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PROBLEM 1.

48
KNOWN: Inner surface heating and new environmental conditions associated with a spherical shell of prescribed dimensions and material. FIND: (a) Governing equation for variation of wall temperature with time. Initial rate of temperature change, (b) Steady-state wall temperature, (c) Effect of convection coefficient on canister temperature. SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Negligible temperature gradients in wall, (2) Constant properties, (3) Uniform, time-independent heat flux at inner surface. PROPERTIES: Table A.1, Stainless Steel, AISI 302: = 8055 kg/m3, c p = 535 J/kgK. ANALYSIS: (a) Performing an energy balance on the shell at an instant of time, E in E out = Est . Identifying relevant processes and solving for dT/dt, 4 dT 2 3 q 4 ri2 h 4 ro ( T T ) = ro ri3 cp i 3 dt dT 3 2 q ri2 hro ( T T ) . = i dt c r 3 r 3

) (
p

Substituting numerical values for the initial condition, find W W 2 3 105 2 ( 0.5m ) 500 2 ( 0.6m )2 ( 500 300 ) K dT m m K = kg J dt i 8055 3 510 ( 0.6 )3 ( 0.5)3 m3 kg K m dT = 0.084 K/s . dt i

<

(b) Under steady-state conditions with Est = 0, it follows that


2 q 4 ri2 = h 4 ro ( T T ) i

) (

2 q ri 105 W/m 2 0.5m i T = T + = 300K + = 439K h ro 500W/m 2 K 0.6m

<

Continued ..

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PROBLEM 1.48 (Cont.)


(c) Parametric calculations were performed using the IHT First Law Model for an Isothermal Hollow Sphere. As shown below, there is a sharp increase in temperature with decreasing values of h < 1000 W/m2K. For T > 380 K, boiling will occur at the canister surface, and for T > 410 K a condition known as film boiling (Chapter 10) will occur. The condition corresponds to a precipitous reduction in h and increase in T.
1000 900 800
Temperature, T(K)

700 600 500 400 300 100 400 800 2000 6000 10000

Convection coefficient, h(W/m^2.K)

Although the canister remains well below the melting point of stainless steel for h = 100 W/m2K, boiling should be avoided, in which case the convection coefficient should be maintained at h > 1000 W/m2K.
COMMENTS: The governing equation of part (a) is a first order, nonhomogenous differential equation

with constant coefficients. Its solution is = ( S/R ) 1 e Rt + i e Rt , where T T ,


3 2 3 S 3q ri2 / c p ro ri3 , R = 3hro / c p ro ri3 . Note results for t and for S = 0. i

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.