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You are on page 1of 18

Context o the Automobile

Suspension System

CIV 205 1erm Project

Harris \ong

January 12, 1998

The Helical Spring: Theory and Calculation in the Context of the Automobile Suspension System

Harris Yong

1

Table of Contents

Introduction 2

General 1heory of the Helical Spring 3

Superpositioning of Shearing Stresses 4

Lnergy Method 6

Impact Loading 8

Applying 1heory to the Automobile Suspension System 9

Statically Loaded Iront Axle 9

Bump Impact at Significant Speed J2

Conclusions JS

References J7

The Helical Spring: Theory and Calculation in the Context of the Automobile Suspension System

Harris Yong

2

Introduction

1he suspension o an automobile is a complex system. Not only does it hae to support the

entire ehicle and its occupants statically, but also it has to withstand dynamic loads that come rom

accelerating, braking and cornering, road ariations and imperections. lurthermore, eerything,

rom the rigid support control members to the lexible tires and een the seats in an automobile,

eects the oerall eel that is perceied by the ehicle`s occupants.

1his CIV 205 project aims to address one o the most important components o the

automobile suspension-the helical spring. \ith some justiied simpliications, the analysis o the

helical spring is a tractable task. Although the helical coil, spring is not the only kind o spring

ound in automobile suspension systems, it is by ar the most prealent among passenger cars, and

its role is crucial in maintaining the drieability o cars so equipped with helical springs.

Because o the large number o assumptions required or the analysis o the helical spring,

they will not be listed in a speciic section. Instead, they will be mentioned together with the analysis,

wheneer necessary.

Ater the discussion o background theory is complete, two examples will be gien. 1he irst

will show how one can ealuate a car with one axle resting on a bump. 1he other will take into

account impact loading, or example, when a wheel hits a similar bump while the car is in motion.

1he results rom these two cases will be then be compared.

The Helical Spring: Theory and Calculation in the Context of the Automobile Suspension System

Harris Yong

3

General Theory of the Helical Spring

As the helical spring is essentially a twisted bar,

the characteristics o the helical spring can be analyzed

by taking a section o the helical spring shown in ligure

1, and analyzing the section as a straight circular bar in

torsion. Since the helical automotie spring is used as a

compression and support member, one can assume that

the spring is loaded only axially, about its central axis. In

a uller analysis, lateral loading and buckling possibilities

should also be considered, but they will not be the

coered in this project. It is assumed that the spring

compresses only in the direction o its axis, with the

spring seats holding the ends in place.

\ith the aboe assumption o an axially loaded

spring, ligure 1 shows the orces and moments on a

section o the spring. A simpliied iew is shown by

ligure 2, where the load l is balanced internally by a

shearing orce V and a torque 1 to compensate or the

act that l is not applied through the section in

consideration. lor the purposes o clarity, the uppercase

letters R and D will reer to the radius and diameter o

the coil, respectiely, while the lowercase letters r and d

Figure 1. Spring element with forces and

moments. (Benham).

Figure 2. Simplified free body diagram

showing a direct shear V and a torque T due

to axial loading. (Popov)

The Helical Spring: Theory and Calculation in the Context of the Automobile Suspension System

Harris Yong

4

will reer to the radius and diameter o the spring element, respectiely. Although springs o non-

circular cross-sections exist, only the common, circular cross-section springs will be considered.

6XSHUSRVLWLRQLQJRI6KHDULQJ6WUHVVHV

1he simplest analysis o the helical spring requires some urther

assumptions. lirst, the coils o the spring are assumed to lie in a plane nearly

perpendicular to the axis o the spring such that the angle in ligure 1 is small.

1his assumption allows the section taken or analysis to be nearly ertical,

eliminating the need to consider an axial orce and a bending moment at the section

taken through the spring. Also, any changes in coil radius are ignored. 1hus, there

are only two stress contributors, one is the result o the applied orce l, and the

other is a 1orque 1 that exists because load is collinear with the axis o the coil. By superposition,

the two stresses sum and result in the irst line o Lquations 1. At this point, it should be noted that

the irst term o Lquations 1 the stress due to the shearing orce V, is assumed to be acting

uniormly oer the cross-section. Note that this aeraging results in

2

r

F

stress. In reality, a better approximation would come rom using the expression

It

VQ

and inding Q

to the neutral axis and using t as the diameter o the spring element. Howeer, because most texts

appear to use the simpliied expression

2

r

F

2

r A = and

2

4

r

J

= , Lquations 1 is simpliied, giing the shearing stress on a spring element as

the bottom line o Lquations 1. As the size o the spring element becomes small with respect to the

coil such that R r << ,, the irst term in the parentheses direct shear, becomes inconsequential.

Howeer, when the two radii become comparable, the irst term, due to 1orque 1, cannot be

+ =

+ =

+ =

+ =

1

2

2

2

2

3

3 2

2 2

R

r

r

FR

r

FR

r

F

r

FRr

r

F

J

Tc

A

F

Equations 1.

Shearing stress

as a sum of the

direct shear and

torsion.

The Helical Spring: Theory and Calculation in the Context of the Automobile Suspension System

Harris Yong

5

neglected because it is also a signiicant contributor o the total shearing stress. Neertheless, a

useul equation or the maximum shearing stress does come out o the aboe analysis i a stress

concentration actor, K, is used instead o including the irst term o the last line o Lquations 1.

1he result is Lquation 2, where the actor K scales the shearing stress appropriately as a unction o

the ratio o the radii, compensating or the neglect o the direct shearing term. ligure 3 shows how

K aries with the spring element and coil size. \ahl

proposes that ligure 3 has, as its goerning equation,

Lquation 3. 1he general ormula or the maximum

shearing, Lquation 2, along with the correction actor K,

will be used or uture calculations o shearing stress. Note

that the correction actor still does not consider the change

in radius between the innermost part o the spring element and

the outermost part. In reality, stresses will be higher in the

inner section o the cross-sectional element, as shown in ligure 4.

3

2

r

FR

K

=

r

R

r

R

r

R

K

615 . 0

4 4

1 4

+

=

Equation 2.

General

formula for

shear stress

using

correction

factor.

Equation 3.

Correction

factor as a

function of coil

and spring

radii.

Ratio of radii, R/r

K

Figure 3. Correction factor K as

a function of the ratio of radii,

R/r. (Popov)

Figure 4. Distribution of shearing stress

over a spring elements cross-sectional

area. (Wahl)

The Helical Spring: Theory and Calculation in the Context of the Automobile Suspension System

Harris Yong

6

(QHUJ\0HWKRG

Although the aboe analysis based on superpositioning can be used to determine the

delection o a loaded helical spring, and thus its spring rate, an energy balance method is also simple

and allows one to see the eects i the coil angle is signiicant and cannot be neglected. In this

analysis, a standard co-ordinate system see ligure 1, is used, and a bending moment in addition to

the torsion should be taken into account. Howeer, changes in coil radii across the spring element

are still considered. lrom ligure 1, the torsion 1 or cos FR M

x

= , and the bending moment

sin FR M

y

= , while 0 =

z

M . Beore continuing, one should note that the work done in delecting

a spring by axial loading, torsion and bending, they are deried in Lquations 4a, 4b and 4c, where U

is the strain energy and u is the strain energy density by olume,. Lquations 4b or torsion is

analogous to Lquations 4a or axial loading, and Lquations 4c or bending can be seen as an

extension o axial loading since bending produces a normal stress.

AE

L F

U

Ad

E A

F

dV

E

U

udV dU

u

dV

dU

E E

u

E

d E d

L

d

A

F

u

u

V

U

F U

k d k Fd U

L

2

2 2

2 2

2

2

1

2

1

2

0

2

2

2

2

2

1

2

1

0 0 0

1 1

2

1

0 0

1 1 1

1 1

=

= =

=

= =

= = = =

=

= = =

( )

GJ

L T

U

dx dA

GJ

T

dV

GJ

T

dV

G

U

udV dU

u

dV

dU

G G

u

G

d G d u

u

V

U

T U

k d k Td U

L

2

2 2 2

2 2

2

2

1

2

1

2

0

2

2

2

2

2 2

2

2

2

1

2

1

0 0

1 1

2

1

0 0

1 1

1 1

=

= = =

=

= =

= = =

=

= = =

( )

EI

L M

U

dx dA y

EI

M

dV

EI

y M

dV

E

U

L

2

2 2 2

2

0

2

2

2

2

2 2

2

=

= = =

due to axial loading.

Equations 4b. Energy

due to torsion.

Equations 4c. Energy

due to bending.

The Helical Spring: Theory and Calculation in the Context of the Automobile Suspension System

Harris Yong

7

n R

Gr

Gr

n FR

F F

S

3

4

4

3

4 4

= = =

the axial loading is equal to that caused by the torsion and bending,

and this equality orms the irst line o Lquations 5. lurther

substitution rom Lquations 4 completes the deriation or spring

delection due to an axial load. Using

2

4

r

J

= ,

4

4

r

I

= and

sec 2 nR L = , where n is the number o coils gies the useul

equation or delection, Lquations 6. Note that when the spring is

closely coiled is small,, the simpliied equation shown as Lquation

is accurate.

I Lquation or delection and Lquation 3 or shearing stress

are compared, the shearing stress can be expressed as a unction o the

displacement, the modulus o rigidity, and the spring and coil

dimensions, as shown in Lquations 8. 1his equation is useul as one

can check whether a certain spring can be allowed to undergo a certain

delection without ailure. Comparing Lquations and Lquation 8

now, an expression or can be cast in terms o . 1his is shown as

Lquation 9.

Also o use in the automotie

industry is the stiness actor, S, or a

gien spring. 1his is simply the amount

o orce needed to create a unit o

Equation 6. Deflection of a

loaded spring after

substitution of moments of

inertia.

Equations 5. Energy

balance and deflection

equation of a loaded spring.

( ) ( )

+ =

+ =

+ =

+ =

+ =

EI GJ

L FR

EI GJ

L R F

F

EI

L FR

GJ

L FR

F

EI

L M

GJ

L T

F

U U U

bending torsion axial

2 2

2

2 2 2 2

2 2

2 2

sin cos

sin cos

2

2

1

2

sin

2

cos

2

1

2 2

2

1

+ =

E G r

n FR

2 2

4

3

sin 2 cos sec 4

4

3

4

Gr

n FR

=

n R

Gr

K

n FR

Gr

r

FRK

Gr

n FR

r

FR

K

2

3

4

3

4

3

3

2

4

2

4

2

=

=

=

=

Gr

R n

K

r

FR

K

Gr

n FR

2

3

4

3

2 1

2 1

4

=

=

=

Equation 7. Deflection

of a loaded spring with

Equations 8.

Shear stress

based on

deflection.

Equations 9.

Deflection

based on

shear stress.

Equation 10. Spring

stiffness.

The Helical Spring: Theory and Calculation in the Context of the Automobile Suspension System

Harris Yong

8

delection and thus has the dimensions o orce oer length. Lquation 10 shows the deriation o

the stiness actor.

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Impact loading occurs when a spring is gien a sudden loading. \hat

results is an incremental stress, . 1ypically, this loading is characterized by

the elocity o the incoming load, . In order to ind express in terms o

, \ahl irst deines a surge wae elocity,

s

, its equation is deined as

shown in Lquation 11. 1his is the speed at which a wae is propagated

through the spring. 1he propagation takes a inite time, t, to trael through

the spring, causing an incremental delection, , and both are shown in

Lquations 12. Setting equal to in Lquations 9 and soling or gies

the incremental stress due to impact loading Lquations 13,. In summary, the

incremental delection and stress equations 12, and (13) should be

taken into consideration when a spring undergoes impact loading.

2

G

R

r

v

s

=

G r

n R

v

G

R

r

Rn

v

v

Rn

v t v

v

Rn

t

s

s

2 2

2

2

2

2

2

= =

= =

=

G Kv

Gr

R n

K G r

n R

v

Gr

R n

K

G r

n R

v

2

2 1 2 2

2 1

2 2

2 2

2

2

=

=

=

=

=

Equation 11.

Surge wave

speed of a

impact loaded

spring.

Equations 12. Time for

surge wave to

propagate through

spring and the resultant

incremental deflection.

Equations 13.

Incremental stress

due to impact

loading.

The Helical Spring: Theory and Calculation in the Context of the Automobile Suspension System

Harris Yong

9

Applying Theory to the Automobile Suspension System

Haing deried equations or the maximum shearing stress o a spring, the delection under

load and spring stiness, the automotie suspension can be considered in more detail. Because the

tires and chassis contribute also to the oerall delection o the wheels, ormally, these should also

be taken in consideration. Howeer, Gillespie points out that the spring rate o a tire is many times

greater than that o the typical automotie suspension helical spring, and because the tire and spring

are in series, using the stiness o the spring alone can approximate the spring rate o the ehicle.

Another error in the simpliication o the suspension system is that, in most cases, the load caused

by a bump is not directly inline with the spring`s coil axis. Consequently, the axial load, l, seen by

the spring is oten not the load that the bump causes directly, other suspension members such as the

control arm act as a leer arm.

6WDWLFDOO\/RDGHG)URQW$[OH

As mentioned in the introduction, I hae designed an example o a statically loaded ront

axle. 1hroughout the examples, an eort has been made to keep all numbers geometry, size, etc.,

representatie o those ound on a passenger automobile.

A suspension designer wishes to reduce unsprung weight o a ehicle by replacing a

ehicle`s ront steel helical springs with aluminum alloy springs without changing the

spring stiness, the coil diameter D ~ 14 cm, or the number o coils per spring.

1he ehicle weighs 1500 kg, with 60 o its weight resting oer its ront wheels

statically. Assume that the helix angle is 8 or less such that Lquation 2 can be used

with adequate accuracy. Help determine i this change should be allowed and i it is

beneicial by perorming the ollowing calculations:

a, Determine the weight oer each ront wheel that has to be supported by the

springs.

wheel

N

wheels

axle

axle kg

N

kg

4415

2

60 . 0 81 . 9

1500 Weight

l front whee

= =

The Helical Spring: Theory and Calculation in the Context of the Automobile Suspension System

Harris Yong

10

b, Determine the spring element radius or the current design i the spring stiness

is

m

N

S 20000 = . Use GPa G

steel

77 = .

c, Using Lquations 3 or the correction actor, calculate the maximum shearing

stress o the steel spring i the ront axle lies oer a bump 8 cm high and that the

car raises by 4 cm when resting oer the bump such that the delection rom a

car at rest is 4 cm,. Also determine the actor o saety or the shearing stress,

assuming that the ultimate stress in shear or the steel is 900 MPa.

Comment: lor the aboe representatie automotie suspension spring, the

correction actor is important as it raises the shearing stress by about

15.

bump

is the shearing stress due to the 4 cm o delection

caused by the bump, while

static

is the shearing stress rom the

weight supported by a ront wheel without the existence o the

bump. 1he total shearing stress is the sum o both these alues.

d, lind the mass o a steel spring by irst calculating the spring olume and using

3

7860

m

kg

steel

= .

( )

mm

Pa

m

m

N

G

n SR

r

n R

Gr

S

31 . 7

10 77

8 07 . 0 20000 4

4

4

4

1

9

3

4

1

3

3

4

=

=

=

( )

( ) ( )

( )

( )

32 . 1

2 . 684

900

.

2 . 684 2 . 579 0 . 105

2 . 579

10 31 . 7

07 . 0 4415 2

15 . 1

2

0 . 105

10 31 . 7

07 . 0 04 . 0 08 . 0 20000 2

15 . 1

2 2

15 . 1

10 31 . 7

07 . 0

615 . 0

4

10 31 . 7

07 . 0

4

1

10 31 . 7

07 . 0

4

615 . 0

4 4

1 4

3

3

3

3

3

3 3

3 3

3

= = =

= + = + =

=

= =

=

= = =

=

= +

MPa

MPa

S F

MPa MPa MPa

MPa

m

m N

r

FR

K

MPa

m

m m m

m

N

r

R S

K

r

FR

K

m

m

m

m

m

m

r

R

r

R

r

R

K

ultimate

static bump

static

bump

( )( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

kg m

m m

m

kg

m

nR r AL V m

69 . 4

8 sec 07 . 0 8 2 10 31 . 7 7860

sec 2

2

3

3

2

=

=

= = =

The Helical Spring: Theory and Calculation in the Context of the Automobile Suspension System

Harris Yong

11

Comment: 1he 8 angle is arbitrary and will aect the mass calculated. 1o

determine the angle exactly, more will need to be known about the

geometry o the suspension system. lurthermore, the angle will ary

with loading. 1he choice o 8 allows the deried ormulas to be used

with conidence o moderate accuracy.

e, lor aluminum alloy, recalculate the spring element radius necessary to maintain

the same stiness, using GPa G

Al

26 = .

Comment: Due to the reduced modulus o rigidity or aluminum, a larger spring

element is necessary to maintain the original stiness o 20000 N,m.

, Recalculate the correction actor, maximum shearing stress and the new actor o

saety when aluminum alloy is used.

Comment: Due to the increased spring element radius, the correction actor has

also increased. More importantly, the aboe calculations show that

the DOXPLQXPLVXQDEOHWRPHHWWKHRULJLQDOVSHFLILFDWLRQVRIVSULQJVWLIIQHVVDQG

JHRPHWU\ ZLWKRXW IDLOXUH, and that aluminum is not a iable option. It

would be necessary to modiy the coil`s geometry in order to both

retain the stiness and be o suicient strength.

( )

mm

Pa

m

m

N

G

n SR

r

n R

Gr

S

59 . 9

10 26

8 07 . 0 20000 4

4

4

4

1

9

3

4

1

3

3

4

=

=

=

( )

( ) ( )

( )

( )

76 . 0

2 . 316

240

.

2 . 316 7 . 267 5 . 48

7 . 267

10 59 . 9

07 . 0 4415 2

20 . 1

2

5 . 48

10 59 . 9

07 . 0 04 . 0 08 . 0 20000 2

20 . 1

2 2

20 . 1

10 59 . 9

07 . 0

615 . 0

4

10 59 . 9

07 . 0

4

1

10 59 . 9

07 . 0

4

615 . 0

4 4

1 4

3

3

3

3

3

3 3

3 3

3

= = =

= + = + =

=

= =

=

= = =

=

= +

MPa

MPa

S F

MPa MPa MPa

MPa

m m

m N

r

FR

K

MPa

m

m m m

m

N

r

R S

K

r

FR

K

m

m

m

m

m

m

r

R

r

R

r

R

K

ultimate

static bump

static

bump

The Helical Spring: Theory and Calculation in the Context of the Automobile Suspension System

Harris Yong

12

, Lstimate the percentage reduction in spring weight, i any, using

3

2770

m

kg

Al

= .

Comment: 1he aboe shows that i the aluminum were able to support the load,

there would be a signiicant weight saings.

%XPS,PSDFWDW6LJQLILFDQW6SHHG

\hen the load is not static but dynamic, such as when the bump is hit while the ehicle is in

motion, there exists an incremental shearing stress due to the impact loading. 1he ollowing example

will show the eects o impact loading.

Consider the preious example. Now, the designer wishes to determine the

maximum speed at which a similar bump one that raises the axle 4 cm, can be

approached without spring ailure by shear. Use the same properties or steel.

a, Determine how much incremental impact shearing stress, , can be applied i a

minimum actor o saety o 1.1 is prescribed.

Comment: 1he incremental stress due to impact loading limits the speed at

which the car can be drien oer the bump.

( )( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

% 6 . 60 % 100 1 %

84 . 2

8 sec 07 . 0 8 2 10 59 . 9 2770

sec 2

2

3

3

2

=

=

=

=

= = =

steel

Al steel

reduction

Al

Al

Al

m

m m

kg m

m m

m

kg

m

nR r AL V m

MPa MPa

MPa

S F

S F

S F

ultimate

ultimate

ultimate

impact

0 . 134 2 . 684

1 . 1

900

.

.

.

= =

=

= +

=

The Helical Spring: Theory and Calculation in the Context of the Automobile Suspension System

Harris Yong

13

b, Using Lquations 12, determine

spring

, the maximum aerage speed at which

the spring can be allowed to delect or the calculated earlier.

Comment: In this part o the example, a rearrangement o Lquations 12 is used

to determine the maximum speed at which the spring can be

delected in order to meet the actor o saety requirement.

c, Using ligure 5, determine the maximum speed at

which the car can be drien. 1ake the radius o the

wheel,tire combination, r

wheel

to be 0.3 m and

the eectie height o the bump the necessary

delection,, h, to be 0.04 m. 1ake the width o the

bump to be 0.10 m.

Comment: Seeral assumptions were made in this step. lirst, the calculated alue

o

spring

, the maximum aerage speed o spring delection was used

to determine the speed o the car. It is likely that the absolute

maximum spring delection speed is signiicantly higher,

oerestimating the car`s highest permissible speed. 1he aboe

ormula is deried by equating the time needed or the 0.04 m

delection to the time needed or the car and wheel to trael hal the

width o the bump. Hence, the width o the bump also aects the

solution.

One assumption that may not be entirely appropriate is the neglect o the shock absorbers.

Most shock absorbers hae gases at a low enough pressure so that they do not proide any

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

mph

h

km

s

m

v

m

m

m m m

s

m

m

w

h r r v

h

d v

v

d

v h

v

d

h

t

h

v

car

wheel wheel spring

spring

car

car

car

spring

4 . 37 2 . 60 7 . 16

04 . 0

2

1 . 0

04 . 0 3 . 0 3 . 0 35 . 3

04 . 0

2

2

1

2 2

2

1

2 2

= = =

+

=

+

=

= = =

s

m

Pa

m

kg

Pa

G K

v

G Kv

spring

spring

35 . 3

10 77 7860 2 15 . 1

10 0 . 134

2

2

9

3

6

=

=

=

v

car

h'

r

r-h

v

spring

w

Figure 5. Schematic of wheel

traveling over bump at speed.

The Helical Spring: Theory and Calculation in the Context of the Automobile Suspension System

Harris Yong

14

supporting or springing eect when the car`s wheels are not delected. Howeer, in this case, the

wheel is delected quickly, and the shocks will hae a stiening eect, increasing the oerall spring

rate. Neertheless, this example shows that impact loading needs to be considered in spring design.

The Helical Spring: Theory and Calculation in the Context of the Automobile Suspension System

Harris Yong

15

Conclusions

1his project has coered seeral aspects o the helical spring in the context o an

automobile`s suspension. lirst, internal orces and torsion were used to derie the shearing stress o

a loaded spring. It was noted that the shearing stress is a result o a direct shear and torsion, and that

it is common to use only the torsional stress component explicitly, while a correction actor is used

to take care o the direct shear. An energy method analysis ollowed, and using the internal energy

due to axial loading, torsion and bending, an expression or delection was written in terms o the

axial load. 1his was simpliied assuming that the helix inclination angle was small. Manipulations and

comparisons o these equations allowed the determination o the shearing stress and delection in

terms o other ariables as well as a ormula or spring stiness. Assuming that a surge wae

propagated through the spring, expressions or incremental delection and incremental shear stress

were deried or the case o impact loading where the elocity o the impact with respect to the

spring is known.

lollowing the theoretical analysis were two examples, showing static loading and impact

loading. In the irst example, a switch to aluminum meant that it was impossible to keep the coil

dimensions unchanged i the spring stiness were to be held constant een though a signiicant

weight saing could come rom the use o aluminum. 1he second example showed that impact

loading limited the maximum speed at which a car can be drien oer a bump due to the

incremental stress and delection.

linally, it should be noted that this project coers only the basics o the helical spring. In

most calculations, seeral assumptions were made. 1hey included that the helix angle be small and

that the shear stresses be distributed eenly oer the spring element`s cross-section in essence

The Helical Spring: Theory and Calculation in the Context of the Automobile Suspension System

Harris Yong

16

neglecting curature,. latiguing, lateral loading and temperature eects were entirely ignored.

lurthermore, other dynamic eects such as resonance and spring clashing were not discussed in this

report, and so neither was the act that the spring is not the only energy absorbing deice in the

automobile`s suspension system.

Despite ignoring the aboe actors, the leel o analysis appeared to generate answers in the

correct order o magnitude. Howeer, it appears that the internal shearing stresses calculated were

rather high. Perhaps the analysis led to an oerestimation o the internal shearing stresses. Also likely

is that the material property data were not ully representatie o those used as automotie

suspension springs. 1he real materials used are likely laboriously treated to allow or large delections

without signiicant creeping, atiguing or ailure. Neertheless, the theory coered and the

calculations perormed appear to hae been suicient or a preliminary analysis o the helical spring

in a car suspension.

The Helical Spring: Theory and Calculation in the Context of the Automobile Suspension System

Harris Yong

17

References

Benham, P. P. 0HFKDQLFVRI(QJLQHHULQJ0DWHULDOV Harlow: Longman Group, 1996.

Cernica, J. N. 6WUHQJWKRI0DWHULDOV New \ork: Holt, Reinhart, and \inston, 19.

De\ol, J. 1. 0HFKDQLFVRI0DWHULDOV New \ork: McGraw-Hill, 1992.

Gillespie, 1. D. )XQGDPHQWDOVRI9HKLFOH'\QDPLFV \arrendale: Society o Automotie Lngineers, 1992.

Popo, L. P. (QJLQHHULQJ0HFKDQLFVRI6ROLGV Lnglewood Clis: Prentice Hall, 1990.

\ahl, A. M. 0HFKDQLFDO6SULQJV New \ork: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1963.

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