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M ORSBORN (SHI HUIFENG) ID# 2006936639 04 MAY 2007

Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

Introduction:....................................................................................................... 2 1. The Abhidhamma:......................................................................................... 3
The gama Tradition ...................................................................................................... 3 The Texts of the Theravda Abhidhamma ................................................................... 4 Seven Canonical Texts............................................................................................. 4 Post-Canonical Texts ............................................................................................... 5 Other Abhidharma Texts and Traditions ..................................................................... 6

2. Dhammavda:................................................................................................. 8
The Dhammas .................................................................................................................. 8 Dhamma Classification........................................................................................... 8 Analysis and Synthesis ........................................................................................... 9 Later Systematization.................................................................................................... 11

3. Dhammas as Paramattha or Paatti:...................................................... 13

Paramattha and Sabhva Dhammas............................................................................ 13 Avoiding Substance & Quality Dualism ............................................................ 13 Paatti and Asabhva Dhammas .............................................................................. 14 Nma Paatti and Attha Paatti.............................................................................. 16 The (Non-)Reality of Words and Language....................................................... 17 The (Non-)Reality of Space and Time................................................................. 18 Metaphysical or Salvific Psychology?.......................................................................... 19

4. Teaching and Truth as Paramattha or Sammutti: .................................. 20

Ntattha and Neyyattha ................................................................................................ 20 Paramattha and Sammutti............................................................................................ 21 Sammutti or Savti?............................................................................................ 22

Conclusions: ..................................................................................................... 23 Bibliography ..................................................................................................... 24

Canonical and Post-canonical Works ......................................................................... 24 Other Works ................................................................................................................... 24

Appendix Dhamma Classification Chart: ............................................... 26

Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

Although the Buddha Dhamma has several unique features, most distinguish it from the plethora of other religious and philosophical systems that are the product of Indias rich spiritual heritage. There is moreover, one particular doctrinal issue which has been at the forefront of the majority of internal developments within the Buddhist fold. This doctrine is that known as dhammavda, or dhamma theory, and is most fully expressed in the Abhidhamma and its exegetical traditions, that arose in the centuries ensuing the Teachers parinibbna. Two further doctrinal matters are an immediate consequence of the dhamma theory, and are inextricably bound up with it. The first is the division of dhammas into either paramattha or paatti, ultimate or designated dhammas. The second is the division of doctrines as either paramattha or sammutti, ultimate or conventional. This two-fold development of dhamma theory also indicates the multi-valency of the word dhamma, which includes the meanings of both phenomena or things, as well as doctrines or teachings, respectively. Firstly, this essay will provide a basic background on the Abhidhamma tradition in general, setting it in the context of the earlier gama tradition, and the finalization of the five nikyas. We shall cover those few Abhidhamma traditions that are extant to the present day, although the Theravda tradition in Pli shall be our focal point. Secondly, we shall investigate the key salient points of dhamma-vda dhamma theory, as classification via analysis and synthesis. This includes a discussion of the notion of sabhva, or own-nature. This shall also be briefly compared with the original intentions behind the Buddhas use of the term dhamma. Moreover, we shall look the dhamma theorys general directive towards Buddhist praxis. Thirdly, we shall examine the distinction of specific dhammas as phenomena into the categories of either paramattha or paatti. This shall in turn be related to the theories of sabhva and asabhva. From this, we shall see the implications of such a distinction, from the epistemological, ontological and soteriological perspectives. Fourthly, an investigation of how the dhamma-vda relates to the division of doctrinal statements as either paramattha or sammutti, based upon the related early Buddhist notion of ntattha and neyyattha teachings. In particular, we shall ask whether this implies any hierarchal distinction between doctrines, or poses any dilemmas. With the above four matters in hand, we shall attempt a brief conclusion as to the position of paramattha and paatti within the Abhidhamma dhammavda, and in the broader context of the Buddha Dhamma as a whole.

Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

The gama Tradition
Although the Buddhas teachings were first formally rehearsed in toto during the council following his parinibbna, there are certain Suttas which indicate such rehearsals were already underway during his lifetime, albeit in abbreviated format. The Sagti and Dasuttara Suttas 1 recited by Sriputta, being two such examples. This tradition, or gama, was passed on orally for several centuries, until 83 B.C., when during the reign of the Simhala (r Lanka) King Vatta Gmani Abhaya, it was first committed to the written word. 2 The arrangement of the teachings into the Nikyas, as well as further stylistic embellishments continued into the time of the common era. The gama uses several systems for the classification of dhammas, the most important being divisions into: 1. nma-rpa; 2. the five khandhas; 3. the six dhtus; 4. the twelve yatanas, and; 5. the eighteen dhtus. 3 Each system uses mutually exclusive categories to encompass the entirety of conditioned dhammas. Due to the difference in pedagogical application of these five systems, there is a difference in analytical depth with regards certain types of dhammas in any given system. There were additionally other complete and partial descriptions of certain processes for the explanation of other doctrinal points, such as the nidnas of paicca- samuppda, or the cetasikas involved in perception and cognition. Each of these explanations provided further depth within its own limited scope of application. These five systems, appear to have been sufficient for the Buddha to lead a great many of his disciples, and their disciples in turn, to reach the fruits of the rya path. It was thus soteriologically efficacious, and experientially verifiable in regards this goal. This was the main matter of import, according to the Teacher himself.

1 2 3

Digha Nikya 33 & 34. Nrada Mahthera: The Buddha and His Teachings, (Buddha Education Foundation), XV . Karunadasa, Y: The Dhamma Theory, Philosophical Cornerstone of the Abhidhamma, (BPS, 1996), pp. 3~4.

Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

The Texts of the Theravda Abhidhamma

The practice of elucidating and elaborating on the Buddhas teachings is already evident in the gamas, and shows the Buddhas willingness to let his disciples expound the doctrine, once comprehension was full. As long as their presentation conformed with the key features of the doctrine, such elucidation and elaboration was considered a worthy deed for the benefit of both oneself and others. After his parinibbna, many continued on in this way, based on the salient points which were captured in the first rehearsal. In addition to the formalization of the gamas over the centuries before the common era, commentarial works also appeared which provided almost word by word explanations of the Suttas. 4 It is also quite conceivable that there may have been other legitimate and sanctioned teachings that were not given the official approval during the early rehearsals. This is due to the mendicant lifestyle of the Sagha, and the relative isolation of even entire groups in ancient times. Unfortunately, we have little space to devote to this fascinating yet complex topic here!

Seven Canonical Texts

The traditional interpretation of the Abhidhamma is that of the teachings that the Buddha gave to his deceased mother in the Tuita heaven, which were subsequently taught to the disciple Sriputta, the foremost in wisdom. Modern scholarship attributes it, however, to the efforts of later scholars during the last centuries BCE. 5 Some, such as Bhikkhu Bodhi, 6 indicate the position of the mtik as type of protoAbhidhamma, a matrix, schedule or blueprint, for the ensuing methodology. These mtik encapsulated the key elements of the Suttas and Vinaya, for ease of memorization and recitation. Certain mtik-dhras or matrix holders specialized in these methodologies, and must have been the early Abhidhammikas. Others, such as Bhikkhu Dhammajoti, also add the upadea scriptures, and to a lesser extent, the vedalla, as important factors. 7 These methods are also seen, for instance, in the vibhanga, salyatana, dhtu, sacca, and other analysis type formats of the Majjhima Nikya; certain aspects of the analytical Sayutta Nikya, such as the nidna,

4 5

6 7

Warder, A K: Indian Buddhism, (Motilal Banarsidass, 2004), pp. 195ff. Mahthera Nrada: The Buddha and His Teachings, (Buddha Education Foundation), XV . Bhikkhu Bodhi: A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, (Buddhist Publication Society, 2000), pg. 10. Bhikkhu Bodhi: A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, (Buddhist Publication Society, 2000), pg. 7 . Bhikkhu Dhammajoti: Abhidharma and Upadea in Journal of Buddhist Studies Vol 3, (Centre for Buddhist Studies, 2005), pp. 112ff.

Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

khandha, and dhtu sayuttas; and the ascending numerical classification and grouping of dhammas which forms the structure of the Anguttara Nikya. These are not the only examples, but typify the situation well. The Abhidhamma is therefore pertaining to dhamma, in all senses of the word dhamma eg. dhamma as doctrine, as elements of experience, and also factors of training in the path. The Abhidhamma texts themselves indicate a natural development from the aforementioned Suttas, and pertain to them as exegetical clarifications. The seven canonical texts of the Theravda are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Dhammasaga (Classification of Dhamma) Vibhanga (Divisions) Dhtukath (Discourse on Elements) Puggala Paatti (The Book on Individuals) Kathvatthu (Points of Controversy) Yamaka (The Book of Pairs) Pahna (The Book of Causal Relations)

The Dhammasaga, Vibhanga and Patthna are often considered the oldest of the group. Bhikkhu Bodhi indicates the distinctive nature of the style and scope of these works, when compared with the bulk of the Suttas, as follows: Unlike the Suttas, these are not records of discourses and discussions occurring in real-life settings; they are, rather, full-blown treatises in which the principles of the doctrine have been methodically organized, minutely defined, and meticulously tabulated and classified. 8 This is obviously different from the Suttas and Vinaya, which were very much in real-life settings. Bhikkhu Bodhi then concludes that these treatises were first orally transmitted, and only later written down together with the Vinaya and Sutta piakas. 9 It could be the fact of their being written down together, that led later generations to conclude that the Abhidhamma was equally the word of the Buddha, alongside the Sutta and Vinaya Piakas.

Post-Canonical Texts
Of course, once the process of elucidation and further elaboration has begun, further commentaries upon these seven canonical works themselves, was a natural result.

8 9

Bhikkhu Bodhi: A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, (Buddhist Publication Society, 2000), pg. 2. Bhikkhu Bodhi: A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, (Buddhist Publication Society, 2000), pg. 2.

Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

Each of the seven canonical works has its own commentary (kath), and many of these have sub-commentaries (k) as well. These all range from even larger treatises, such as the Viuddhimagga, to smaller more concise works, such as the Abhidhammatha-sangaha. The Nettippakarana, Petakopadesa and Milindapaha occupy positions as postcanonical, yet pre-commentarial texts. They can both be considered as Abhidhammic in the broader sense, in terms of their methodology and format.

Other Abhidharma Texts and Traditions

The above mentioned scriptures comprise the Abhidhamma of the Theravda school, in effect originating in r Lanka and later spreading throughout South East Asia. Due to the use of the Pli language, considered very close to Mgadh and the Gangetic dialects of the Buddhas time, 10 rather than Sanskrit, as well as other factors, this is considered by many as perhaps the oldest Abhidhamma tradition. 11 In addition to the Theravda school, the Buddhist scholastic period contained many other schools and systems. They are traditionally considered eighteen in number, though possibly more, depending on different scriptural sources, and the grounds and criteria for such divisions. The majority of these schools, their tenets, (and Tripiaka if any, which is somewhat a matter of speculation), are largely lost to the present age. The Sarvstivda and Puggalavda (including the later Vatsputrya and Sammitya), are of particular importance here. The reasons being that they appear within the Theravda Kathvatthu, and are criticized for their views, and that their respective Abhidharmas have been at least partically retained, in Chinese, Tibetan and Sanskrit scriptures. In addition, a text known as the riputra Abhidharma, 12 which appears very ancient in format, yet is not associated to any particular school of the sectarian period, is also preserved in the Chinese. Further study of this text may prove to hold hitherto lost gems of knowledge. The Patisabhidamagga is another hoary Abhidhamma type text, also attributed to Sriputta. The term sarvstivda itself indicates the views of this school, ie. the theory of all exists, which states the existence of all dharmas in past, future and present. 13

10 11 12 13

See Bhikkhu namoli: The Path of Purification, (Buddha Educational Foundation, 2005), pp. xxi. Karunadasa, Y: The Dhamma Theory, Philosophical Cornerstone of the Abhidhamma, (BPS, 1996), pg. 2. she-li-fo a-pi-tan lun (CBETA, T28, no. 1548) de la Vallee Poussin, Pruden: Abhidharma-koa-bhym, (Asian Humanities Press, 1988). pg. 807.

Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

They also had seven canonical works in their Abhidhamma, though attributed these to the Buddhas direct, and later disciples, rather than the Buddha himself. They compiled their tenets in the Mahvibha (T27 n1545; T28, n1546 / n1547), an , enormous compendium covering a huge range of subjects, not all of which are in agreeance, from their council held in the North West. Their works are most fully retained in Chinese, somewhat in the Tibetan, and in scant Sanskrit fragments. It was after the compilation of this compendium that they became known as the Vaibhikas. Their defining thesis came under strong criticism from the Sautrntika movement. The Sautrntikas stressed the stras over the Abhidharma, and were possibly originally a group within the Sarvstivda fold. However, they later rejected the all exists theory, and maintained the Vaibhajjavda position, which makes a distinction as to which dharmas existed, and which did not. 14 In this sense, they were similar to the Theravda, who also rejected the all exists theory. However, the term Vaibhajjavda covers broad ground, and they are not to be considered identical on this ground. The Puggalavda were also Vaibhajjavda, but it was due to their thesis of an [existent] individual that they merited the criticism of not only the Theravda, Sarvstivda and Sautrntika, but virtually all others in the Buddhist camp. Their puggala, or individual, was propounded as being neither identical to, nor different from, the five khandhas. It was the Smmityas, a group of Puggalavdins, who are known to have had their own Abhidhamma tradition. The debates amongst these Abhidhamma groups is most fascinating, however, it lies outside our scope here, so we shall set it aside for the meantime.


Bhikkhu Dhammajoti: Sarvstivda, Drntika, Sautrntika and Yogcra Some Reflections on their Interrelation in Journal of Buddhist Studies Vol 4, (Centre for Buddhist Studies, 2006), pp. 184ff.

Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

The Dhammas
Several scholars have pointed out that the locus classicus of the Abhidhamma is the dhammavda, or dhamma theory. Some have gone so far as to claim that this is the fundamental theory of early Buddhism, per se, 15 though this may be overstating the fact. Although as previously noted, the term dhamma has many meanings, we shall leave it untranslated here, that we may develop an understanding of the term within its own particular context. The first two books of the Abhidhamma, the Dhammasaga and Vibhanga, are the earliest source for the Abhidhamma dhammavda.

Dhamma Classification
The Dhammasaga begins with an outline of some 81 conditioned dhammas one citta (mind), 52 cetasika (mental concomitants), and 28 rpa (form or materiality). Nibbna as the 82nd and unconditioned dhamma, shall be set aside for our discussion. The basic layout of these dhammas follows a four-fold taxonomy: 16 1. Nibbna (1) 2. Citta (1) The unconditioned. Mind or consciousness, further divided into 89 or 121 states, depending upon the various cetasikas involved in a moment of cognition. 3. Cetasika (52) Mental States the pentad of sense-contact; the factors of absorption; the faculties; path factors; powers; wholesome roots; wholesome ways of action; guardians of the world; the six pairs; the helpers; the paired combination; the last dyad; and a whatsoever other miscellany. 4. Rpa (28) Form, divided into primary form of the elements, secondary form of the physical sense organs and sense objects, and other qualities and characteristics of form. The list is one of various formulations of dhammas in terms of both doctrinal aspects, and expressions of the path for Buddhist praxis. All are taken directly from the Suttas themselves. They are grouped together by type, and those dhammas that are

15 16

Stcherbatsky, T: The Central Conception of Buddhism, (Motilal Banarsidass, 2001), pp. 73ff. Adapted from Bhikkhu Nyanaponika: Abhidhamma Studies, (Wisdom, 1998), pp31ff. And, Rhys Davids, CAF: Psychological Ethics, (Pli Text Society, 1900), Book I, II.

Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

synonymous, occurring either with the same or another name in other categories, are usually omitted, although several are repeated. For example, citta as synonymous with manas and vina; pa as a, vijj, samm dihi, etc.; samm sankappo as cetaso abhiniropan; and so forth. This shows the over-lapping nature of the categories. 17 Moreover, that form includes both primary and secondary aspects also indicates that although distinctions are made in terms of distinct but self-contained categories as above, a distinction can be made as to which are contained within which. At this point however, these primary and secondary aspects are all presented in a parallel fashion. 18 At this stage in the text, we can consider that the Abhidhamma method is one of classification, rather than analysis per se. The definition of Abhidhamma as towards dhamma, is to be understood in the sense of dhamma as doctrine, rather than phenomena, although this is sometimes the case. This is because the various categories tend to be more doctrinal, rather than elemental in nature. By phenomena, we of course do not imply noumena in the Kantian sense, 19 somewhat antithetical to the Buddhas teaching of non-self. Forms, mental events, and the various doctrinal categories to be developed on the path, are the very foundations of the path. This also reflects the meaning of dhamma from dh, to uphold, to support. This shows the practical nature of the dhammavda at this stage, to systematically guide the practitioner along the path, by means of the various expressions of the path.

Analysis and Synthesis

Nyanaponika seems to basically paraphrase Russells A complete description of the existing world would require not only a catalogue of the things, but also a mention of all their qualities and relations, when he deems that A complete description of a thing requires, besides its analysis, also a statement of its relations to other things, making analysis and synthesis the system and methodology of the Abhidhamma. 20 (Radical studies of the Abhidhamma using structuralist and other modern or post-modern philosophical methods, may certainly disagree. For example, Lusthaus



19 20

Adapted from Bhikkhu Nyanaponika: Abhidhamma Studies, (Wisdom, 1998), pp31ff. And, Rhys Davids, CAF: Psychological Ethics, (Pli Text Society, 1900), Book I. Adapted from Bhikkhu Nyanaponika: Abhidhamma Studies, (Wisdom, 1998), pp31ff. And, Rhys Davids, CAF: Psychological Ethics, (Pli Text Society, 1900), Book II. Bhikkhu Nyanaponika: Abhidhamma Studies, (Wisdom, 1998), pg. 20. Russell, B: Our Knowledge of the External World as a Field for Scientific Method in Philosophy, (Open Court, 1914), pg. 51; as quoted in Bhikkhu Nyanaponika: Abhidhamma Studies, (Wisdom, 1998), pg. 3. See also pp. 21ff.

Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

and his Husserlian phenomenological approach. It is interesting to note that a far amount of modern Abhidhammic related research still takes this as basic assumption, which reflects the empirical rationalism of the early and mid 20th century.) The Dhammasaga then methodically analyzes each of these factors, and elucidates them in terms of a range of expositional factors. Citta and cetasika are analyzed in terms of wholesome states in the sensuous, form and formless spheres the latter being the levels of jhna; in the mundane and supra-mundane spheres; in addition to analysis in terms of unwholesome states and indeterminate states. Form is analyzed in terms of singular, dual, triple, etc. to eleven-fold aspects. The various groupings for the defilements, bonds, etc. are then analyzed, with the view of their elimination. The unconditioned dhamma is also investigated analytically. This is the basic methodology of the first two books of the Abhidhamma. The seventh book, the Pahna, deals with twenty-four types of conditioned relation. This system of conditioned relations provides the necessarily synthetic means to tie together the otherwise distinct and unconnected dhammas. Although this elucidation of the uniquely Buddhist doctrine of paica-samuppda, is a critical aspect of the Abhidhamma and the Buddhas teachings in general, we shall skip lightly over it here. This is because we have sufficient details within the analytical approach detailed above, to continue with our deeper examination of paramattha and paatti.


Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

Later Systematization
The above methods became further defined in the later Abhidhamma tradition. The Kathvatthu indicates how the Theravdins led by Moggaliputtatissa, came to further refine their dhammavda in the light of the rather unorthodox views (in the eyes of the Theravdins) of the Puggalavdin Sautrntika, and the Sarvstivda (both mentioned briefly above). The Puggalavda claimed that the individual person was apprehendable and existed in the real and ultimate sense, based upon the Buddhas teaching of the bearer of the burden, as expressed in the Sutta thus: I will teach you the burden, the carrier of the burden, the taking up of the burden, and the laying down of the burden. What is the burden? the five aggregates. What is the carrier of the burden? the person. 21 They thus posited that there was a puggala, real and distinct from the khandhas, that was in some way responsible for bearing or supporting the aggregates. Mindful of the Buddhas clear anatt doctrinal refutation as regards any form of att entity, they cleverly formulated their puggala theory as the substance of the puggala is neither the same as, nor different to, the khandhas. 22 Here, substance (dravya) indicates a real entity in the ultimate sense. Theravda opposition towards the Sarvstivda tenets indicates what they considered to be another extreme view. Rather than maintaining that something that was further analyzable (the khandhas) was in fact paramattha (the puggala), like the Puggalavda position above, the Sarvstivda maintained that dhammas existed (asti) throughout the past, future and present. They theorized that dhammas merely took the aspect of being in one particular timeframe, rather than being eternal, (which of course would be contrary to the Buddhas categorical statement that all conditionings are impermanent).



Karunadasa, Y: The Dhamma Theory, Philosophical Cornerstone of the Abhidhamma, (BPS, 1996), pp. 10ff, regards Kathvatthu point 1. See also, Bhikkhu Bodhi: III. The Burden, in 22. Khandhasayutta, Sayutta Nikya, (Wisdom, 2000), pp. 871~872. See Abhidharmakoabhya, T29, n1558: 29 (CBETA, T29, no. 1558, p. 152, c9-10) The Vtsputryas maintain the existence of the pudgla, the substance of which being neither identical with, nor other than, the [five] skandhas. (Translation mine.)


Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

The tri-temporal existence of these paramattha dhammas was known as sabhva, own-being or own-existence. As such, their sarvsti all exists thesis bore at least very close resemblance to two non-Bauddha views: Firstly, inherent existence or being the sabhva view. Secondly, substance and characteristic distinctions the sarvsti notion as temporal aspect. Regards this, they thus later made great efforts to justify their position in terms of causal efficacy of past dhammas, and placed greater emphasis on explaining the dependent origination of these dhammas, in the face of mounting critiques. 23 In addition, the Sarvstivda also had the tendency to reify as dhammas, what many others, such as the Sautrntikas, considered to be paatti dhammas. For example, the three aspects of conditioned existence, namely arising, abiding and cessation; names, words, and sentences; the attainment of both cessation, and non-perceptual states. 24 Such reification of non-ultimate dhammas caused same rather awkward situations, such as avoiding the situation of infinite regress regarding the arising of arising, and so forth. We shall see below how the Theravda carefully avoided this mistake, in their explanation of the distinctions between paramattha and paatti dhammas, sabhva and asabhva, and so forth.



Bhikkhu Dhammajoti: Sarvstivda Abhidharma, (Center for Buddhist Studies, r Lank, 2002), pp. 109~143, regarding the Sarvstivda doctrine of the four causes and six conditions. Stcherbatsky, T: The Central Conception of Buddhism, (Motilal Banarsidass, 2001), pp. 105~106.


Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda


Paramattha and Sabhva Dhammas
Against the Puggalavda position, the Theravda responded by stating that it was the khandhas or dhammas alone that were real and ultimate, the puggala was merely a designation for the assembled khandhas. This marked the beginning of the usage of the term paramattha to describe the dhammas of the Dhammasaga and Vibhanga, as ultimate realities. The Theravda notion of paramattha is thus defined as not further analyzable, ie. the khandhas, and not the puggala. 25 With regards the Sarvstivda thesis, the Theravda never adhered to the all exists position, but remained as Vibhajjavdins, those who make a distinction regarding which dhammas exist, and which do not. They maintained that the dhammas were momentary in the present, and on this account, avoided the empirically unverifiable stance that dhammas had some sort of existence in the past or future. In this sense, their vibhajjavda was different again to the Kyapyas, who held that present dhammas exist, future dhammas do not exist, past dhammas that have yet to yield results also exist, but past dhammas that have already yielded their result do not exist.

Avoiding Substance & Quality Dualism

The notion of sabhva first appeared in the Abhidhamma when the Sarvstivda proclaimed that dhammas bear their own nature. 26 As per the puggala thesis, this may lead to the problem of having the dhamma as bearer on one hand, and its qualities as that borne on the other. Therefore, these issues required further redefinition by the Theravda, in the attempt to remove any possibility of such substance versus quality dualism from creeping into their dhammavda. They said that in the same way one may speak of the burden and the bearer of the burden, where the second is purely a designation for the burden itself, likewise, when referring to the dhamma and the sabhva of the dhamma, the sabhva is merely another expression for the dhamma itself. Three definitions were finally ascertained. The first definition was called agency

25 26

Karunadasa, Y: The Dhamma Theory, Philosophical Cornerstone of the Abhidhamma, (BPS, 1996), pp. 19ff. See Abhidharmakoabhya, T29, n1558: 1 (CBETA, T29, no. 1558, p. 1, b8-9) The explanation of the name [Abhidharma] is that which is able to uphold its own characteristics (lakaa) is known as a harma. (Translation mine.) d


Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

definition (kattu-sdhana), eg. mind is that which thinks. Here, mind is the agent, which performs the act of thinking. It is conceivable that with such a definition, this mind could have other functions, or even exist without thinking. The second definition was called instrumental definition (karaa-sdhana), eg. mind is that by which thinking takes place. It has basically the same defects as the first definition, and is open to misinterpretation. The third definition was called the definition by nature (bhva-sdhana), eg. mind is the mere act of thinking. This indicates a direct identity, in the sense that the terms are synonymous, and cannot imply any duality between the two. 27 It is a breakdown of the subject predicate distinction, with identity of noun and verb. That the third definition is titled bhva-sadhana nature definition, gives further indication of sabhva as synonymous with dhamma no difference between subject and nature (or quality-function). The Theravda rather than considering sabhva as own-being or own-existence, which would seems at odds with the law of dependent origination, considered it more as a synonym for being a distinct dhamma on its own, implied by the sa- of sabhva. Each and every dhamma was itself a unique nature, the characteristics and so forth of which were not shared by other dhammas (anaasdhraa). Moreover, as paramattha, these sabhva dhammas are not reducible into other dhammas, which is also shows their unique and distinct nature. The notions of paramattha and sabhva thus combine and complement each other, and both are synonyms for dhammas in the strict sense, rather than attributes thereof.

Paatti and Asabhva Dhammas

How then were those phenomena that did not fall into the classifications of paramattha sabhva dhammas, be they stated in the Suttas or not, to be understood? The term paatti or making known was used to describe other conceptions or notions based upon these paramattha dhammas. It is the synthetic mental act that, based on the particular arrangement and conditions of paramattha, conceives them as another type of distinct phenomena. Furthermore, the synthesized idea with regards to that paatti which is made known, and the act of making it known through word, term or speech, are also two distinct types of paatti. The term paatti is thus broad in meaning, including both the names and concepts for dhammas themselves, and also those phenomena that are comprised of dhammas. More about this below.


Karunadasa, Y: The Dhamma Theory, Philosophical Cornerstone of the Abhidhamma, (BPS, 1996), pp. 13ff.


Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

Anything that can be further broken down into dhammas, is thus considered as a paatti. For example, a computer can be rendered into its components, and they in turn can be rendered into merely rpa. Both computer and components are paatti. Or, a cat consists of the physical form, the cats rpa, and also its various mental states, which would correspond more or less to the nma khandhas of a human being. In this way, paatti is the complementary opposite to paramattha. Together, the two are mutually exclusive, yet encompass the entirety of all phenomena. Because they are non-paramattha, paatti are also asabhva, in the sense of not intrinsically existent, rather than intrinsically non-existent. They exist, as it were, purely as a mental function or action, either as name, word or concept. Without that mental action, they are not. For example, the basis for the name table exists in itself as a mass of rpa dhammas, independent of its perception or cognition by an observer. However, the word table and the notion of table as flat surfaced, four legged object, etc., or a generic mental image of table, and so forth, are both purely apperceptual and conceptual actions of the mind. Paatti are based upon the actual paramattha sabhva rpa dhammas of the table. Just as the relation between paramattha and paatti, just is the relationship between sabhva and asabhva dhammas. This appears, at least, to be quite the opposite to Platonic Ideas, where the realities of the world are mere inferior representations of higher ideas of the same objects, perceptible only the mental / spiritual plane. Because paatti have no actual existent that corresponds to them, the three characteristics of arising, abiding and ceasing, are not predicated of them in the strict sense. The three characteristics belong only to the paramattha sabhva dhammas proper. Rather than attributing to paatti the phases of arising and ceasing, it is only correct to refer to the arise and cessation of their designated paramattha dhammas. For example, a person does not arise and cease, however their khandhas do undergo arising and cessation. We shall discuss some implications of this, below.


Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

Nma Paatti and Attha Paatti

As such, the majority of mundane activity is engaged with relation to paatti rather than paramattha objects, and further distinctions must therefore be made amongst paatti. As that which makes known, paatti is the concept, word, term or phrase to indicate or designate a particular phenomena. Due to the profusion of languages, many names and terms may refer to the same singular phenomena. A name or word may also cause a person to have a conceptual, abstract notion of the thing in question to which it corresponds. Both these names and concepts are mental actions. They make known, designate and refer to the actual dhamma in question. Hence, paatti may be seen as including both nma-paatti as designation qua name, and also attha-paatti as designation qua object. 28 Now here, the designated dhamma may itself be either another paatti, such as when we say cat or conceive of a small, furry quadruped; or it may be an actual paramattha dhamma, such as when we say citta or conceive of that which is the act of thinking. Those names for paatti dhammas are known as sammutti or samketa, conventional expression, which are simply the words that are in accepted usage amongst a people language, or place, of non-realities. There is a wide analysis of the various forms of designation in the commentaries, 29 showing that although paattis are not ultimates, a clear a cogent understanding of them is still a very valid and important element of pa. Designations can be of either paramatthas or paattis, based upon (upd) paramatthas or paattis, in all possible categorical permutations. Those names for real paramattha dhammas are known as vijjamna, which know realities. These two sometimes have synonyms, as seen in the Dhammasaga, where like terms for dhammas are subsumed within the same dhamma category, eg. right view and pa. Likewise, those concepts of paatti dhammas themselves are attha paatti, or [conceptualized] object qua designation; whereas those concepts that conform to a reality are called tajj paatti. 30 The two types of vijjamna and tajj paatti are thus important for the designation, expression, elucidation and teaching of paramattha dhammas. This is quite a different approach from some other traditions, which tended to see paatti as mere

28 29


Karunadasa, Y: The Dhamma Theory, Philosophical Cornerstone of the Abhidhamma, (BPS, 1996), pp. 33ff. Bhikkhu namoli: The Path of Purification (Translation of the Viuddhimagga), (Buddha Educational Foundation), pp. 256ff, XIII 39, n11. Karunadasa, Y: The Dhamma Theory, Philosophical Cornerstone of the Abhidhamma, (BPS, 1996), pp. 33ff.


Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

designation, and thus somewhat irrelevant for knowledge of the truth; or, who maintained that things as they are were inexpressible. 31 One could point out that the entirety of the Tipiaka is in fact nma paatti, causing the practitioner to develop clear attha paatti, and eventually see those paramattha dhammas themselves! A chart showing the relation of these various divisions of dhammas, is found at the end of this essay, Appendix Dhamma Classification Chart.

The (Non-)Reality of Words and Language

Regarding the reality, or paramattha status, of words, language and expression, Sumanapla notes how some schools, including the Vaibhika, took the notion of negation as also having positive connotations. He states: The opinion of the grammarians that the use of na-not has not only a negative meaning, but also a positive meaning (paryudsa, prasajjaka) can also be considered as an assumption of the nature of language. 32 The Vaibhikas, 33 the later Yogcra Abhidharmikas, 34 and some heterodox non-Buddhist schools such as the Nyy, took words and phrases as actual real entities, in particular in the often ambiguous category of dharmas not conjoined





For example: Yogcra-bhmi-stra Tattvrtha Paala, T30, n1579, 0486c: the inexpressible range of knowledge purified of obstructions to the knowable. (Abbreviated translation mine.) Sumanapla, G: The Theravada Concept of Pannatti A Brief Comparative Analysis, in Journal of the Postgraduate Institute of Pali and Buddhist Studies, Vol. 1, (University of Kelaniya, 1999), pp. 165ff. See Abhidharma-koa-bhya: (CBETA, T29, no. 1558, p. 29, a6-7) 4 The citta-viprayukta-dharmas: attainment (prpti), dis-tainment (aprpti), group homogeneity, (mikyasabhga), non-ideation (asamj), the two sampattis (ideationless asaji-sampatti, and cessation nirodha-sampatti), the life faculty (jvitendriya), the [three] characteristics (arising jti-lakaa, abiding sthiti-lakaa, decay jar-lakaa, and change anityat-lakaa), the body of words (nma-kya), [body of phrases (pada-kya), and body of syllables (vyajana-kya)]. (Translation mine.) See Abhidharma-samuccaya-stra: (CBETA, T31, no. 1605, p. 665, c17-21) 1 What is the body of words? It is the body of names, which are established as designations superimposed upon the svabhva of dharmas. What is the body of phrases? It is the body of phrases, which are established as designations superimposed upon the distinctions of dharmas. What is the body of syllables? It is the body of syllables, which are established as designations superimposed, the letters / syllables based upon the two former [bodies]. Because these words and expressions are able to reveal these two [former bodies], they are also known as that which reveals. Because they are able to reveal the meaning of these [two], furthermore, these names and words, are not different [from them]. (Translation mine.)


Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

with mind (citta-viprayukta-dharm). For example, for the Vaibhikas, negation did not merely imply an absence, but non-X may be as real as X, eg. aprpti and prpti. 35 This attributing of realistic status to words, etc., accords in some ways with the Brhmanic notions of language, and how verbal expression has a predominant position with regards the truth. For example, that Devangar Sanskrit is a divine language, and that rta (hearing of the teachings) is a higher pramna than darana (vision of the truth). The Theravda did not accept this position, and for them, sound is treated as one of the material elements and verbal intimation as an extension of it. 36 In other words, they are purely paatti, though they may make known actual realities or other paattis, through word or concept, as indicated above.

The (Non-)Reality of Space and Time

It is also interesting to note, that in this way, the Theravda also did not consider either space or time as paramattha dhammas. 37 This again is in contradistinction to the heterodox philosophies of contemporary India, which considered these as fundamental elements. Some systems even considered kla (time) as a causative element. 38 Even the Buddhist Sarvstivda considered space as an unconditioned dharma. 39 Rather, for the Theravda, space is merely the absence of obstructing matter, a position similar to that indicated above with regards to negations, (rather than a thing that has non-obstructing as its nature). Time is merely a concept imputed upon the flow of momentary dhammas, as Nyanaponika skillfully translates from the commentary to the Dhammasaga: By time the Sage described the mind And by the mind described the time, In order to show, by such definition,

See note above, Abhidharma-koa-bhya, asaj and aprpti, each being the negation of a real paramrtha dharma, ie. saj and prpti respectively. See also, Bhikkhu Dhammajoti: Sarvstivda Abhidharma, (Centre for Buddhist Studies, 2002), pp. 22, 211ff. 36 Sumanapla, G: The Theravada Concept of Pannatti A Brief Comparative Analysis, in Journal of the Postgraduate Institute of Pali and Buddhist Studies, Vol. 1, (University of Kelaniya, 1999), pp. 169. 37 Karunadasa, Y: Time and Space, the Abhidhamma Perspective, (K N Jayatilleke Memorial Lecture, 2003). 38 Jayatilleke, K N: Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, (Motilal Banarsidass, 2004), pg. 28. 39 Abhidharmakoabhya 1(CBETA, T29, no. 1558, p. 1, c2-3) and the three kinds of unconditioned (asaskta) [dharmas], that is empty space (akaa), and the two cessations (nirodha). Within these, space is non-obstructing.


Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

The phenomena there arranged in classes. 40 We can thus see how the definitions of both space and time are coherent with the Abhidhamma notion of paatti, rather than paramattha sabhva dhammas.

Metaphysical or Salvific Psychology?

At this point we may wish to reflect on the original intention behind the Buddhas Dharma. As is very apparent through the Four rya Truths, the aim of the teaching is the elimination of suffering. How do the above Abhidhamma notions of dhammavda conform, or not, to this goal? Firstly, we can see in the truths of dukkha and samudaya, that the root cause of dissatisfaction is ignorance and wrong views, which in turn give rise to desire, aversion, and so forth. The positing of an att, an eternal, self-existent, and autonomous entity within the five khandhas, was a view that the Buddha continually refuted. The att view is an ontological position, and the Buddha declared it epistemologically unverifiable. He constantly stated that such an entity was not apparent, was not findable, and not appropriate within the impermanent and dissatisfying khandhas, which were described as the world. It appears that the original intention of the Abhidhamma was one of systematization and classification of the various doctrinal categories of the Buddha. However, when the Puggalavdins and Sarvstivdins proposed their theories of the puggala and sabhva sarvsti dhammas respectively, the Theravda saw these too as not apparent, not findable, and not appropriate within the impermanent and dissatisfying dhammas they had enumerated. Thus, the Theravda Abhidhamma was developed to maintain right view, the keystone of the Eightfold rya Path, the path to liberation from dissatisfaction. Yet, it could be suggested that for those who did not have the wrong views mentioned above, the Abhidhamma method was not necessary. Later Abhidhammikas who maintained such methodology essential for liberation, may be overstating the point somewhat.


Bhikkhu Nyanaponika: Abhidhamma Studies, (Wisdom, 1998), pp91ff. From Atthaslin, pg. 57 .


Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda


With the clarification of the two pairs of terms paramattha and paatti, sabhva and asabhva, the term dhamma by itself once again takes on a more conventional meaning. When prefixed by any of the aforementioned four terms, the general meaning of phenomena in general becomes more specific. Although the dhammas of the Dhammasaga are all paramattha and sabhva, we can still conventionally refer to paatti and sabhva phenomena as dhammas.

Ntattha and Neyyattha

The Buddha himself taught that his teachings were either ntattha drawn out, or neyyattha not yet drawn out, in terms of meaning and scope. These two categories for teachings appeared in the Suttas as: There are these two who misrepresent the Tathgata. Which two? He who represents a Sutta of indirect meaning as a Sutta of direct meaning and he who represents a Sutta of direct meaning as a Sutta of indirect meaning. 41 To which it is pointed out that neither is stated as having predominance over the other, it is merely confusion of the two that is misrepresentation of the Buddha. Yet it is the commentaries that furnish details, indicating that a ntattha teaching is one expressed in paramattha terms, whereas a neyyattha teaching is confined to the paatti dhammas. 42



Anguttara Nikya I 60, as quoted in Jayatilleke, K N: Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, (Motilal Banarsidass, 2004), pg. 361. Anguttara Nikya Atthakath II 118, as quoted in Jayatilleke, K N: Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, (Motilal Banarsidass, 2004), pp. 361~363.


Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

Paramattha and Sammutti

The neyyattha teachings are those expressed in conventional language (vohra-vacana) referring to phenomena, whereas the ntattha are those expressed through paramattha dhammas. This in turn became the basis for two types of truths, or doctrinal statements regarding reality, the paramattha or ultimate truth, and the sammutti or conventional truth. In this way, the dhammavda became a basis for classifying statements. This is again expressed in the commentaries as: The Perfectly Enlightened One, the best of teachers, spoke two truths, viz. conventional and absolute one does not come across a third; a conventional statement is true because of convention and an absolute statement is true as [disclosing] the true characteristics of things. 43 Here, it must be pointed out, both Karunadasa and Jayatilleke indicate that this implies no hierarchal distinction between the two truths. 44 They are merely two means to establish the practitioner in the truths of the Buddhas dispensation. A question arises, however, due to the fact that many of the Buddhas disciples attained liberation through hearing neyyattha Suttas and sammutti teachings. Yet, if these teachings are based on paatti dhammas, and arising or cessation in the proper sense cannot be predicated of paatti dhammas, how could a practitioner gain an understanding of the three dhamma mudra, ie. dissatisfaction, impermanence, and non-self, and thus attain unbinding from such teachings? For instance, how could one understand impermanence or non-self from meditating on either the breath, or impurity? Although these two were the most common topics of meditation given by the Buddha himself, the two doors to the deathless, neither is a paramattha dhamma. One cannot, strictly speaking, realize impermanence or the like, from their observation. The later Abhidhamma dealt with this by further analysis of such meditation topics, and rendered objects of meditation and insight such as these, into paramattha dhammas. For example, they rendered npnasati into the air kasina, kyagatsati and asubha into the respective color kasias. 45 Thus, one received a neyyattha




Kathvatthuppakaraa Ahakatth and Anguttara Nikya Atthakath II 118, as quoted in Jayatilleke, K N: Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, (Motilal Banarsidass, 2004), pg. 363. Karunadasa, Y: The Dhamma Theory, Philosophical Cornerstone of the Abhidhamma, (BPS, 1996), pp. 37~39. Jayatilleke, K N: Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, (Motilal Banarsidass, 2004), pg. 364. Bhikkhu Dhammnando: Unpublished manuscript, translation of Dhammasaga Ahakath, pg.


Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

sammutti teaching, but developed it by reducing it to its paramattha constituents, and gained realization from insight into these paramattha realities.

Sammutti or Savti?
A somewhat different situation of a hierarchy between these two truths, was developed in the Sanskrit Abhidharma tradition. Here, rather than sammutti as conventional, the term savti, or obscured was used. This implies that teachings based on conventional, non-ultimate phenomena, actually obscure the true reality of things. This then furthers the northern Abhidharmikas viewpoint that the Abhidharma is a necessity, rather than an aid, to the path towards liberation. As the later Mahyna traditions tended to derive from the northern Abhidharma, either as an evolution or dialectically, this type of two truth format also became predominant throughout the Mahyna. More and more efforts were spent in elucidating the paramrtha-satya, and the savti-satya eventually became relegated to categories described as illusory, dreamlike, and so forth. As noted above, certain elements that then considered the paramrtha-satya as ineffable, paved the way for both mysticism through self-contradictory dialectic (the Prajpramit), and idealism (the Vijapti-mtrat).

200; and personal correspondence. See also Bhikkhu namoli: The Path of Purification, (Buddha Educational Foundation, 2005), III 104~133, pp. 112~121.


Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

We have seen from the preceding discussion, the importance of the dhammavda in the Abhidhamma. Originally a classification of the various doctrinal explanations of the Buddha in the Suttas, it underwent a few developments in the face of what the Theravda considered to be non-orthodox views held by other Buddhist schools. These developments were still within the general scope of the original teachings. These dhammas were considered to be paramattha, or ultimate, in the sense of being both sabhva and irreducible. Sabhva indicated their position as both distinct and independent of any imputation or conceptualization on the part of the cognizer. The converse of this, those phenomena which are the subject of conventional language and expression, were considered as paatti and asabhva. Paatti indicated phenomena designated based upon the paramattha dhammas. Asabhva indicated that in this way, their existence was purely by way of mental act or conceptualization, and was not intrinsic to that phenomena. Paatti dhammas were further delineated as the names of either other paatti or of paramattha dhammas, and the concepts or notions thereof. Paramattha ultimates were thus expressible, though the words or names used to express them, are not the dhamma itself. Based upon the early Buddhist notion of doctrinal statements contained within the Suttas as either ntattha or neyyattha, specific teachings were also then attributed as paramattha if expressed in terms of paramattha dhammas, or sammutti if expressed in terms of paatti dhammas. Both remained on an equal soteriological footing, and as the word of the Buddha, were still considered capable of leading the aspirant to liberation. The Theravda Abhidhamma thus kept up with the development and issues engaging Buddhism in greater India, particularly the North. By exercising caution, and avoiding absolute reification of qualified and conditioned aspects (vibhajja) of the Buddhas doctrine, they avoided several of the pitfalls encountered by other contemporary Abhidharma traditions. As such, the Theravda Abhidhamma did not become blurred with other Indian philosophical systems, and survives and flourishes to this day, as an essential part of the Buddha Dhamma. It is the Third Piaka, and a key element of the Dhamma Jewel!


Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

Canonical and Post-canonical Works
Abhidharmakoabhya, (T29, n1558). Anguttara Nikya. Anguttara Nikya Atthakath. Kathvatthuppakaraa Ahakatth. riputra Abhidharma (T28, no. 1548). Yogcra-bhmi-stra Tattvrtha Paala, (T30, n1579). Bhikkhu namoli: The Path of Purification, (Translation of Viuddhimagga), (Buddha Educational Foundation, 2005). The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, (Translation of the Majjhima Nikya), (Wisdom, 2002). The Connected Discourses of the Buddha, (Translation of the Sayutta Nikya), (Wisdom, 2000).

Bhikkhu Bodhi:

Bhikkhu Dhammnando: Translation of Dhammasaga Ahakath, (Unpublished manuscript). de la Vallee Poussin: Abhidharma-koa-bhym, (Asian Humanities Press, 1988). Psychological Ethics, (Translation of Dhammasaga), (Pli Text Society, 1900).

Rhys Davids, C A F:

Other Works
Bhikkhu Bodhi: A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, (Buddhist Publication Society, 2000). Sarvstivda Abhidharma, (Centre for Buddhist Studies, r Lank, 2002). Abhidharma and Upadea in Journal of Buddhist Studies Vol 3, (Centre for Buddhist Studies, 2005). Sarvstivda, Drntika, Sautrntika and Yogcra

Bhikkhu Dhammajoti:


Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda

Some Reflections on their Interrelation in Journal of Buddhist Studies Vol 4, (Centre for Buddhist Studies, 2006). Bhikkhu Nyanaponika: Abhidhamma Studies, Buddhist Explorations Consciousness and Time, (Wisdom, 1998). Jayatilleke, K N: Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, (Motilal Banarsidass, 2004), pg. 364. HistoryofBuddhistPhilosophy, (UniversityofHawaiiPress,1992). The Dhamma Theory, Philosophical Cornerstone of the Abhidhamma, (Buddhist Publication Society, 1996). Time and Space, the Abhidhamma Perspective, (Professor K N Jayatilleke Memorial Lecture, 2003). The Buddha and His Teachings, (Buddha Education Foundation). The Central Conception of Buddhism, (Motilal Banarsidass, 2001). The Theravada Concept of Paatti A Brief Comparative Analysis, in Journal of the Postgraduate Institute of Pli and Buddhist Studies, Vol. 1, (University of Kelaniya, 1999). Indian Buddhism, (Motilal Banarsidass, 2004). of


Karunadasa, Y:

Mahthera Nrada:

Stcherbatsky, T:

Sumanapala, G:

Warder, A K:


Paramattha and Paatti in Abhidhamma Dhammavda


The table below shows the various inter-relations and classifications of dhammas:

Relation between Paramattha/Sabhva and Paatti/Asabhva Dhammas

Names ffor Dhamma Names or Dhamma rpa,, vedan,, rpa vedan ciitttta,, ettc.. c a e c Viijjjamana--paattttii V amana paa Nma Nma Attttha A ha Conceptt off Dhamma Concep o Dhamma Tajjj--paattttii Ta paa Names ffor Paattttii Names o r Paa ttablle,, catt,, person,, ab e ca person ettc.. ec Nma--paattttii // Samuttttii Nma paa Samu Nma & Attttha Nma & A ha Are Logiicalllly Are Log ca y Inseparablle Inseparab e Conceptt off Paattttii Concep o Paa Attttha--paattttii A ha paa

Nma--paattttii Nma paa Sakra Sakra Paattttii P a a Pariikappa-P a r ka ppa siiddha s ddha Attttha--paattttii A h a pa a Kappan Kappan

Kallpna menttall actt of Ka pna men a ac of concepttualliiziing concep ua z ng Acttuall Dhamma Ac ua Dhamma Paramattttha // Sabhva Parama ha Sabhva Paramattttha Parama ha Sabhva--siiddhii Sabhva s ddh

Relating to Paramattha / Sabhva Dhammas

Relating to Paatti / Asabhva Dhammas

Key: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Dhammas that are paramattha / sabhva are shown via the left column. Dhammas that are paatti / asabhva are indicated on the right column. The top row indicates the words and verbal expressions for these two. They are established through parikappa. The middle row indicates the concepts corresponding to the two. They are established through parikappa. The bottom row indicates dhammas themselves, from which both paramattha and paatti derive, hence it only includes the left column. They are established through sabhva.