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IBC 2006

This document illustrates the method of Seismic Load (Static Equivalent method) as per IBC 2006

THE IBC 2006 STATIC EQUIVALENT METHOD FOR SEISMIC ANALYSIS OBJECTIVE In this session, we will briefly go over the theoretical basis for equivalent static force procedures such as IBC. We will also learn how to define seismic parameters and weights, combine gravity loads with lateral loads, view the generated lateral loads, handle cases like tension-only bracing members, etc. GENERAL OVERVIEW When a building is subjected to an earthquake, it undergoes vibrations. The weights of the structure, when accelerated along the direction of the earthquake, induce forces in the building. Normally, an elaborate dynamic analysis called time history analysis is required to solve for displacements, forces and reactions resulting from the seismic activity. However, codes like IBC provide a static method of solving for those values. The generalized procedure used in those methods consists of 3 steps Step 1: Calculate Base Shear = Factor Cs * Weight W where "Cs" (seismic coefficient) is calculated from terms which take into consideration the Importance factor of the building, Site Class and soil characteristics, etc. W is the total vertical weight derived from dead weight of the building and other imposed weights. Step 2: The base shear is then distributed over the height of the building as a series of point loads. Step 3: The model is then analyzed for the horizontal loads generated in step 2. The input required in STAAD consists of 2 parts. Part 1, which appears under a heading called DEFINE IBC LOAD contains the terms used to compute "f" and "W" described in step 1. Part 2, which appears within a load case, contains the actual instruction to generate the forces described in step 2 and analyze the structure for those forces. On a broad basis, the rules described in section 1613 of the ICC IBC-2006 code (except 1613.5.5) have been implemented. This section directs the engineer to Section 12.8 of the ASCE 7-2005 code. The specific section numbers of ASCE 7- those which are implemented, and those which are not implemented, are shown in the table below.

The associated pages of the ASCE 7-2005 code are 115 thru 129.

Methodology The design base shear is computed in accordance with the equations shown below

The seismic response coefficient, Cs, is determined in accordance with the following equation:

For IBC 2006, Cs need not exceed the following limits defined in ASCE 7-05:-

Cs shall not be less than

In addition, for structures located where S1 is equal to or greater than 0.6g, Cs shall not be less than

For an explanation of the terms used in the above equations, please refer to IBC 2006 and ASCE 7-05 codes.

See the Appendix below: (press control button and click the link to go directly to the appendix)

SPECIFYING THE INPUT IN THE STAAD FILE There are 2 stages of command specification for generating lateral loads. This is the first stage and is activated through the DEFINE IBC 2006 LOAD command. For IBC 2006 using a known zip code, the command is thus:DEFINE IBC 2006 (ACCIDENTAL) LOAD ZIP f11 RX f5 RZ f6 I f4 TL f15 SCLASS f7 (CT f8) (PX f9) (PZ f10) (K f16) (FA f17) (FV f18)

Weight spec (See section 5.31.2.2 of the Technical Reference manual for complete weight specification) For IBC 2006 using a known longitude and latitude, the command is thus:DEFINE IBC 2006 (ACCIDENTAL) LOAD LAT f12 LONG f13 RX f5 RZ f6 I f4 TL f15 SCLASS f7 (CT f8) (PX f9) (PZ f10) (K f16) (FA f17) (FV f18) Weight spec (See section 5.31.2.2 of the Technical Reference manual for complete weight specification)

For IBC 2006 using specific SS and S1 values, the command is thus:DEFINE IBC 2006 (ACCIDENTAL) LOAD SS f14 S1 f3RX f5 RZ f6 I f4 TL f15 SCLASS f7 (CT f8) (PX f9) (PZ f10) (K f16) (FA f17) (FV f18) Weight spec (See section 5.31.2.2 of the Technical Reference manual for complete weight specification) where, S1 f3 = the mapped MCE spectral response acceleration at a period of 1 second as determined in accordance with Section 11.4.1 ASCE7-05 I f4 = Occupancy importance factor. (IBC 2006, ASCE 7-05 Table 11.5-1) RX f5 = The response modification factor for lateral load along the X direction, (IBC 2006 ASCE Table 12.2.1) RZ f6 = The response modification factor for lateral load along the Z direction, (IBC 2006 ASCE Table 12.2.1) SCLASS f7= Site class. Enter 1 through 6 in place of A through F, see table below. (IBC 2006 ASCE 7-05 Section 20.3) The Soil Profile Type parameter SCLASS can take on values from 1 to 6. These relate to the values shown in Site Class Definitions Table in the following manner:-

IBC Class A B C D E F

SCLASS value 1 2 3 4 5 6

CT f8 = Optional CT value to calculate time period. (IBC 2006 ASCE 7-05 Table 12.8-2).

PX f9 = Optional Period of structure (in sec) in X-direction to be used as fundamental period of the structure. If not entered the value is calculated from the code. (IBC 2006 ASCE 7-05 Table 12.8-2). PZ f10 = Optional Period of structure (in sec) in Z-direction to be used as fundamental period of the structure. If not entered the value is calculated from the code. (IBC 2006 ASCE 7-05 Table 12.8-2). ZIP f11 = The zip code of the site location to determine the latitude and longitude and consequently the Ss and S1 factors. (IBC 2006, ASCE 7-05 Chapter 22). LAT f12 = The latitude of the site used with the longitude to determine the Ss and S1 factors. (IBC 2006, ASCE 7-05 Chapter 22). LONG f13 = The longitude of the site used with the latitude to determine the Ss and S1 factors. (IBC 2006, ASCE 7-05 Chapter 22). SS f14 = Mapped MCE for 0.2s spectral response acceleration. (IBC 2006, ASCE 7-05 Chapter 22). TL f15 = Long-Period transition period in seconds. (IBC 2006, ASCE 7-05 Chapter 22). K f16 = Exponent used in equation 12.8-7, ASCE 7. (IBC 2006, ASCE 7-2005, table 12.8-2 page 129).

FA f17 = Optional Short-Period site coefficient at 0.2s. Value must be provided if SCLASS set to F (i.e. 6). (IBC 2006, ASCE 7-05 Section 11.4.3). FV f18 = Optional Long-Period site coefficient at 1.0s. Value must be provided if SCLASS set to F (i.e. 6). (IBC 2006, ASCE 7-05 Section 11.4.3).

Example There are 3 methods to define IBC 2006. The 3 methods are defined below. Method 1:- Input Zip code DEFINE IBC 2006 ZIP 92887 I 1.25 RX 2.5 RZ 2.5 SCLASS 4 TL 12 FA 1 FV 1.5 SELFWEIGHT JOINT WEIGHT 51 56 93 100 WEIGHT 650 MEMBER WEIGHT 151 TO 156 158 159 222 TO 225 324 TO 331 UNI 45 Method 2:- Input Latitude and Longitude DEFINE IBC 2006 LAT 33.8845 LONG -117.9274 I 1.25 RX 2.5 RZ 2.5 SCLASS 4 TL 12 FA 1 FV 1.5 SELFWEIGHT JOINT WEIGHT 51 56 93 100 WEIGHT 650 MEMBER WEIGHT 151 TO 156 158 159 222 TO 225 324 TO 331 UNI 45 Method 3:- Input Ss and S1 values DEFINE IBC 2006 ACCIDENTAL SS 2.15822 S1 0.80585 I 1 RX 3 RZ 4 SCLASS 4 TL 12 SELFWEIGHT JOINT WEIGHT 51 56 93 100 WEIGHT 650 MEMBER WEIGHT 151 TO 156 158 159 222 TO 225 324 TO 331 UNI 45

Steps used to calculate and distribute the base shear are as follows: 1. The Time Period of the structure is calculated based on section 12.8.1 of ASCE 7-05 (IBC 2006). This is reported in the output as Ta. 2. The period is also calculated in accordance with the Rayleigh method. This is reported in the output as T. 3. The user may override the Rayleigh based period by specifying a value for PX or PZ (Items f7 and f8) depending on the direction of the IBC load. 4. The governing Time Period of the structure is then chosen between the above two periods, and the additional guidance provided in section 12.8.2.1 of ASCE 7-05 (IBC 2006). The resulting value is reported as "Time Period used" in the output file. 5. The Design Base Shear is calculated based on equation 12.8-1 of ASCE 7-05 (IBC 2006). It is then distributed at each floor using the rules of clause 12.83, equations 12.8-11, 12.8-12 and 12.8-13 of ASCE 7-05. 6. If the ACCIDENTAL option is specified, the program calculates the additional torsional moment. The lever arm for calculating the torsional moment is obtained as 5% of the building dimension at each floor level perpendicular to the direction of the IBC load (section 12.8.4.2 of ASCE 7-05 for IBC 2006). At each joint where a weight is located, the lateral seismic force acting at that joint is multiplied by this lever arm to obtain the torsional moment at that joint. The following example shows the commands required to enable the program to generate the lateral loads. Users may refer to Section 5.32.12 of the Technical Reference Manual for this information. Example LOAD 1 (SEISMIC LOAD IN X DIRECTION) IBC LOAD X 0.75 LOAD 2 (SEISMIC LOAD IN Z DIRECTION) IBC LOAD Z 0.75 TO SPECIFY IBC 2006 FROM THE GUI The static equivalent method for performing dynamic analysis per the IBC 2006 code has been implemented in STAAD.Pro 2007 Build 02. This option can be accessed from the General | Load page as explained below.

Description When the General | Load Page is selected, the right hand side of the screen will display the following if no load cases exist in the model

Definitions contains the options through which one creates the Define block of data required to create wind load cases, seismic load cases like IBC and UBC, moving load cases and time history load cases. When the tree view is expanded, it will look as shown below

Select Seismic Definitions and click on Add. In the dialog box that comes up, select IBC 2006 from the drop-down list.

In this dialog box, we can specify the various parameters as described below

Include Accidental Load Check this box to calculate the accidental torsion component described in section 12.8.4.2 of ASCE 7-05. Parameter The various parameters for the IBC 2006 code, such as the Occupancy Importance factor IE, Response modification factors RX and RZ, spectral response accelerations SDS, SD1 and S1, etc., are described in detail in Section 5.31.2.6 of the STAAD Technical Reference manual. After specifying the values for the parameters, click on the Add button. We will see that the Load dialog box has now been updated

Next, we should define the structural weights for calculating Base Shear. After highlighting the expression LAT 38.0165, click on Add. A new dialog box titled Add New Seismic Definitions will come up.

Self weight This is the self weight of the structure. Joint Weights These are the concentrated weights acting at one or more joints. Member Weights Distributed and concentrated weights acting on member spans are specified through this option. After clicking the Member weight button, the Member weight dialog box appears, as shown below

Select the Concentrated or Uniform load type from the Loading Type drop down list. Enter the intensity of the distributed weight or magnitude of the concentrated weight as the case may be, along with the location of the load. Element Weights If the structural model consists of plate elements representing entities like floor slabs, the pressure loads on those slabs can be considered for weights calculation for lateral load generation per UBC/IBC/other codes. This is done with the help of the Element Weights option. Its parameters include the magnitude of the uniform pressure, and the elements they are applied on. Since it is a weight, it is a quantity without a sign. Reference Load Reference Load cases which are described in AD.2007-1001.1.12 of the STAAD.Pro 2007 Software Release Report can be referred to using this option. Loads which are specified under Reference Loads can be used as weights for IBC. Floor Weights In many situations, a user may decide not to include the structural slabs in his/her analytical model. Hence, the model may be solely the skeleton framing system consisting of the beams, columns and bracing members.

Under these circumstances, the loads which act on the slab can no longer be applied on the structure using the ELEMENT PRESSURE options. This is because there are no elements to represent the slab. So, an alternative is to apply the load using the FLOOR LOAD option. It is described in detail in section 5.32.4 of the Technical Reference manual. Within a UBC/IBC/other codes definition, the FLOOR WEIGHT is the counterpart for the FLOOR LOAD just as MEMBER WEIGHT is the counterpart for a MEMBER LOAD, and an ELEMENT WEIGHT is the counterpart for an ELEMENT LOAD. Its parameters are hence very similar to what are found in a normal FLOOR LOAD definition. XRANGE, YRANGE and ZRANGE options allow the user to narrow in on panels at specific regions of the building. The pressure value is provided as a quantity without sign because it is contributing to the overall weight - a numerically positive term. Once we finish specifying the seismic definitions, we can start adding load cases. To do that, select Load Cases Details and click on Add.

In the dialog box that appears, provide a Title and click on Add.

We can add more load cases in this manner. To add load items to our first load case, keep the expression 1: SEISMIC IN THE X DIRECTION highlighted and click on the Add button.

Here, enter the Factor, Direction, etc. and click on Add

The Load dialog box will show the new load item

We can continue adding other load items to this load case in a similar fashion.

Once the analysis is performed you may be able to view the results in the output file as shown below.

Appendix :1

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