United Development Company (UDC)

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Master plan

Lusail Development, Qatar The waterfront development is located along the shoreline north of Doha. It will cover an area of about 21 km2 which is about the same size as the entire Midtown and Lower Manhattan in New York. The project will transform the present shoreline through dredging and reclamation, creating new islands, access channels and beaches. The new development will include low- and highrise residential housing for about 200,000 inhabitants. Further, the development will include business, corporate and mixed use areas as well as quality beaches with top class hotels, two golf courses and an entertainment district. From August 2004 to January 2006, COWI completed planning and design activities of the marine and earthworks for the Lusail Development as sub-consultant to Bechtel Overseas Corporation. In February 2006, the owner entered a 2 year contract with the Chinese contractor Sinohydro for the construction of the marine works. In early 2006 COWI, in cooperation with Halcrow, Hyder and David Adamson, were selected by Qatari Diar to design and supervise all infrastructure for this multi-billion dollar development project. The construction of the infrastructure works is scheduled to be completed in 2011.

Marine components

Dredging/excavation of 24 million m3 Reclamation/landfilling of 17 million m3 Block walls, 10 km Rock revetments, 21 km Beaches, 19 locations, 4 km Services for marine and earthworks
Bathymetric and topographic surveys Geotechnical investigations Master planning Environmental impact assessment Conceptual and detailed design Preparation of tender documents Assistance in tendering and contracting phase

Services for infrastructure


Supervision of the marine works Design and supervision of nine marine bridges Design and supervision of marinas Geotechnical investigations Environmental impact assessment Supervision of part of the infrastructure construction works

Project period
2004 - 2011

Clients Bechtel Overseas Corporation and Qatari Diar Real Estate Investment Company

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Construction of the up to 44 meter heigh gravity base foundations. Thornton construction site, Belgium.

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Offshore wind turbine foundations

Over the years COWI has developed innovative off-shore foundation concepts for offshore wind turbines that are today regarded as proven and accepted. Our foundation design expertise also includes monopiles, four-legged jackets as well as jack-up installed STAR tripods. The Nysted and Thornton Bank gravity base foundations were innovative designs developed together with the contractors to meet site specific challenges set by foundation conditions as well as fabrication and installation requirements. COWIs project approach, combining hydraulics, geotechnics, structural engineering and fabrication/installation procedures into integral solutions, provides the client with optimal solutions for his specific project needs. The London Array transition piece and monopile foundation COWI has improved the design methods for the soil structure interaction to allow for an optimized design. The project is one of the first to introduce a new design of grouted connections. The verification of structural strength and the stability in the construction phase are coherent in the design activities. This includes impacts during transport and installation such as loads induced from lifts, dynamic impact during transportation, and impact during installation. We conduct installation studies taking the permissible weather windows into account and

we provide the client with a basis for optimising his installation requirements. COWI has experience in detailed design of offshore wind turbine foundation structures in both steel and in concrete and is therefore the preferred consultant for feasibility studies for many developers and EPC contractors. COWI has recently carried out concept studies in Denmark, Norway, Germany, Belgium, France, England and USA. Beyond conceptual, basic and detailed foundation design COWI also carry out metocean studies and plan, supervise and interpret geophycical og geotechnical surveys.

Drawing: COWI

3D visualisation of planned wind farm.


Photo: Petri & Betz

Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark.

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Offshore geotechnical and geophysical investigations Prerequisite for successful offshore projects are proper and appropriate geotechnical and geophysical site investigations. COWI has the appropriate expertise in all kind of offshore geotechnical and geophysical engineering and the necessary skills to undertake the planning, supervision and interpretation of any kind of marine survey assignments. COWI has more than 150 geosciences staff with a solid educational background and an extensive experience with geotechnical engineering worldwide. 15 of the employees have valid safety and survival certificates and participate in offshore supervision around the world. The supervision comprises CPT and boreholes carried out from jack-up by traditional drilling in overburden and wireline core drilling in rock. It also comprises PS-logging, drill out CPT and pressuremeter testing. In shallow water we have supervised CPT and vibrocoring from smaller ships. COWI can assist in planning, optimisation, supervision and interpretation of marine geophysical surveys such as bathymetry with multi- and single beam echosounder, seabed characterisation with side-scan sonar or multibeam methods, and vertical distribution of marine sediments with e.g. sub-bottom profilers. COWIs approach is based on close communication lines with the client, ensuring that all information is efficiently distributed.

Services
Desktop studies to assist planning and providing risk assessment for surveys Assessment of requested geotechnical and geophysical investigation tailored for the actual project Preparation of tender documents: Assessment of what is needed, techniques and equipment to use, selection of best contractors to approach. Assessment of suitability of equipment, vessels and personnel. Selection of contractor and assistance on contract negotiation. Consultancy on marine and offshore survey practices. Representation on any kind of offshore survey from seabed mapping (bathymetry, acoustic imaging of the seafloor and seabed profiling, coring and ground truthing (any kind of grab sampling or visual inspection). Supervision of site investigations Interpretation of provided geotechnical data and assessment of geotechnical design basis Preparing geological models in 2D or 3D.

Jack-up risk assignments COWI has carried out risk evaluation regarding the seabed conditions for jacking up on a number of offshore wind turbine sites. The risk assignment is focusing on: The sea bed conditions, bearing capacities and penetrations of footings, risk of punch through of softer layer below footings, other ground related risks in conjunction with jacking up operations. The investigations covered among others the following sites: Denmark Baltic Sea (Kattegat), Rdsand I and II (Nysted), Djursland/Anholt, Sprogoe, Horns Rev I and II and Great Belt. Germany Arkona-Becken Sdost, Baltic I, Kriegers Flak, Sky 2000, North Sea, Oersund, Borkum Riffgrund, Bokum West II, Butendiek, Meerwind and Nordsee Ost. Sweden Lillegrund.

Photo: Ian_Cormack

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London Array, world's largest offshore wind farm, UK With 175 monopiles, designed to carry the Siemens 3.6 MW turbines, London Array will be the largest offshore wind farm in the world when completed in 2012. Monopiles of 4.7 m and 5.7 m in diameter will be installed in water depths between 0 m and 25 m. With a total length of up to 85 m, these foundations will range among the largest ever built. A consortium of DONG, E.ON and Masdar has commissioned Aarsleff | Bilfinger Berger Joint Venture (ABJV) as contractor to undertake fabrication and installation of the steel foundations. To carry out the detailed design of the steel foundations, ABJV has engaged COWI as lead in a joint venture with IMS GmbH, COWI-IMS JV. The offshore wind farm will be located on and between the sandbanks of Kentish Knock and Long Sand representing depth variations of up to 25 m. The soil includes both sand profiles, stiff London Clay profiles and mixtures including also gravel layers. With layers potentially prone to liquefaction, also the soil represents a challenge to the design. The project will be one of the first to introduce a new design of grouted connections and improvements in the geotechnical calculations of soil structure interaction to allow for an optimized design. The present project constitutes phase 1 of a 2 phased setup and is planned to deliver 1,000 MW in total and will cover the electricity needs of 750,000 homes in the UK.

Services
Structural design Geotechnical design Hydraulic calculations. Project period 2009-2011 Client Aarsleff | Bilfinger Berger Joint Venture

www.cowi.com/offshorewind

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Services Structural design Geotechnical design Design of scour protection Project follow-up Detailed design, site supervisions Project period 2001 - 2002, 2008 - 2010 Clients Aarsleff - Ballast Nedam International Joint Venture Aarsleff - Bilfinger-Berger Joint Venture
Foundation production site, Poland

Nysted offshore wind farm at Rdsand, Denmark Denmark has formulated an energy policy giving high priority to sustainable energy, where wind turbines are very important elements. Several offshore wind farms are planned and COWI served as consultant for the two at Rdsand. COWI has carried out detailed design for 72 wind turbine gravity foundations located in the Baltic Sea some 9 to 10 km off the southern coast of the Danish island of Lolland. They are 2.2 MW Siemens wind turbines. The wind turbines are founded at 7.5 to 12.75 m depth on stiff clay till. The gravity foundations are open reinforced concrete structures that are subsequently filled with ballast and covered with armour stones. The foundation is provided with an ice cone. The design is based on an optimal utilisation of the subjacent soil conditions versus load conditions when defining the foundation level of each position.

The foundations are designed to sustain cyclic loads from wind, wave and ice forces during their 25 year lifetime. The detailed design included geotechnical, structural and scour protection design, the latter validated by hydraulic model tests. The geotechnical and structural designs were carried out using state-of-the-art numerical tools, e.g. PLAXIS and IBDAS. Rdsand 2, Denmark COWI in a joint venture with Aarsleff and Bilfinger-Berger is carrying out basic and detailed design of 90 wind turbine foundations, located off the southern coast of the Danish island of Lolland. The wind turbines are 2.3 MW Siemens to be founded at 6 to 12 m water depth. The services comprise installation loads, hydraulic load assessments, structural design and geotechnical design.

Photo: Petri & Betz

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Thornton Bank offshore wind farm, Belgium The Thornton Bank is located in the North Sea some 30 km off the Belgian coast. When fully developed, the Thornton Bank offshore wind farm will comprise approximately 54 wind turbines. The first phase completed in 2008 comprised 6 wind turbines. The wind turbines for the first phase are REpower 5 MW turbines. The turbine hubs are 94 m above sea level. The gravity base foundations for the wind turbines are founded in sand of medium grain size. In 2003-2004 COWI carried out a concept study for alternative foundation solutions including the innovative conical shell structure eventually adopted by the project owner. The prestressed concrete foundation structure is composed of a cylindrical shaft on top of a conical base transferring the loads from the wind turbine directly to the base slab.

The post-tensioned structure provides favourable strength and stiffness properties as well as fatigue and crack resistance. At the deepest location, the gravity base foundation structure extends from -27 m TAW to +17 m TAW. The base diameter is 23.5 m and the shaft diameter is 6.5 m, matching the diameter of the turbine tower. The foundation gravity base structures are prefabricated on land, and installed at sea by a heavy lift crane, on a pre-installed gravel bed. The weight of the concrete foundation structure is about 2,700 t. After placing, the foundation is ballasted by a combination of sand and heavy fill, sufficient to ensure the stability against overturning moments. The total dry weight may of the ballasted gravity base foundation be up to 7,000 t, depending on quantity and type of infill.

Services Structural design of foundation Geotechnical design Hydraulic design of installation stages Numerical and physical hydraulic modelling of installation stages, including dynamic loads and scour Appurtenances design including boat landing and J-tubes

Project follow-up during construction stage Project period 2006-2008 Client Dredging International n.v., Belgium

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Photo: Shaw E&I

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Locks, dams and barriers

We have a proven track record of providing cost-effective solutions to lock and dam projects using off-site prefabrication, float-in and inthe-wet construction technology. Our unique solutions minimize risks and reduce the time for construction through the use of innovative design and construction methods that avoid long lead times. Our expertise includes pump stations, cofferdams, marine skidways, precast yards, bulkheads, dewatering, underwater repair, levees, floodwalls, canal lining, flexible revetments and articulated concrete mats. Our services include soil-structure-interaction and foundation analyses, FE modelling, waterway traffic and navigation studies, dredging design, cofferdams, float-in and in-the-wet construction methods, heavy lift and transportation technology, seismic analyses, hydraulic modelling, fish-bypass structures, coastal engineering and geotechnical engineering.

Steel cofferdam associated with construction of CDF and 305 m heavy duty wharf.

New Orleans flood protection barrier, USA Ben C. Gerwick, Inc. is responsible for the detailed design of the flood barrier and the monoliths and foundations, for the main sector gate structure which will be used both to regulate navigation, tidal flows, and storm surge into the inner harbour navigation canal (IHNC) in New Orleans. The federally funded contract is for construction of a stormsurge barrier to keep surges from entering New Orleans inner harbour navigation canal. Failures of floodwalls overwhelmed by storm surge during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 along IHNC contributed greatly to the flooding of the city. The IHNC barrier is to be built by the end of 2011 near the confluence of the Gulf intracoastal

waterway and the Mississippi River Gulf outlet, a natural funnel identified as an area of critical vulnerability. Depending upon the design and site chosen, the final structure could be longer than 2.7 km. It is to include a combination of static and gated barriers that are to remain Services open for shipping, except Detailed design during storm-surge emergencies. The contract, Project period which began on Septem2008 - 2009 ber 2008, included adClients vanced measures to reduce the storm surge The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers and Louisianas Coastal Protection flood risk for residents and Restoration Authority around IHNC until the barrier is finished.

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Precast concrete dam segment floats to the project site on the Monongahela River

Services Detailed design River navigation structures Precast concrete construction Construction sequencing and scheduling Construction means and methods Tremie concrete mix design Construction engineering Completed 2003 Client U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Pittsburgh District
Float-in of dam segment

Braddock Dam lock 2, Monongahela River, USA Gerwick was retained by the USACE Pittsburgh District to design and assist with construction supervision of the New Braddock Dam. As the Engineer-of-Record for all final structural design drawings, we designed the float-in precast dam segments and developed in-the-wet construction methods and procedures. The Braddock Dam was constructed using a new and innovative float-in method, a first within the USACE. The application of this innovative in-the-wet approach is a landmark event, and one that could revolutionize the future construction of navigation projects. As a key consultant on the Braddock Dam, we successfully completed a major portion of the detailed design following an aggressive sevenmonth schedule. The challenges presented by this project and subsequently solved included: developing a cast and launch facility for two, 11,000-ton dam segments; developing a 102 m long precast

shell with sufficient strength for launch, transport, and immersion while maintaining a 3.1 m maximum draft; and developing a transport, positioning, immersion, and dam completion plan that would safely accommodate a 500year flood at anytime with 48-hour notice. Problems faced during construction centered around construction of the dam without adverse impact to the heavy traffic on the river. The problems were solved using the float-in method of construction, utilizing very short construction windows, and by closely coordinating vessel traffic on the river. The key to the success of this project is that the design and construction utilized precast concrete modules as the in-situ form into which tremie concrete was placed directly without use of a cofferdam. This project proves that the innovative construction method can provide substantial benefits in cost, construction time, risk reduction, and facility utilization while minimizing disruption to river traffic, and reducing environmental impact.

Dam segment float-in and set-down sequence

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Olmsted, Ohio River between Illinois and Kentucky

Olmsted locks and dam, USA After construction, the precast shell segments will be lifted by a 5,100 t gantry crane to a skidway where they will be lowered down into the water on a cradle using push-pull units. Once they are in the water they will be lifted by a catamaran barge and positioned in the river. As part of the detailed design and construction of the Olmsted Dam, we provided the detailed design for the new dam and also construction design support of the precast yard including the marine skidway for load-out of the pre-cast shell segments. The construction design encompassed concrete and steel retaining walls, gantry crane beams, skidway rail including beam and foundation system both above and below water, precast shell cradle, steel frame tremie mat templates, lifting/mating details for the precast shells, mooring anchors and dolphins. We also completed the shell design for the navigable pass precast segments, paving blocks and the lifting frame for the navigable pass segments and supported the design of the tainter gates.

Aerial view of Olmsted Dam precast yard showing the five 46 m 38 m concrete slabs where the precast concrete shells will be cast.

Services Casting yards/launch system Diving activities Dredging Heavy lift systems Off site prefabrication Positioning control systems Screeding/subgrade preparation Concrete durability Headed reinforcement Pre-cast concrete Precast shells (hulls) Tremie concrete Non-linear soil pile interaction Ice loading/abrasion resistance

Liquefaction Mooring and berthing Seismic analysis Seismic non-linear soil pile Interaction Constructability studies Cost estimating Scheduling preparation/review Specification preparation/review Value engineering Project period 2005 - ongoing Client U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Louisville Distric

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Many industrial plants around the world use once-through systems for their process cooling. The design of a seawater cooling system is a multidisciplinary task and it requires coordination of the hydraulic, coastal, structural and electromechanical aspects. Furthermore, the environmental impacts have to be addressed due to the heat load discharged back to the marine or fluvial environment. COWI has the specialist resources required for all aspects of the design. It includes hydraulic design of entire cooling water string and design of surge protection, intake and outfall systems and structural design of pumping stations and seal weirs. Design of mechanical equipment such as pumps, racks, screens is also included as well as design of automation and instrumentation, and design of coastal structures such as breakwaters, revetments, intake basins, outfall structures, thermal dispersion and recirculation. In addition we conduct studies to optimise locations of intakes and outfalls, establish metocean design parameters using advanced numerical models, and assess the impact on longshore sediment transport, coastal morphology, and the environment. Typically the design is done in close collaboration with a contractor and COWI is therefore also used to consider scheduling and constructability issues during the design phase.

Seawater cooling systems

We have in-house experience in the modelling tools used to support the design process: surge protection analysis packages, hydraulic modelling packages for waves, thermal dispersion and steady-state pipe flow, structural design tools and 3D modelling systems such as PDS, PDMS or SmartPlant.

Model test of marine outfall structures.

Shoaiba steam power plant, Saudi Arabia The plant located on the Red Sea Coast south of Jeddah is a major power and desalination plant with water intake and outfall structures at the shoreline.

Services Design of large intake structures consisting of glass reinforced plastic pipes and accropode breakwater intake basin and outfall weir, canal and guiding structures. Completed 2001 Client Saudi Archirodon Limited

Services Hydraulic design of cooling water system Foundation design

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Design of coastal structures Structural design of risers, pumping station, discharge structure, seal weir and outfall Piping design Mechanical design Electrical & instrumentation design SmartPlant 3D modelling. Project period 2010-2011 Client TARGET Engineering Construction Co.

Fourth NGL train, UAE In relation to the substantial Integrated Gas Development (IGD), aiming at increasing the gas production in the United Arab Emirates, the ADNOC company GASCO constructed a 4th NGL train at its site in Ruwais. An integral part of this project was the seawater cooling system. COWI carried out the full detailed design of the once-through cooling water system with a design flow close to 60,000 m3/hr. The elements comprised offshore intake risers, three offshore supply pipes, pumping station, manifold, two large supply pipelines, discharge header structure, sealing weir and an outfall structure. COWIs scope of work covered marine and coastal, structural, geotechnical, hydraulic, mechanical, piping, electrical and instrumentation systems. The advanced 3D modelling plant design system, SmartPlant, was used to integrate the design.

Rabigh power plant no. 2 project, Saudi Arabia The project is located in Rabigh, on the Red Sea coast, north of Jeddah in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. As part of the expansion programme for Rabigh power station, an additional four power generation units of 700 MW capacity each will be installed. The design flow is close to 300 m3/s. Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction has been awarded the EPC contract by Saudi Electricity Company (SEC) to deliver the Rab-

igh power plant no. 2. Huta Marine Works Ltd. is sub-contractor to Doosan regarding the marine works that forms part of the overall EPC scope of work. COWI carries out the studies and design of the marine and coastal elements of the seawater cooling system for the power plant covering the following items: Seawater intake pipes, intake basin surrounded by revetments, pumping station, outfall channel, outfall structure and breakwaters, and shore protection.

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Yanbu 2 power and water project, Saudi Arabia Saudi Archirodon Ltd has appointed COWI the detailed design of the marine facilities for phase 1 of the Yanbu 2 power and water project on the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. The end client is MARAFIQ , the power and water utility company for Jubail and Yanbu, who intends to construct a new power and water plant for Yanbu 2 Industrial City in order to satisfy a growing demand for power, process/ potable water as well as seawater cooling. The Yanbu 2 power and water project is split into four different contracts: Power and water production facilities Marine facilities (Archirodons package) Fuel facilities Seawater cooling pipeline network.

Services Met-ocean study and numerical modelling of wave and hydrodynamics Recirculation modelling for confirmation of the location of seawater intake and outfall Numerical flow modelling for optimisation of seawater intake channel Layout and design of seawater outfall transition structure and GRP pipelines covered by rock protection Design of seawater intake channel and breakwaters Design of dredging, reclamation and foundation of structures Structural design of pumping station, thrust block and culverts

Services Numerical hydraulic modelling of waves, currents, and thermal dispersion Management of physical modelling of breakwater and revetment stability Management of physical modelling of pump station Hydraulic engineering of intake pipes and basin Specifications for and analyses of pumping tests Geotechnical interpretative report

Conceptual and detailed design of marine and coastal engineering works (intake GRP pipes, breakwaters, revetments, shore protection, outfall weir) Review and check of structural design of pumping station. Project period 2010-2011 Client Huta Marine Works Ltd.

Design of buildings and infrastructure. Project period 2011-2012 Client Saudi Archirodon Ltd.

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Structure investigation and maintenance

The aging port infrastructure provides significant opportunities for marine structure underwater and topside investigation, remediation and maintenance. Much of the existing waterfront infrastructure was constructed in the early to mid-1900s. Underwater inspection The below water structures, not visible during routine inspections, can be overlooked and are the most vulnerable to environmental attack and deterioration.

Solutions that include remediation design to extend the existing structure service life, restore load ratings, and design of replacement and new structures are provided. The repaired and new structures are designed to meet todays codes, including seismic requirements. Our services include underwater investigations using surface supplied air with one of the largest contingencies of 20 professional engineer and engineer divers in the United States, half of which are registreted professional engineers. The services live up to safety standards and regulations including the US Occupational and Health Administration (OSHA), US Coast Guard, Association of Diving Contractors guidelines, and our own Dive Safety Manual.

The engineers who perform the inspections also write the investigation reports, develop recommendations, repair schemes, alternatives and prepare the designs. We strongly believe that this approach provides clients with the most cost effective and constructible designs. Furthermore, we operate highly portable but powerful mini remotely operated vehicles (ROV) that has a range of 230 metres. This gives the dive team the ability to assess safety concerns about a potential dive, view areas that may be considered hazardous for manned dives and provide rapid deployment because of its portability.

ROV safety assesses damaged navigation structure in deep water

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Port of Salalah inspection, Sultanate of Oman We performed an above and underwater inspection of berths 21-24 and the liquid handling berth (LHB) at the Port of Salalah. The Port of Salalah retained us to perform a feasibility study to dredge an additional 2.5 m at these facilities and an investigation was required. We mobilized a full surface supplied dive station, an engineer-diver, and a dive supervisor. Berths 21-24 are constructed of precast concrete caisson bulkhead that supports a cast-in-

place concrete cap. It measures approximately 730 m and is currently dredged to approximately 12 m depth. The LHB consists of four precast concrete caissons that comprise the mooring and breasting structures and support the catwalks and manifold platform. This berth is also currently dredged to approximately 12 m depth. The diving operation was conducted by a three-person inspection team consisting of professional engineer-divers and a diver-technician. Diving inspections were conducted using surface-supplied diving equipment with full-

time hardwire communication between the diver and topside personnel. The primary objective of the investigation was to assess the existing condition of the structure to determine the improvements required to accommodate the additional dredge depth. The underwater investigation included a level I inspection effort on 100% of the structure and a level II inspection effort on approximately 10% of the structure.

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Service life and risk assessment

Service life design Internationally, COWI provides the only available reliability-based service life design methodology against chloride- and carbonation-induced corrosion of reinforcement in concrete. Marine structures are usually now designed for 100, 120 or even 200 years of service life. This surpasses by far the assumed design life on which most codes and standards are based. COWIs recognised leading position within durability design and concrete technology is based on more than 40 years worldwide experience within the design, operation and maintenance of exposed reinforced concrete structures. COWI has been spearheading the international research and technical development of the rational service life design of concrete structures, i.e. in European research projects such as: DuraCrete, DuraNet and DARTS, and chairing all durability-related activities within the international organisations of CEB (Comit Euro-international du Bton) and now fib (Fdration Internationale du Bton).

Risk and decision support COWI offers all types of risk assessments for projects. Risk is inherent in any activity. All decisions or actions may result in unwanted consequences. Thus, the proper procedure is always to consider risk and to make use of the information gained in the decision process. Project risks include development risks, construction risks, operational risks, financial risks and revenue risks. Risk management Risk management is basically a managerial tool to support the decision maker. Experience shows that implementation of risk management will result in profitable decisions and improved allocation of resources. Risk management can lead to decisions supporting the decision makers goals. Risk management ensures consistence and transparency in the decision process and provides a basis for risk communication. Risk assessment In many cases, risk management requires detailed quantitative input. To this purpose, risk assessment makes use of probability calculus and statistics, which are applied to the underlying physical or economic models.The quantitative output can easily be expressed in economic terms, which is especially useful in cost-benefit analyses.

Environmental risk from oil and chemical spillage in Danish waters

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Design tools

COWI uses stateof-the-art numerical models and tools in all phases of projects.

SESAM Sesam is a finite element program used for analysis and design of steel jackets structures.

PLAXIS

LITPACK LITPACK is a state-of-the-art numerical model for the simulation of shoreline developments including erosion and accretion.

PLAXIS is a finite elements program specifically developed for numerical analysis of geotechnical and underground structures and soilstructure interaction.

HOLEBASE HOLEBASE is a database system for geotechnical data. It allows for proper storing and analyse of data and presentations in AutoCAD.

OPTIMOOR OPTIMOOR is a computer program for the analysis of vessel moorings.

ROBOT ROBOT is a finite element program for analysis and design of beam, truss, slab, shell and 3D structures.

IBDAS IBDAS is COWIs own integrated design and analysis software tool. It allows for geometrical modelling, structural analysis and verification of engineering structures and generation of construction drawings.

ABAQUS ABAQUS is one of the leading multi-purpose finite elements programs for a wide spectrum of numerical analyses in engineering and natural science with special focus on FEM and soil-structure interaction.

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Dredging spill modelling - Pearl of The Pearl Qatar

Hydrodynamic flow modelling - design flow velocities at The Pearl Qatar

Flushing - concentration of artificial tracer after 104 hours simulation for the Development situation

SimFlex, the in-house navigational software SimFlex simulations are based on numerical models of the physics of ship response to hydrodynamic conditions and wind. The simulations are run from the artificial bridge in our office. The virtual environment allows simulations to test different design options as well as different ships. A numerical navigator can be used for fast time simulations. The numerical navigator controls rudder and engine and can be applied for navigational simulations until tugs or thrusters are used. Typically fast time simulations are applied for studies of navigational channels or routes. The simulation studies comprise: Time required for approach and berth and departure Complexity of manoeuvring The need for tug assistance Optimisation of port layouts Optimisation of access channel dimensions using real or fast time simulations Safety margin in respect of e.g. necessary use of engine power from both own ship and tugs and safe space around ship when manoeuvring Arrival and departure process Mooring systems Emergency scenarios such as engine failure, failed rudder and/or extreme environmental conditions Efficiency when loading or unloading vessels.

Numerical modelling using MIKE 21 COWI has acquired the professional engineering software package MIKE 21. It is applicable to the simulation of hydraulic and related phenomena in lakes, estuaries, bays, coastal areas and seas, and consists of more than twenty modules covering coastal and environmental hydraulics, sediment and wave processes. MIKE 21 provides the design engineer with a unique and flexible modelling environment using techniques, which have set the standard in 2D modelling. MIKE 21 NSW and SW are spectral wave models, which are capable of calculating the growth and decline of wind waves in the neareshore region. The models include the effect of wind, refraction and wave breaking.

Nearshore wave modelling - modelled wave height and direction for wind from north north east. The figure show the modelled wave field in the sea between Bahrain and Qatar. The colours illustrate the wave height and the arrows show the wave direction. The length of the arrows is proportional to the wave height

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Selected references

Al Zorah Development, Ajman, UAE Description: A parcel of land, approximately 12 square kilometres, is going to be developed along the coast of Ajman by the Al Zorah Development (Private) Company Limited. One of the features of the development will be an existing mangrove area. The mixed-use development will stretch along 3 km of coastline and include commercial, residential, recreational, educational and healthcare facilities as well as a golf course, marinas and hotels. COWIs part of the project concerns environmental and engineering services related to the marine works. The environmental impact assessment considers both terrestrial and marine aspects and includes studies of air pollution, noise and cooling water from a nearby power plant.

Client: Al Zorah Development (Private) Company Limited Project period: Ongoing Services: Numerical modelling of waves, currents and water levels, assessment of beach stability, wave disturbance in marinas, flushing characteristics of the channels and water bodies, eutrophication modelling study, environmental impact assessment, power station impact study, dredging and reclamation, marina design, design of marine structures, cost estimate, assistance during tendering and construction supervision.

Analyses for Aframax tankers, Alaska Description: Mooring analyses completed for Aframax tankers to assess limits for transfer of oil products. The berth has a tidal range of 6 m between mean lower low water and mean higher high water, and currents running parallel to the berth can reach 4-7 knots. In the winter months, the berth is exposed to ice formation and ice floes. Part of the study was to determine the capacities of existing mooring hardware and assess the affects of ice floes on vessels moored at the berth. Client: Tesoro Maritime Company Completed: 2008 Services: A probabilistic analysis was employed to determine the frequency of ice floes, and their distribution in terms of size, thickness, speed, and proximity to the berth during passage. Dynamic mooring analysis simulations were utilized to determine the excursion of moored vessels, the tension in mooring lines, thrust on fenders, and loads incurred to mooring hardware. Conoco Phillips, Rodeo terminal upgrade, Richmond, CA, USA Description: Develop options for upgrading the Rodeo terminal facility to accommodate 200,000 DWT tankers. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the possibility of berthing a 200,000 DWT Polar tanker at the Conoco Phillips Rodeo facility, and secondly, determine what structural upgrades would be required according to Marine Oil Terminal Engineering and Maintenance Standards. Client: Conoco Phillips Completed: 2003 Services: Mooring analyses, structural analyses, cost estimates, quantities and MOTEMS compliance.

Shoaiba new tanker terminal, Saudi Arabia

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Description: New marine terminal for unloading of 100,000 DWT tankers. The terminal consisted of 500 m access causeway, 180 m access trestle and piled jetty structures, steel piles and concrete deck. Client: Archirodon (Overseas) CO. Completed: 2002 Services: Assessment and design of the terminal structures.

Stockholm Nynsshamn Norvikudden container and ro-ro terminal, Sweden Description: A phased green-field port development of a 60 ha site located about 65 km south of Stockholm. The project includes 4 berths for container carriers and 2 berths with movable end ramps for ro-ro traffic. The planned depth at quays ranges from 10 to 16 m. Client: NCC-Aarsleff Consortium Project period: 2011 Services: COWIs services comprise the fully developed container and ro-ro terminal with about 1.4 km quay front length. Caleta La Mision Port, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina Description: Review and redesign of the project and all structures for this port consisting of a 1.6 km trestle on piles, a berth for 25,000 DWT vessels and a main island breakwater for protection of the berth. Client: UTE (JV) Andrade Gutierrez-Ormas Completed: 2002 Services: Studies of waves and tides in numerical modelling, design basis, master plan, navigation study, quarry assessment, detailed design of CORE-LOC breakwater, 2D and 3D model tests by DHI, design of quay and deck structures, specifications and cost estimates.

Al Dana Island and RAK Canal project, UAE Description: COWI is rendering design services to develop an offshore island complex and a canal through existing land located along the coast of Ras Al Khaimah. This project includes development of a cluster of man-made islands covering 5 million square metres to accommodate commercial and residential complexes and hotels as well as a canal of 18 kilometre 'snaking' through the adjacent existing land area. The concept design for the RAK Canal will focus on the feasibility of this part of the project, i.e. flushing of the canal and the need and cost for installing a mechanical flushing system and/or sluices and locks, costs of excavation and marine structures, etc. Client: Dredging International, who has signed a contract with Rakeen, a company representing the Government of the Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, UAE, Completed: 2011 Services: Numerical modelling of waves and currents, numerical environmental modelling, concept design, preliminary design, detailed design. Mesaieed small craft berth, Qatar Description: The small craft harbour is for mooring of tugs and pilot boats. It consists primarily of gravity block structures. Client: Grandi Lavouri Fincosit (Middle East W.L.L) Completed: 2002 Services: Definition of design basis, specification and interpretation of marine investigations, specifications of ground improvement, detailed structural design of berth, detailed design of slipway and coastal protection, construction report and drawings, construction support.

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Dune restoration and stabilization, Bahamas Description: In August and September of 2004, back to back hurricanes, Hurricane Frances and Hurricane Jeanne, followed almost identical paths over the Bahamas, resulting in extensive wind damage and erosion. While many of the homes were severely damaged, others were left teetering on the brink of scarped dunes only a few feet from collapse. A site visit was performed to assess the current conditions followed by an evaluation of different options for restoring the dunes, and for providing protection against future storms. Client: Scotland Cay, Bahamas Completed: 2005 Services: The chosen design consists of sand fill in front of homes and placement of geosynthetic sand-filled bags on the lower dune face. New York City cruise terminal dredging, USA Description: The New York City cruise terminal in Manhattan serviced over 1 million passengers from most of the major cruise lines in 2006 and the economic impact of the cruise industry to the City was over USD 1 billion. Since these official numbers were reported for 2006, a steady growth in passengers and economic benefit for the City has occurred. Situated on the west side of Manhattan on the east bank of the Hudson River, up to 275,000 cubic meters of maintenance dredging is required every year. Client: New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC) Completed: 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 Services: Hydrographic surveys, sampling and analysis plans, sampling and testing of dredge materials, dredge plans and specifications, cost estimates, and volume calculations and performed resident engineer services.

Egyptian (LNG) project, Idku, Egypt Description: Idku is located on the Mediterranean coast 50 km east of Alexandria. An export terminal for LNG was needed due to the finding of sizeable gas fields. The terminal caters for 140,000 m LNG vessels. It consists of a construction harbour on the side of which a 2.4 km long access trestle extends out to the berth for the gas tankers. The mooring and turning area is protected by a 850 m long island breakwater located in an area with up to 15 m of soft clay. The trestle is supported on steel piles and the composite superstructure modules are 40 m long. The site is very exposed with offshore design waves of Hs = 11 m reduced to approximately 6.8 m at the breakwater by wave breaking as the water depth is 12 to 13 m. Completed: 2004 Client: Archirodon Construction/Bechtel International Services: Assessment of geotechnical investigations, hydrographical analyses, breakwater design, dynamic mooring analyses, design of access channel and navigational lights, vessel downtime assessment, design of jetty structure, seismic analyses, building design, electrical and mechanical design.

Qasr Al Alam New Seawall, Oman Description: New blockwork seawall for protection of the Royal Palace in Muscat plus small craft landing platform. Client: Tarmac Alawi L.L.C. Completed: 2002 Services: Assessment of geotechnical condition as well as seismic design, design of layout and cross-sections of wall, design of wall sections and outfall structures for storm water run-off, drawings and material specifications.

Beach nourishment on Funen, Denmark Description: A comprehensive coastal survey was undertaken by COWI, in which topographic and bathymetric surveys were conducted along with geological and morphological studies and assessment of the littoral transport. Gradual removal of sediments and breakdown of the existing groynes resulted in shoreline retreat, leaving a beach consisting mainly of gravel and pebbles. Using a hopper dredge approximately 113,000 m3 of sand was placed along a 2.2 kilometre stretch of coastline resulting in an initial advance of the coastline by approximately 40 m. The result of the beach nourishment is an immediate advance of the beach and a long term supply of sediment to the adjacent coastal areas in the downstream direction. Future development of the coastline is monitored by periodic bathymetric surveys and land surveys, which will form the basis for future maintenance of the beach. Client: Det Nordfynske Kystsikrings-, Dige- og Pumpelag Project period: Ongoing Service: Beach nourishment, protection, breakwater and groyne.
Photo: winther airphoto

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Development plan for Kronborg Castle and Elsinore Harbour, Denmark Description: Kronborg Castle is on UNESCOs World Heritage list. Restoration of Kronborgs fortification and the marine development of the abandoned shipyard. Project cost: USD 60 million Client: Slots- og Ejendomsstyrelsen, Denmark Project period: 2005-ongoing Services: COWI is the clients consultant and provides multidisciplinary services within project management, risk assessment and successive calculation of costs, traffic analysis, geo- and environmental investigations, marine biology, numerical wave modelling, condition surveys, authority contact, architectural coordination, archaeology, conceptual design, tender, contracting and supervision.

Shoreline storm damage reduction, Chicago, IL, USA Description: Shore protection for 530 m of shoreline avenues along Lake Michigan, between Diversey and Fullerton, consisting of revetment, concrete promenade and stepped slabs, steel sheet pile, and rock fill. Client: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District Completed: 2004 Services: Detailed design.

Gorgon LNG project, Australia Description: The Chevron-lead liquefied natural gas project on Barrow Island will bring on stream a three-train 15 m t/y plant by 2013, exploiting offshore gas fields off Australia's western coast (130-200 km from Barrow Island). It is the largest of more than a dozen planned LNG projects in Australia. A connecting trestle is made of steel trusses spanning 70-80 m between caissons. The jetty is roughly 2 km off the shore. Client: Saipem-Leighton Consortium Project period: ongoing Services: COWI carries out Independent Design Verification (IDV) for the marine facility design which includes more than 1000 documents. The IDV include preparation of independent calculations (Contre Calculs) for documentation of the structural integrity.

Beach at Al Sharq Resort, Doha, Qatar Description: Al-Sharq Resort is located in Doha. The previous shoreline was characterised by a shallow foreshore and the bay towards east was severely affected by siltation. The previous beach quality was not acceptable for the luxurious resort. COWI was therefore contracted. The resort beach is sheltered by Doha Port but is orientated towards the dominant northerly and north-westerly winds.The shallow bay at the eastern half of the site has been reclaimed to provide a continuous beach. Additionally, a blue water basin has been dredged along the new beach to provide deeper water. The land formed by the headlands has been utilised as park with grass and palm trees. Client: Qatar National Hotels Company Completed: 2005 Services: Geotechnical investigations, design of beach, coastal protection and environmental impact assessment (EIA).

Dubai Maritime City development, Dubai, UAE Description: The project included new large reclaimed area in front of Port Rashid adjacent to the Dubai Dry Dock. The new area required the relocation of the main breakwater protecting as well as additional perimeter protection and marine structures. Client: Archirodon Construction Project period: Ongoing Services: Design basis, change of basic layout, numerical wave disturbance study, design of all breakwaters and revetments, vessel manoeuvring study and technical services for construction support.

Inner harbour turning basin, Port of Oakland, CA, USA Description: Design of a 12 m tall bulkhead required for widening of inner harbour turning basin (ITHB), phase 1B bulkhead, dredging, and demolition of piers 2 and 5. Client: DUTRA Construction Completed: 2006 Services: Geotechnical analysis and design, numerical modelling, structural design, seismic design, value engineering, construction staging, construction support and supervision, pile load test evaluation.

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Cooper River Bridge, Charleston, SC, USA Description: Design of drilled sharft foundations for the in-water piers. Drilled shafts were 3 m diameters. Design of artificial islands for protection of main span bridge piers against ship collision. The islands are 20 m high, built from 346,000 m3 of rock comprising an outer layer of primary and secondary rock armor placed on a filter and quarry run core. Construction included 340,000 m3 dredging for foundation of the islands. Client: South Carolina Department of Transportation Completed: 2005 Services: Detailed design and ship collision risk analysis.

Casting basin Costa Azul, Baja California, Mexico Description: Detailed design of a 105 m wide by 155 m long and 8 m deep casting basin facility. The basin served for manufacturing of concrete caissons that were floated out and sunk to form a breakwater that protected an LNG terminal approximately 20 km north of the basin. Client: Costain - China Harbour JV Completed: 2005 Services: Feasibility studies, oceanographic studies, detailed design, structural design, geotechnical analyses and design, hydraulic and dewatering design, coastal engineering, downtime assessment.

Tuborg Syd, marine works, Denmark

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Description: Tuborg Syd (south) is a development of the former Tuborg Brewery Port. The port basin is transformed into housing and recreational areas including 210,000 m2 of buildings. The development is given a maritime environment with marina and canals in between the buildings. Client: Carlsberg Properties Completed: 2009 Services: Master planning of marina in collaboration with the architect, assessment of geotechnical conditions, numerical modelling and hydraulic studies, coastal stability analysis, design of new protecting rubble mound breakwater, design of all works/structures, tendering, contracting and supervision of marine works construction. Saranda Gateway, Albania Description: COWI has completed a multidisciplinary project involving port planning, engineering and environmental impact studies. The overall objective of the Saranda Gateway project is to support the transformation of Sarandas downtown port into a dedicated ferryboat and passenger terminal to facilitate the access of passengers and vehicles to Albanias valued southern coastal zone. The transformation into a tourist and commercial gateway involves the following elements: Relocation of the existing cargo berth in Saranda Bay to a refurbished all-cargo berth facility in the nearby Limioni Bay, conversion of the existing cargo berth in Saranda Bay to a 180 m long cruise liner berth and construction of a yacht marina. Client: Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Telecommunication, Albania Completed: 2007 Services: Port planning and engineering, environmental impact study, bathymetric and topographic surveys, magnetometer and side scan sonar survey, geotechnical investigations and geological studies, archaeological survey, benthic flora and fauna survey, water and sediment quality sampling and analysis, numerical modelling of current and waves, traffic studies and socio-economic studies.

Museum of Islamic Art, Doha, Qatar Coastal engineering study Description: The museum was located in the water off the shoreline in the Doha Bay. The museum and the surroundings required costal protection works. Client: Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Agriculture, Qatar Completed: 2002 Services: Surveys, numerical modelling of waves and current and water quality, design basis, detailed design of edge treatment slopes, structures, sea walls, construction supervision.

Batumi terminal, Georgia Description: Upgrading and development of existing container terminal in Batumi. Client: ICTSI Completed: 2007 Services: Planning for civil works, building and infrastructure works.

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Sutong Bridge, scour protection, P.R. China Description: The Sutong Bridge over the Yangtze River is the worlds longest cablestay bridge with a span of 1088 m between the main pylons. These are founded in the river bed in a water depth reaching about 30 m. Client: Jiangsu Province SuTong Bridge Construction Commanding Department Completed: 2005 Services: Expert engineering services and construction management for the bridge and its scour protection. For the scour, COWI prepared assessments of the hydraulic design data, desk study of scour and conceptual and recommendations on detailed design of the scour protection consisting of temporary protection of sand bags and permanent protection using quarry stones with falling apron at the edges to cope with potential large scour depths.

Qatar-Bahrain causeway Description: This road-link will connect the west coast of Qatar near the Zubarah fortress with the east coast of Bahrain south of the capital Manamah. Being exactly 40 km coast-to-coast, it will be the longest man-made road-link in the world. The road-link will be of motorway standard with traffic lanes and emergency lane in each direction. The 40 km is made up of 18 km embankments and 22 km marine bridges including two navigation span cable-stayed bridges, one close to the coastline of Bahrain, one on the Qatar side close to the international border. Services 2001-2002 Confined disposal facility (CDF) and commercial wharf, Everett, MA, USA Description: Remediation of a 2.5 hectare site requiring containment and stabilization of in-situ and dredged sediments. The CDF structure consisted of nine continuous 12 meter wide by 34 meter long cells consisting of HZ king piles and AZ sheet piles. The structure was designed to withstand a variety of intermediate loading conditions during construction, including a 3 meter tide variation. The CDF and concrete deck structure was designed with a capacity of 57 kilopascals to accommodate the crane loads expected for the industrial use of the facility. Client: ARCADIS BBL Completed: 2007 Services: Provided waterfront structural engineering for the CDF design from concept design through final design. During construction reviewed contractors submittals and performed full time resident engineer services, including underwater investigations. COWI was appointed to undertake the preliminary engineering and environmental investigations and studies for the causeway and completed the studies in only 10 months. The marine modelling studies for the Qatar-Bahrain causeway project included modelling of current, sediment dispersion from dredging activities and waves using MIKE 21. By compensation dredging the final solution had zero impact on the water exchange. Studies: Planning, traffic, topography and bathymetry, geology and geophysics, geotechnique, hydrography, meteorology, marine modelling, environment and ecology, risk assessment, design basis Conceptual design: Alignment, roads and plazas, embankment and fill depots, bridges tolling & border facilities, mechanical and electrical installations Client: Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Agriculture, Qatar

Services 2008-2013 In May 2008 an agreement was signed between the Qatar-Bahrain Causeway Foundation (representing the two governments) and the QBC Consortium to design and build the causeway. At the same time, COWI signed an agreement with the QBC Consortium to act as design consultant for the causeway project. COWI's services will be undertaken in three phases: Phase 1 over five months: update and amend the conceptual design carried out in 2002 including re-assessing the environmental conditions and conduct an update of the EIA studies made during 2002. Included in this phase is a study of optional provision to be implemented to facilitate the later addition of a rail-link along the causeway alignment. Phase 2 over the next three months: a basic design to enable a firm lump sum to be established. Phase 3 over the next 51 months: construction of the causeway. COWI undertakes detailed design and provides on-site follow-up services during this period. Client: QBC Consortium (Vinci, Hochtief, CCC, QDVC and Dredging International/ MEDCO)

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Double dry-dock at Ras Laffan, Qatar Description: Eight kilometres offshore, Qatar Petroleum is building a giant double dry-dock due for completion in 2010. The dry-dock Nakilat Ship Repair Yard lies off the port of Ras Laffan and will be capable of receiving the very largest vessels sailing with LNG, liquefied natural gas. The project has a total value of USD 450 million. Client: Main client is QP/Nakilat Completed: 2008 Services: Responsible for the offshore design including quays, foundation piles and block walls for the dry-dock and the design of onshore buildings, project coordination and supervision.

Qatalum project, Mesaieed, Qatar Description: Qatar Petroleum and Hydro Aluminium AS are developing an aluminium production plant at Mesaieed Industrial City, Qatar. The project involves construction of a jetty with mooring dolphin to handle import of raw materials (bulk alumina, coke and liquid pitch) for the production of aluminium at the plant. The jetty shall accommodate bulk carriers up to 70.000 DWT. An access trestle shall be constructed to connect the jetty to land. Client: Archirodon Construction (Overseas) CO. S.A. Completed: 2008 Services: Met-ocean study, mooring analysis, detailed design of access trestle, jetty and mooring dolphin.

Al Reem Island Plot 4, Abu Dhabi, UAE Description: Al Reem Island is a multi-billion dollar man-made island and residential, recreational and commercial development on reclaimed land in the shallows off the coast of Abu Dhabi. Plot 4 is being developed into a mixed, residential and commercial zone. The basis for the Al Reem Island Plot 4 is in providing high-class facilities, restaurants, shopping, business facilities and residential units resulting in a unique lifestyle for residents and visitors alike. Client: Private investor Completed: 2008 Services: Conceptual design of edge treatment structures, breakwaters and navigational canals, establishing marina operational basis and marina concept design and modelling of water flushing to validate master plan from a marine point of view and assessment of waves and wave disturbance in marinas. Beirut Central District, marine works, Lebanon Phase 1. Description: Marina and Seafront Structures. Marina protected by major Accropode breakwater. Seafront, 1.3 km long consisting of large concrete caissons with wave-absorbing chamber and wide submerged reef in front. Client : Solidere Completed: 2000 An architectural concept impression of the Plot 4 development Services: Construction management and special marine, geotechnical, coastal and materials engineering expert services. Phase 2 Description: Eastern Marina designed for 200 yachts with all marina facilities. Eastern Breakwater, 500 m long rubble mound breakwater. Beach Club with high class recreational facilities. Client: Solidere Project period : 2010 - ongoing Services: Preliminary and detailed design of all marine structures, facilities and services. Organisation and supervision of 3D physical model tests. Tender documentation and construction supervision.

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Study of transport corridor from Umm Qasr via Basrah to Baghdad, Iraq Description: The recovery of the Iraqi economy is dependent on a fast revival of the Iraqi transport infrastructure. The commercial ports in the south of Iraq play an important role in the transport infrastructure. The study of the transport corridor from Umm Qasr via Basrah to Baghdad has involved: Procurement and training of Iraqi authority staff in the use of state-of-the-art surveying equipment (ports, waterways and roads), condition surveying of the main infrastructure in the corridor (ports, waterways and roads), transportation forecasting, project identification and planning for two pilot projects (Umm Qasr and Road 26). Client: Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Danida) Completed: 2010 Services: Port planning, transport economy, GIS, hydraulic and sediment modelling, environmental impact assessment, marine and road surveying, tender design.

Sulphur pier, Kuwait Description: The Client KNPC has launched a revamping of their solid sulphur handling and loading facilities at the Mina Al Ahmadi (MAA) Refinery, Kuwait. The project involves upgrade of the onshore sulphur plant, the conveyor system and the establishment of a new ship loading facility in the MAA area. The new ship loading facility involves a Sulphur Pier (SP), which consists of marine structures that facilitate safe and reliable mooring and loading of ocean going bulk carriers in the range from 16.000 - 60.000 DWT. Client: Kuwait National Petroleum Company (KNPC) Project period: Ongoing Services: COWI services comprised: site location study and navigation simulations, metocean, berthing and mooring studies, topographic and bathymetric suveys, onshore and offshore geotechnical investigation, QRA for onshore and offshore works, preparation of FEED design and specifications and carrying out environmental impact assessment for the marine facility. COWI further assisted in the preparation of the invitation to bidders for EPC contractor and prepared cost estimate and programme for the EPC contract.

Shtokman LNG terminal, Russia Description: The Client intends to establish a gascondensate facility in the Teriberka Bay on the north coast of the Kola Peninsula. Two locations are being considered for the marine terminal and have been studied during the Pre-FEED. They are now subject to more detailed assessments during the FEED phase. Client: Shtokman Development AG Completed: 2010 Halul Harbour upgrade, Qatar Description: Halul harbour is a supply base located on Halul Island 80 km off the coast of Qatar. The harbour is on the south side of the island and is protected by two CORE-LOC breakwaters. Client: Consolidated Engineering Construction Ltd. Completed: 2004 Services: Port planning, definition of site investigations, detailed design of breakwater and concrete quay and sheet pile quay and access road, design report and construction drawings. Services COWI services comprised review of Pre-FEED study documents and the FEED study documents. Provision of an integrated assessment of the design basis data and the numerical and physical models applied in the studies. Evaluation of the wave model results. Provision of an integrated assessment of the completeness and robustness of the studies carried out and a comparative assessment of the two proposed locations for the marine facility with respect to: safety, operability, product deliverability and constructability.

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COWI offices Centres for marine and coastal engineering Selected marine and coastal projects

Confluence of Gulf intercoastal waterway and Mississippi River Gulf outlet.

COWI group marine and coastal offices


Editors: Susanne Johansen, Ole Juul Jensen, Hanne Aagaard Jensen et al., 2011

021-1700-023e-11e

COWI A/S Parallelvej 2 DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby Denmark Tel. +45 56 40 22 11 www.cowi.com

COWI UAE Office MF-10 Reemas Building Al Quoz 1 PO Box 52978, Dubai, UAE Tel. +971 (0)4 339 7076 www.cowi.com

COWI Qatar Al Mana Tower, 8th floor Suhaim Bin Hamad St. C-ring road, Bin Mahmoud Area P.O. Box 23800, Doha Qatar Tel. +974 442 3827/43/45 www.cowi.com

Ben C. Gerwick, Inc. 1300 Clay Street 7th Floor Oakland, CA94612 United States Tel. +1 510 839 8972 www.gerwick.com

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