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NguyÔn §øc Tè Luu, Philip Ian Thomas

C©y l¸ kim ViÖt Nam
CONIFERS OF VIETNAM

Illustrated by: Louise Olley

ISBN 1 872291 64 3

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Conifers of Vietnam

This manual is dedicated to the memory of the late Dr Nguyen Duong Tai, Director of the Central Forest Seed Company. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors of this manual wish to acknowledge the support of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (Vietnam), the Darwin Initiative of the Department of Environment, Fisheries and Agriculture (United Kingdom), the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (Scotland) for the project ‘Preservation, rehabilitation and utilisation of Vietnamese montane forests’. We also wish to thank all the staff of the Central Forest Seed Company (CFSC) and its associated Forest Seed Enterprises in Northeast Region, Central Highland and South Central Region for their assistance in this project. We would like to thank all the staff from the Departments of Agriculture and Rural Development, Forest Protection Departments in Lao Cai, Son La, Ha Giang, Cao Bang, Lang Son, Nghe An, Dac Lac and Lam Dong for their cooperation and assistance, the staff of the Forest Enterprises in Tam Hiep – Lam Dong and Ky Son – Nghe An and the staff of the Center for Agriculture and Forestry Research of Nghe An. We would also like to thank Dr. Nguyen Tien Hiep (Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources), Professor Phan Ke Loc (Hanoi National University) and Dr. Aljos Farjon (Royal Botanic Garden Kew) for their advice on taxonomy and distributions as well as Mr. Steven Swan and Mr. Tran Manh Hung from Flora and Fauna International (Vietnam Programme) for their assistance with field work in the Hoang Lien Mountains. Finally, we would like to make a special acknowledgement for the continuous support and encouragement of all the staff from the Vietnam Tree Seed Project (VTSP, DANIDA), especially Mr. Lars Schmidt and Mr. Nguyen Xuan Lieu.

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Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 4
Purpose of the manual..................................................................................................................4 Conifers - what are they? .............................................................................................................4 Diversity in Conifers..................................................................................................................4 Conifer Distribution...................................................................................................................5 The Importance of Conifers .......................................................................................................5 Conifer Conservation .................................................................................................................6 Conifers in Vietnam......................................................................................................................7 Vietnamese conifers in a global context .....................................................................................7 What has made Vietnam conifers important (evolutionary aspect)..............................................8 Distribution and ecology of conifers in Vietnam ........................................................................8 Conservation issues ...................................................................................................................9

Conifer profiles ................................................................................................................... 11 Appendices
Distribution maps ........................................................................................................................... Ecology of conifers in Vietnam....................................................................................................... Examples of cutting propagation for conifers in Vietnam ........................................................83 References...................................................................................................................................85

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Introduction
Purpose of the manual Forests are one of Vietnam’s most important natural resources. They provide timber, fuel, food, medicines, help to regulate water-flow in rivers and control erosion. They are also of global importance as they contain numerous species of plants, animals and insects that are unique to Vietnam. Unfortunately, many forests have been destroyed in the last 50 years so that currently, less than 28% remain; most of these are concentrated in the montane areas. In such forests conifers play an important ecological role as well as providing valuable timber and other products. The conservation and sustainable utilisation of the conifers is a key element in protecting the forests as a whole. It is essential that all people who are involved in the management, protection and development of such forested areas are able to accurately identify the conifers and understand their taxonomy and ecology, their distribution within and outside of Vietnam as well as their uses and the techniques that can be used to propagate and cultivate them. The discovery of new species as well as other species not previously known from Vietnam, coupled with improvements in silvicultural knowledge, the initiation of major reforestation projects and an increase in conservation work, means that existing manuals and reference books are now out of date and need to be replaced. This manual aims to provide an overview of all the currently known conifer species that occur naturally in Vietnam. It is intended to be both a reference and a field guide that can be used on a daily basis by all those involved with forest management. The manual provides an overview of conifers as a group of plants, their global importance and the most up to date information for those species found in Vietnam. Conifers - what are they? The conifers are part of one of the two main groups of higher plants – the Gymnospermae (gymnosperms). The second group is generally known as the Angiosperms the flowering plants. Gymnosperms originated over 300 million years ago and for long periods formed the dominant vegetation on the earth. They are distinguished from the flowering plants by having seeds that are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (a fruit). The pollen lands directly onto an ovule, rather than on a part of a flower such as a stigma. There are only about 900 modern gymnosperms, including cycads, Gnetum and a few other small groups; in contrast there are thought to be about 400 000 angiosperm species. The conifers are the most numerous group of gymnosperms. All conifers are wind pollinated with separate male and female strobili (flowers), either on separate plants (dioecious e.g. most Podocarpaceae) or on different parts of the same plant (monoecious e.g. Pinus). Many conifers produce hard woody cones consisting of a central axis surrounded by a series of scales e.g. Pinus. Seeds are usually winged; these species are mainly wind dispersed. Other conifers (e.g. Podocarpaceae, Cephalotaxaceae and Taxaceae) produce seeds that are either surrounded or borne above a brightly coloured swollen fleshy structure; these are animal dispersed. Diversity in Conifers Conifers include the oldest, tallest and the largest plants in the world. The Bristlecone Pine (Pinus longaeva) is estimated to live for up to 6 000 years, while the Coastal Redwood, (Sequoia sempervirens) reaches a height of over 100m and individual Giant Sequioas (Sequoiadendron giganteum) have a diameter at breast height of over 12 m. These particular

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conifers are found in western North America. Most conifers are pyramidal trees that either form monospecific stands or emerge above the canopy of other broadleafed trees. However, there are also many species that spread along the ground or grow as multistemmed shrubs. A New Zealand conifer, Lepidothamnus laxifolius, produces cones when it is only 7 cm high. There is also one conifer that grows as a parasite on the roots of another conifer - Parasitaxus usta from New Caledonia in the western Pacific. Currently conifers are classified into 8 families, 70-75 genera and about 635 species. The two largest genera are Pinus and Podocarpus, both of which have more than 100 species. Of the remaining genera more than 75% are either monotypic (only one species) or have less than 5 species. Conifer Distribution The majority of conifer species are found in montane regions in temperate or subtropical latitudes, generally in areas of high rainfall. However, some species also occur in dry climates or in extremely cold areas close to the Arctic Circle. In the northern hemisphere, large areas of Europe, Asia and North America are dominated by only a few species e.g. Pinus sylvestris occurs from the west coast of Scotland almost as far as the eastern part of China and the former Soviet Union. The areas that lack conifers are either arid deserts (hot e.g. the Sahara or cold e.g. Tibet) or lowland tropical forests. Conifer diversity (expressed as numbers of species) is greatest in the northern hemisphere in areas such as Mexico / southwestern USA and China/ Indo China (including Vietnam). The majority of these species belong to the families Pinaceae and Cupressaceae. The southern hemisphere has fewer species. There are a number of ‘hotspots’ for conifer diversity in the southern hemisphere e.g. New Caledonia, a small island in the western Pacific has 43 species, all of which are endemic. The main families in the southern hemisphere are the Araucariaceae and Podocarpaceae. This division reflects ancient tectonic history and continental plate movements, especially over the last 65 million years. Map 1 shows the world wide distribution of conifers.

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Map 1: The global distribution of conifers. Southern hemisphere conifers are mainly confined to the major mountain ranges such as the Andes on South America. Large areas of the northern hemisphere are dominated by a small number of species from the family Pinaceae (adapted from Farjon and Page 1999). The Importance of Conifers Conifers are among the most important group of plants in the world. The vast conifer dominated forests of the northern hemisphere represent an important carbon sink that help to moderate the world’s climate. Many of the world’s mountain ranges are dominated by conifer forests that play a critical role in water-flow regulation of many important river systems; recent disastrous flooding in the lowland areas of countries such as China and India have been linked to overexploitation of conifer dominated watershed forests. Conifers are often key species in ecosystems; many other plants, animals and fungi depend on them for their existence so that without the conifers, they would become extinct. Conifers provide the majority of the world’s construction timber, plywood, pulp and paper products; many species also provide valuable timber for specialist uses such as boat construction and fine crafts. Most conifers produce easily worked, durable timber; in Chile trunks of Fitzroya cupressoides, a species of the temperate forests that reaches a height of more than 50m and age in excess of 3 600 years, have been recovered from bogs where they were buried over 5 000 years ago, and have still provided useful timber. The most widely planted tree in the world is Pinus radiata which forms the major component of forestry industries in Australasia, South America and southern Africa, covering an area larger than Vietnam. In its native habitat in California it is confined to 5 small relictual groves and is highly threatened. Conifers are also an important source of resin throughout the world while the seeds of many species are an important source of food for indigenous people in places as far apart as Chile, Mexico, Australia and China. Most conifers also contain bioactive compounds that are increasingly being used for the treatment of diseases such as cancer and HIV. Conifers are also play an important role in both western and eastern cultures; the Celtic and Nordic people of Europe worshipped the European Yew (Taxus baccata) as a symbol of eternal life, the Pehuenche Indians of Chile believe male and female Araucaria araucana trees contain spirits that created their world. Conifer Conservation More than 200 conifer species are currently listed as threatened with extinction at a global level. Many more are threatened within part of their natural distribution. The most common threats include overexploitation for timber or related products, conversion of forests to pasture, arable land and human habitation and an increase in the frequency of fires. For many species, the risk of extinction is increased as a result of their naturally small population sizes and restricted distributions which in turn is a reflection of their relictual nature. The threats that many species face may not be direct – selective logging or logging within a particular part of a species range can lead to genetic depletion and the loss of locally adapted populations. It can also interfere with the natural processes of succession within a forest ecosystem with the result that the species composition of the forest changes. Clearance of surrounding forests may lead to local or regional climatic changes that can adversely conifer forests. Pollution causing acid rain has had a major impact on conifer forests in central Europe even though it originated several hundred kilometres away.

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The global importance of conifers makes their conservation of paramount importance. The complexity of the threats that they face means that a range of strategies need to be employed to achieve their conservation and sustainable utilisation. In-situ conservation through mechanisms such as national parks (NP) and nature reserves (NR) probably provide the most comprehensive, cost effective solution for conserving large areas of intact forest. This type of conservation requires people with skills ranging from administration to ecology. In-situ conservation also often requires that the benefits that people, especially local people, would have derived from exploiting the forest have to be replaced by alternatives. These may include better management of forests in the surrounding buffer zones or the development of plantations of economically useful or valuable species that would have been targeted for exploitation. In turn, this requires people with skills in forestry, agriculture, community development and related disciplines. In-situ conservation may not be practical in many instances. A particular species may have declined or a large amount of its habitat may have been altered or destroyed to such an extent that the species is no longer able to survive without some form of intervention. The nature of the particular threat may be such that in-situ conservation will not protect it e.g. in the SE USA populations of Torreya taxifolia have been attacked by an unknown disease which has killed all the mature trees and is preventing younger trees from maturing. Eventually this species must become extinct. In such situations ex-situ strategies such as the establishment of living gene-banks or seed banks need to be employed. These can form the basis of restoration, reinforcement or translocation programmes. They can also serve as a way of protecting the genetic variation of economically valuable species which can, in turn, be used to alleviate the pressures on remaining natural resources, thereby supporting in-situ conservation. Conservation requires cooperation between a wide range of people from many different disciplines and organisations. All of these people depend on the accurate identification of the plants or other organisms that they are concerned with and up-to-date information at a local, regional, national and international level. Conifers in Vietnam Vietnamese conifers in a global context Currently there are about 29 species of conifers in Vietnam. Although less than 5% of the world’s known conifer species are found in Vietnam, 27% of the known genera and 5 of the 8 families are represented (see Table 1). All of the conifer species in Vietnam are significant. Two monotypic genera (Xanthocyparis and Glyptostrobus) are endemic – the first of these was only discovered in 1999 while the other is confined to 2 small populations totalling less than 250 trees in Dac Lac province; this species is the last representative of an ancient lineage – its fossils have been found as far as England in the UK. In 2001 a small population of about 100 trees of the monotypic genus Taiwania cryptomerioides was found in Lao Cai province – previously this genus was only known from Taiwan, Yunnan and NE Myanmar. Extensive populations of Cunninghamia konishii, another ancient genus with only two species have recently been found in Nghe An and the adjoining areas of Lao PDR. Four out of the six known species of Amentotaxus (family Taxaceae) are found in Vietnam - two of these are endemic (A. poilanei and A. hatuyenensis) and the main populations of the other two species are also in Vietnam (A. argotaenia and A. yunnanensis). Even the conifers that are not endemic to Vietnam are significant. Pinus kesiya occurs from NE India across to the Philippines but the Vietnamese

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provenances have shown greater productivity in forestry trials in Africa and Australasia. These facts give some indication of the importance of Vietnamese conifers. Family Number of genera/species worldwide 3/ 41 1/5-11 30/135 1/4 11/225 18/190 1/1 5/23 70/ ca 635 Number of Genera in Vietnam 0 1 7 0 5 4 0 2 19 Number of species/ number of endemic species in Vietnam 0/0 1/0 7/2 0/0 10/1-2* 6/1-3** 0/0 6/2 29-30/5

Araucariaceae Cephalotaxaceae Cupressaceae Phyllocladaceae Pinaceae Podocarpaceae Sciadopityaceae Taxaceae Totals

* a new species of pine has recently been found in Vietnam which may be endemic.** there is some uncertainty about the number of species of Podocarpus in northern Vietnam – there may be 2-3 undescribed species which may also be endemic.

Table 1: Vietnamese conifers in a global context What has made Vietnam conifers important (evolutionary aspect) The significance of Vietnamese conifers has been determined by the relative geological and climatic stability of Vietnamese landmass over the last several million years coupled with its present diverse topography and associated wide range of habitats. Europe, North America and many parts of Asia have been directly affected by extensive glaciations, geological upheavals (e.g. the formation of the Himalayas) and associated climatic changes, particularly over the last million years. Overall, the climate became drier and cooler, and many conifers that were adapted to warm, moist climates became extinct. However some were able to migrate to more suitable areas such as southwestern China and northern Vietnam. Cunninghamia, Taiwania and Amentotaxus are all examples of genera that were previously much more widely dispersed. Vietnam’s longitudinal range (8 o - 24o), from close to the equator to the subtropics, coupled with the altitudinal range of its major mountain systems meant suitable habitats persisted and such species could survive. The climatic changes across the northern hemisphere effected different groups of conifers in different ways. Some became extinct or migrated into areas that still had a suitable climate, while others evolved and were able occupy different habitats in different climates. Vietnamese pines provide examples of both strategies. Pinus krempfii is thought to be an ancient relictual species without any close relatives while P. kesiya is more recently evolved and has a range from NE India to the Philippines. Vietnam’s proximity to the tropics also meant that bird dispersed conifers from the southern family Podocarpaceae were able to migrate northwards. The Vietnamese conifer flora contains an unusual mix of conifers from both the southern and northern hemisphere. Distribution and ecology of conifers in Vietnam Vietnamese conifers are found in four main areas (see Map 2):

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Conifers of Vietnam

1/ Northeast Vietnam: the upper ridges of the limestone karst formations (500-1600 m), especially in Ha Giang and Cao Bang, contain the richest conifer assemblages (up to 10 species) in Vietnam. In these harsh environments, with little soil, rapid drainage and periods of drought, the conifers are able to out-compete angiosperms and form the dominant vegetation. The climate is monsoon tropical with cold winter temperatures and summer rains. Several species are only found in this area e.g. Xanthocyparis vietnamensis, Pseudotsuga sinensis, Cupressus funebris and Amentotaxus hatuyensis. Conifers such as Pinus kwangtungensis, Taxus chinensis and Amentotaxus argotaenia have been found on isolated mountains away the main limestone area in NE Vietnam (e.g. Moc Chau). Members of the Pinaceae, generally species that have their main distribution in China, are the most frequent in NE Vietnam, although Amentotaxus yunnanensis and Podocarpus pilgeri, can be locally common. Populations of all species are always small. 2/ Hoang Lien Son massif: the natural forests of this area tend to be dominated by northern temperate angiosperm families such Fagaceae and Lauraceae. Fokienia is the most widespread conifer, forming large stands, along with Podocarpus neriifolius which is generally found in small groups. A single population of Taiwania cryptomerioides has been found in the Van Ban district – it may have been more widespread in the past. Abies delavayi ssp. fansipanensis is endemic to Mt Fan Si Pan while Tsuga chinensis occurs in small populations above 1800 m – this species is also found in NE Vietnam on limestone. The climate is generally very wet and cool, with rainfall throughout the year. 3/ Northwest (Son La, Hoa Binh, Thanh Hoa, Nghe An): In this part of Vietnam, altitudes tend to be lower than in the Hoang Lien, and climate is generally drier. The most widespread conifer is Keteleeria evelyniana, although in the more mountainous and wetter parts such as in Nghe An near the Lao PDR border, Fokienia and Cunninghamia can be found. Calocedrus macrolepis is also relatively widely distributed in Son La towards the Lao border and Pinus merkusii occurs in scattered populations. 4/ Central Highland: This is the second most diverse area for conifers in Vietnam, especially on the Dalat plateau. The conifers are strongly associated with changes in local climate; at lower altitudes (800-2000 m) and with lower rainfall, Pinus kesiya, P. merkusii are more widespread with, more rarely and restricted to moister sites, Keteleeria evelyniana, Calocedrus macrolepis, Cephalotaxus manii and Taxus wallichiana. At higher altitudes 1800+ m) Fokienia, Pinus dalatensis, P. krempfii and Dacrydium elatum can be found. Amentotaxus poilanei, the most southern member of the genus, is restricted to the northern part of the Central Highland while Glyptostrobus pensilis is only found in two small populations in Dac Lac. Conifers with tropical origins such as Nageia wallichiana, Podocarpus neriifolius and Dacrycarpus imbricatus are distributed throughout the moister, mountainous areas of Vietnam, usually on soils of volcanic origin, but become rarer in the north. Conservation issues Almost all of the conifers naturally occurring in Vietnam are threatened to some extent. The majority of them produce valuable timber that is highly valued for craft work (Fokienia, Xanthocyparis) or construction (most pines, Keteleeria, Fokienia, Cunninghamia) while others are valued used for incense production (Cupressus, Fokienia, Calocedrus) or are used for medicines, both traditional (Nageia) and modern (Taxus). Some species are only exploited locally but these tend to be those species that only have a local distribution (e.g. Xanthocyparis). The threat posed by direct over-exploitation is compounded by the conversion

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of large areas to agriculture, especially in montane areas between 800 and 1500 m where conifers such as Keteleeria and Calocedrus are generally found. Fragmentation of forests is a related problem – small remnants are more susceptible to fires and to the effects of genetic depletion. Species with naturally small populations are particularly susceptible to such threats. Those with widely distributed populations (e.g. most species in the Podocarpaceae), in some cases extending to other countries (e.g. Keteleeria) may appear to be less threatened than they really are, as over-exploitation and deforestation are problems throughout SE Asia. The most threatened conifer in Vietnam is probably Cupressus funebris in NE Vietnam. Currently, only one wild tree has been located in the last 5 years – all other trees have been cut for their timber and their roots dug up for incense stick production. Glyptostrobus pensilis is only known from two small reserves in Dac Lac; the majority of the remaining trees (numbering less than 250) have been damaged by fires, almost all of its habitat - this species only grows naturally in swamps- has been converted to coffee plantations and there is no regeneration. These two species are on the verge of extinction. Several other species (e.g. Taiwania cryptomerioides and Xanthocyparis vietnamensis) may reach this state unless comprehensive conservation action is taken. Over the last fifteen years, many national parks and nature reserves have been declared. Some of these contain populations of threatened conifers. Outside of these areas, laws have been enacted to control exploitation and to prevent illegal logging. Despite these actions localised logging, both legal and illegal remain a problem. Species with high economic values or special uses will always be at risk. Therefore in-situ conservation has to be complemented by ex-situ conservation and general silvicultural programmes. These programmes should include education programmes as well as seed collection and storage, restoration and enrichment plantings within and around the protected areas. Exotic species may also play a role in supporting in-situ conservation. There are already two conifer species on the edge of extinction and it is in everyone’s interest to prevent others from joining them.

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11 Conifer profiles

Conifers of Vietnam

This manual provides an overview of all the currently known conifer species that occur in Vietnam. The main species are profiled with a description and illustrations of their key characters. These are mainly based on specimens collected from trees growing in their natural habitat within Vietnam during the course of this project. Information on distribution, ecology, uses, propagation and conservation is also presented. Each profile consists of the following sections: Taxonomy and Name The most frequently used Vietnamese name is given first, followed by the internationally recognised Latin name (known as a binomial) and the family. Although most people use the common name, it is important to understand the benefit of knowing and using the recognised Latin name. Common and local names can refer to different species e.g. Thong da (stone pine) can refer to any conifer growing on limestone. Depending on the locality it may be Pseudotsuga sinensis (in Ha Giang), Calocedrus macrolepis (in Moc Chau - Son La) or Taxus chinensis (in Mai Chau - Hoa Binh). Similarly, Thong dau (resinous pine) may refer to Pinus kwangtungensis (in Mai Chau - Hoa Binh), Keteleeria evelyniana (Da Lat - Lam Dong), Fokienia hodginsii (Mai Son - Son La). Using one name for several different types of tree or a different name for the same tree in different localities makes it extremely difficult to communicate accurately. Using the correct Latin name helps to prevent this problem. The Latin name is divided into three main sections e.g. Pomu is Fokienia (Genus) hodginsii (species) (Dunn) A. Henry & H. Thomas. (authors/ describers)

The first part (Fokienia) is the genus while the second part (hodginsii) refers to a particular species within that genus. The last part of the name refers to the person (or people) who first described the species within that genus. In this example, Pomu, was first formally described as a member of the genus Fokienia by Professor Augustine Henry and Dr H. Thomas in 1911. The official description and publication of a new name is controlled by a set of rules known as the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN). This provides a consistent method for describing or changing the name of each species. The Vietnamese delegates to the committee that monitors the ICBN are based in Hanoi at IEBR. It is also important to understand the way that species are classified into genera and into families. Each species will show certain characters that are also present in other species e.g. all species of the genus Pinus have their foliage arranged in clusters (fascicles) with 2, 3, 5 needles. Identifying these common characters allows different species to be classified into genera. Identifying characters shared by different genera allows them to be grouped into families and so on until the highest level of classification is reached. The first description of a new species is based on a specimen that is known as the holotype, and which shows the main characters that define the species. Accurate identification of other collections is done by comparison with the type specimens or with their published description. Holotypes are extremely important and are usually kept in a national herbarium – these herbariums represent an essential national resource. New species may be based on a limited number of collections; as research and exploration continues, new information is gained so that taxonomists (scientists who are

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concerned with the naming and classification of living organisms) may decide that an older classification is no longer an accurate reflection of the current knowledge. A good example is Thong nang. This species was originally described as Podocarpus imbricatus by a taxonomist called Blume in 1827 within the larger genus Podocarpus. The increase in knowledge about this species and other members of the genus resulted in a new classification so that the Latin name changed to Dacrycarpus imbricatus (Blume) de Laub. The last part of the third section of the name refers to the abbreviated name of the taxonomist who suggested the change (Professor David de Laubenfels). The previous name Podocarpus imbricatus Blume then becomes a synonym and should no longer be used. Description As this manual is primarily intended as a field guide for daily use, the characters that are described are those that are visible either with the naked eye or with the aid of a hand lens. The dimensions for characters such as leaf and cone size are given as a range of sizes. Leaf size and shape especially can vary depending on the environmental conditions that the tree is growing under, the age of the tree (juvenile trees often have larger foliage that may have a different shape to the mature foliage) and the position within the tree – foliage growing in the shaded inner canopy or from the lower branches may differ from foliage that is in full sun. Many mistakes in identification are due to the failure to recognise this type of variation. Some characters are short lived e.g. in conifers, males cones are present for only a short time and usually disintegrate after pollen release. Systematic classification (the distinction between species, genera and families) is mainly based on the characters of the female reproductive structure as these are less responsive to environmental influences. Changes within these structures are more likely to reflect evolutionary change and speciation. Distribution Within Vietnam, only the provincial distribution is given. Districts may be given for species with limited distribution. In some cases, 3-4 provinces may be listed although almost all populations may be located in one province within a mountain range that may be located on the border of the other provinces e.g. Pinus krempfii is found in 4 provinces but the majority of populations occur in only 2. In other cases, many provinces may be listed – this should not be interpreted to mean that the species is common as many conifers (e.g. Thong nang, Dacrycarpus imbricatus) only occur in small populations across a larger area. Most Vietnamese conifers also occur in either Lao or China. Again, this is not necessarily an indication that the species is common as the populations in those other countries may be very small and highly threatened. Ecology Only a summary of the main forest types, soil types, associated conifer species, regeneration strategy and the standard climatic classification for the area in which they occur is given. Most conifers are poorly understood, and research into their ecology should be a priority. It is an interesting feature of many conifers that they are often able to grow in different climates and soils compared to those that characterise their natural habitats. Restriction to particular habitats is usually a reflection of the stronger competition from angiosperms in surrounding areas rather than specialisation by the conifer. Uses This section presents an overview of the major forestry, non timber products and ornamental qualities for each species.

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Conifers of Vietnam

This section also presents an overview of the main techniques and requirements for reproductive propagation (e.g. seed collection time, processing, seed testing) and vegetative propagation are presented. Further information on vegetative propagation techniques can be found in the book “Vegetative propagation of tropical trees: Leafy stem cuttings and Grafting” (J.M. Dick, Nguyen Duc To Luu, Nguyen Duc Canh, 2004). Conservation status The international conservation status for each conifer species is decided by an international committee of the IUCN (the Conifer Specialist Group) after an assessment of its status in each of the countries that it occurs. Vietnam has 2 members on this committee (Prof. Phan Ke Loc and Dr. Nguyen Tien Hiep). Decisions are based on a set of internationally agreed criteria that evaluate each species in terms of the size and number of known population, the extent of its habitat and the type and immediacy of the threat that it faces. When accurate assessment is not available, an estimate may be used. An outline of the criteria and their meanings is included as an appendix at the end of this manual. National assessments are based on the same criteria. There is often a difference between the assessments as political boundaries often cut across natural distributions in an uneven way. Conservation problems such as deforestation, over exploitation and habitat loss occur in all countries so that the presence of a larger population in a neighbouring country does not diminish the importance of smaller populations in other countries. This is particularly relevant to conifers in Vietnam, where many species are at the limits of their distributions and may represent distinct provenances. Conservation assessments can be altered so that a species may become less threatened at an international or national level – unfortunately the tendency is for more species to become more threatened. The manual does not include profiles of introduced species, whether they are used for forestry (e.g. Pinus massoniana, Cunninghamia lanceolata) or for ornamental use (e.g. Juniperus chinensis, Podocarpus chinensis). The information presented in this manual draws on previous publications by leading Vietnamese institutes such as Forest Inventory and Planning Institute (FIPI), Forest Science Institute of Vietnam (FSIV), the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR) and international floras such as the Flore du Laos Cambodge et du Vietnam. It also draws information from the results of the field work carried out by the staff of this project as well as the more extensive field work carried out over the last 10 years by FIPI and IEBR in conjunction with organisations such as Flora and Fauna International, Birdlife International and Missouri Botanic Garden,. Exploration and documentation is continuing as there are still significant areas of Vietnam where the unique biodiversity is poorly known. New distributions for known species and possibly new species will continue to be discovered. Most of the information relating to phenological characters (e.g. cone maturation and collection times, propagation techniques are derived from the results over the last 5 years of the seed research and ex-situ conservation plantation activities of Vietnam Tree Seed Project (VTSP) and Central Forest Seed Company (CFSC).

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Cephalotaxaceae

§Ønh tïng (Cephalotaxus mannii Hook.f.) Cµnh mang nãn c¸i vµ nãn c¸i / Cone-bearing branchlet and a seed cone

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Cephalotaxaceae

Cephalotaxus mannii Hook.f. - §Ønh tïng Synonymy Cephalotaxus hainanensis H.L.Li, Cephalotaxus griffithii J. D Hooker. Other Names: PhØ ba mòi (Vietnamese), Plum Yew (English), hai nan cu fei (Chinese).
In some references this tree is referred to as C. oliveri Mast. Other references also record C. fortunei and C. drupacea from Vietnam. There is only one species from this small genus in Vietnam - C. mannii.

Description: Height and Spread: Up to 20 (30) m tall and 50 (-110) cm dbh. Habit: An upright tree with a straight bole and narrow crown. Bark: Bark light brown to reddish brown, flaking off in thin layers. Foliage: Leaves dark green above with stomatal bands white or bluish white underneath, linear or linear-lanceolate, occasionally slightly falcate, up to 4 cm × 4 mm, (shaded foliage longer), leathery in texture, thin, midvein prominent, leaf tip cuspidate or mucronate. Cones: Dioecious. Seed cones solitary or borne 2 or 3 together, peduncle 6-10 mm. Aril green initially, turning red when ripe, 2-3 cm long and up to 1.2 cm wide. Male cones are small, globular in shape, in groups of 6-8 and borne in the axils of the leaves along the current years shoot, not persistent. Seed: Seeds obovoid or ellipsoid, 2.2-2.8 cm, apex pointed. Distribution: Within Vietnam: Lao Cai, Ha Giang, Son La, Ha Tay, Thai Nguyen, Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Ha Tinh, Quang Binh, Quang Tri, Thua Thien Hue, Kon Tum, Gia Lai, Dac Lac, Lam Dong, Khanh Hoa. Outside Vietnam: NE India, Lao PDR, N Myanmar, N Thailand, widespread in southern China. Ecology: Altitudinal range: 500-1500 m. Forest type: scattered in small groups in subtropical evergreen broadleaf forests on a wide range of limestone and granite derived soils but not on dry soils. Climate: moonsoon tropical climate, mean annual temperature 20-270C, rainfall above 1500 mm. Associated conifer species: southern Vietnam - Nageia wallichiana, Taxus wallichiana, Podocarpus neriifolius, Dacrycarpus imbricatus, northern Vietnam – Nageia fleuryi, Podocarpus spp, Dacrycarpus imbricatus, Fokienia hodginsii, Amentotaxus spp. Natural regeneration: Rare, young plants up to 5 years old are occasional. Uses: Forestry: Produces high quality insect and termite resistant timber that is used for quality furniture, fine crafts and tool handles. Non Timber products: Seed has medicinal qualities – in Hainan the bark is used to treat fever and an alkaloid (Homoharringtonine) isolated from the Chinese C. harringtonia has shown efficacy against various leukemias. The possibility of growing this species for anti-cancer drug production should be investigated further. Ornamental: This species has good potential for ornamental use as the young trees are shade tolerant and have a good form while mature trees have interesting bark patterns. Propagation: Sexual: In Lam Dong cone ripens in October. Seed is easy to germinate when it is available. It must be kept moist and not desiccated and can only be stored for short periods in 3-40C. Isolated female trees may produce cones with developed arils but without embryos due to lack of pollination. Vegetative: Cuttings are collected in autumn-winter time. Cuttings from mature trees can be rooted at high percentage (>80%) within 5 months. Young trees may be coppiced to produce suitable cutting materials. Conservation: International: This species has been exploited for its timber and medicinal properties throughout its range. Collecting the bark is fatal to the tree and this type of harvesting is unsustainable. Currently it is listed as Vulnerable (A1d). National: Previous assessments of the Vietnamese trees have used a range of categories (Rare, conservation dependent or Endangered). Due to its fragmented but widespread distribution it is difficult to make an accurate assessment of the current size of its population, its current area of

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Cephalotaxaceae

occupancy or the extent of occurrence so in this case, the international listing should be used as a minimum assessment. In-situ conservation: This species has been recorded in small populations from more than 10 National Parks and nature reserves including Bach Ma N.P., Ba Vi N.P. Tam Dao N.P., Chu Mom Ray N.R. and most of the protected areas around Bi Doup in Lam Dong. The largest population in Lam Dong (ca 100 trees) occur on the slopes of Nui Voi – Duc Trong, an area that has no official protection. It should be strictly protected throughout its range. Ex-situ conservation: a propagation program should be established to supply material for plantation trials and to establish a living genebank. Seed storage should also be experimented with.

2

3

1 B¸ch xanh (Calocedrus macrolepis Kurz) 1 - Cµnh l¸ non; 2 - Cµnh mang nãn c¸i; 3 - H¹t 1- Juvenile foliage; 2 - Branchlet with seed cones; 3 - Seed

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Cupressaceae

Calocedrus macrolepis Kurz - B¸ch xanh Synonymy: Libocedrus macrolepis (Kurz) Bentham & Hooker. Other Names: Tïng hu¬ng, P¬ mu gi¶, Tr¾c b¸ch diÖp nói (Vietnamese), cui bai (Chinese). Description: Height and Spread: up to 20 – 25 m in height, with a diameter of 60 – 80 cm. Habit: Upright, straight boled, early branching, broad crowned. Bark: grey to reddish brown, smooth when young, rough and vertically fissured on older trees. Foliage: Scale like, flattened, 1-3 mm (larger in young plants) arranged in 2 pairs, each scale of inner (smaller) pair flattened, pressed closely to stem, scales of outer (larger) pair boat shaped, often with distinct stomatal bands. Cones: female cones terminal, solitary, red brown when ripe, oblong ellipsoid, 1-2 cm long, 4-6 woody flat scales with mucronate apices, not persistent, maturing in 1 year, releasing seed while on the tree. Seed: Seed have 2 unequal wings. Distribution: Within Vietnam: Lao Cai, Son La, Yen Bai, Ha Giang, Hoa Binh, Ha Tay, Dac Lac, Lam Dong, Khanh Hoa, Ninh Thuan. Outside Vietnam: China, Lao PDR, Thailand, India, Myanmar. Ecology: Altitudinal range: 800 – 1500 m. Forest type: small groups in dense, moist, evergreen montane forest on either limestone or granite derived soils. Climate: monsoon tropical climate, mean annual temperature 20-250C, rainfall above 1500 mm. Associated conifer species: Dacrycarpus imbricatus, Dacrydium elatum, Keteleeria evelyniana. Natural regeneration: Occasional, light demanding, mainly gap regenerating. Shaded seedlings generally die within 5 years. Uses: Forestry: produces valuable, straight grained, finely textured timber that is aromatic, resistant to termites and insects, and is easy to work. Used for construction, cabinet work, office furniture, fine crafts. Non Timber products: incense and essential oil. Ornamental: Young trees are highly ornamental, suitable for cultivation in montane areas. Propagation: Sexual: Seed collection time in the south is in August - September. Dry the cones to release seeds. 1 kg of seeds contains about 130.000 seeds. Fresh seeds can germinate at 72% within 24 days. Vegetative: Cuttings from 7-8 year old plants can be rooted at percentage more than 80% by treatment of IBA powder 1%. Conservation: International: Despite its extensive distribution in northern SE Asia, this species is listed as Vulnerable (B1 + 2b) due to overexploitation for timber and resin. National: Throughout Vietnam this species has also been overexploited for its timber and resin and much of its habitat has been converted for agriculture. Its conservation status has changed over the years from Endangered (S¸ch §á), to conservation dependent (Phan KÕ Léc, 1997) or Endangered with a populations of less than 250 mature individuals (Nguyen Hoang NghÜa 2000). Recent survey work has recorded more populations so that it no longer meets the Endangered category but still falls within the Vulnerable criteria (D1). In-situ conservation: Small populations are located within protected areas around BiDoup in Lam Dong as well BaVi National Park. Ex-situ conservation: In Lam Dong, propagation programs have been undertaken by the western Highland Forest Enterprise to provide planting materials for enrichment planting and the establishment of living gene banks.

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Cupressaceae

Sa mu dÇu (Cunninghamia konishii Hayata) Cµnh mang nãn ®ùc vµ nãn c¸i Branchlet with male and female cones

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19 Cunninghamia konishii Hayata - Sa mu dÇu Other names: Sa méc QuÕ Phong (Vietnamese).

Cupressaceae

Some taxonomists treat this species as a variety of C. lanceolata or as a synonym. The differences are in the number of stomatal bands on the abaxial side of the leaf and larger ( 2.5-4.5 by 2.5-4 cm) cone in C. lanceolata.

Description: Height and Spread: Up to 50 m high with dbh to 2.5 m. Habit: Upright with pyramidal habit. Bark: Brown, peeling in plates, inner bark red. Foliage: Leaves rigid, linear lanceolate, to 2 cm long and 25 mm wide, decurrent on shoot. Cones: female cones 1.8-3 x 1.2-2.5 cm, globose ovoid. Male cones terminal, congested with 1-3 clusters of up to 20 oblong cones. Seed: dark brown, oblong to 6 mm long with thin lateral wing. Distribution: Within Vietnam: Nghe An (Pu Mat, Ky Son, Que Phong), Thanh Hoa (Xuan Lien). Outside Vietnam: Lao PDR, China. Ecology: Altitudinal range: 960 – 2000 m. Forest type: dense evergreen subtropical forest on granite derived soils. Climate: monsoon tropical climate associated with mountains, mean annual temperature 16-220C, rainfall above 1500 mm. Associated conifer species: Fokienia hodginsii. Natural regeneration: rare, confined to landslips or freshly burnt areas. Uses: Forestry: Heavily exploited in the past, currently it is used locally for house construction, wood is resistant to rot, termites and is easily worked. It is relatively fast growing and has a potential for forest plantation. Ornamental: the large size of the tree restricts its use as an ornamental but it can be used as a street plant in highland areas. Propagation: Reproductive: Cone ripens in November – December; they are dificult to collect as they appear in the upper crown of mature trees. Dry the cones to release seeds. 1 kg of C. lanceolata contains about 156,000 seeds and fresh seeds of the species germinate at 43% within 17 days. Vegetative: Cunninghamia is relatively easy to propagate by cuttings from juvenile plants. However, plagiotropic growth often occurs, especially when the material comes from old trees. Conservation: International: This species is highly threatened (Endangered – A1c) due to heavy exploitation and limited distribution. National: the small size of the populations, their restriction to a few areas in 2 provinces and the extent of deforestation resulting from shifting cultivation in those areas mean that it is also listed as Endangered within Vietnam. In-situ conservation: Some populations are recorded from Pu Mat, Pu Hoat and Xuan Lien nature reserves. In Nghe An, a research project is underway to determine the full extent of its distribution within the province and to study its biology and ecology. The remaining stands of this species are an important genetic resource for forestry and require conservation measures regardless of the taxonomic status. Cunninghamia lanceolata should not be planted in the districts with natural populations of C. konishii due to the risk of hybridisation. Ex-situ conservation: Attempts at establishing conservation plantations in Ky Son have not yet been successful; a major problem is the collection of seed and selection of suitable sites for plantation.

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Cupressaceae

2

Hoµng ®µn (Cupr essus funebris Endl.) 1 - Cµnh l¸ non; 2 - Cµnh mang nãn c¸i; 3 - H¹t 1- Juvenile foliage; 2 - Branchlet with female cones; 3 - Seed

1

3

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21 Cupressus funebris Endl. - Hoµng ®µn Synonymy: Cupressus tonkinensis Silba.

Cupressaceae

Older references for Vietnamese conifers identify Cupressus trees found in Lang Son and northeastern Vietnam as C. torulosa D.Don. This species is restricted to the Himalayas although it is cultivated in highland areas of Vietnam and in some places (Lam Dong) it may be naturalised. Natural and many cultivated trees from Lang Son are definitely not C. torulosa. C. tonkinensis Silba was described in 1994, based on specimens collected from the Lang Son area around 1919 and others collected in Guangxi about the same time. Genetic comparisom of material collected from natural and cultivated trees of known wild origin trees in NE Vietnam indicates that they are either the same as, or very closely related to C. funebris. The natural distribution of C. funebris is uncertain as it has a long history of cultivation within China and possibly northern Vietnam especially near temples. Further research is being undertaken to confirm the identification of Cupressus in northern Vietnam.

Description (Vietnam, based on recently planted trees collected from Lang Son (Van Linh) and surrounding karst ridges areas. Height and Spread: up to 8 m with dbh to 40 cm. Habit: Upright single stemmed tree with broad pendulous crown. Bark: smooth, grey brown with longitudinal fissures, red underneath. Foliage: mature foliage densely appressed, tips acute, in pairs, facial pair with longitudinal depressed ridge, green grey, juvenile foliage persisting for several years, acicular, ususally blue/green. Female Cones: brown at maturity, globose, less than 1.5 cm diameter, 4-8 cone scales with umbo absent or less than 1 mm, few seeded, appearing October - November, maturing in 2 years. Seed: light brown, up to 3 mm long, rounded with flattened ridges. Distribution: Within Vietnam: Lang Son (Huu Lung, Chi Lang). It may also occur in Tuyen Quang (Na Hang), Ha Giang (Dong Van), Outside Vietnam: Widespread in China. Ecology: Altitudinal range: Lang Son, 550 - 1000 m. Forest type: Sparsely distributed on limestone ridges. Climate: monsoonal tropical climate associated with mountains or with cold winter, mean annual temperature 20-230C, rainfall above 1400 mm. Associated conifer species: Taxus chinensis, Podocarpus pilgeri (Ha Giang). Natural regeneration: absent. Uses: Forestry: Timber has a straight, fine textured grain that is resistant to termites and insects. It is aromatic, especially the roots, and does not deform or split after after seasoning. Used for cabinet work, office furniture, high quality crafts and statues. Non Timber products: incense sticks, essential oil extracted from wood and roots can be used in medicine, making perfumes, soaps and other cosmetics. Ornamental: An elegant tree with attractive juvenile foliage and mature shape. Propagation: Sexual: Cones ripen in November - December. 1 kg of seeds may contain 500,000 seeds. Due to small population size in the wild seeds are often infertile. Vegetative: The tree can be relatively easy propagated by cuttings with high rooting percentage (>30% for mature trees). Cuttings should be collected in autumn - winter time. Plagiotropic growth can be avoided by careful selection of orthotropic shoots for cuttings. Conservation: International: C. torulosa is listed as being low risk, near threatened. The most recent international assessment of this taxon still includes the records for the Vietnamese trees. National: In Vietnam C. funebris is listed as critically endangered. In-situ conservation: In Vietnam, Huu Lien N.R. was established to protect the remaining trees (as well as many other threatened species) in 1986. Illegal logging has almost eliminated this species from the reserve. Currently, only one natural tree remains in the reserve. Ex-situ conservation: This species has been the focus of extensive conservation and utilisation programs. A small stand of less than 20 trees has been established within Huu Lien. The Central Forest Seed Company and its associated Forest Enterprises have undertaken

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Cupressaceae

propagation trials based on a collection of 40 clones established as a living gene bank to support future plantation.

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Cupressaceae

1a

1b

1c

1d

4

3 2 5 P¬ mu (Fokienia hodginsii A Henry & H. Thomas) 1 - L¸: 1a - mÆt sau l¸ non, 1b - mÆt truíc l¸ non, 1c - mÆt sau l¸ truëng thµnh, 1d - mÆt truíc l¸ truëng thµnh; 2 - Cµnh l¸ non; 3 - Cµnh mang nãn c¸i; 4 - Nãn c¸i khi non; 5 - H¹t 1 - Leaves: 1a - back side of juvenile leaves, 1b - front side of juvenile leaves, 1c - back side of mature leaves, 1d - front side of mature leaves; 2 - Juvenile foliage; 3 - Branchlet with a female cone; 4 - Immature female cone; 5 - Seed

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24 Fokienia hodginsii A Henry & H. Thomas - P¬ mu Other names: MËy v¹c, hßng, mËy long lanh (Vietnamese).

Cupressaceae

Description: Height and Spread: Up to 30 m tall with dbh to 1.5 m. Habit: Upright, straight boled with rounded crown. Bark: Dark brown, irregular vertical fissures. Foliage: Scale like, flattened, 2-8 mm long (larger in young plants) arranged in 2 even sized pairs, inner (smaller) pair flattened, pressed closely to stem, scales of outer (larger) pair boat shaped, often with distinct stomatal bands. Cones: female cones brown when ripe, woody, subglobose, 1.5–2.5 ⋅ 1.2–2.2 cm. Male pollen cones yellowish green. Seed: Seeds 4–5mm, with 2 uneven sized wings. Distribution: Within Vietnam: Lao Cai, Yen Bai, Son La, Phu Tho, Dien Bien, Ha Giang, Nghe An, Hoa Binh, Ha Tinh, Thua Thien Hue, Kon Tum, Gia Lai, Dac Lac, Lam Dong, Ninh Thuan, Khanh Hoa. Outside Vietnam: Southeastern China, Lao PDR. Ecology: Altitudinal range: 900 – 1500 (2500) m. Forest type: upper ridges and summits with montane evergreen forest on granite or limestone derived soils. Climate: monsoon tropical climate associated with mountains, mean annual temperature 14-230C, rainfall above 1600 mm. Associated conifer species: southern provinces - Dacrydium elatum , Pinus dalatensis, P. krempfii, central and northern provinces – Cunninghamia konishii, Taiwania cryptomerioides, Pinus kwangtungensis, Podocarpus neriifolius. Natural regeneration: Abundant, shade intolerant, requires gaps. Uses: Forestry: used in plantations in montane areas, produces high quality timber that is used for furniture and handcrafts and for house building. Non-timber: It is also a source of valuable essential oil. Propagation: Sexual: Seed collection time in the North is in November, and in the South in July. Dry the cones to release seeds. 1 kg of seeds contains about 150,000 - 170,000 seeds. Germination of fresh seeds can be 68% in 22 days. Vegetative: Autumn - winter is preferable time for propagation by cuttings. Cuttings from 2-3 year old trees can be rooted at high percentage (>80%) within 3 months. Cuttings from mature trees should be carefully selected to avoid plagiotropic growth. Conservation: International: The current international listing for Fokienia is Low Risk, near threatened (Lr NT), due to its wide distribution in Vietnam, Lao PDR and southern China. However, in each country, this species has been extensively exploited and populations are becoming more isolated and fragmented. Its status is currently under review. Nationally: In Vietnam this species is listed as endangered due to the reduction in its habitat and the extent of logging operations. The majority of the remaining mature stands are confined to remote mountainous areas in Lao Cai, Nghe An and Lam Dong. Licences for felling are still being granted to State Forest Enterprises and localised logging is also still a problem. In some areas, (Ky Son, Nghe An), trial plantations are being established with some success. In-situ conservation: this species is recorded from numerous protected areas throughout its range such as the Hoang Lien N.P. in Lao Cai, the protected areas around BiDoup Mountain in Lam Dong and Pu Mat in Nghe An. Several natural stands have been registered as National Seed Sources. Ex-situ conservation: Currently there are no specific ex-situ programmes for this species although some research has been undertaken into propagation protocols and plantation establishment.

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25 Thuû tïng (Glyptostrobus pensilis (Staunton) K.Koch)

Cupressaceae

1

3

2

1 - Chåi vuît; 2 - Cµnh mang nãn c¸i; 3 - H¹t 1 - Epimorphic shoot; 2 - Branchlet with seed cones; 3 - Seed

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Cupressaceae

Glyptostrobus pensilis (Staunton) K.Koch - Thuû tïng Other names: Th«ng nuíc (Vietnamese), Water Pine (English), shui song (Chinese).
This species is one of the most ancient conifers, with a history that dates back more than 100 million years. Until recently, the genus was widespread across Asia and Europe but after the last series of glaciations, its populations have been reduced to 2 small pockets in Dac Lac. This species is one of Vietnam’s national treasures.

Description (Vietnam): Height and Spread: Up to 20m tall, usually smaller, with dbh to 1m. Habit: Upright with pyramidal crown, becoming broader with age, smallest branchlets usually deciduous. Pneumatophores often found around the partly buttressed base of the tree. Bark: Red brown, thick, fibrous and peeling in strips. Foliage: Two types of foliage. Mature foliage on persistent shoots or fertile shoots scale like, appressed to branchlet, juvenile and new foliage linear, 6-10 mm long, stomata on all surfaces. Cones: female cones terminal, ovoid globose, with up to 10 soft woody scales with teeth along margins, up to 3cm long and 1.5 cm wide, appearing in July to October, ripening and shedding seed on the tree in November of following year, cones usually persistent, male cones terminal and solitary. Seed: oval, 56mm long with a long wing on the basal side. Distribution: Within Vietnam: endemic to Vietnam in Dac Lac (Krong Nang, Ea H’leo). Outside Vietnam: records from SE China refer to cultivated or naturalised trees. It may also occur in Lao PDR in Khummuon. Ecology (Based on localities for remaining two populations): Altitudinal range: 550 – 750m. Forest type: swamp vegetation dominated by Myrtaceae, Dipterocarpus and Pterocarpus on basalt substrate. Climate: monsoon tropical climate, mean annual temperature 20-230C, annual rainfall 1300-1800 mm. Associated conifer species: none. Natural regeneration: absent. Uses: Forestry: previously used for construction and craft work. In China, timber from naturally fallen trees is used for boat building and bridge construction as it is water resistant. Ornamental: has a very attractive habit and is suitable for planting near water. Special Uses: In China it is often planted on flood banks for stabilisation. Propagation: Reproductive: The remaining Vietnamese trees have not been known to produce viable seed. Cones mature in November - January. In other countries, cones are collected when brown, dried and seed stored until spring. Germination takes about 20 days. Vegetative: Semi-hardwood cuttings, preferably with a heel from juvenile trees are relatively easy to root under mist, after treatment with hormones. It is possible to propagate the species from mature trees by cuttings, but rooting percentages are low (about 2% after 10 weeks). Rooted cuttings should be kept shaded. Planting should be done on raised mounds, rather than directly into water logged areas. Conservation: International: This species is currently listed as data deficient (DD) due to uncertainty about the natural status of the Chinese and Vietnamese populations. National: Glyptostrobus is confined to 2 small nature reserves surrounded by coffee plantations. Its extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are considerably less than 100km2 and 10km2 respectively. Both populations are declining and face considerable threats from fires and habitat changes. The overall population contains less than 250 mature individuals and, with the level of damage caused by recent fires and the likelihood that they will reoccur, a further decline of 25% within the next generation would be a reasonable estimate. On this basis, Glyptostrobus should be listed in Vietnam (and internationally) as Critically Endangered under categories B1, B2c and C1.

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Cupressaceae

In -situ conservation: The largest population, (220 trees) is located in a small 50 ha reserve at Earal while the second, (34 individuals) is within a larger reserve (100 ha) at Trap Kso. Both populations are located within flat, low-lying areas that are completely surrounded by coffee plantations. Almost all of the forest in this region has been cleared for cultivation and most of the low-lying areas drained over the last 50 years. Ex-situ conservation: Some experimental propagation work has been undertaken by the Forest Science Institute, a major problem is the lack of seed and the difficulty of rooting cuttings. Seed that could be used to provide rootstocks for grafting is being obtained by the CFSC. It is important that alternative areas are found to plant any trees that are successfully propagated in case the in-situ conservation measures fail.

1 2

5 3 4

B¸ch t¸n §µi Loan (Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata) 1 - Cµnh l¸ non; 2 - Cµnh l¸ truëng thµnh; 3 - Nãn c¸i trªn cµnh; 4 - Nãn ®ùc trªn cµnh; 5 H¹t 1 - Juvenile foliage; 2 - Mature foliage; 3 - Female cone on foliage; 4 - Male cones on foliage; 5 - Seeds

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Cupressaceae

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29 Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata - B¸ch t¸n §µi Loan Synonymy: Taiwania flousiana Gaussen. Other Names: Taiwan shan (Chinese).

Cupressaceae

This ancient monotypic genus was discovered in Lao Cai in a single small population in 2001. Previously it had only been known from Taiwan, Yunnan and NE Myanmar. In these areas trees may reach as high as 75m with dbh to 4m and a possible age of 1 500 years. Its discovery in Vietnam is an indication of the importance of Vietnam for conifers.

Description (Vietnam): Height and Spread: Up to 40 m with dbh to 1.2m. Habit: Emergent, single stemmed, broadly pyramidal or with few large horizontal branches and pendulous branchlets in upper crown. Bark: Brown/red, vertically fissured or irregularly flaking, thick on mature trees. Foliage: Two types, older foliage small, almost scale like, up to 8mm long, densely arranged, stomata on all sides, young trees and young foliage on older trees up to 1.5cm long, acute tip, often bluish green. Cones: female cones terminal, single or in clusters, cylindrical or ellipsoid, up to 2.5cm long and 1 cm wide with 10- 30 leathery scales. Male cones in clusters. Seed: Oblong ovate, up to 7mm long, winged. Distribution: Within Vietnam: Lao Cai (Van Ban). Outside Vietnam: Myanmar, China. Ecology: Altitudinal range: 1800 – 2100 m. Forest type: on granite derived soils. Climate: monsoon tropical climate associated with mountains, mean annual temperature 13-180C, rainfall above 2000 mm. Associated conifer species: Fokienia hodginsi. Natural regeneration: episodic, limited by too frequent fires. Uses: Forestry: has good potential as a plantation species – widely used in China for afforestation, produces very high quality timber for construction, furniture and coffins. Ornamental: very ornamental tree suitable for montane areas. Special Uses: known to contain compounds with anti-cancer and insecticidal properties. Propagation: Sexual: Cone ripens in November - December. Purity of seedlots varies depending on trees and processing. Therefore, 1 kg of seeds can contain from 450,000 to 700,000 seeds. The seedlot collected from Van Ban germinates more than 40%. Seed is orthodox and can be stored at 40C after drying for a few years without losing viability. Seed should be sown in spring, germination takes 3-4 weeks, young plants should be shaded from direct sun and planted when small. Early growth is rapid. Vegetative: Young trees are not available in the natural population. Cuttings from mature trees are possible but very difficult to root. Plagiotrophic growth is also a problem. Conservation: International: Extensively exploited for its valuable timber, this species is currently listed as Vulnerable (VU A1d). National: The total population is currently estimated to be around 100 trees within an area of less than 3km2. The population has suffered from felling and especially from fires as the local people convert the forest to grazing lands. It is therefore classified as critically endangered (CR A1c, B1, 2b-e, C2a). In-situ conservation: Currently the population is not within a protected area, however, the provincial Forest Protection Department and Flora and Fauna International are currently working on a community based conservation project in an attempt to ensure its in-situ conservation. Ex-situ conservation: seed collection aimed at providing material for restoration work as well as seed banking and utilisation trials is being undertaken by the Central Forest Seed Company as part of its project with the International Conifer Conservation Programme.

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Cupressaceae

B¸ch vµng (Xanthocyparis vietnamensis Farjon & Hiep) Cµnh cã l¸ kim, l¸ v¶y vµ mang nãn c¸i Branchlet with needle-like and scale-like foliage bearing a seed cone

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31 Xanthocyparis vietnamensis Farjon & Hiep - B¸ch vµng Other names: Vietnamese Golden Cypress (English).

Cupressaceae

Description: Height and Spread: Up to 15 m tall with dbh to 80 cm. Habit: Pyramidal when young, broad flattened crown when mature. Bark: Brown on main trunk, purplish on branches, smooth peeling in strips. Foliage: 3 types of foliage, mature foliage scale like, in pairs with acute apex, slightly spreading, intermediate type foliage similar to mature but longer and wider spreading, juvenile leaves in whorls of 4, widespreading, up to 2 cm long and 3 mm wide, distinct stomatal bands on underside, different types of foliage may be present of the same branch. Female Cones: Woody, subglobose when mature, up to 1.1 cm in diameter, scales in 2 pairs, with prominent curved umbo, ripening in two years. Seed: Ovoid to 6 mm long with small wings. Distribution: Within Vietnam: Endemic to Ha Giang (Quan Ba). Ecology: Altitudinal range: 1050 – 1330 m. Forest type: Limestone karst ridge forest. Climate: monsoon tropical climate associated with mountains, mean annual temperature 14180C, rainfall 2000 - 2400 mm. Associated conifer species: Pseudotsuga sinensis, Nageia fleuryi, Podocarpus pilgeri, Calocedrus macrolepis, Taxus chinensis, Amentotaxus sp. Natural regeneration: rare, saplings contribute about 10-15% of total number of trees. Uses: Forestry: locally valued for its fragrant durable timber. Ornamental: attractive foliage, has potential for ornamental use. Propagation: Sexual: Cone ripens in November - December. 1 kg of seeds contains less than 180,000 seeds. Seed propagation has not been attempted. Vegetative: Cuttings collected in November-February from mature trees are rooted at 18% within 4 months, those from younger trees (dbh 7-15 cm) are rooted at 30%. Conservation: International and National: This species is listed as Critically endangered (CR B1+ B2a-e) due to its restricted occurrence, limited habitat and the effect of selective logging. The most recent survey estimated a total of 561 trees scattered over 3 communes of which 290 trees are mature. In-situ conservation: All of the population lies within the Provincial Protected Area of Bat Dai Son. Local logging remains a problem. Ex-situ conservation: Vegetative propagation trials have been successfully undertaken by the Central Forest Seed Company with 30 clones. Seed trials are due to start this year.

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Pinaceae

V©n sam Fan Si Pang (Abies delavayi Franchet ssp fansipanensis (Q.P.Xiang) Rushforth)) Cµnh mang nãn c¸i Branchlet with a seed cone

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Abies delavayi Franchet ssp fansipanensis (Q.P.Xiang) Rushforth) - V©n sam Fan Si Pang Synonymy: Abies fansipanensis Q.P. Xiang.
In Sach Do and the Flora of Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam this tree is referred to as Abies delavayi var. nukiangensis. The Vietnamese plants are closely related to this variety. Both of these works were published before Abies delavayi ssp. fansipanensis was formally described.

Description: Height and Spread: Tree to 15-20 m, dbh to 1m. Habit: Upright with a crown that spreads with age. Bark: grey, thin, relatively smooth. Foliage: Needles spirally arranged around shoot, 1.5-3 cm long, 0.1 – 0.2 cm wide, linear, blunt apex, margins strongly recurved, twisted at base, 2 main bands of stomata on the underside, upper side mid-green. Current years shoot is brown, winter buds globose, slightly resinous. Cones: Female cones are upright, cylindrical, up to 10cm long, 4 cm diameter, bracts included, ripening in one season, blue when ripe, cone disintegrating and shedding seed on the tree, cone rachis persistent. Male cones appear on the lower side of lateral branches. Seed: obovate, to 9 mm, winged. Distribution: Within Vietnam: endemic to Lao Cai Province (Mt Fansipan). Ecology: Altitudinal range: 2600 -2800 m. Forest type: Montane temperate forest, locally dominant on granite derived soils. Climate: moonsoon tropical cliamte associated with mountains, mean annual temperature 13-180C, annual rainfall 2,000 mm - 3,500 mm. Associated conifer species: Tsuga chinensis. Natural regeneration: seed is shed annually but seedlings are not shade tolerant, requires some disturbance for establishment. Uses: Due to the small population size, it is not used economically. In China Abies delavayi timber is used for construction and tannin is extracted from the bark. Propagation: Sexual: Cones ripen in October-November. Seed is fragile and needs to be handled carefully. Seed of the closely related Abies delavayi can be stored with a moisture content of 9-12% at temperatures of -150C for up to 5 years. Vegetative: Cuttings from mature trees are very difficult to root. Conservation: International: currently listed as Data Deficient. National status: Due to the small size of the population (200-400 trees) concentrated in an area of less than 1,000 ha and the lack of natural regeneration, it is regarded as vulnerable within Vietnam VU (D). In-situ protection: the whole population is located within a reserve on Mt Fansipan and needs strict protection and regular monitoring. Ex-situ protection: no active ex-situ conservation is currently being undertaken; small trial plantations could be established nearby for silviculture research and as a genebank.

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3

1

5

6

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4

Du sam (Keteleeria evelyniana Masters)

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35 1 - Cµnh l¸ non; 2 - Cµnh l¸ truëng thµnh; 3 - L¸; 4 - Nãn c¸i; 5 - V¶y nãn; 6 - H¹t

Pinaceae

1 - Juvenile foliage; 2 - Mature foliage; 3 - Leaves; 4 - Seed cone; 5 - Seed scale; 6 - Seed

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36 Keteleeria evelyniana Masters - Du sam Synonymy: K. roulettii Flous. Other names: Ngo tïng (Vietnamese).

Pinaceae

This species is very closely related to Keteleeria davidiana, a Chinese species which also has a very limited distribution in north-eastern Vietnam (Bac Can, Kim Hy). The main difference is in the shape of the seed scales and of the seed wings. Foliage on young trees, from shaded shoots or from branches that have re-grown is usually much longer and often broader than normal foliage.

Description: Height and Spread: large tree up to 30m, dbh to 1.5m. Habit: Upright single stemmed tree, older trees with broad crown, branching irregular. Bark: Young trees have thin scaly bark – in older trees it becomes rough and scaly and is grey-brown. Foliage: Mature needles are spirally arranged, pointing forward (assurgent) on terminal shoots, flattened into two rows (pectinate) on other shoots, usually between 3-7 cm in length and 2-5 mm in width, twisted at the base, linear or falcate in shape. Stomata appear in two broad bands on either side of the mid-rib on the under-surface. Foliage may be glaucous, dark or light green. Terminal buds are ovoid and not resinous. Cones: female cones upright, cylindrical, terminal on short lateral branches in the upper part of the tree, 9-20 cm long and 4-7 cm wide, peduncles are at an angle to the cone axis, up to 6 cm long and often have needles. Seed scales are subcordate-oblong, with concave margins (curving outwards). Cones mature to a brown colour in the first year and release seed while on the tree. Male cones appear in clusters from a single bud and may be either terminal or lateral. Seed: up to 0.6 cm long, resinous when crushed and with a yellowish wing that is widest in the middle. Distribution: In Vietnam: Dien Bien, Son La, Hoa Binh, Thua Thien Hue, Kon Tum (Ngoc Linh), Nghe An, Lam Dong, Dac Lac, Khanh Hoa, Ninh Thuan. Outside Vietnam: Lao PDR, southern China. Ecology: Altitudinal range: (500) 1000-1600 m (2000). Forest type: warm evergreen Fagaceae, Lauraceae and Pinus (in some areas) on neutral soils. Climate: Monsoon tropical climate, mean annual temperature 18-240C, rainfall above 1700 mm. Associated conifer species: Fokienia hodginsii, Calocedrus macrolepis (ca 900m), Nageia wallichiana, Dacrycarpus imbricatus, Podocarpus neriifolius, Cephalotaxus mannii, Pinus kesiya and P. merkusii. Natural regeneration: Abundant, intolerant of heavy shade, maybe be dependent on regular fires. Uses: Forestry: produces a yellow-white timber that is insect resistant and is useful for construction and household furniture making. This species can be used in plantations since it grows relatively quickly. Propagation: Sexual: In Lam Dong seeds are collected in December – January while in Nghe An cone may ripen in October. Seeds are highly oily and the cones should be dried in the shade. 1kg contains about 11 000 seeds. Fresh seeds germinate at 41% in 19 days. Seed can be stored for more than 6 months at low temperatures (3-40C). Vegetative: Cuttings from mature plants are possible for to root. Conservation: International: currently not listed as threatened due to its wider distribution in Lao PDR and China. National: in many areas of Vietnam, it has been overexploited for timber and large parts of its natural habitat have been converted to agriculture so that it is now listed as VU (A1c). In-situ conservation: Some stands are protected within nature reserves such as Bi-Doup in the southern highlands, Ngoc Linh Reserve in Kon Tum and Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province. Ex-situ conservation: CFSC has initiated a

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program for the establishment of seed orchards in Lam Dong, Lai Chau and Lang Son. Seed collection and field trials are also being undertaken in Son La by FSIV.

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38 Th«ng §µ L¹t (Pinus dalatensis de Ferre)

Pinaceae

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1

3

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2

1 - Cµnh l¸; 2 - L¸ kim; 3 - Nãn c¸i chua më; 4- Nãn c¸i ®· më 1 - Foliage; 2 - Needles; 3 - Closed female cone; 4 - Old female cone

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40 Pinus dalatensis de Ferre - Th«ng §µ L¹t Synonymy: Pinus wallichiana A.B.Jacks. var. dalatensis (Ferre) Silba.

Pinaceae

The cones, foliage and shoots show a wide range of variation within and between populations so that some taxonomists have divided the species into var. dalatensis Businsky, var. bidoupensis Businsky and ssp. procera Businsky.

Description: Height and Spread: To 25 m, sometimes taller, with dbh to 1.2 m. Habit: Straight trunk with wide spreading crown. Bark: Thinly plated, grey. Foliage: needles in fascicles of five without persistent sheath, (3) 5-10 (14) cm long and 0.5-1 mm wide, usually blue. Fascicles generally sparse along first year shoots. Cones: female cones single, cylindrical, 6 – 23 cm long, crescent shaped or straight, pendant at maturity with angled peduncles up to 25 mm. Ripening in one year, seed shed while on the tree. Male cones have not been described. Seed. 7-10 mm long, distal end pointed, wing to 2.5 cm long. Seedlings: 8-10 cotyledons, juvenile foliage single, to 7 cm long and 5 mm wide, generally disappearing after 2 years. Distribution: Within Vietnam: Thua Thien Hue (Phu Loc), Kon Tum (Ngoc Linh), Gia Lai (Kon Ka Kinh NR), Dac Lac (Chu Yang Sing and other massifs), Lam Dong, (BiDoup mountain), Ninh Thuan (Phuoc Binh). Outside Vietnam: possibly occurring in south and central eastern Lao PDR. Ecology: Altitudinal range: (1400) 1500-2200 (2400) m. Forest type: Usually emergent over dense, moist evergreen subtropical forest on flat mountain ridges on heavy clay and yellow ferrulitic soils with distinct humus layer. Climate: Monsoon tropical climate associated with mountains, mean annual temperature 16-210C, rainfall above 1800 mm. Associated conifer species: in the south it often grows with Pinus krempfii, Fokienia hodginsii and Dacrydium elatum. In central Vietnam it is found in small patches in Fagaceae and Lauraceae dominated forests. Natural regeneration: young trees grow rapidly until they reach the canopy, broad crowns then develop. Seedlings are not shade tolerant, this species may require periodic fire to provide clearings for regeneration. Trees may live for several hundred years. Uses: Forestry: the rarity of this species means that it has not been used as a timber tree although its wood has similar properties to that of Pinus kesiya. Ornamental: This species has a high ornamental value in mountain areas. Similar five-needle pines imported from China are considered as good material for bonsai. Propagation: Reproductive: Very few trees are in cultivation due to the difficulty of seed collection and rarity of trees. 1 kg of seeds may contain about 50,000 seeds. Seed from closely related pines (e.g. P. wallichiana) can be stored for up to 20 years at moisture levels of 5-10% and with temperatures between 2-50C. Vegetative: has not been attempted but is likely to be very difficult. Conservation: International and National: This species is currently listed as VU (B1 + 2c). It is known from fewer than 10 distinct locations and there has been a continuing decline in the area, extent and quality of its habitat. The majority of the populations are limited to less than 100 mature trees each. In the past, logging of the associated Fokienia has also involved felling of P. dalatensis. Current threats include the destruction of surrounding forests through the continuation of shifting cultivation and the replacement of forests with fire adapted Pinus kesiya dominated forests.

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In-situ conservation: the main populations in Lam Dong, Dac Lac and Kon Tum are all within recently declared National Parks and Nature Reserves. Ex-situ conservation: no active ex-situ conservation is currently being undertaken.

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42 Pinus kesiya Royle - Th«ng ba l¸ Synonymy: Pinus insularis Endl., P. langbianensis A.Chev. Other names: Khasya Pine (English).

Pinaceae

This is one of the most widely distributed pines in Asia. In the Philippines and Burma it is often called P. insularis. The main populations are in India and Burma – those in Vietnam and Philippines are quite isolated. P. kesiya is an important plantation species in southern Africa and South America, the most productive provenances come from Vietnam.

Description: Height and Spread: Tall, single stemmed tree up to 35 m with dbh to 1 m. Habit: Mature trees with thin, umbrella shaped crown. Bark: Mature trees with thick, deeply fissured, pink or red-brown flaking in plates. Foliage: Needles in fascicles of 3 with persistent sheath, 10-25 cm long, 0.5-1 mm wide, soft texture, finely serrate margin, grass green colour. Female Cones: Small, ovoid, solitary or in pairs, pendant and persistent after seed shedding on tree, 5-10 cm long, 4-5 cm in diameter, umbo usually with a short point, up to 2 years to maturity. Seed: Small, brown, with short wing. Seedlings: 6-9 glaucous cotyledons. Distribution: Within Vietnam: (including plantations) Dien Bien, Yen Bai, Ha Giang, Kom Tum, Dac Lac, Lam Dong, Dong Nai, Khanh Hoa, Ninh Thuan. The major forests are in Lam Dong and Ha Giang. Outside Vietnam: NE India, Burma, Yunnan, Philippines. Ecology: Altitudinal range: (800) 1300 – 2300 m. Forest type: usually in pure stands, sometimes with broadleaved species as understory on infertile red and yellow podzolic soils with pH around 4.5. Climate: Monsoon tropical climate associated with mountains, mean annual temperature 18-250C, rainfall above 1500 mm. Associated conifer species: Pinus merkusii, Keteleeria evelyniana. Natural regeneration: heavy seed crops are produced each year and seedlings establish in disturbed areas. Resistant to fires after 15 years. Uses: Forestry: One of the most common pines used for plantations in highland areas, natural forests have been heavily managed to maximise timber production. Provenances: Plantations are established using the best local source. Propagation: Sexual: In Lam Dong cones are collected in December – January, while in Ha Giang they are collected in late January - February. Dry the cones to release seeds. 1 kg seeds of southern provenances contains 70,000 – 80,000 seeds. Fresh seeds germinate at high percentage (>90%). Dried seeds can be stored in low temperature for more than 2 years. Vegetative: High rooting percentage (>80%) can be obtained from cuttings of juvenile plants (of 2-3 years) within 3 months. Young plants coppice well. Mature trees are difficult to propagate by cuttings and may require successive grafting to rejuvenate the material. Grafting is also commonly used to establish clonal seed orchards. Conservation: International and national status: Due to its wide spread distribution across SE Asia and its frequency in Vietnam, this pine is not listed as threatened. In-situ conservation: some original stands are protected with major National Parks on the Langbian Plateau. Ex-situ conservation: Due to the economic value of this species seed orchards have been established to conserve its genetic variation.

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1

2

3

4

Th«ng ba l¸ (Pinus kesiya Royle) 1 - L¸ kim / Needles Th«ng Pµ Cß (Pinus kwangtungensis Chen) 2 - L¸ kim; 3 - Nãn c¸i; 4 - H¹t 2 - Needles; 3 - Female cone; 4 - Seeds

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44 Pinus kwangtungensis Chen - Th«ng Pµ Cß Synonymy - Pinus kwangtungensis var. varifolia Nan Li & Y.C.Zhong. Other Names - Guangdong wuzhen song (Chinese).

Pinaceae

Notes: Some taxonomists treat P. kwangtungensis as a synonym of P. fenzeliana Hand.-Mazz. Both pines occur in similar habitats and may represent one variable species. P. fenzeliana occurs in small populations in the central south eastern mountains of China as well as Hainan. It has longer, narrower needles (5-18 cm long and 0.5-0.7 mm wide) and larger cones (6-14 cm long and 3-6 cm wide) with seeds that have a small wing.

Description (Vietnam): Height and Spread: Up to 20 m high, usually smaller, with dbh up to 70 cm. Habit: Single stemmed with broad crown, in exposed areas may be shrub like. Bark: Scaly and rough, peeling in small plates, brown. Foliage: Needles in fascicles of (2-4) 5, 3-7 cm long and 1-1.5 mm wide, without a persistent sheath, usually with strong bluish stomatal bands, clustered towards the tips of branches. Young trees may have needles to 10 cm long. Dormant buds are resinous. Female Cones: Cylindrical or ovoid, pendant with a short angled peduncle at maturity, solitary or in pairs, up to 8 cm long and to 6cm wide, seed scales obovate with rhombic apophysis, umbo depressed, 2 years to maturity, opening and releasing seed while on the tree, not persistent. Seed: Ovoid, 0.8-1.2 cm, wing 2-3 cm long. Distribution: Within Vietnam: Cao Bang, Ha Giang, Son La, Hoa Binh and Thanh Hoa. Outside Vietnam: southern China. Ecology: Altitudinal range: (600) 900-1400 (1600) m. Forest type: Conifer dominated limestone ridge forest on limestone soils. Climate: monsoon tropical climate associated with mountains or with cold winter, mean annual temperature 14-200C, rainfall above 1200 mm. Associated conifer species: Pseudotsuga sinensis, Fokienia hodginsii, Podocarpus pilgeri, Taxus chinensis. Natural regeneration: Rare, intolerant of shade. Uses: Forestry: Selectively logged on a local scale, timber used for local house construction. Ornamental: has potential for bonsai use, other 5 needle pines imported from China are used in this way. Propagation: Sexual: In Hoa Binh cone ripens in August. Seed is difficult to obtain due to the remoteness of the populations and the difficulties of accessing them. Coning is also sporadic, some years may not produce any cones. Seed from Chinese populations is known to germinate well. Seed of other closely related pines can be stored for up to 5 years. Early growth is slow until the trees reach 4-5 years. Vegetative: Clonal propagation is untried. Conservation: In the international listings P. kwangtungensis is considered to be a synonym of P. fenzeliana which is listed as Low Risk. In Vietnam it is considered to be Endangered (EN A1c, C1, 2) due to its small, fragmented populations, restricted habitat and persistent logging. In-situ conservation: Only one population is known to occur within a nature reserve (Hang Kia - Pa Co N.R.), other populations are in areas that have been proposed (Thang Heng). All the remaining populations require strict protection from illegal logging. Ex-situ conservation: The Vietnamese populations represent the southern range of this species and are therefore worth conserving from a genetic point of view. One way that this can be achieved is through seed collection and storage, with some seed being used to establish trial plantations in different areas.

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3

2

Th«ng l¸ dÑt (Pinus krempfii Lecomte) 1 - Cµnh l¸ non; 2 - Cµnh mang nãn ®ùc; 3 - Cµnh mang nãn c¸i 1 - Juvenile foliage; 2 - Male cones on foliage; 3 - Female cone on foliage

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46 Pinus krempfii Lecomte - Th«ng l¸ dÑt Synonymy: Ducampopinus krempfii (Lecomte) A. Chev. Other Names: Krempf’s pine (English).

Pinaceae

The unusual flattened needles, absence of ray tracheids and other unusual wood characters make it unique within the genus. Since its description in 1921 there has been considerable controversy over its classification with some authorities placing it in the monotypic genus Ducampopinus. This species is endemic to Vietnam.

Description: Height and Spread: Tall emergent tree up to 30 m high with dbh to 2 m. Habit: Broad domed with single straight, buttressed stem. Bark: Irregular pink grey plates. Foliage: Mature foliage from upper canopy, 2 broad, lanceolate and flattened needles without persistent sheaths clustered at the end of thin branches, 4-7 cm long and 0.1-0.5 cm wide. Foliage on young plants lanceolate or falcate, up to 15 cm long and 1.5 cm wide. Female Cones: Solitary, woody, ovate, 4-9 cm long and 3-6 cm wide, pendant with short bent peduncle, opening and releasing seed while on the tree. Seed: oval and winged. Distribution: Within Vietnam: endemic to the Bi Doup and Chu Yang Sing Massifs in Lam Dong, Khanh Hoa, Ninh Thuan and Dac Lac provinces. Ecology: Altitudinal range: (1200) 1500 - 1800 (2000) m. Forest type: Emergent over dense evergreen subtropical forests on moist soils with well-developed humus layers. Climate: monsoon tropical associated with mountains, mean annual temperature 19-230C, rainfall above 1500 mm. Associated conifer species: Fokienia hodginsii, Dacrydium elatum and Pinus dalatensis. Natural regeneration: Occasional, very little is known about its ecology. Uses: Forestry: timber is thought to have similar qualities to Pinus kesiya. Its rarity means that it is not a major source of timber. Ornamental: has potential for ornamental use in montane areas, it is not cultivated outside of Vietnam. Special Uses: High scientific value due to its unique characters. Propagation: Sexual: Seedlings are frequently found in the natural forests but they are very difficult to transplant and establish in cultivation. Young plants should be grown in moderate shade and not allowed to dry out during transplanting. Seed is very difficult to collect – cone ripening and seed shedding take place at any time from June to September and is known occur very rapidly, making it difficult to predict the best time for collection. Vegetative: clonal propagation is untried. Conservation: Internationally and nationally Pinus krempfii is listed as Vulnerable, VU (B1 + 2c). There are fewer than 10 distinct populations in a total area of occupancy that is less than 2 000 km2, and there has been a continuing decline in the area, extent and quality of its habitat. This decline has been attributed to the effects of the American (Vietnam) War in the 1960s and the clearance of land for agriculture in the following decades. Its limited distribution and the inaccessibility of much of its habitat mean that there has been little direct exploitation although its timber is known to have physical and mechanical properties similar to Pinus kesiya. In-situ conservation: The main populations are within the core areas of nature reserves and national parks around the BiDoup and Chu Yang Sing area. Ex-situ conservation: Very few plants are in cultivation and therefore almost nothing is known about its silviculture. Although most populations are protected it is still important to learn the cultivation requirements and study aspects of its biology through the establishment of ex-situ collections in montane areas. Ph©n bè: ViÖt Nam: Chñ yÕu ë L©m §ång, Ninh ThuËn, Kh¸nh Hoµ vµ Gia Lai, Kon Tum. Ngoµi c¸c khu rõng tù nhiªn trªn c¸c khu rõng kh¸c hoÆc bÞ thay thÕ bëi rõng trång, hoÆc bÞ

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chuyÓn ho¸ sang rõng ®uîc qu¶n lý, t¸c ®éng. Trong qu¸ khø cã thÓ ®· cã rõng tù nhiªn t¹i Thõa Thiªn HuÕ, Qu¶ng B×nh, Hµ TÜnh, NghÖ An, Thanh Ho¸, Qu¶ng Ninh, B¾c Giang vµ

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48 Pinus merkusii Junghuhn & de Vriese - Th«ng nhùa Other names: Th«ng hai l¸ (Vietnamese).

Pinaceae

This is currently the only 2 needle pine known to be native to Vietnam. Recent field work in Ky Son district in Nghe An has discovered an unusual population of a 2 needle pine that shows many differences from P. merkusii and may prove to be a new species. Another 2 needle pine has been discovered in the limestone areas of Na Hang and is in the process of being described by Vietnamese botanists.

Description: Height and Spread: Tall, single stemmed tree up to 30 m with dbh of 60-80 cm. Habit: Clean boled with irregular branches forming light canopy. Bark: Thick, reddish brown, plated with deep longitudinal fissures. Foliage: Needles in fascicles of 2 with persistent 2cm long sheath, 15-25 (30) cm long, 0.5-1 mm wide, rigid, entire margin, dark green colour. Female cones: Ovoid, solitary or in pairs, persistent after seed shedding on tree, 8-13 cm long, 3-4 cm in diameter, large scales with broad apophyses, up to 2 years to maturity. Seed: Small, pale reddish brown, with wing to 2 cm long. Provenances: in Vietnam lowland and highland provenances are kept separate. Most of highland sources come from Central Highlands where natural, lowland forests are very difficult to find. The occurence of natural forests in the Northwest provinces (Son La and Lai Chau) is uncertain. Distribution: Within Vietnam: Mainly in Lam Dong, Ninh Thuan, Khanh Hoa and Gia Lai, Kon Tum. Outside of these areas natural forests have either been replaced by managed forests or by plantation. In the past there were natural forests in Thua Thien Hue, Quang Binh, Ha Tinh, Nghe An, Thanh Hoa, Quang Ninh, Bac Giang and Son La. Outside Vietnam: in SE Asia it is found in Thailand, Lao, Cambodia, Philippines and in Sumatera, Indonesia. It is the only pine with natural populations south of the equator. Ecology: Altitudinal range: up to 1200 m. Forest type: Either in pure stands with sparse understorey or with broadleaved trees (e.g. Dipterocarpus obtusifolius) and a dense shrub later on infertile red and yellow feralite soils with pH around 4.5. Climate: Monsoon tropical climate, mean annual temperature 22-270C, rainfall above 1300 mm. Associated conifer species: P. kesiya (at higher altitudes). Natural regeneration: Light demanding and able to colonise bare ground. Uses: Forestry: widely used plantation species producing durable timber used for construction. Plantations are established using the nearest local source, whether that is a plantation or a natural forest. Non-timber products: produces high quality resin after 15 years. Special uses: revegetation and erosion control areas. Propagation: Sexual: this pine produces numerous seeds. In the North seeds are collected in September and in the South - in April. 1 kg of seeds contains about 30,000 - 40,000 seeds. Seeds of lowland provenance germinates at >90% when seeds of highland provenance can germinate at lower rate. Dried seeds (with moisture content 5-6%) can be stored more than 1 year. Vegetative: propagation by cuttings is untried. Grafting is commonly used to establish seed orchards for both lowland and highland provenances. Conservation: Due to its wide spread distribution across SE Asia, this pine is not listed as threatened. In Vietnam it may become so in the future. In-situ conservation: some original stands are protected within major National Parks on the Langbian Plateau. Ex-situ conservation: Due to the economic value of this species seed orchards and provenance trials have been established in Lam Dong and in Quang Binh since the 1980s to conserve its genetic variation.

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2 1 3 Th«ng nhùa (Pinus merkusii Junghuhn & de Vriese) 1 - Cµnh mang nãn c¸i; 2 - L¸ kim; 3 - H¹t 1 - Branchlet with a seed cone; 2 - Needle; 3 - Seed

Pinus wangii Hu & Cheng - Th«ng n¨m l¸ Thõa Luu This 5 needle pine was originally described in 1948 from near Malipo in Yunnan, not far from the Ha Giang border. It has many characters in common with both P. kwangtungensis and P. fenzeliana, the principal differences are the length of the needles, size of the cones (slightly shorter and smaller than P. kwangtungensis or P. fenzeliana) and the colour and degree of pubescence of the first year shoots. Currently, its distribution in China remains confined to 2 populations in Xichou and Malipo counties. Both of these areas consist mainly of limestone karst. There is some debate as to whether this species occurs in Vietnam. Specimens from Mai Chau have been determined as P. wangii rather than P. kwangtungensis by the authors of the Flora of China account of Pinaceae. The most recent world checklist of conifers also uses the name P. wangii for the trees at Mai Chau. However, 5 needle pines growing on limestone karst in Ha Giang, Cao Bang and other parts of northern Vietnam that are much closer geographically to Yunnan have been identified as either P. fenzeliana or P.

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kwangtungensis. There have also been recent reports of this pine as far south as the Chu Yang Sin in Dac Lac. Until Pinus wangii is more extensively studied its status in Vietnam remains unclear. ThiÕt sam gi¶ (Pseudotsuga sinensis Dode)

Cµnh mang nãn c¸i Branchlet with a seed cone

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Pseudotsuga sinensis Dode - ThiÕt sam gi¶ Synonymy: Pseudotsuga sinensis var. brevifolia (W.C.Cheng & L.K. Fu) Farjon & Silba. Other names: Duanye huangshan (Chinese).
This is a recent addition to the Vietnamese flora, previously sterile specimens collected in Cao Bang had been identified as Keteleeria fortunei. In Chinese floras, the name P. sinensis Dode var. brevifolia (W.C.Cheng & L.K. Fu) Farjon & Silba is used to describe trees that have foliage less than to 2 cm long. This variety has also been recorded from Cao Bang and Ha Giang. A critical study of two populations in Cao Bang that contain mature trees, saplings and seedlings growing together, indicates that the small foliage is a graduated response to the severe environmental conditions, this means that trees with short foliage are not a distinct variety. In Vietnam, Pseudotsuga is only known from limestone ridges – the trees are smaller than those recorded from China where they often grow in more favourable sites. The following description applies to Vietnamese populations.

Description (Vietnam): Height and Spread: Up to (5) 10 (15) m high with dbh to 0.8 m. Habit: Upright trees with short bole and wide spreading crown. Bark: Deeply fissured, scaly, brown grey. Foliage: Mature foliage, spirally arranged, spreading or in two ranks, up to 2 cm long, 3 mm wide, linear with blunt apex, mid rib indented on the upper side, 2 very distinct stomatal lines on the underside, twisted at base. On saplings the foliage may be up 4 (5.5) cm long and up to 5 mm wide, linear or slightly falcate with acute apex, two distinct stomatal bands. Female Cones: Solitary, terminal on short lateral shoots, pendulous, ovoid, up to 6 cm long and 5 cm in diameterl; scales woody, broad, orbicular; bracts exserted beyond the scales, reflexed at maturity, 3 lobed, laterals shorter than the central lobe; females ripening in one year, opening and releasing on the tree, persistent. Seed: triangular ovoid, up to 1 cm long, reddish brown wing. Distribution: Within Vietnam: Cao Bang, Ha Giang, Lang Son (Bac Son). Outside Vietnam: China, Guangxi, Guizhou. Ecology: Altitudinal range: (550) 900-1400 (1600) m. Forest type: Dominant on limestone ridge forests on limestone derived soils. Climate: monsoon tropical climate associated with mountains or with cold winter, mean annual temperature 14-220C, rainfall above 2000 mm. Associated conifer species: Pinus kwangtungensis, Xanthocyparis vietnamemsis, Nageia fleuryi, Tsuga chinensis, Podocarpus pilgeri, Amentotaxus yunnanensis, Taxus chinensis. Natural regeneration: Seedlings frequent, saplings rare. Uses: Forestry: selectively logged wherever it occurs, used for local house construction and furniture, has possibilities for plantation. Non Timber products: some local people (Bac Son) use the bark and foliage for medicine as a topical application for treatment of insect stings, rheumatism and during pregnancy. Propagation: Reproductive: other members of this genus are easily propagated from seed that has been stratified and stored at 00C after drying to a moisture content of 6-9%. Fresh seed may quickly lose its viability when kept at room temperature. Cone production may vary from year to year - field surveys in 2002 found many trees without current year’s cones but with previous year’s cones still persisting. The optimal time for seed collection in Vietnam is uncertain, seed is shed by November at the latest. Vegetative: untried and likely to be difficult. Conservation: International: the Chinese populations of Pseudotsuga sinensis are currently listed as Vulnerable (B1 + 2c) due to their limited distribution and changes in the quality and extent of its habitat. National: In Vietnam the total population size is unknown, at each of the specific localities where it has been found, it is likely that other trees also occur on

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Pinaceae

surrounding ridges and peaks. However, the majority of the known populations have been subject illegal logging and there are few mature trees remaining in these localities. Some sites show recent regeneration it is uncertain if the young trees will survive to maturity. At a national level, the Vietnamese populations meet the criteria for vulnerable under the same categories as the Chinese populations. Further field work may result in an upgrading to the category of endangered. The Vietnamese populations may also be important as they represent the most southern distribution of this genus in Asia, they may be a distinct genetic provenance. In-situ conservation: This species is known to occur in at least one protected area (Bat Dai Son) as well as in other areas that have been proposed as nature reserves (Thang Heng). Exsitu conservation: As the main threat to this species is from selective logging it is important that seed collection is undertaken and trial plantations are established. Seed should also be stored.

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53 ThiÕt sam (Tsuga chinensis (Franchet) Pritzel ex Diels) Cµnh mang nãn c¸i / Branchlet with a seed cone

Pinaceae

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54 Tsuga chinensis (Franchet) Pritzel ex Diels - ThiÕt sam Other Names: tie shan (Chinese), Chinese hemlock (English).

Pinaceae

This species is another recent discovery in northern Vietnam. Currently it is only known from a few localities in the karst mountains of Ha Giang and Cao Bang and in Yen Bai and Lao Cai. Trees on the summit of Mt Fansipan have previously been misidentified as T. dumosa (D.Don) Endl. which is only found in the Himalayas and SW China. The Vietnamese populations represent this specie’s most southern distribution.

Description (Vietnam): Height and Spread: Up to 8 (10) m high with dbh to 1 m. Habit: Upright, single stemmed, short bole, with widespreading crown formed from many spreading branches. Small shoots slender, yellowish brown. Bark: Vertical fissures, peeling, dark grey. Foliage: Mature foliage to 2.5 cm long and 3 mm wide, linear with notched apex, 2 distinct stomatal bands on underside, petiole twisted at base to form 2 ranks with the occasional erect leaf. Saplings and young plants have longer foliage, sometimes with an acute apex. Female Cones: Numerous, terminal on short shoots, pendulous, usually ovoid or cylindric, up to 2.5 cm long and 2 cm wide, bracts included, scales woody, almost circular, inner surface striated (with lines), cones ripening in one year, shedding seed while on the tree, cones not very persistent. Seed: Seeds to 4 mm with large almost transparent wing. Distribution: Within Vietnam: Ha Giang, Cao Bang, Lao Cai, Yen Bai. Outside Vietnam: southern China. Ecology: Altitudinal range: 1300-2400 m. Forest type: Co-dominant on limestone ridge conifer forests on either limestone or granite derived soils. Climate: monsoon tropical climate associated with mountains, mean annual temperature 14-200C, rainfall above 2000 mm. Associated conifer species: Pinus kwangtungensis, Xanthocyparis vietnamemsis, Nageia fleuryi, Podocarpus pilgeri, Amentotaxus spp., Taxus chinensis (limestone soils); Podocarpus neriifolius, Fokienia hodginsii (granite derived soils). Natural regeneration: Seedlings occasional, saplings rare. Uses: Forestry: locally used for house construction. Propagation: as for Pseudotsuga. Conservation: The Chinese populations of Tsuga chinensis var. chinensis are currently not listed as threatened due to its widespread distribution. Two of its varieties (T. chinensis var. oblongisquamata W.C.Cheng & L.K. Fu and T. chinensis var. robusta W.C.Cheng & L.K. Fu) are listed as Vulnerable. As with Pseudotsuga, the size of the population of T. chinensis in Vietnam is unknown, at each of the localities where it has been found, it is probable that this species also occurs on surrounding ridges and peaks but it does not appear to be as frequent as Pseudotsuga. The majority of the known populations have been subject illegal logging and there are few mature trees remaining in these localities. Some sites show recent regeneration but as so little is known about its regenerative capacity, it is uncertain if the young trees will survive to maturity. At a national level, the Vietnamese populations probably meet the criteria for vulnerable. Further field work may result in an upgrading to the category of endangered. The Vietnamese populations may also be important as they represent the most southern distribution of this genus in Asia, they may be a distinct genetic provenance. In-situ conservation: This species is known to occur in Hoang Lien N.P. and a protected area (Bat Dai Son) as well as in proposed protected areas (Van Ban). Ex-situ conservation: as for Pseudotsuga.

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Pinaceae

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Podocarpaceae

Th«ng nµng (Dacrycarpus imbricatus (Blume) de Laub.) Cµnh mang nãn c¸i Branchlet with seed cones

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Podocarpaceae

Dacrycarpus imbricatus (Blume) de Laub. - Th«ng nµng Synonymy: Podocarpus imbricatus Blume. Other Names: Th«ng l«ng gµ, B¹ch tïng (Vietnamese), ji mao song (Chinese). Description: Height and Spread: up to 35 m high with dbh to 1m (sometimes 2 m). Habit: Upright with long clear bole, emergent with wide, dome shaped crown, lower branches pendulous. Bark: Bark red-brown or white in upper parts of tree. Inner bark orange, with brownish resin. Foliage: Two types. Leaves on older trees eventually becoming mostly scalelike, imbricate, distinctly keeled on the dorsal side, long-triangular, 1-3 by 0.4-0.6 mm. Leaves of juvenile foliage shoots distichous, nearly linear, (6-)10-17 mm long by 1.2-2.2 mm wide, gradually losing the distichous habit as the tree matures. Cones: Female cones solitary or grouped in 2 at the tip of twigs with bractlike leaves to 3 mm at base, only one fertile, receptacle (fleshy supporting structure) glaucous, red when ripe. Male cone cylindrical, axillary, 1 cm long. Seed: Seed ovoid, 0.5-0.6 cm long, glossy, red when mature. Distribution: Within Vietnam: Tuyen Quang, Lao Cai, Son La, Hoa Binh, Quang Ninh, Ninh Binh, Nghe An, Ha Tinh, Quang Binh, Quang Tri, Thua Thien Hue, Quang Nam, Kon Tum, Gia Lai, Dac Lac, Lam Dong, Khanh Hoa. Outside Vietnam: N Burma, far S China, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, Timor, New Guinea, Vanuatu and Fiji. Ecology: Altitudinal range: 500 – 1500 m. Forest type: emergent in sub-tropical rainforest on slopes and in valleys on either granite or limestone derived soils. Associated conifer species: Podocarpus neriifolius, Nageia wallichianus, Cephalotaxus mannii, Dacrydium elatum. Climate: monsoon tropical climate, mean annual temperature 20-260C, rainfall above 1500 mm. Natural regeneration: occasional, shade tolerant when young, then light demanding. Uses: Forestry: Produces fine, light, easily worked timber that may be used for internal construction in houses. Timber is not durable. It can be used for plantations as it grows relatively fast. Propagation: Sexual: In Gia Lai cones ripen from September - October. The red soft aril should be removed. 1 kg of seeds contains 11,000 - 12,000 seeds. Seed is recalcitrant with initial moisture content of 45%. Fresh seeds germinate at 64% and quickly reduced to 22% after 1 month. Seedlings require shading. Vegetative: Cuttings of juvenile material root at more than 80%. Conservation: Due to its wide distribution this species is not listed as internationally threatened. In Vietnam, populations tend to be small and localised, much of its habitat has been destroyed and it has also been subject to selective felling. Nationally it is considered to be vulnerable (A1c, d). In-situ conservation: this species is known from a number of protected areas throughout its range including Hoang Lien N.P., Pu Mat N.P. and in several areas around Bi Doup and in Northen Central Highland (Kon Ka Kinh, Kon Cha Rang N.R.). Ex-situ conservation: Currently there are no ex-situ programs.

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Podocarpaceae

3 1 2

Hoµng ®µn gi¶ (Dacrydium elatum (Roxb.) W all. ) 1 - Cµnh l¸ truëng thµnh; 2 - H¹t; 3 - Cµnh l¸ non 1 - Mature foliage; 2 - Seed; 3 - Juvenile foliage

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59 Dacrydium elatum (Roxb.) Wall. - Hoµng ®µn gi¶ Synonymy: D. pierrei Hickel. Other names: Hång tïng (Vietnamese).

Podocarpaceae

In Vietnam, this species is usually found in montane areas between 700 and 2000 m but it has also been found close to sea level in southern provinces. Outside of Vietnam, it tends to be restricted to montane areas above 1000 m, its distribution within Vietnam is unusual and needs further research.

Description (Vietnam): Height and Spread: Up to 30 m with a dbh to 80 cm. Habit: Upright tree with clear bole and ascending branches forming a small dome. (young trees have slightly pendulous branches). Bark: Red, rough with vertical fissures, peeling in strips. Foliage: Juvenile foliage on young trees and some small branchlets is thin, linear-lanceolate, spreading but curved forward, keeled on four sides, up to 1.6 (2.1) cm long. On older trees and older branches, shoots are cord like with small triangular leaves pressed to the stem. Some shoots may have both types of leaves. Cones: female cones terminal, solitary, consisting of seed lying at an angle on top of 1-2 mm elongated bracts (see illustration). Male cones solitary, terminal and cylindrical. Seed: solitary seed is 4-4.5 mm long 3 mm wide, black when ripe. Distribution: Within Vietnam: Quang Ninh, Lang Son, Tuyen Quang, Quang Tri, Nghe An, Ha Tinh, Quang Binh, Thua Thien Hue, Quang Nam, Kon Tum, Gia Lai, Dac Lac, Lam Dong, Dong Nai, Binh Thuan, Kien Giang. Outside Vietnam: Lao PDR, Cambodia, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia. Ecology: Altitudinal range: 700 – 2000 m. Forest type: sub-tropical rainforest on slopes and ridges on either granite or limestone derived soils. Climate: monsoon tropical climate, mean annual temperature 19-240C, rainfall above 1700 mm. Associated conifer species: Pinus krempfii, Podocarpus neriifolius, Fokienia hodginsii, Dacrycarpus imbricatus. Natural regeneration: occasional. Uses: Forestry: timber may be water resistant and used for boats, bridges and furtniture construction. Non Timber products: resin for incense sticks. Ornamental: tolerates a range of soils and possibly a range of climates, has potential as an ornamental tree. Special Uses: This genus may be a source of chemicals with insecticidal properties. Propagation: Reproductive: In Gia Lai cones ripen from September - October. Seed propagation is untried. Vegetative: Short cuttings are prepared in autumn - winter time. Cuttings from mature trees (H>8m) are rooted at 80%. Conservation: Internationally this species is not listed as threatened. Within Vietnam, due to extensive decline in the area and quality of its habitat (through shifting cultivation and logging) it has been listed as VU (A1cd). In-situ conservation: This species has been recorded from several established National parks, nature reserves and areas proposed for protection e.g. Bach Ma N.P., Pu Mat N. P. and Ba Na N.R. In Bach Ma there is an active research program studying its in-situ regeneration. Ex-situ conservation: Currently there are no programs focussed on ex-situ conservation.

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60 Nageia fleuryi (Hickel) de Laubenfels - Kim giao B¾c Synonymy: Podocarpus fleuryi Hickel. Other Names: changye zhubai (Chinese).

Podocarpaceae

Nageia fleuryi and N. wallichiana are often misidentified. The major differences are that N. fleuryi has stomata only on the underside of the leaf, does not have a swollen receptacle underneath the seed and the terminal buds usually extend beyond the nearest pair of leaves. N.wallichiana has stomata on both sides of the leaf, the seed has a swollen receptacle underneath and the terminal buds are close to the axils of the nearest pair of leaves.

Description: Height and Spread: Up to 25 m tall with dbh to 70 cm. Habit: Upright with a pyramidal crown. Bark: Smooth, brown purple peeling in thin flakes. Foliage: Leaves opposite, decussate, lanceolate or elliptic, up to 18 cm long and 5 cm wide, leathery, apex acuminate, dark green and shiny above, stomatal lines present on underside only, terminal buds with acute scales usually extending beyond nearest leaves. Cones: Dioecious. Female cones solitary, in axils of leaves, borne on peduncle up to 3 cm long, no receptacle (compare to N. wallichianus), epimatium surrounding seed green them blue, cone structure up to 2.5 cm in diameter. Male cones in leaf axils, cylindric and in clusters of 3-6, each cone to 5 cm long. Seed: globose and up to 2 cm in diameter. Distribution: Within Vietnam: Some of the records for N. fleuryi may be the result of confusion with N. wallichiana. Ha Giang, Cao Bang, Tuyen Quang, Bac Giang, Vinh Phuc, Ha Tay, Hai Phong, Quang Ninh, Ninh Binh, Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Quang Binh, Thua Thien Hue, Quang Nam, Ninh Thuan, Lam Dong. Outside Vietnam: southern China, possibly Lao PDR. Ecology: Altitudinal range: 50 – 1000 m. Forest type: subtropical lowland rainforest to montane rainforest on either limestone or granite derived soils. Climate: moonsoon tropical climate, mean annual temperature 20-240C, rainfall above 1400 mm. Associated conifer species: In montane areas Podocarpus pilgeri, Fokienia hodginsii, Taxus chinensis, Pseudotsuga sinensis. Natural regeneration: occasional, saplings rare. Uses: Forestry: highly valued wood used for musical instruments, chop sticks, fine crafts and household tools. Non Timber products: leaves may be used as a traditional cure for coughs. Ornamental: highly ornamental tree that shows good form and growth under a range of conditions. Propagation: Sexual: Cones ripen in November. 1 kg of seeds contains about 135 seeds at moisture content 20%. Seed germinates readily when fresh (up to 95%). Germination takes 30-50 days. As with seed of other members of the family, it cannot be stored for long periods of time. Seedlings and young plants require shading to prevent sun scorch. Vegetative: collect cuttings with 2-3 leaf nodes in autumn-winter time. Cuttings from young plants root relatively easily. However, plagiotropic grow often occurs. Conservation: Internationally, N. fleuryi is listed as endangered for several reasons. Throughout its range, it occurs as scattered small groups on fertile soils which are targeted for agriculture. Its timber is also highly prized. In-situ conservation: Two of the largest known populations occur in Cuc Phuong and Cat Ba National Parks. In these areas, N. fleuryi is used in restoration and reforestation programs. Other populations have been recorded from Tam Dao N.P., Bach Ma N.P. and from areas proposed for protection e.g. Thang Heng, Phong Nha - Ke Bang. Some of these may actually represent N. wallichiana. Ex-situ conservation: The Central Forest Seed Company has initiated a propagation program to make seedlings available for other reforestation programs.

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Podocarpaceae

2

1

Kim giao B¾c (Nageia fleuryi (Hickel) de Laubenfels) 1 - Cµnh mang nãn c¸i / Branchlet with a seed cone Kim giao Nam (Nageia wallichiana (Presl.) Kuntze) 2- Nãn c¸i / Seed cone

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62 Nageia wallichiana (Presl.) Kuntze - Kim giao Nam Synonymy: Podocarpus wallichianus Presl.

Podocarpaceae

Description (Vietnam): Height and Spread: Up to 30 m tall with dbh to 1 m. Habit: Upright with a conical crown. Bark: dark brown or gray-brown, lighter within, smooth, peeling in large, irregular flakes. Foliage: Leaves, opposite or subopposite, decussate, dark green above, paler below, up to 16 cm long by 5 cm wide on mature plants, ovate-elliptic (to 23 cm long and 7 cm wide on juvenile plants) with acuminate apex, stomatal lines on both surfaces. Cones: Dioecious. Female seed bearing structure solitary, axillary, peduncle to 1.7 cm, swollen receptacle below seed, black when ripe, epimatium surrounding seed purple-red. Male cones axillary in clusters of 3-5, up to 5 mm long. Seed: globose, 1.5–1.8 cm in diameter, with small, proximal beak. Distribution: Within Vietnam: Lao Cai, Ha Giang, Vinh Phuc, Ninh Binh, Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Ha Tinh, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Quang Tri, Thua Thien Hue, Kon Tum, Dac Lac, Lam Dong, Ninh Thuan, Binh Thuan, Kien Giang. This species may have a wider distribution within Vietnam due to confusion with N. fleuryi. Outside Vietnam: NE and SE India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Southern China (Yunnan), Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and Papua New Guinea. Ecology: Altitudinal range: 700 – 2100 m, sometimes at sea level. Forest type: Evergreen subtropical forests, usually montane on granite derived soils. Climate: moonsoon tropical climate, mean annual temperature 20-260C, rainfall above 1700 mm. Associated conifer species: Dacrycarpus imbricatus, Cephalotaxus mannii, Podocarpus neriifolius, Taxus wallichiana (southern Vietnam). Natural regeneration: as for N. fleuryi. Uses: Forestry: highly valued wood used for musical instruments, chop sticks, fine crafts and household tools. Non Timber products: leaves may be used as a traditional cure for coughs. Ornamental: highly ornamental tree that shows good form and growth under a range of conditions. Propagation: as for N. fleuryi. Conservation: The wide distribution of N. wallichiana means that it is not listed as threatened internationally. However, within Vietnam it faces the same pressures and problems as N. fleuryi and is listed as Endangered (A1cd). In-situ conservation: This species has been recorded from various protected areas near Bi Doup in Lam Dong as well as Kon Tum and Quang Tri. Ex-situ conservation: Currently no ex-situ programs are focussed on this species.

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Podocarpaceae

Th«ng tre l¸ dµi (Podocarpus neriifolius D. Don) Cµnh mang nãn c¸i Branchlet with seed cones

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64 Podocarpus neriifolius D. Don - Th«ng tre l¸ dµi Synonymy: Podocarpus annamiensis N.E. Gray.

Podocarpaceae

P. annamiensis N.E. Gray was described from the Da Nang area in 1958 on the basis of variations in the leaf apex and numbers of pollen cones. Most taxonomists regard it as the same as P. neriifolius although it is maintained as a distinct species in many Chinese floras.

Description (Vietnam): Height and Spread: Up to 25 m with dbh to 1m. Habit: Upright tree with spreading crown. Bark: Brown, thin and fibrous, peeling in strips. Foliage: Leaves alternate, linear lanceolate, often curved, usually 7 – 15 cm long and up to 2 cm wide (juvenile trees may be up to 20 cm long), midrib raised on both surfaces, apex usually acuminate (mucronate in young plants). Cones: Dioecious. Seed bearing structure, solitary, peduncle to 1-2 cm long, receptacle to 10 mm in diameter, base flattened, two bracts at base, red – violet when ripe, epimatium surrounding seed purplish red when ripe. Male cones solitary or 2-3, axillary, usually sessile and up to 5 cm long. Seed: Ovoid, to 1.5 cm long with rounded or acute apex. Distribution: Within Vietnam: Dien Bien, Lao Cai, Lang Son, Vinh Phuc, Tuyen Quang, Hoa Binh, Ha Tay, Nghe An, Quang Tri, Thua Thien Hue, Quang Nam, Kon Tum, Dac Lac, Lam Dong, Ninh Thuan, Dong Nai, Kien Giang. Scattered in all montane areas throughout highlands. Outside Vietnam: NE and SE India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Southern China (Yunnan), Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and Papua New Guinea. Ecology: Altitudinal range: 600 – 1500 m. Forest type: evergreen sub-tropical rain forest mainly on deep fertile soils. Climate: Moonsoon tropical climate, mean annual temperature 21-260C, rainfall above 1500 mm. Associated conifer species: almost all species except Pinus kesiya, P. merkusii and Pseudotsuga sinensis. Natural regeneration: occasional, shade tolerant. Uses: Forestry: Its termite and water resistant timber mean that it is valued for construction and other uses such as boat building. Ornamental: has attractive red new growth and highly ornamental character. A similar introduced species (P. chinensis) is widely used as an ornamental. Propagation. Sexual: Seeds are rare. Fresh seed germinates readily. Vegetative: Cuttings from young plants can be rooted at 55-60%. Conservation: Due to its wide distribution, this species is not regarded as threatened although it is becoming increasingly rare in many parts of its range, mainly due to changes in its habitat. In places such as Nepal, it is protected under Appendix 3 of the C.I.T.E.S. legislation so that any export requires a permit. In Vietnam it is regarded as Vulnerable (A1cd). In-situ conservation: With such a wide distribution, this species is known to occur in many of the montane protected areas that have been established. In all of these areas it is rare or infrequent. Ex-situ conservation: Currently no ex-situ program are focussed on this species.

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Podocarpaceae

Th«ng tre l¸ ng¾n (Podocarpus pilgeri Foxworthy) Cµnh l¸ / Foliage

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66 Podocarpus pilgeri Foxworthy - Th«ng tre l¸ ng¾n

Podocarpaceae

In northern Vietnam P. pilgeri shows considerable variation in foliage and habit which may be the result of differing environmental conditions or different growth stages (juvenile vs. adult). Some reference works record other species such as P. brevifolius (Stapf.) Foxw. as native to Vietnam. Further research may show that there are other species in northern Vietnam.

Description (Vietnam): Height and Spread: from 5 to 15 m high with dbh under 1 m. Habit: Branches scattered, often in whorls of five. Bark: Red or brown, shallowly fissured, peeling in vertical strips, inner bark pale brown. Foliage: Linear lanceolate or elliptic, usually clustered at the ends of the branch, usually 1.5-8 cm long and 1.2 cm wide (larger on juvenile growth), leaf apex rounded, sometimes mucronate, often with glaucous underside, new growth red. Terminal buds ovoid, 3-4 mm by 4 mm, with triangular bracts, branchlets terete (4 sided). Cones: Dioecious. Female seed bearing structure solitary, axillary, peduncle 0.3 – 1.3 cm long, receptacle red-purple. Seed: purple, glaucous, ellipsoid-ovoid, 0.8-0.9 by 0.6 cm. Distribution: Within Vietnam: Lao Cai, Ha Giang, Cao Bang, Son La, Hoa Binh, Quang Ninh, probably other montane karst areas in northern Vietnam. Outside Vietnam: NE and SE India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Southern China (Yunnan), Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and Papua New Guinea. Ecology: Altitudinal range: 500-1600 m. Forest type: conifer dominated forests on ridges and slopes, usually on limestone derived soils. Climate: monsoon tropical climate, mean annual temperature 18-230C, rainfall above 1500 mm. Associated conifer species: Pinus kwangtungensis, Pseudotsuga sinensis, Xanthocyparis vietnamensis, Fokienia hodginsii, Taxus chinensis. Natural regeneration: localised but frequent. Uses: Forestry: produces hard, water resistant timber that can be used for construction as well as musical instruments. Ornamental: attractive new foliage, small habit – has potential for ornamental use. A similar introduced species (P. chinensis) is widely used as an ornamental. Propagation: as for P. neriifolius. Conservation: International: The wide distribution in SE Asia means that it is not currently listed as threatened. National: This species is rarely exploited for its timber and its habitat is not suitable for agriculture. However, the small size of individual populations and its restricted habitat means that it could become threatened in the future as a result of disturbance through the logging of the associated species. Currently, it is considered to be of ‘least concern’. In-situ conservation: This species has been recorded from protected areas such as Hang Kia - Pa Co N.R., Tam Dao N.P. and Bat Dai Son N.R. Ex-situ conservation: Currently no ex-situ programs are focussed on this species.

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Taxaceae

DÎ tïng säc tr¾ng (Amentotaxus argotaenia (Hance) Pilger) Cµnh mang nãn c¸i / Branchlet with a seed cone

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68 Amentotaxus argotaenia (Hance) Pilger - DÎ tïng säc tr¾ng Other names: Sam b«ng (Vietnamese), sui hua shan (Chinese).

Taxaceae

Description: Height and Spread: Small tree up to 6 (10) m, dbh to 0.5 m. Habit: Small spreading tree with ascending branches. Bark: Flaking grey brown, red orange underneath. Foliage: Current years shoots green, terminal buds quadrangular, bud scales persistent at base of shoot, leaves linear or lanceolate, sometimes slightly falcate, angled from stem, almost opposite, up to 8 cm long and 15 mm wide, dark glossy green above, underside with 2 distinct white stomatal bands lying between marginal green band and on either side of green band along midrib, stomatal bands up to 1.5x as wide as green marginal bands, underside midrib raised, margins flat or slightly revolute, leaf apex acuminate, shaded foliage and young growth may be longer with paler stomatal bands on underside. Cones: Dioecious. Female cones solitary, arising from leaf axils of short shoots, aril red when ripe, ellipsoid and pendulous on peduncle up to 2 cm, aril and seed up to 2.5 cm long and 1.5 cm diameter, seed protruding slightly type, ripening in following year, shrivelling at maturity. Male cones in pairs on racemes of (2) 3 (5) at tips of branchlets, 5-6.5 cm long, each microsporophyll with 2-5 pollen sacs. Seed: Obovoid-ellipsoid, up to 2.5 cm long and 1.3 cm diameter, reddish purple when ripe, falling to the ground when ripe. Distribution: Within Vietnam: Lao Cai, Hoa Binh, Son La, Thanh Hoa, Thai Nguyen, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Phuc, Phu Tho, possibly in Lang Son, Quang Ninh (Bang Tay). Outside Vietnam: southern China. Ecology: Altitudinal range: 950 – 1500 m. Forest type: broad leafed subtropical forests, usually on limestone derived soils. Climate: monsoon tropical climate, mean annual temperature 20-240C, rainfall above 1200 mm. Associated conifer species: Podocarpus pilgeri, Pseudotsuga sinensis. Natural regeneration: Occasional, seedlings and saplings shade tolerant. Uses: Forestry: Timber used for tool making, handicrafts, furniture. Non Timber products: none known although seed has high oil content. Ornamental: attractive foliage, posible to make good bonsai. Special Uses: possible uses for anti-cancer treatments. Propagation: as for A. yunnanensis. Conservation: Internationally this species is listed as Vulnerable (A1c), mainly because of the fragmentation and conversion of its habitat to agricultural use. In Vietnam it has been listed as rare or endangered. Recent survey work has discovered new populations in several areas and consequently its conservation status may be changed to Vulnerable. In-situ conservation: This species is known from Tam Dao NP, Hang Kia - Pa Co NR, Xuan Son NR and Pu Luong Proposed Nature Reserve. In all of these areas, populations are small and need strict protection. Ex-situ conservation: Currently no ex-situ programs are focussed on this species although some research has been carried out on vegetative propagation techniques by the CFSC. Further research may reveal useful bio-active chemicals in this genus, if this happens then a program for utilisation would need to be initiated as natural populations are too small to be exploited.

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Taxaceae

2

1

DÎ tïng V©n Nam (Amentotaxus yunnanensis H.L. Li) 1 - Cµnh mang nãn c¸i; 2 - Chåi ngän 1 - Branchlet with seed cones; 2 - Terminal buds

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Taxaceae

Amentotaxus yunnanensis H.L. Li - DÎ tïng V©n Nam Other names: Th«ng tre V©n Nam, Sam b«ng (Vietnamese),Yunnan shuhuashan (Chinese). Description: Height and Spread: Small tree up to 12 (15) m, dbh to 0.3 m. Habit: Small spreading tree with wide crown. Bark: Flaking grey brown. Foliage: Current years shoots green-yellow, terminal buds quadrangular, bud scales persistent at base of shoot, leaves linear or lanceolate, sometimes slightly falcate at tips, angled from stem, almost opposite, up to 10 cm long and 15 mm wide, thick and leathery, dark glossy green above, underside with 2 distinct white stomatal bands lying between marginal green band and on either side of green band along midrib, stomatal bands 2x or greater in width than green marginal bands, underside midrib raised, margins slightly revolute, leaf apex obtuse or tapered, shaded foliage and young growth may be longer with paler stomatal bands on underside. Cones: Dioecious. Female cones solitary, arising from leaf axils of short shoots, aril red when ripe, ellipsoid and pendulous on peduncle up to 1.5 cm, aril and seed up to 2.5 cm long and 1.5 cm diameter, seed protruding slightly type, ripening in following year one season, falling when ripe. Male cones in pairs on racemes of 4-6 at tips of branchlets, 10-15 cm long, each microsporophyll with 6-7 pollen sacs. Seed: Ellipsoid-ovate, up to 3 cm long and 1.5 cm diameter, reddish purple with white bloom when ripe. Distribution: Within Vietnam: Lao Cai, Ha Giang. Outside Vietnam: China (Yunnan, Guizhou). Ecology: Altitudinal range: 700-1000 m. Forest type: within the mid-canopy, sometimes emergent in broad leafed subtropical forests on limestone derived soils. Climate: monsoon tropical climate associated with mountains, mean annual temperature 17-200C, rainfall above 1500 mm. Associated conifer species: Fokienia hodginsii, Podocarpus neriifolius, Xanthocyparis vietnamensis, Tsuga chinensis, Taxus chinensis. Natural regeneration: occasional, seedlings and saplings are tolerant of light shading. Uses: Forestry: Timber used for tool making, handicrafts, furniture. Non Timber products: possible uses for anti-cancer treatments, seed has high oil content. Ornamental: attractive foliage, sometimes used for bonsai. Propagation: Sexual: Seeds are difficult to obtain. In Ha Giang cones ripen in November. Seed embryos are not fully developed when they fall from the tree. Generally another 12 months is required before they are sufficiently developed to germinate. Seed needs to be protected from predation. Vegetative: Cuttings should be collected in autumn - winter time. Cuttings from mature trees root well at >40% within 6 months. Lateral cuttings produce plagiotrophic growth. Young cuttings and seedlings require shading. Conservation: Internationally this species is listed as Endangered (A1c), mainly because of the fragmentation and conversion of its habitat to agricultural use. In Vietnam it has been listed as critically endangered as until recently, only one population (this population has been reduced to a single tree) was known. New populations have been discovered in Ha Giang but they are too small to change the listing for Vietnam. It is likely that other small populations will be found. In-situ conservation: This species is known from Hoang Lien NP and from unprotected areas in Ha Giang. In both areas, populations are small and need strict protection. Ex-situ conservation: Currently no ex-situ programs are focussed on this species although some research has been carried out on vegetative propagation techniques by the CFSC. Further

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Taxaceae

research may reveal useful bio-active chemicals in this genus, if this happens then a program for utilisation would need to be initiated as natural populations are too small to be exploited. Amentotaxus poilanei (de Ferre & Rouane) D.K. Ferguson (DÎ tïng P« lan) and A. hatuyenensis N.T. Hiep (DÎ tïng säc n©u) Two other species of Amentotaxus are known from Vietnam. A. poilanei, a tree up to 20 m tall, is currently only known with certainty from Ngoc Linh in Kon Tum Province although it has also been reported from Lo Xo NR – on the border with Quang Nam and Kon Tum and from Pu Mat in Nghe An. It occurs at altitudes of up to 2300 m. Its current conservation status is Vulnerable (A1c). The second species, A. hatuyenensis is very poorly known. Currently, it has only been recorded from 2 unprotected areas in Ha Giang where it occurs on limestone mountains between 1000 and 1500 m. The main difference between A. hatuyenensis and A. yunnanensis is in the colour of the stomatal bands (brown rather than white). Internationally, its conservation status has not been assessed (DD) but within Vietnam it is listed as Critically Endangered due to its restricted distribution. This species needs further research.

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Taxaceae

Th«ng ®á Trung Quèc (Taxus chinensis Pilger) Cµnh l¸ / Foliage

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73 Taxus chinensis Pilger - Th«ng ®á Trung Quèc Synonymy: T. wallichiana Zucc. var. chinensis (Pilg.) Florin. Other names: Yew (English), hong du shan (Chinese).

Taxaceae

The taxonomy of the Asian species of this genus is very confused and the differences between the species are not always consistent. Detailed research is being undertaken at the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh to clarify the taxonomy of the Asian species of this genus.

Description: Height and Spread: Up to 10-15 (20) m high with dbh to 1 (1.5) m. Habit: Upright tree with spreading branches depending on situation. Bark: Red-brown, flaking in strips or small plates. Foliage: Leaves linear-lanceolate, straight or slightly falcate, spirally arranged, spreading in two ranks, alternate, about 1.5-2.2 cm long and up to 3 mm wide, abruptly pointed at the apex, base decurrent, margin flat, yellowish green above, pale green beneath with pale yellowish stomatal bands on either side of midrib. Foliage from leading shoots may be assurgent rather than spreading. Cones: Dioecious. Female cones solitary, single seeded and surrounded but not covered by red aril, ripening in one year. Male cones in rows in axils of leaves of second year shoots, small, ovoid, to 6 mm long and 3 mm wide, sessile or with small peduncle. Seed: Ovoid, up to 8 mm by 5 mm, black when ripe. Distribution: Within Vietnam: Ha Giang, Hoa Binh, Son La. Outside Vietnam: southern China. Ecology: Altitudinal range: 900-1500 m. Forest type: subtropical forests on limestone ridges and steep slopes on limestone soils. Climate: monsoon tropical climate associated with mountains or with cold winter, mean annual temperature 17-210C, rainfall above 1300 mm. Associated conifer species: Podocarpus pilgeri, Pseudotsuga sinensis, Xanthocyparis vietnamensis, Nageia fleuryi, Pinus kwangtungensis. Natural regeneration: Very rare. Uses: Forestry: Timber is red in colour with a fine structure, water resistant and can be used for irrigation paddles. Non Timber products: Seeds are used as medicine Ornamental: Shade tolerant with some ornamental qualities, used as bonsai. Special Uses: All species of this genus produce anti-cancer drugs from extracts from the leaves and the bark. Harvesting can only be sustained from plantations as the natural populations are too small. Propagation: Sexual: Seed is difficult to collect and there are many problems with germination. It requires successive periods of stratification by warm then low temperature under moist conditions. Seedlings should not be collected from the wild. Vegetative: Cuttings should be collected in autumn - winter time. Cuttings from mature plants can be rooted at >60% within 4 months. Lateral shoots produce plagiotrophic growth. Young cuttings and seedlings require shading. Conservation: Due to its wide distribution in southern China, this species is not listed as internationally threatened. In Vietnam, the populations represent the most southern part of its distribution and may be a distinct provenance. They are much smaller in size and many have been logged. At a national level, this species is listed as Vulnerable. In-situ conservation: this species has been recorded from at least 2 protected areas – Hang Kia – Pa Co Nature Reserve and Bat Dai Son Nature Reserve. Most populations are outside the protected area system. Ex-situ conservation: Due to its potential for producing Taxol a propagation program should be initiated to establish clonal banks.

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74 Th«ng ®á l¸ dµi (Taxus wallichiana Zucc. )

Taxaceae

Cµnh mang nãn c¸i / Branchlet with seed cone

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Taxaceae

Taxus wallichiana Zucc. - Th«ng ®á l¸ dµi Synonymy: T. yunnanensis W.C. Cheng & L.K. Fu. Other Names: Th«ng ®á Hymalaya (Vietnamese), Himalayan Yew (English), xu mi hong dou shan (Chinese).
The taxonomy of the species in this genus is very confused and the differences between the species are not always consistent. In the international conservation status listings, the southern Vietnamese populations are identified as T. chinensis var. mairei. However, the majority of Vietnamese floras and reference works identify them as T. wallichiana.

Description: Height and Spread: Up to 20 (30) m high with dbh to 1 (1.5) m. Habit: Upright tree with spreading branches depending on situation. Bark: Red-brown, flaking in strips or small plates. Foliage: Leaves linear-lanceolate, straight, sometimes falcate, soft, spirally arranged, spreading in two ranks, alternate, about 2.2 - 4 cm. long and up to 3 mm wide, tapering to a pointed apex, the base decurrent, margin flat, yellowish green above, pale green beneath with pale yellowish stomatal bands on either side of midrib. Foliage from leading shoots may be assurgent rather than spreading. Cones: Dioecious. Female cones solitary, single seeded and surrounded but not covered by red aril, ripening in one year. Male cones in rows in axils of leaves of second year shoots, small, ovoid, to 6 mm long and 3 mm wide, sessile or with small peduncle. Seed: Ovoid, up to 7 mm by 5 mm, black when ripe. Distribution: Within Vietnam: Only known for certain from Lam Dong (Duc Trong, Xuan Tho, Don Duong, Lac Duong). It may also occur in Khanh Hoa (there are old records based on French collections), Ninh Thuan and Dac Lac. Outside Vietnam: southwestern China, Himalayas. Ecology: Altitudinal range: 900 -1600 m. Forest type: subtropical evergreen forest on granite derived soils. Climate: monsoon tropical climate, mean annual temperature 20-250C, rainfall above 1500 mm. Associated conifer species: Cephalotaxus mannii, Nageia wallichiana, Podocarpus neriifolius, Dacrycarpus imbricatus, Keteleeria evelyniana. Natural regeneration: sporadic, seedlings and saplings very shade tolerant. Uses: Forestry: Timber is red in colour with a fine structure, water resistant and can be used for irrigation paddles. Non Timber products: Seeds are used as medicine and tannins are also extracted from the bark. Ornamental: Shade tolerant with some ornamental qualities, used as bonsai tree. Special Uses: All species of this genus produce anti-cancer drugs from extracts from the leaves and the bark. Harvesting can only be sustained from plantations as the natural populations are too small. Propagation: As for T. chinensis. Cone ripens in December. Seedlings are more tolerant to high temperature then T. chinensis. Conservation: Due to its wide distribution outside of Vietnam, this species is not yet listed as internationally threatened, even though many populations have been over-exploited. In Vietnam, it has been assessed as Rare (Sach Do), Data Deficient or Critically endangered (C2a) (Nghia 2000). The last assessment is based on field surveys undertaken in Lam Dong during 1998 which estimated that the total population size was less than 250 trees with no more than 50 trees in each sub-populations. Since then, further field work in Lam Dong has been undertaken and a population consisting of at least 250 trees was found. The total known population is now estimated to be more than 250 but much less than 2500 spread over severely fragmented populations. This means that its status should be Endangered (C2a). As all of the populations face a high level of threat, especially from fire in the surrounding forests, the conservation status may need to be upgraded. The Lam Dong populations

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Taxaceae

represent the most southern most distribution for this genus on the SE Asian mainland. As such they are disjunct and may be a distinct provenance. In-situ conservation: this species has only been recorded from 1 protected area in Lam Dong (BiDoup). The main populations are in fragments of forests along rivers or near hill tops. Exsitu conservation: A propagation program has been started to establish clonal banks in Lam Dong so that this species may be conserved and utilised for Taxol production in the future.

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Distribution maps

• §Ønh tïng (Cephalotaxus mannii)

Hoµng ®µn (Cupressus funebris); B¸ch vµng (Xanthocyparis vietnamensis); B¸ch t¸n §µi Loan (Taiwania crytomerioides); Sa mu dÇu (Cunninghamia konihsii); Thuû tïng (Glyptostrobus pencilis)

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• B¸ch xanh (Calocedrus macrolepis)

• P¬ mu (Fokienia hodginsii)

78

Distribution maps

ThiÕt sam (Tsuga chinensis); V©n sam (Abies delavayi spp. fansipanensis)

ThiÕt sam gi¶ (Pseudotsuga sinensis); Du sam (Keteleeria evelyniana); Du sam ®¸ v«i (Keteleeria davidiana)

Th«ng nhùa (Pinus merkusii): Rõng tù nhiªn (Natural forests); Rõng trång (Plantations); Hai loµi th«ng hai l¸ ch-a x¸c ®Þnh (Undescribed 2-needle pines): Darwin Initiative ‘Preservation, Rehabilitation and Utilisation of Vietnamese Montane Forests’ 162/10/017 Th«ng M-êng TÝp (Muong Tip pine); Th«ng Na Hang (Na Hang pine)

Th«ng Pµ Cß (Pinus kwangtungensis); Th«ng §µ L¹t (Pinus dalatensis); Th«ng l¸ dÑt (Pinus krempfii)

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Distribution maps

Th«ng nµng (Dacrycarpus imbricatus)

Hoµng ®µn gi¶ (Dacrydium elatum)

Kim giao B¾c (Nageia fleuryi); Kim giao Nam (N. wallichiana)

Th«ng tre l¸ ng¾n (Podocarpus pilgeri); Th«ng tre l¸ dµi (P. neriifolius)

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Distribution maps

• Th«ng ba l¸ (Pinus kesyia)

DÎ tïng P« lan (Amentotaxus poilanei); Th«ng ®á l¸ dµi (Taxus wallichiana); DÎ tïng V©n Nam (A. yunnanensis); Th«ng ®á Trung Quèc (T. chinensis); DÎ tïng säc tr¾ng (A. argotaenia); Darwin Initiative ‘Preservation, Rehabilitation and Utilisation of Vietnamese Montane Forests’ 162/10/017 DÎ tïng säc n©u (A. hatuyenensis)

81 Ecology of conifers in Vietnam Species Altitude range, (m)
0-700

Appendices

Soil type

Climate

Regeneration strategy
Open Shade

700- >1500 Limes Well Water Moun Cold Warm 1500 tone Drained logged tain winter winter

Cephalotaxaceae 1 Cephalotaxus mannii X XX X X X X X X Cupressaceae 2 Calocedrus macrolepis XX X X X X X X 3 Cunninghamia konishii X XX X X X 4 Cupressus funebris XX X X X X X 5 Fokienia hodginsii XX XX X X X X X 6 Glyptostrobus pensilis X X X X X 7 Taiwania cryptomerioides XX X X X 8 Xanthocyparis vietnamensis XX X X X Pinaceae 9 Abies delavayi ssp XX X X X fansipanensis 10 Keteleeria evelyniana XX X X X X X 11 Keteleeria davidiana XX X X X 12 Pinus dalatensis XX X X X 13 Pinus kesiya XX X X X X X X 14 Pinus krempfii X XX X X X 15 Pinus kwangtungensis XX X X X X 16 Pinus merkusii XX X X X X X 17 Pseudotsuga sinensis X XX X X X X 18 Tsuga chinesis X XX X X X X Podocarpaceae 19 Dacrycarpus imbricatus X XX X X X X 20 Dacrydium elatum X XX X X X X X X X 21 Nageia fleuryi X XX X X ? X 22 Nageia wallichiana XX X X X X X X 23 Podocarpus neriifolius X XX X X X X 24 Podocarpus pilgerii X XX X X X Taxaceae 25 Amentotaxus argotaenia XX X X X X 26 Amentotaxus hatuyenensis XX X X X 27 Ametotaxus poilanei XX X X X 28 Amentotaxus yunnanensis XX X X X 29 Taxus chinensis XX X X X X 30 Taxus wallichiana XX X X X X Soil type: - limestone: humic soil on limestone, - drained soil: usually ferralite derived from granite or basalt materials, - waterlogged: seasonally waterlogged soil.

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Climate: - mountain: moonsoon tropical climate associated with mountains (high mountains and high latitudes), - cold winter: moonsoon tropical climate with cold (or cool) winter and summer (summer-autumn) rains (northern provinces), - warm winter: moonsoon tropical climate with summer rains (southern provinces). Regeneration strategy: - open: regenerate in places opened by fires, clearance, land slips, dry and dehicent cones, seeds dispersed by wind, - shade: regenerates under forest canopy, soft ariled cones, seeds dispersed by birds.

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83 Examples of cutting propagation for conifers in Vietnam Source of Time of Age/D/H of Position of Length of Rooting materials collection mother tree materials cuttings, hormon cm Hµ T©y Winter (Oct) D=56 cm Upper crown 10-12 NAA 1,5% Lµo Cai Hµ T©y NghÖ An Spring (Feb) L¹ng S¬n Winter (Jan) Winter (Nov) D=90 cm 7-8 /years 7-8 /years 20 /years Lower crown Needle/Scale Lower crown 15 10-15 15 10-15 10-15 ABT ABT 1%; IBA 1% ABT 1,5% IBA 0,5% in 5 min NAA 1% Used Upper crown Lower crown Coppice Coppice 10-15 7-10 10-12 7-10 10 IBA 1000 ppm IBA 1% IBA 500 ppm ABT IBA 300 ppm

Appendices

Species 1 §Ønh tïng Cephalotaxus mannii 2 B¸ch t¸n §µi Loan

Data source* Duration of Rooting rooting, rate, % month 5 76 TrÇn Minh TuÊn, 2002 7 2 NguyÔn V¨n Th¾ng, CFSC, 2003 85 Lª §×nh Kh¶, §oµnThÞ BÝch, 1997 10 NguyÔn §øc Tè Luu, CFSC, 2003 30-34 NguyÔn V¨n Th¾ng, CFCS, 2002 90 NguyÔn Hoµng NghÜa, TrÇn V¨n TiÕn, 2002 20 NguyÔn Ngäc Lung, 1993 18 T« Quang Th¶o, NguyÔn §øc Tè Luu, CFSC, 2003 40 NguyÔn V¨n Chi, CFSC, 2002 80 NguyÔn V¨n Chi, CFSC, 2002 80 NguyÔn V¨n Th¾ng, 2003 80 Huúnh V¨n KÐo,

Taiwania cryptomerioides 3 B¸ch xanh Calocedrus macrolepis 4 Sa mu Cunninghamia konishii 5 Hoµng ®µn Cupressus funebris 6 P¬ mu Fokienia hodginsii 7 Thuû tïng Glyptostrobus pensilis 8 B¸ch vµng Xanthocyparis vietnamensis 9 Du sam Keteleeria evelyniana 10 Th«ng ba l¸ Pinus kesiya 11 Th«ng nµng Dacrycarpus imbricatus 12 Hoµng ®µn gi¶

5 4

L©m §ång Summer (July) 2-3 /years §¾c L¾c Hµ Giang Winter (Jan) L©m §ång Spring (FebApr) L©m §ång Spring (FebApr), winter (Oct - Dec) MiÒn B¾c Spring-summer Northern (Feb-Oct) Vietnam Thõa Thu (th. 9) Mature D=45 cm Mature 2-3 /years 3-4 years H>8m

9-11 weeks 4 4 4 3

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84 Dacrydium elatum 13 Kim giao B¾c Nageia fleuryi 14 Th«ng tre l¸ dµi Podocarpus neriifolius 15 DÎ tïng säc tr¾ng Amentotaxus argotaenia 16 DÎ tïng V©n Nam Amentotaxus yunnanensis 17 Th«ng ®á Trung Quèc Taxus chinensis 18 Th«ng ®á Hymalaya Taxus wallichiana Thiªn HuÕ Autumn (Sep) MiÒn B¾c Northern Vietnam MiÒn B¾c Northern Vietnam Hoµ B×nh Autumn (Aug- 3-4 /years Sep), Spring (Feb-Apr) Autumn (Aug- non Oct), Spring young (Feb-Apr) Autumn (Aug) H=1,5 m D=8 cm Coppice Coppice Coppice Lower crown 10-15 10 10-12 12-15 ABT Used Not used Not used IBA 2% 10-15 ABT 1%; IBA 1% 6 5 4

Appendices Lu¬ng ViÖt Hïng, Tru¬ng V¨n Lung, 1999 65-70 NguyÔn V¨n Th¨ng, CFSC, 2003 60-65 60 NguyÔn §øc Tè Luu, CFSC, 2003 40 NguyÔn §øc Tè Luu, CFSC, 2003 61 Lª §×nh Kh¶, TrÇn Cù, Lª ThÞ Xu©n, 1996 87 NguyÔn Hoµng NghÜa, TrÇn V¨n TiÕn, 2002

Hµ Giang Winter (Oct)

Hoµ B×nh Autumn (Aug), D=40 cm winter (Nov) L©m §ång Winter (Oct) Mature

* references on italics represent unpublished data.

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85 References

Appendices

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20. TrÇn Minh TuÊn. Nghiªn cøu nh©n gièng b»ng hom loµi PhØ ba mòi ë Vuên quèc gia Ba V×. TC NN&PTNT, 1, 2002, tr. 79. 21. ViÖn ®iÒu tra qui ho¹ch rõng. B¶o vÖ vµ ph¸t triÓn bÒn v÷ng rõng vµ ®a d¹ng sinh häc trªn vïng nói ®¸ v«i cña ViÖt Nam. Hµ Néi, 1999. 22. Booth T. H., Nguyen Hoang Nghia, Kirschbaum, M. U. F. Hackett and T. Jovanovic (1999) Assessing impacts of possible climate change for forestry in Vietnam. Climate Change 41: 109-129. 23. Businsky R. (1999) Study of Pinus dalatensis Ferre and of the enigmatic “Pin du Moyen Annam”. Candollea, 54(1):125. 24. Fu, L.K. (1992) China Plant Red Data Book. Vol. 1. Science press. Beijing 25. Farjon A., Nguyen Tien Hiep, D. K. Harder, L. Averyanov. (2002) A new genus and species in Cupressaceae (Coniferales) from Northern Vietnam, Xanthocyparis vietnamensis. Novon 12:179-189. 26. Ferguson D.K. (1992) A Krausel Legacy: Advances in our knowledge of the taxonomy and evolution in Amentotaxus. Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg, 147: 255-285. 27. Ferguson D.K. (1989) On Vietnamese Amentotaxus (Taxaceae). Bull. Mus. natn. Hist. nat., Paris, 4 ser., 11: 315-318. 28. Nguyen Hoang Nghia (2000) Some threatened tree species of Vietnam. Agr. Publ. House, Hanoi. 29. Nguyen Tien Hiep & J.E. Vidal. (1996) Flore du Cambodge du Lao PDR et du Vietnam. Gymnospermae Fasc. 28. Museum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.

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§Ønh tïng lµm c¶nh ë Sa Pa. Cephalotaxus mannii in ornamental use in Sapa. Sa mu dÇu ë Kú S¬n, NghÖ An. Cunninghamia konishii in Ky Son, Nghe An.

Thuû tïng ë Kr«ng N¨ng, §¾c L¾c. Glyptostrobus pensilis in Krong Nang, Dac Lac.

Thuû tïng ë Earal, §¾c L¾c. Glyptostrobus pensilis in Earal, Dac Lac.

P¬ mu ra nãn ë Ph-íc B×nh, Ninh ThuËn. Coning Fokienia hodginsii in Phuoc Binh, Ninh Thuan.

C©y Hoµng ®µn duy nhÊt cßn t×m thÊy trong tù nhiªn ë Chi L¨ng, L¹ng S¬n. The last tree of Cupressus aff. funebris found in the wild in Chi Lang, Lang Son.

RÔ Hoµng ®µn lµm h-¬ng ë Chi L¨ng, L¹ng S¬n. Roots of Cupressus funebris for incense production in Chi Lang, Lang Son.

Cµnh mang nãn B¸ch xanh t¹i L¹c D-¬ng, L©m §ång. Branch with female cones of Calocedrus macrolepis in Lac Duong, Lam Dong

B¸ch t¸n §µi Loan ë V¨n Bµn, Lao Cai Taiwania cryptomerioides in Van Ban, Lao Cai

Cµnh mang nãn c¸i. Branches with female cones.

Thu h¸i h¹t gièng. Seed collection. C©y mÇm t¸i sinh tù nhiªn. Naturally regenerated seedlings.

B¸ch vµng ë Qu¶n B¹, Hµ Giang Xanthocyparis vietnamensis in Quan Ba, Ha Giang.

ChÆt c©y lÊy gç. Logging for timber. C©y non víi d¹ng l¸ chÝnh lµ l¸ kim. Young tree showing dominance of needlelike foliage.

Hom gi©m ra rÔ. Rooted cuttings.

Hoµng ®µn gi¶ ë Yªn Tö, Qu¶ng Ninh. Dacrydium elatum in Yen Tu, Quang Ninh.

Cµnh mang nãn c¸i. Branches with female cones.

Du sam ë Kú S¬n, NghÖ An Keteleeria evelyniana in Ky Son, Nghe An

C©y con Th«ng l¸ dÑt ë Ph-íc B×nh, Ninh ThuËn. Pinus kremfii seedling in Phuoc Binh, Ninh Thuan. Th«ng §µ L¹t ë B× §óp, L©m §ång. Pinus dalatensis in Bidoup, Lam Dong.

Th«ng Pµ Cß ë Mai Ch©u, Hoµ B×nh Pinus kwangtungensis in Mai Chau, Hoa Binh

Cµnh mang nãn c¸i. Branches with female cones.

Th«ng M-êng TÝp ë Kú S¬n, NghÖ An Muong Tip pine in Ky Son, Nghe An

Cµnh mang nãn c¸i. Branch with female cones.

ThiÕt sam gi¶ ë Yªn Minh, Hµ Giang. Pseudotsuga sinensis in Yªn Minh, Hµ Giang.

Kim giao Nam trång ë VQG Tam §¶o. Nageia wallichiana planted in Tam Dao national park.

Cµnh mang nãn c¸i Th«ng nµng ë Kon Ka Kinh, Gia Lai. Branch with female cones of Darycarpus imbricatus in Kon Ka Kinh, Gia Lai.

Th«ng tre l¸ ng¾n trong nu«i trång lµm c¶nh. Podocarpus pilgeri in ornamental cultivation.

ThiÕt sam ë Yªn Minh, Hµ Giang. Tsuga chinensis in Yen Minh, Ha Giang.

DÎ tïng V©n Nam ë Yªn Minh, Hµ Giang. Cµnh mang nãn c¸i Th«ng ®á l¸ dµi ë Xu©n Thä, L©m §ång. Branch with female cones of Taxus wallichiana in Xuan Tho, Lam Dong. Amentotaxus yunnanensis in Yen Minh, Ha Giang

C©y hom 3 n¨m tuæi Th«ng ®á l¸ dµi ë Xu©n Thä, L©m §ång. 3 year old plant from cutting of Taxus wallichiana in Xuan Tho, Lam Dong .

Th«ng ®á Trung Quèc t¹o chåi gèc t¹i Mai Ch©u, Hoµ B×nh. Coppicing Taxus chinensis in Mai Chau, Hoa Binh.