You are on page 1of 11

Journal ofSound

and Vibration (1989) 134(l), 87-97





Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, U.S.A. (Received 19 October 1987, and in revised form 15 February 1989) The natural frequencies of vibration of a rotating tapered beam with tip mass are investigated. Explicit expressions for the finite element mass and stiffness matrices are derived by using a consistent mass formulation. The beam is assumed to be linearly tapered in two planes. The generalized eigenvalue problem is defined and numerical solutions are generated for a wide range of rotational speed and tip mass variations. Both fixed and hinged end conditions are considered. Comparisons are made, whenever possible, with

exact solutions and numerical results available in the literature. The results display high accuracy when compared with the exact solutions.


Many engineering systems have mechanical components that can be modeled by rotating structural beams: examples are turbomachines, propellers, high-speed flexible mechanisms, robot manipulators, and spinning space structures. Several studies were directed to the evaluation of natural frequencies and mode shapes of rotating uniform beam undergoing transverse vibrations. Early investigations by Schilhansl [l] and Pruelli [2] have shown that rotation of a beam tends to increase its natural frequencies of flexural motion. Further investigations [3-61 have employed various analytical methods to solve for natural frequencies of uniform rotating beams. Hoa [7] presented a finite element formulation for a uniform rotating beam with tip mass. Recently, Wright et aL [S] applied the method of Frobenius to obtain exact solutions for the frequencies and mode shapes of a rotating beam in which both flexural rigidity and mass distribution vary linearly. Although the method developed in reference [8] can be applied to a rotating tapered beam, it is confined, however, to such beams in which flexural rigidity varies linearly. Vibration analysis of non-rotating tapered beams has been addressed by a few investigators. A detailed literature review of this subject has been given by Downs [9]. Gallagher et 4L [lo] and To [ 111 have employed the finite element method to estimate natural frequencies and mode shapes of non-rotating tapered beams. Sato [ 121 examined natural frequencies of axially loaded tapered beams. In the most recent work reported by Williams et al. [ 131 the first five natural frequencies of axially loaded tapered beams were evaluated, based on a stepped representation approach. Although the methods presented in references [12,13] consider axial loads, they are restricted to non-rotating tapered beams. In this paper, explicit expressions for the inertia and stifIness properties of a linearly tapered, rotating beam element are derived. The generalized eigenvalue problem is formulated and solved for a wide range of parameter changes. Numerical results are presented and compared with other solutions from previous investigations. This formulation is based on a consistent mass approach that accounts for the centrifugal force field t &we&y
at: Department df Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia. $7 0022-460X/89/190087+ 11 $03.00/O @ 1989 Academic FWss Limited



and the end mass effects. The Euler-based solutions are particularly appropriate for a class of long, flexible, rotating members: examples are helicopter rotors, manipulator arms, wind turbines, and rotating space booms. Large flexible structures, to be deployed in space, are foreseen to have tapered components of high slenderness ratios [14]. 2. THE FINITE ELEMENT MODEL The elastic beam configuration can be defined by a properly generated mesh of finite beam elements. In this formulation, beam elements are linearly tapered in two planes. Any combination of taper ratios in the two planes is permitted in the model developed in this paper. 2.1. EQUATION OF MOTION Consider a beam rotating about an axis fixed in space undergoing vibrational motion in a plane fixed in a local system rotating with the beam. As shown in Figure 1, the beam rotates about the global Z-axis. The beam is considered to be inextensible, and the plane

Figure 1. Co-ordinate frame of a rotating tapered beam.

in which the beam is bonding makes an angle 4 with the direction of rotation. For 4 = 1r/2, the transversal motion of the beam exists in the x-y plane and therefore is purely lead-lag; for #J = 0, the motion is confined to the x-z plane and is purely flapping. The equation of free vibrational motion for such a beam is derived in references [4,7], and can be written as M +(K L; -R2sin2 +M =O, )e (1)

where e is a vector of nodal co-ordinates of element i (a list of nomenclature is given in the Appendix). The term 0 sin24 M accounts for the centripetal acceleration e contribution that causes a softening effect on the lead-lag frequencies. For the assumed beam configuration, however, the gyroscopic trems have no contribution to the eigenvalue calculations [l&16]. 2.2. CENTRIFUGALLY STIFFENED TAPERED BEAM ELEMENT Assuming that the elastic beam is aligned along the x-axis in the undeformed









one can describe the local co-ordinate vector of an arbitrary point pi on element i with respect to the element axes, shown in Figure 2, as w = N , e (2)

where deformations are confined to one plane. The matrix N 1 x 4) is the elemental ( shape functions with non-zero entries given by N;, = 1 -3t2+2e3, Nf2= Ii[,52.$2+t3], Ni3=3t2-2t3, Ni4 = Zi[13- f2]. (3)

Figure 2. A beam element linearly tapered in two planes.

Upon neglecting shear deformations, retaining quadratic terms in functions of w, and assuming that functions of the axial deformation variable u can be ignored when compared to unity [ 16,171, the strain energy expression can be written as (4) The energy expression of equation (4) is equivalent to that derived for transverse vibrations of a beam subject to an external axial load P(x), since to the first approximation one can substitute P(x)/A for E /ax Equation (4) can be written in matrix form as au .
ui = +iTKiei
2 , (9

where K i is the composite stiffness matrix given by

K =K;+K;+Kh. (6)

The matrix K 1 represents the elastic stiffness of element i while the matrices K: and Kk

are sti#ness contributions respectively.

due to the effect of rotation

and rotation

with tip mass,



In order to &fine the entries of the stiffness matrix K:, one needs to introduce the following parameters:
i-l L = c j=l p, = p,

Liy = LO, -L , L.L.IL, y

Liz = Lo, - L s (7)


Now, the cross-sectional

area at any arbitrary location of element i can be expressed as A: = (&&L,)[P~

area as


and the second moment of the cross-sectional



In equation (9), it is assumed that flexural motion takes place in the x-z plane: flapping motion. A similar expression can be obtained for flexural motion in the x-y plane by just interchanging the two subscripts, y and z. Equation (9) can be written in a simpler form as I: = ( IrJ/LoyL;,)[cuo - (YIX+ (Y*x*where a0 = CL&*, al= L:z+3/JdILir, (~2= 6PzLi.r,
(y3=2(Liz+PZ)(11) a3x3 + x4], (10)

Carrying out the integration of the first term of equation (4) gives the stiffness matrix KL with non-zero entries, as presented in Table 1.

Elastic sti$ness of tapered beam element

Kf = mdLJ,GzwG*l9
k;,=-k;,= k;,=-kj,



The non-zero entries of the lower triangular part of [ &,] are as follows:
k;,=(12/1)a,-(6/1 *)cu,+(24/51 )a,-(21/5)(u,+(132/35)1 ,

=(6/1 *)(~~-(2/l~),~+(7/5)(~~-(6/5)I~a~+(38/35)1 ~,

k~~=(4/li)a,-a,+(8/15)I az-(2/5)I Za3+(12/35)11 ,

k~,=-k:3=(6/Zi2)(r,-(4/Zi)~,+(17/5)~2-3liaj+(94/35)1 *, k& = (2/I )ao - a,+(13/15)lia2-(4/5)1 2a3+(26/35)1i3,

k$=(4/I )a,-3a,+(38/15)1 a2-(11/5)1i2a,+(68/35)1 3

The stifIness matrices K f and Ki are established by evaluating the second integral of equation (4), where the term E A~(& ) accounts for axial stresses resulting from the /8x effect of spinning and spinning with tip mass, respectively. In order to calculate the stiffness Ki, one can define the centrifugal force associated with a differential element located at point pi of the finite element i as dF; = piA!J2*r; dr;, (12)

where ri = L+ xi, when small deformations are considered. The tensiIe force a&g on a section at pi due to the centrifugal effect can be calculated by integrating equation (12) over the span between point pi and the free end of the beam. The resulting tensile force








is then determined,

and may be expressed as F; = (P%~~~/&,&c,,)(YO71-x'y2x2- 73x33/4x4),


where ~~Yo~~,~i2(~2-~2+2i-~)-f~2~iP(~3-i3+~i+~)+~~i4(~4_i4+~i-~) 75 =cL,C

Y2=h -%2L'), 'y3=~w-2cL2), y4=$


The axial stresses resulting from the tensile force of equation (13) are incorporated into the integration of the second term of equation (4); resulting in the stiffness matrix given in Table 2.

Rotational sti$ness of tapered beam element

K: = b'&~2/LOyLOr)W:d
The non-zero entries of the lower triangular part of [k:J k;,=-k;,=



are as follows:

k;,=(6/51 )~,-(3/5)~,-(12/35)1 y2-(3/14)1 *y,-(1/7)Ii3y,,

k;,=-k;2=(1/10)~~-(1/10)l ~,-(1/14)1i2y,+(2/5)1 3y,-(1/28)Z 4y,, k;2=(2/15)li~o-(1/30)Iizy,-(2/105)IiJy2-(11/840)li y~-(1/105)Ii~y~, k;,=-k;,=(1/1O)~,+(1/35)1i2y2+(1/28)IiJy,+(1/28)1i~y4, k;2=-(1/30)liy~+(l/60)lizy,+(1/70)li3y2+(11/840)Ii4y:,+(1/84)Ii5y~, k;=(2/15)liy,-(1/10)1 2y,-(3/35)1i y2-(13/168)1 4~~-(1/14)Z*Jy4

The addition of a tip mass to a rotating beam increases the centrifugal force, in equation (13), by the amount F,,, = m,O L. (15)

The additional stiffness due to the effect of the tip mass can be similarly determined using the axial stress produced by F,,,. The resulting stiffness matrix Kk is given in Table 3.

Rotational st#ness due to tip mass Kf,, = (m,f2 L/Ii)[k,b],

kfi=-k,,=k,,=f, k,,=k;=&, a,b=1,2 ,..., 4

The non-zero entries of the lower triangular part of [k,+] are as follows: k;=-kjm2=k;=-k;=&, kz=--&





element mass matrix is defined as I M = piNiTNiA; dx, I0


where M is known as the consistent mass matrix because it is formulated from the same shape functions N that are used to formulate the stiffness matrix. Using equation (8) in equation (la), one can calculate the inertia properties of a tapered beam element. These



are included in Table 4. The effect of the tip mass on the inertia properties of the beam can simply be accounted for by adding the term ( mrLoyL,-,z/piAo) to the diagonal element m33 of the mass matrix of the last element in Table 4. The tip mass is assumed to have negligible rotary inertia. Note that when the taper ratios, vY and v,, tend to zero, the parameter pI becomes equal to one, while the second and third terms of the entries m& go to zero; hence resulting in the case of a uniform beam presented in reference [17].


Inertia properties of tapered beam element M = (P%/&y&z)[m~bl,


a, b = 1,2, . . . ,4 i* -&L21 +&P, 3 m2, =ihl m3, =&,li -&lc21iz+~li 630

non-zero entries of the lower triangular part of [&b] are as follows:

m,, =$,l -&~J~*+&&jl~ ,
i2 -&p21i

m32=&hl +&f -g&f,

m42 = -&cL,f

-$~21i2+&li ,
+hC121i -&is,


13 f+kp2f -4macL1

m43 = -=&p,li2+&L21iJ-~li4,

rnU =&,li3

-&~~l~ +&#




linearly tapered rotating beam with its spin axis aligned along the inertial Z-axis is considered. The out-of-plane transverse vibrations can be represented by equation (1) when the plane in which the beam is bending makes an angle 4 = 0, with the direction of rotation. Therefore, the free vibration of the flapping motion can be expressed as



Frequency ratios of a tapered cantilever beam; v,, = u, = v, 7 = 0

/3=0 v = O-1 v = 0.5 Reference [ 191 Present work Reference [ 191 Present work Reference [ 191 Present work Reference [ 191 Present work Reference [ 191 Present work Reference [ 191 Resent work 3.67370 3.67371 4.62516 4.62517 l-84299 1 a84299 l-50187 l-50189 1.50354 1.50354 l-18690 1.18690





21.5502 21.5506 19.5476 19.5480 16.0295 16.0297 13.2255 13.2259 156426 15.6428 13.0798 13.0804

59.1885 59.1960 48.5789 48.5855 48.9262 48.9305 38.5299 38.5353 48.4732 48.4843 38.3996 384050

115.397 115451 91.8128 91.8575 100482 100.518 78.1583 78.1960 100,019 100.056 78.0367 78.0746

190.357 190.593 149.389 149.580 170.767 170.943 132.129 132,299 170.296 170.471 132.013 132.183

j? = 0.6

Y = O-1 v = 0.5


Y = O-1 Y = O-5




Frequency ratios of uniform rotating beam; vY= v, = 0, /3 = 0


T/=1 17 5 q = 10

Reference [8] Present work Reference [8] Present work Reference [8] Present work Reference [8] Present work

3.68170 3.68170 644950 644950 11.2023 11 a2024 15.6242 15.6245 19.9197 19.9198 294439 294439

22.1810 11.1811 25.4461 254464 33.6404 33.6406 50.1437 50.1440 54.2419 54.2421 65.2554 65.2558

61.8418 61.8421 65.2050 65.2053 74.6493 74.6497 104.420 104.424 108469 108.472 120.146 120.152

121.051 121.054 124.566 124.569 134.884 134.889 178440 178.451 182469 182.475 194462 194.47 1

200.012 200.027 203.622 203.632 214461 214.470 272.247 276.259 288406




Reference [8] Present work Reference [8] Present work

q = 10

where M and K are the assembled mass and stiffness matrices, respectively, of the whole beam. The vector e represents all nodal co-ordinates of the beam. In this analysis, both fixed and hinged end conditions are considered for a wide range of rotational speeds, tip mass values and taper ratios. A finite element program that evaluates the spinning and tip mass effects at the element level is developed. The eigenvalue problem associated with equation (17) is then formulated and numerical solutions are obtained by means of EISPACK routines [ 181. This high-precision computational scheme is utilized to generate numerical solutions, presented here in a useful tabular form that preserves six significant digits. The numerical results presented in this paper were obtained with ten finite beam elements with consistent mass distribution. Solutions of a non-rotating, truncated, tapered cantilever beam are obtained and compared with the exact solution of reference [19]. Such a comparison of the first five frequencies for different taper and end mass ratios is provided in Table 5. These results show a very good agreement with the exact solution. As expected, the scheme developed slightly overestimates the natural frequencies; which is known for a consistent mass formulation [20]. Because numerical results for a rotating tapered beam could not be cited in the available literature, the scheme developed was utilized in solving the case of a rotating uniform beam, for which the exact solutions are presented in reference [8]. The comparison in Table 6 shows a good agreement with exact solutions of a rotating uniform beam for different end conditions at a wide range of rotational speeds. In Table 7 is displayed the numerical solution obtained for the first ten vibrational modes of the frequency spectrum for cantilever and hinged tapered beams, where the combined effects of rotational speed and tip mass were considered. The first two frequencies of transverse vibrations are examined at a wide range of rotational speeds, for different taper ratios. Such results for a cantilever beam and a hinged-free beam, respectively are shown in Figures 3 and 4. Several values of the taper ratio in the range 0 G v d 1 are considered. The case of a uniform beam corresponds to the value of v = 0, while v = 1 defines the case of a perfect cone or wedge. It is shown in Figures 3 and 4 that as the speed of rotation increases, the first and the second modes



Frequency ratios of a rotating tapered beam with tip mass; v,, = a~= 0.5 =
Cantilever \ Hinged-free

I p=o
/3=1 7]=10

/9=0 --

7)=10 q=o l-18690 13.0803 384050 78.0746 132.183 200.919 284.606 383.783 q=lO 10.2680 51.0685 104.301 165.293 235.632 3 16.653 409.524 515.383


13.1895 38.6371 78.3440 132.451 201.128 284.626 383.305 497.595 627.957 777.223

7.28258 29.3262 654422 115.945 181.010 260.922 356.158 467.495 596.387 746.775



A4 A5

A6 A, As

4.62517 19.5480 48.5855 91.8575 149.580 221.930 309.184 411.728

8.93378 25.3048 55.0124 98.6147 156.494 228.922 316.214 418.762

A9 529.988 A,0 664.559

536.979 671441

499.343 633.086

635.432 770.955

20.7052 46.5129 86.2168 140.253 208.852 292.274 390.876 505.065 635.274 784.489

45.9555 94.9670 152.414 219.434 297.124 386.534 488.733 604.866 736.184 884.322




!Speed ratio Figure


3. First and second bending frequencies of a tapered cantilever; -, vy=o, v,=o+.

v,, = v, = v; - - -, v,. = 0.5,

experience an increase for all taper ratios. However, there is a crossover between the frequencies of the beam at different tapers. Solutions are also obtained for three diifertnt cases; vY=vz = 0.5, v,, = 0.5 and V, = 0, and vY= 0 and V, = O-5. The results show that a beam which is tapered in one plane will, in general, possess higher bending frequencies than a beam having the same taper in the two planes. The first frequency of the tapered







Spaad rotio Figure 4. As Figure 3, but for a hinged-free tapered beam.

cantilever beam shows a deviation from this trend. Finally, the centrifugal stiffening effect on the first three bending mode shapes of a tapered cantilever beam and a tapered hinged beam, respectively is presented in Figures 5 and 6. It is interesting to observe that as the untruncated lengths Lo,, and L,, tend to infinity, the taper ratios become zero, resulting in the case of a uniform beam. In this case, the


Q f 00 3 5




0.4 <



I.0 V= 0; - - -, q = 10.

Figure 5. The first three flexural mode shapes of a tapered cantilever; vv = V, = 0.5; -,




0.4 t




Figure 6. As Figure 5, but for a hinged-free tapered beam.

elastic stiffness and inertia properties expressed in Tables 1 and 4, respectively, will reduce to the uniform beam matrices of reference [17]. Furthermore, the rotational stiffness matrix developed in Table 2 will, consequently, reduce to the rotational stiffness of a uniform beam presented in references [7,21]. The results reported herein may be applied to tapered beams with solid or hollow rectangular and circular cross-sections. It is hoped that these high-accuracy numerical results may serve as test cases for the development of more specialized numerical schemes.


Bending frequency of a rotating cantilever beam. 2. D. PIWELL 1972 Journal of Applied Mechanics 39, 602-604. Natural bending frequency
comparable to rotational frequency in rotating cantilever beam. 3. D. A. PETERS 1973 NASA N78-33289. An approximate solution for the free vibrations of rotating uniform cantilever beams. 4. D. H. HODGES 1979 Journal of the American HeZicopter Society 24(5), 43-50. Vibration and response of nonuniform rotating beams and discontinuities. 5. C. Fox and J. BURDESS 1979 Journal of Sound and Vibration 65, 151-158. The natural frequencies of a thin rotating cantilever with offset root. 6. R B. BHAT 1986 Journal of Sound and Vibration 105, 199-210. Transverse vibrations of a rotating uniform beam with tip mass as predicted by using beam characteristic orthogonal polynomials in the Rayleigh-Ritz method. 7. S. V. HOA 1979 Journal of Sound and Vibmtion 67, 369-381. Vibration of rotating beam with tip mass. 8. A. WRIGHT, C. SMITH, R THRESHER and J. WANG 1982 Journal of Applied Mechanics 49, 197-202. Vibration modes of centrifugally stiffened beams. 9. M. DOWNS 1977 Journal of Applied Mechanics 46,737-742. Transverse vibrations of cantilever beams having unequal breadth and depth tapers. 10. R GALLAGHER and C. LEE 1970 Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering 2, 265-275. Matrix dynamic and stability analysis with non-uniform elements. 11. C. W. S. TO 1981 Joumal of Sound and Wwation 78, 475-484. A linearly tapered beam finite element incorporating shear deformation and rotary inertia for vibration analysis. 12. K. SATO 1980 Intemational Journal of Mechanical Sciences 22, 109-115. Transverse vibrations of linearly tapered beams with ends restrained elastically against rotation subjected to axial force.

1. M. SCHILHANSL 1958 Journal of Applied Mechanics 25,28-30.



13. F. WILLIAMS and J. BANERJEE 1985Journal of Sound and Vibmtion 99, 121-138. Flexural vibrations of axially loaded beams with linear or parabolic taper. 14. W. HEARD, H. BUSH, R. WALLSON and J. JENSEN 1983 NASA TR-2108. A mobile work station concept for mechanically aided astronaut of large space trusses. 15. R. M. LAURENSON 1976 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal 14(6), 1444-1450. Modal analysis of rotating flexible structures. 16. P. LIKINS, F. BARBERA and V. BADDELEY American Institute of Aeronatuics and Astronautics Journal 11(9), 1251-1258. Mathematical modeling of spinning elastic bodies for modal analysis. 17. J. S. PRZEMIENIECKI 1968 77teory ofMatrix Structural Analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill. 18. B. SMITH, J. BOYLE, J. DONGARRA, B. GARBOW, Y. IKEBE, V. KLEMA and C. MOLER 1976 Matrix Eigensystem Routines-EISPACK Guide, Lecture Notes in Computer Science Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 19. J. H. LAU 1984Journal of Applied Mechanics 51, 179-181. Vibration frequencies of tapered bars with end mass. 20. Y. KHULIEF and A. SHABANA 1986Journal of Sound and Vibration 104, 187-207. Impact responses of multibody systems with consistent and lumped masses. 21. S. HOA, D. HODGES and M. RUTKOWSKI 1980Journal of Sound and Vibration 72, 547-549. Comments on vibrations of a rotating beam with tip mass.



element cross-sectional area vector of nodal co-ordinates modulus of elasticity centrifugal force second moment of cross-sectional area refers to the ith finite element stitIness matrix truncated length of the beam element length mass matrix tip mass matrix of shape functions total number of elements position vector strain energy rate of spin of the beam = x/l, non-dimensional length = (frequency)/0&&3& frequency ratio = m,/pA& tip mass ratio velocity ratio = .QLIJEl,/pA,, taper ratio in the x-y plane = L/b,, = L/L,, taper ratio in the x-z plane