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BLOOD UREA NITROGEN PHOTOMETRY BUN The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test is a measure of the amount of nitrogen

in the blood that comes from urea. Urea is a substance secreted by the liver, and remo ved from the blood by the kidneys. he liver produces urea in the urea cycle as a waste product of the digestion of protein. Normal human adult blood should contain between 7 and 25 mg of urea nit rogen per 100 ml of blood. Individual laboratories may have different "usual cli nical ranges", and this is because the procedure may vary. The most common cause of an elevated BUN, azotemia, is poor kidney function, alt hough a serum creatinine level is a somewhat more specific measure of renal func tion. A greatly elevated BUN (>60 mg/dl) generally indicates a moderate-to-severe degr ee of renal failure. Impaired renal excretion of urea may be due to temporary co nditions such as dehydration or shock, or may be due to either acute or chronic disease of the kidneys themselves. A low BUN usually has little significance, but its causes include liver problems , malnutrition (insufficient dietary protein), or excessive alcohol consumption. Overhydration from intravenous fluids can result in a low BUN. Normal changes i n renal bloodflow during pregnancy will also lower BUN. Cholesterol Everyone age 20 and older should have their cholesterol measured at least once e very 5 years. The best way is to have a blood test called lipoprotein profile to find your cholesterol numbers. This blood test is done after a 9 to 12 hour fast. It gives you information about your; Total Cholesterol LDL (bad) Cholesterol HDL (good) Cholesterol Triglycerides HDL (good) cholesterol protects against heart disease, so for HDL, higher number s are better. A level less than 40 mg/dL is low and is considered a major risk factor because it increases your risk for developing heart disease. HDL levels of 60 mg/dL or more help to lower your risk for heart disease. Cholesterol levels are measured in milligrams (mg) of cholesterol per deciliter (dL) of blood. A protein that is linked to cholesterol to form this cholesterol complex is call ed a "lipoprotein." VLDL is one of several lipoprotein complexes. Result - LDL is high which is bad HDL is slightly low which is bad The best way to lower LDL levels involves making lifestyle changes and possibly taking medication. The goal of treatment for high cholesterol is to lower your l ow density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) enough to reduce your risk of heart dis ease or a heart attack. Lowering cholesterol begins with lifestyle changes, such as losing weight and changing your diet. If lifestyle changes alone are not eno ugh, medication may be called for. Statins, bile acid sequestrants, and choleste rol absorption inhibitors are medications that may be prescribed to decrease cho lesterol levels. 12 Indian foods that cut fat Turmeric : Curcumin, the active component of turmeric, is an object of research owing to its properties that suggest they may help to turn off certain genes tha t cause scarring and enlargement of the heart. Regular intake may help reduce lo w-density lipoprotein (LDL) or bad cholesterol and high blood pressure, increase blood circulation and prevent blood clotting, helping to prevent heart attack. Cardamom : This is a thermogenic herb that increases metabolism and helps burn b

ody fat. Cardamom is considered one of the best digestive aids and is believed t o soothe the digestive system and help the body process other foods more efficie ntly. Chillies : Foods containing chillies are said to be as foods that burn fat. Chil lies contain capsaicin that helps in increasing the metabolism. Capsaicin is a t hermogenic food, so it causes the body to burn calories for 20 minutes after you eat the chillies. Curry leaves : Incorporating curry leaves into your daily diet can help you lose weight. These leaves flush out fat and toxins, reducing fat deposits that are s tored in the body, as well as reducing bad cholesterol levels. If you are overwe ight, incorporate eight to 10 curry leaves into your diet daily. Chop them finel y and mix them into a drink, or sprinkle them over a meal. Garlic : An effective fat-burning food, garlic contains the sulphur compound all icin which has anti-bacterial effects and helps reduce cholesterol and unhealthy fats. Mustard oil : This has low saturated fat compared to other cooking oils. It has fatty acid, oleic acid, erucic acid and linoleic acid. It contains antioxidants, essential vitamins and reduces cholesterol, which is good for the heart. Cabbage : Raw or cooked cabbage inhibits the conversion of sugar and other carbo hydrates into fat. Hence, it is of great value in weight reduction. Moong dal : The bean sprouts are rich in Vitamin A, B, C and E and many minerals , such as calcium, iron and potassium. It is recommended as a food replacement i n many slimming programmes, as it has a very low fat content. It is a rich sourc e of protein and fibre, which helps lower blood cholesterol level. The high fibr e content yields complex carbohydrates, which aid digestion, are effective in st abilising blood sugar and prevent its rapid rise after meal consumption. Honey : It is a home remedy for obesity. It mobilises the extra fat deposits in the body allowing it to be utilised as energy for normal functions. One should s tart with about 10 grams or a tablespoon, taken with hot water early in the morn ing. Buttermilk : It is the somewhat sour, residual fluid that is left after butter i s churned. The probiotic food contains just 2.2 grams of fat and about 99 calori es, as compared to whole milk that contains 8.9 grams fat and 157 calories. Regu lar intake provides the body with all essential nutrients and does not add fats and calories to the body. It is thus helpful in weight loss. Bilirubin circulates in the bloodstream in two forms: Indirect (or unconjugated) bilirubin. This form of bilirubin does not dissolve i n water (it is insoluble). Indirect bilirubin travels through the bloodstream to the liver, where it is changed into a soluble form (direct or conjugated). Direct (or conjugated) bilirubin. Direct bilirubin dissolves in water (it is sol uble) and is made by the liver from indirect bilirubin. Total bilirubin and dire ct bilirubin levels are measured directly in the blood, whereas indirect bilirub in levels are derived from the total and direct bilirubin measurements. When bilirubin levels are high, the skin and whites of the eyes may appear yello w (jaundice). Jaundice may be caused by liver disease (hepatitis), blood disorde rs (hemolytic anemia), or blockage of the tubes (bile ducts) that allow bile to pass from the liver to the small intestine. Too much bilirubin (hyperbilirubinemia) in a newborn baby can cause brain damage (kernicterus), hearing loss, problems with the muscles that move the eye, physi cal abnormalities, and even death. Therefore, some babies who develop jaundice m ay be treated with special lights (phototherapy ) or a blood transfusion to low er their bilirubin levels. In general, a predominantly high DIRECT bilirubin tends to suggest the liver's F UNCTION is fine, but there is a blockage somewhere (e.g. a stone) which is not a llowing the bilirubin to get in to the system properly or there is no blockage b ut the bile is STAYING in the liver and not getting out. INDIRECT bilirubin whic h is high is a more complicated matter and it either means the liver is having t rouble doing its job, or else there is a secondary process unrelated to the live r causing the bili to be high.

The most common cause of high DIRECT bilirubin is a gallstone. It's hard to say what the most common reason for high INDIRECT bilirubin is, but it's probably a harmless condition known as Gilbert's disease. In your case, the doctor will do a number of blood tests including fractionated bilirubin, an abdominal ultrasound and some other blood tests to look for common causes of liver disease such as Hepatitis B/C, Hemochromatosis and also take a history of your alcohol use and

Thyroxine Total T4 and free T4 are two separate tests that can help a doctor evaluate thyr oid function. The total T4 test has been used for many years to help diagnose hy perthyroidism and hypothyroidism. It is a useful test but can be affected by the amount of protein available in the blood to bind to the hormone. The free T4 te st is a newer test that is not affected by protein levels. Since free T4 is the active form of thyroxine, the free T4 test is thought by many to be a more accur ate reflection of thyroid hormone function and, in most cases, its use has repla ced that of the total T4 test. Whichever thyroxine measurement is ordered, it is usually ordered along with or following a TSH test. This helps the doctor to de termine whether the thyroid hormone feedback system is functioning as it should, and the results of the tests help to distinguish between different causes of hy perthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Sometimes a T3 test will also be ordered to gi ve the doctor additional diagnostic information. A T4 and TSH test may be ordered to help evaluate a person with a goiter and to aid in the diagnosis of female infertility. If a doctor suspects that someone ma y have an autoimmune-related thyroid condition, then thyroid antibodies may be o rdered along with a T4 test. In those with known thyroid dysfunction, T4 and/or TSH tests may be ordered to monitor thyroid function. In the United States, newborns are commonly screened for T4 levels as well as TS H concentrations to check for congenital hypothyroidism, which can cause mental retardation if left untreated. ^ Back to top When is it ordered? A total T4 or free T4 test is primarily ordered in response to an abnormal TSH t est result. Sometimes the T4 will be ordered along with a TSH to give the doctor a more complete evaluation of the adequacy of the thyroid hormone feedback syst em. These tests are usually ordered when a person has symptoms of hyperthyroidis m or hypothyroidism. Signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism may include: Increased heart rate Anxiety Weight loss Difficulty sleeping Tremors in the hands Weakness Diarrhea (sometimes) Light sensitivity, visual disturbances The eyes may be affected: puffiness around the eyes, dryness, irritation, and, i n some cases, bulging of the eyes. Symptoms of hypothyroidism may include: Weight gain Dry skin Constipation

Cold intolerance Puffy skin Hair loss Fatigue Menstrual irregularity in women. Severe untreated hypothyroidism, called myxedema, can lead to heart failure, sei zures, and coma. In children, hypothyroidism can stunt growth and delay sexual d evelopment Sometimes they are ordered as screening tests during routine blood testing, but expert opinions vary on who can benefit from screening and at what age to begin. In those with known thyroid disorders, the TSH and sometimes T4 are ordered at intervals to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. In pregnant women with thyr oid disorders, the doctor is likely to order thyroid testing early and late in t he pregnancy and for a time period following delivery to monitor the mother and baby. Thyroid hormone screening is commonly performed on newborns in the United States as part of newborn screening programs. ^ Back to top What does the test result mean? In general, high free or total T4 results may indicate an overactive thyroid gla nd (hyperthyroidism), and low free or total T4 results may indicate an underacti ve thyroid gland (hypothyroidism). The test results alone are not diagnostic but will prompt the doctor to perform additional testing to investigate the cause o f the excess or deficiency. Both decreased and increased T4 results are associat ed with a variety of temporary and chronic thyroid conditions. Low T4 results in conjunction with a low TSH level or high T4 results along with a high TSH may i ndicate a pituitary gland condition. The following table summarizes test results and their potential meaning. TSH T4 T3 INTERPRETATION High Normal Normal Mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism High Low Low Low or normal Hypothyroidism Normal Normal Mild (subclinical) hyperthyroidism

Low High or normal High or normal Hyperthyroidism Low Low or normal Low or normal Non-thyroidal illness; rare pituitary (s econdary) hypothyroidism Is there anything else I should know? Many medicationsincluding estrogen, certain types of birth control pills, and lar ge doses of aspirincan affect total T4 test results and their use should be discu ssed with the doctor prior to testing. In general, free T4 levels are not affect ed by these medications. produced by the pituitary gland, explains EndocrineWeb.com. The thyroid gland is stimulated to produce thyroid hormones by the TSH from the pituitary gland. For whatever reason, if the body doesn't receive enough thyroid hormones, the signa ls go back and forth between the cells, thyroid gland and pituitary gland, and T SH is produced to help the thyroid release more. As the TSH level increases and the thyroid levels decrease, the ensuing condition is hypothyroidism. Blood Thyroid Levels High TSH levels produce the first indication of side effects or symptoms of hypo thyroidism through blood tests for thyroid disease. Not only will blood tests re veal high TSH levels but also low levels of the thyroid hormones, T3 and T4, the two primary hormones tested, according to the University of Maryland Medical Ce nter. Furthermore, in some patients thyroid hormones may be just barely on the e dge of low-normal but TSH will still be measuring on the high side. This may ind icate sub-clinical hypothyroidism. Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/74774-side-effects-high-tsh-thyroid /#ixzz1zCEGYfHf

VITAMIN B-12 Vitamin B-12, also known as cobalamin, is important in the production of healthy red blood cells and in the maintenance of a healthy nervous system, according t o the Office of Dietary Supplements. Excess vitamin B-12 is metabolized in the l iver and excreted by the kidneys. Exposure of the liver to high levels of vitami n B-12 may lead to several problems. Vitamin B12 is required for the proper func tion and development of the brain, nerves, blood cells, and many other parts of the body. Hepatitis Exposure of the liver to high levels of vitamin B-12 caused by an overdose may c ause hepatitis or inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis may resolve after excess vitamin B-12 is eliminated from the body. Symptoms of hepatitis caused by vitami n B-12 overdose include right upper abdominal pain, abdominal distension due to swelling of the liver, fever, chills, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stool, jaundice and itching. Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/333971-the-side-effects-of-excessiv e-vitamin-b12-on-the-liver/#ixzz1zCFB2NVa Vitamin B12 deficiency can potentially cause severe and irreversible damage, esp ecially to the brain and nervous system. At levels only slightly lower than norm al, a range of symptoms such as fatigue, depression, and poor memory may be expe rienced.[1] However, these symptoms by themselves are too nonspecific to diagnos e deficiency of the vitamin. Vitamin B12 deficiency can also cause symptoms of mania and psychosis.[16][17] V itamin B12 deficiency can be caused by the metabolic disorder pernicious anemia.

Page 6 Vitamin D If you shun the sun, suffer from milk allergies, or adhere to a strict vegetaria n diet, you may be at risk for vitamin D deficiency. Known as the sunshine vitam in, vitamin D is produced by the body in response to sunlight. It is also occurs naturally in a few foods -- including some fish, fish liver oils, and egg yolks -- and in fortified dairy and grain products. Vitamin D is essential for strong bones because it helps the body use calcium fr om the diet. Traditionally, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with ricket s, a disease in which the bone tissue doesn't properly mineralize, leading to so ft bones and skeletal deformities. But increasingly, research is revealing the i mportance of vitamin D in protecting against a host of health problems. See More About the Benefits of Vitamin D Symptoms and Health Risks of Vitamin D Deficiency Symptoms of bone pain and muscle weakness can mean you have a vitamin D deficien cy. However, for many people, the symptoms are subtle. Yet even without symptoms , too little vitamin D can pose health risks. Low blood levels of the vitamin ha ve been associated with the following: Increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease Cognitive impairment in older adults Severe asthma in children High percent of MONOCYTES & EOSINOPHILS indicates infection from foreign bodies . High HEMATOCRIT (high RBC) is a symptom of Lungs related issues.