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1

Optics

 

The study of light and vision is called optics.

Light is a form of energy which is propagated as Electromagnetic waves which produces the sensation of sight in us.

 
 

Geometrical optics treats propagation of light in terms of rays and is valid only if wavelength of light much lesses than the size of obstacles.

i) Light does not require a medium for its propagation

ii) It’s speed in free space (vaccum) is 3 x 10 8 m/s

iii) It is transverse in nature

 

In the spectrum of e.m.w. it lies between u.v. and infra-red region and has wavelength between 4000 to

7000

O A . i.e (0.4m m

to

0.7m m)

4000 to 7000 O A . i.e ( 0.4 m m to 0.7 m m )

Indigo is not distensible from blue.

 

BASIC - DEFINATIONS Source:

 
 

A body which emits light is called source. Source can be a point one (or) extended one.

(a)

Self-luminous-source: The source which possess light of it own. Ex:- Sun, Electric arc, Candle, etc.

(b)

Non-luminous-Source: It is a source of light which does not possesses light of its own but acts as source of light by reflecting the light received by it. Ex: Moon, object around us, Book…….etc.

Isotropic Source: It gives out light uniformly in all directions. Non-isotropic Source: It do not give out light uniformly in all direction. Medium: Substance through which light propagates is called medium

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Optics

 
 
 

Ray: The straight line path along with the light travels in a homogeneous medium is called a ray. A single ray cannot be propagated form a source of light. Beam: A bundle can bunch of rays is called beam it is called beam it is of following 3 types Convergent-beam: In this case diameter of beam decreases in the direction of ray

 
 

Divergent Beam: It is a beam is with all the rays meet at a point when produced backward and the diameter of beam goes on increasing as the rays proceed forward.

 
 

Parallel Beam: It is beam in which all the rays constituting the beam move parallel to each other and diameter of beam remains same

 
 

Object: An optical object is decided by incident rays only. It is if two kinds Real Object: In this case incident rays are diverging and point of divergence is the position of real object.

 
 

Virtual Object: In this case incident ray are converging and point of convergence is the position of virtual object. Virtual object cannot be seen by human eye be cause for an object can image to be seen by eyes, ray received by eyes must be diverging.

 
 

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Optics

 

Image: An optical image is decided by reflected (or) refracted rays only. It is of two types. (a) Real Image: This is formed due to real intersection of reflected (or) refracted rays, Real image can be obtained on screen.

 
 

Virtual-Image: This is formed due to apparent intersection of reflected (or) refracted light rays. Virtual image can’t be obtained on screen. (Note: Human ray can’t distinguish between real and virtual image because in both case rays are diverging)

 
 
 

REFLECTION:

 
 

The phenomenon by virtue of which incident light energy is partly or completely sent back into the same medium from which it is coming after being obstructed by a surface is called reflection. The direction of incident energy is called incident ray and the direction in which energy is thrown back is called reflected ray. It is of two types.

is thrown back is called reflected ray. It is of two types. LAWS OF REFLECTION:  

LAWS OF REFLECTION:

 
 

1) First Law: The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal to the reflecting surface at the

point of incidence, all lie in one plane which is

^'

r

to the reflecting surface.

2) The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection i = r . Note:

1) The laws of reflection are valid for any smooth reflecting surface irrespective of geometry.

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Optics

   
 
 
 

2) Whenever reflection takes place, the component of incident ray parallel to reflecting surface remains uncharged, while component perpendicular to reflecting surface (i.e. along normal) reverse in direction.

Æ

^

^

^

Æ

^

^

^

r

1

= x i + y j + z k

,

r

2

= xi + y j - z k

r 2 = xi + y j - z k

3) Vector form of laws of Reflection:

 
 

^

^

^

^

ˆ

^

R

=

I

-

Ê

Á

Ë

2 I.N

˜

¯

N

 

R Æ Unit vector along the reflected ray

 

^

I Æ

Unit vector along the Incident ray

 

^

N

Æ

Unit vector along the normal ray

 

Image formed by a plane mirror:

 

a) Point Source: For construction of image of a point source it is sufficient to consider any two rays falling on mirror. The point of intersection of corresponding reflected rays give the position of image as shown in figure.

 
 
 

OA = AI

 
5 Optics (\ D ABD @ D ABI) Image I lies as much behind the
5
Optics
(\ D ABD @ D ABI)
Image I lies as much behind the mirror as the object is in front of it.
b)
Extended source:
Characteristics of the image formed by a plane mirror:
1)
The image formed by a plane mirror is Virtual
2)
The image formed by a plane mirror is Erect
3)
The image formed by a plane mirror is of same size as object.
4)
The image formed by a plane mirror is at the same distance behind the mirror is the object is
infront of it.
5)
The image is laterally inverted (i.e.) right appear as left and vice-versa.
6)
Note: If two plane mirror faring each other are inclined at an angle q with each other, then
number of images are formed due to multiple reflection. This principle is used in the toy
kaleidoscope.
360
360
(a)
If
is even integer, then number of images formed is
h
=
-
1
q
q
360
0
Ex: If
q
= 60
then
h =
-
1
=
6
-
1
=
5
60
360
360
(b)
If
is odd integer, then number of images formed is
h
=
q
q
360
0
Ex: If
q
= 40
(which is not the complete part of 180 0 ) then
h =
= 9
40
Deviation (d ): The angle between incident and reflected (or) refracted ray is termed as deviation.
For reflection d = p - 2 i
Cases: When i = 0 (Normal incidence)
d
= p
max
(or) refracted ray is termed as deviation. For reflection d = p - 2 i Cases:

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Optics

p When i = (Grazing incidence) 2 = 0 d min Multiple Reflection: d =
p
When
i =
(Grazing incidence)
2
= 0
d min
Multiple Reflection:
d
=
 d
d i = deviation due to single reflection.
net
i
Note while summing up, sense of rotation is taken into account.
Q: 1)
Two plane mirror are inclined to each other such that a ray of light incident on the first mirror and parallels to
the second is reflected from the second mirror parallel to the first mirror. Determine the angle between the two
mirror. Also determine the total deviation produced in the incident ray due to the two reflections.
Solution:
d
= p -
2i
1
0
= 180 - 2¥ 30
= 120
A.C.W.
0
0
d
= p - 2i = 180
- 2¥ 30
= 120
2
\
d
=
d
+
d
net
2
1
Or From fig. d
= 240 ( or ) 120 Ø
= 180 + q = 180 + 60
= 240
0
( or ) 120 Ø
Q: 2)
Solution:
Calculate deviation suffered by incident ray in situation as shown in figure, after three successive reflections?
F,B.D

From figure

3q = 180 q = 60

0

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Optics

d 1 = p - 2i = 180 - 2¥ 50 0 = 100 0
d
1 = p -
2i
= 180 - 2¥ 50
0 = 100
0
d
= ¥
180
-
2
20
0 =
140
Ø
2
0
d
= ¥
180
-
2
10
0 =
160
Ø
2
d
= 100
+
140
Ø +
160
Ø =
100
(
or
)
260
0 Ø
net
Q: 3)
Two plane mirrors are inclined to each other at an angle q . A ray of light is reflected first at one mirror and
then at the other. Find the total deviation of the ray?
Solution:
Let
a
Angle of incidence for M 1
b = Angle of incidence for M 2
=
d
1 Deviation due to M 1
=
d
2 Deviation due to M 2
=
From figure
d
=
-
2a
1 p
d
=
-
2b
2 p
Also ray is rotated in same secure (i.e.) anticlockwise
d
= d
+d
Now in D OBC
Net
1
2
0
= p - 2a + p - 2b
–OBC + –BCO + –COB = 180
0
)
(
0
)
0
d
= 2p - 2(a + b )
( 90
- a
+
90
- b
+ q = 180
Net
\
d
= 2p - 2(q )
a + b
= q
Net

d

Net

= 2p - 2q

= 2p - 2(a + b ) ( 90 - a + 90 - b +

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Optics

 

Velocity of Image:

 

Let

x O/m = x-co-ordinate of object w.r.t. mirror x I/m = x-co-ordinate of image w.r.t. mirror y O/m = y-co-ordinate of object w.r.t. mirror y I/m = y-co-ordinate of image w.r.t. mirror For plane mirror

 
 

x O/m = -x I/m

 

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. time (t)

 
 

d

d

(

x

 

)

 

dt

(

x

O

/

m

)

= -

dt

I

/

m

È

Æ

V

˘

˙

= -

È

Æ

˘

V

˙

Í

Î

O

/

m

˚

x

Í

Î

I

/

m

˚

x

 

Æ

Æ

V

-

V

= -

V

-

V

 

Ox

mx

Æ

Æ

Ix

mx

V

Ix

= 2

V

-

mx

V

Ox

 
 

Similarly y I/m = y O/m Differentiating both sides w.r.t. time we get

 

Æ

Ê Á V

I

/

m

ˆ

˜

=

Ê

Á

 

Æ

ˆ

V

O

/

m

˜

Ë

¯

y

Ë

¯

y

 

In nutshell, for solving numerical problems involving calculation of velocity of image of object with respect to any observer, always calculate velocity of image first with respect to mirror using following points.

 

Æ

Á Ê V

I

/ m

ˆ

˜

=

Ê

Á

Æ

O

V

/

m

ˆ

˜

 

Ë

¯

11

Ë

¯

 

11

 

ˆ

Ê Á ˜

Ë

Æ

Ê

Á

Æ

O

I V

V = -

/ m

¯

1

Ë

/

m

ˆ

˜

¯

1

Æ

V

I

/

m

=

Ê

Á

Ë

Æ

V

I

/

m

 

ˆ Æ

 

ˆ

Ê

Á

+

˜ V

I

/

m

˜

¯ ¯

Ë

 

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1

 

Velocity of image with respect to required observer is then calculated using basic equation for relative motion.

 

Æ

Æ

Æ

V

A

/

B

=

V

A

-

V

B

 
 

Note: If the velocity of the object (w.r.t mirror) is not in a direction normal to the mirror, then the velocity of the object can be resolved into two components one normal to the mirror (v n ) and the other along the mirror (v p ). The image has velocities –V n and V P , normal to and along the mirror.

Q: 1)

Point object is moving with a speed V before an arrangement of two mirrors as shown in figure. Find the velocity of image in mirror M 1 w.r.t. image in mirror M 2 ?

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Optics

Æ Æ Æ Solution: = V - V = 2V sin q V 1/ 2
Æ
Æ
Æ
Solution:
= V
- V
= 2V sin q
V 1/ 2
1
2
F.B.D
Angle between
Is 2q
\ their magnitude is V.
Q: 2)
Solution:
Find the velocity of image of a moving particle in situation as shown in figure.
Analysis:
^ 1/ 2
For component of velocity of image
to mirror
Æ
Æ
Æ
V
=
2
V
-V
I
m
0
\
(V )
1 / 2 = 2 - 2
(
)
- 6 = -10
m
/
s
I
^
For component of velocity of image parallel to the mirror
(V )
=
8
m
/
s
I
11
2
\ Velocity of time
V
=
(
V
)
1 2 + V
(
)
I
I
I
n

V

I

1

 

and V

I

2

/ s I 11 2 \ Velocity of time V = ( V ) 1 2

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Optics

= 100 + 64 = 164 m Ê 4 ˆ - 1 \ q =
=
100 + 64 =
164 m
Ê 4 ˆ
- 1
\
q = tan
Á
˜
Ë 5
¯
Q: 3)
Two plane mirror are placed as shown in the figure below:
A point object is approaching the intersection point of mirror with a speed of 100cm/s. The velocity of the
image of object formed by M 2 w.r.t. velocity of image of object formed by M 1 is:
Solution:
The components of various velocities are as shown in the figure below
Æ
^ 1r
2 is given by the vector sum of components of velocity of image w.r.t. M 2 along the normal and
to the
V IM
normal.
Æ
^
^
^
^
È
˘ È
˘
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
=
100 sin 37
i
+
100 sin 37 cos 37
j
-
100 cos 37
i
+
100 sin 37 cos 37
j
V IM
Í
˙ +
˙
2 Î
˚ Í
Î
˚

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Optics

^ ^ ˆ = Á Ê - 28i + 48 j ˜ cm / s
^
^
ˆ
= Á Ê
-
28i
+
48 j
˜
cm / s
Ë
¯
Æ
Æ
Æ
=
-
V IM
, IM
V IM
V IM
2
1
2
1
^
^
È
˘
=
-
128
i
+
48
˙ cm
/ sec
Í Î j
˚
Q: 4)
In the situation show in figure, find the velocity of image?
Solution:
Along x – direction, applying
V i =V
= - V
(
-V
)
m
0
m
(
0
)
[
0
(
0
)]
V i - - 5cos30
= - 10cos60 - - 5cos30
^
(
)i
\ V
= -
51
+
3
m
/
s
i
Along y-direction V 0 = V i
^
\ =
V i 10sin 60
0 =
5
j m
/
s
^
^
\ Velocity of the image
= -
5(1
+
3)i
+
5 j m / s
Q: 5)
An object moves with 5m/s towards right while the mirror moves with 1m/s towards the left as shown. Find the
velocity of image.
Solution:
Take Æ as +ve direction.
V
-
V
=
V
-
V
i
m
m
0
V i - (-1)= (-1)- 5

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Optics

V i = -7 m / s fi 7 m / s and direction towards
V i = -7
m
/
s
7
m
/
s
and direction towards left.
Q: 6)
Find the region on y-axis in which reflected rays are present object is at A(2, 0) and MN is a plane mirror, as
shown
Solution:
A'= (6,0)
M '= (0,6)
N '= (0,9)
^ 1r
Q: 7)
An object moves towards a plane mirror with a speed v at an angle 60 0 to the
What is the relative velocity between the object and the emage?
to the plane of the mirror.
3
V
V
a) V
b)
V
c)
d)
2
2
2
Æ
Æ
Æ
Solution:
V
=
V
-
V
OI
O
I
^
^
^
ˆ Ê
^ ˆ
0
Á Ê V cos 60
0 i
- V sin 60
0 j
˜ +
Á
V cos 60
i
+
V sin 60
0 j
˜
Ë
¯ Ë
¯

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Optics

Q: 8) A ray of light making angle 20 0 with the horizontal is incident

Q: 8)

A ray of light making angle 20 0 with the horizontal is incident on a plane mirror with itself inclined to the horizontal at angle 10 0 , with normal away from the incident ray. What is the angle made by the reflected ray with the horizontal?

Solution:

AO = Incident ray OB = Reflected ray

horizontal? Solution: AO = Incident ray OB = Reflected ray The reflected ray goes along the

The reflected ray goes along the horizontal. Hence angle made by the reflected ray with the horizontal is zero.

Q: 9)

A ray of light making angle 10 0 with the horizontal is incident on a plane mirror making angle q with the horizontal. What should be the value of q , so that the reflected ray goes vertically upwards?

a) 30 0 Solution:

b) 40 0

c) 50 0

d) 60 0

upwards? a) 30 0 Solution: b) 40 0 c) 50 0 d) 60 0 Number of

Number of Images Formed by two Inclined-Plane Mirrors:

a) When mirror are parallel: In this case, infinite images are formed due to multiple reflections.

14 Optics b) When mirror are perpendicular: In this case, three images are formed. The
14
Optics
b) When mirror are perpendicular: In this case, three images are formed. The ray diagram is
shown.
Note that the third image is formed due to rays undergoing two successive reflection. Also, object and its
2
2
2
2
images lie on a circle whose equation is given by
x
+ y
= a
+ b
.
When an object is placed in front of arrangement of three mutually perpendicular mirror, then total seven
images are formed.
2
2
2
2
2
2
Further, object and its image lie on a sphere whose equation is given by
x
+ y
+ z
= a
+ b
+ c
, where
a,
b and c are co-ordinates of object.
Minimum size of Mirror to see Full-Image:
AB is the person with E as his eyes,
M
1 M 2 = plane mirror infront of him.
For the length of the mirror to be minimum, the rays coming from the extreme top and bottom portions of his
body. (i.e.) A and B, Should after reflection, be able to just enter his eyes.

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Optics

The light ray AM, is incident ray and M 1 E the reflected ray. So
The light ray AM, is incident ray and M 1 E the reflected ray.
So
–AM N = –EM N
1
1
1
1
As
D's
AM N
and EM N
are similar.
1
1
1
1
Similarly the light rays BM 2 and M 2 E are incident and reflection rays respectively
So
–BM N = –EM N
2
2
2
2
\
D
S s
BM N
and EM N
are similar
2
2
2
2
Adding equation (1) and (2) yield
1
x + y = length of mirror
=
(
AE + BC =
)
AB
)
=
2
1 (
2
1 (Height of person)
2
Note:- Minimum size is independent of distance between man and mirror.
Q: 1)
A plane mirror is inclined at an angle q with the horizontal surface. A particle is projected from point P (see
fig.) at t = 0 with a velocity v at angle a with the horizontal. The image of the particle is observed from the
frame of the particle projected. Assuming the particle does not collide the mirror, find the (a) time when the
image will come momentarily at rest w.r.t. the particle (b) path of the image as seen by the particle.
Solution:
(a) The image will appear to be at rest w.r.t. the particle at the instant, the velocity of the
particle is parallel to the mirror.
V
y
= tanq
V
x
= tan q
V cos a
t =
g
Q: 2)
An a oblong object PQ of height ‘h’ stands erect on a flat horizontal mirror. Sun rays fall on the object at a
certain angle. Find the length of the shadow on screen placed beyond the shadow on the mirror.

\

M E

1

1

=

x

Say

=

N E

1

=

1 (AE)
2

…… (1)

\

M E

2

\ M E 2 1 = y ( Say ) = N E 2 = 1

1

=

y(Say)

=

N E

2

=

1 (BE)
2

………(2)

V

sin a

- gt

V cosa

(

tana - tanq

)

(b) St. line

^ 1 r

to mirror

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Optics

Solution:

Solution: PS = Shadow on the mirror P’ Q’ = Inversed shadow of PQ on the

PS = Shadow on the mirror P’ Q’ = Inversed shadow of PQ on the screen

the mirror P’ Q’ = Inversed shadow of PQ on the screen Let a = angle

Let

a = angle of incidence

Then

PS = h tana

and

QS = h seca

From the properly of image P’ Q’ = 2(h sec a )cosa = 2h

Q: 3)

A plane mirror is placed at parallel of y-axis, facing the positive x-axis. An object starts form (2m, 0, 0) with a

 

^

Á Ê 2 i

 

^

ˆ

velocity of

+

2 j

˜

¯

. The relative velocity of image with respect to object is along
Ë

m / s

Solution:

Æ Æ 2 2 V = V = ( 2 ) + ( 2 )
Æ
Æ
2
2
V
=
V
=
(
2
)
+
(
2
)
0
I
Æ
V
= 2
2
m
/
s
0
V = ( 2 ) + ( 2 ) 0 I Æ V = 2 2

Relative velocity of image with respect to object is in negative x-direction as shown in figure.

Æ V = 2 2 m / s 0 Relative velocity of image with respect to

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Optics

x-direction is

directed towards positive y-direction after reflection from the surface at some point ‘P’. Then co-ordinates of point ‘P’ are Solution: From figure

Q: 4) A reflection surface is represented by the equation

x 2

+ y

2

= a

2

. A ray traveling in negative

equation x 2 + y 2 = a 2 . A ray traveling in negative 9
equation x 2 + y 2 = a 2 . A ray traveling in negative 9

9

x = , y = 2 Ê q \ = Á P , Ë 2
x =
,
y =
2
Ê
q
\ = Á
P
,
Ë
2

9

2
2

q

ˆ

˜

¯9 x = , y = 2 Ê q \ = Á P , Ë 2

Q: 5)

A ray is traveling along x-axis in negative x-direction. A plane mirror is placed at origin facing the ray. What should be the angle of plane mirror with the x-axis so that the ray of light offer reflecting from the plane mirror

passes through point (1m, Solution:

3 m )? m )?

plane mirror passes through point (1m, Solution: 3 m )? Q: 6) angle 30 0 at

Q: 6)

angle 30 0 at a point just inside one end of A. The plane of incidence coincides with the plane of the figure. The maximum number of times the ray undergoes reflection (including the first one) before it emerges out is Solution:

Two plane mirror A and B are aligned parallel to each other as shown in the figure. A light ray is incident at an

d =

0.2 tan30

0 =

0.2

3
3

\ Max. No. of reflection =

2 3 0.2 / 3
2
3
0.2 /
3

= 30

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Optics

REFLECTIN FROM CURVED SURFACE: (Spherical – Surface only) A curved mirror is a smooth reflecting

REFLECTIN FROM CURVED SURFACE: (Spherical – Surface only) A curved mirror is a smooth reflecting part of any geometry. The nomenclature of curved mirror depends on the geometry of reflecting surface. There are different types of curved mirror like paraboloidal, ellipsoidal, cylindrical, spherical ….etc.

are different types of curved mirror like paraboloidal, ellipsoidal, cylindrical, spherical ….etc. Sign-Conversion:

Sign-Conversion:

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Optics

Rules for Ray-Diagrams 1) A ray of light parallel to principal axis passes (or) appears

Rules for Ray-Diagrams 1) A ray of light parallel to principal axis passes (or) appears to pass through four after reflection.

passes (or) appears to pass through four after reflection. 2) A ray of light passing through

2) A ray of light passing through focus (or) appears to pass through focus becomes parallel to principal-axis after reflection.

focus becomes parallel to principal-axis after reflection. 3) A ray of light passing through (or) appears

3) A ray of light passing through (or) appears to pass through centre of curvature is reflected back.

to pass through centre of curvature is reflected back. 4) A ray of light hitting pole

4) A ray of light hitting pole is reflected making equal angle with principal oxis

Note:

is reflected making equal angle with principal oxis Note: 1) Focal length and radius of curvature

1) Focal length and radius of curvature of plane mirror = a 2) Concave mirror = Convergent mirror Convex mirror = Divergent mirror Relation between focal-length and radius of curvature:

20

Optics

 
 

È

R ˘

 

Í

Î

f

= 2

˙

Both for concave and convex mirror.

 

˚

Mirror formula (or) Mirror Equation:

The relation between u, v and f of a mirror is known as mirror formula

È

1

1

1 ˘

 
 

=

+

 

˙

 

Í f

Î u

v

˚

Relation between the speeds of object and image formed by a spherical mirror We know that, mirror formula is given by

1

1

1

+

=

 

……….(1)

 

u

v

f

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. time (t), we get

1

du

 

1

 

dv

 

-

-

 

=

0

u

2

.

dt

 

v

2

.

dt

 

1

dv

1

dv

 

= -

 

=

0

 

v

2

.

dt

u

2

.

dt

 

dv

= -

v

2

dy

 

…………(2)

 

dt

u

2

.

dt

Since

dv

dt

=

v

i

=

speed of time

 
 

du =

dt

v

0

=

speed of object

 
 

Ê v ˆ

˜

2

 
 

\

v

i

= Á

.v

0

 

………….(3)

 

Ë

u

¯

 

From equation (1),

 

v =

u f

 

(

or

)

 

v

=

f

 
 

u

-

f

 

u

x

-

f

 

Hence equation (2) become

 

v

i

Ê

= - Á

Á

 

f

ˆ

˜ .v

¯

˜

0

 

Ë

u

-

f

 

Linear magnification: It is defined as the ratio of the size (or) height of the image to the size (or) height of the object.

 

size of image

=

height of image

 

m =

 
 

size of image

 

height of image

 

È

I ˘

 
 

\

M

 

˙

 

Í

Î

 

= o

˚

Magnification produced by concave mirror:

 
21 Optics A ' B ' = image of object AB S D ABp and
21
Optics
A ' B ' = image of object AB
S
D
ABp
and A' B ' p are similar
A'B '
PA
'
\
=
…………(1)
AB
PA
Applying sign conversion
AB = +0
A' B'= -1
PA = -u
PA'= -v
\ Equation (1) can be rewritten as
-
I
- v
=
+ O
-
u
I
v
= -
O
u
È
\
Í = - u v ˘
Î
m
same for convex-mirror also.
˙
˚
Magnification in terms of u, v and f
1
1
1
a) As
we know that u
+
=
v
f
Multiplying both sides by ‘u’ we get
u
u
u +
=
u
v
f
u
u
1+
=
v
f
u
u
u
-
f
=
-1=
v
f
f
v
f
\
=
m
u
-
f
v
Since
m = -
u
f
È
f ˘
\
m
= -
(
or
)
m =
Í
˙
u
-
f
f
- u
Î
˚
1
1
1
b) As we know that
+
=
u
v
f
Multiplying both sides by V, we get
) m = Í ˙ u - f f - u Î ˚ 1 1 1

22

Optics

 
 

v

v

v

 

+

=

 

u

v

f

v

+1=

v

 

u

f

v

=

v

-1=

v

-

f

u

f

f

 

Since

m = -

 

v

 

u

 

Ê v

-

ˆ

 
   

)

 

-

 

= - Á

Á

Ë

f

f

˜

˜

¯

(

or

m =

f

f

v

 

Note:

a) +ve magnification mean both object and image are upright b) –ve magnification means, object and image have different orientation (i.e.) if object is upright, then image is inverted.

LATERAL-MAGNIFICATION (m L )

 
 

m L =

length of image

=

L

i

length of object

L

0

 

For extended objects the lateral magnification can be obtained by independently imaging the two end points and calculating the length of the image. There is no direct formula to obtain the magnification. However, if the length of the object is small, them the lateral magnification can be directly obtained from equation

 

1

1

1

 

+

=

 

u

v

f

 

Differentiating both sides, we get

 
 

du

 

dv

= 0

 
 

-

-

 

2

2

 

u

v

 

È dv

 

v

2

˘

Í

Î

du

= -

u

2

= m

L

˙

˚

Q: 1)

What do we do if the size of the object is large as compared to the distance u? Analysis:

For extended object

 
 
 

m

=

2

V

A

- V

B

 
 

u

A

- u

B

 

For tip A

 

u = -(x + L)

 
23 Optics R f = - 2 V =V B 1 1 1 + =
23
Optics
R
f
= -
2
V =V
B
1
1
1
+
=
v
u
f
1
1
- 2
-
=
from which V B can be obtained
v
x
+
l
R
B
\ Subtracting V B from V A , we can calculate the length of the image.
Combinations of mirrors:
What do we do if we have a combination of mirror? If an object is placed between the mirrors, how do we find
the final position of he image?
Analysis: In such situations, we need to simply solve for the reflection at each of the mirror keeping in mind
that the image formed by the first mirror is the object of the second mirror and so on.
Case must be taken to correctly apply the sign conversion at each of the mirror.
Q: 1)
Find the velocity of image in situation as shown in figure?
Æ
^
^
^
Ê
ˆ
Solution:
V
=
Á
9i
+
2i
˜
=
11i m / s
0
Ë
¯
Æ
^
V
m = -
2i
m/s
f
-
20
\
m
=
= - 2
= f
-
u
-
20
-
(
-
30
)
Æ
Ê
ˆ
2
\
(
V
)
= -
m
Á
V
O
/
M
˜
I
/
M
11
Ë
¯
11
^
= -(-2) 2 11
i
^
= -44
i m/s.

24

Optics

- - ˆ ˆ \ ( V ) = Á Ê V V I /
-
-
ˆ
ˆ
\
(
V
)
=
Á Ê
V
V
I
/
m
˜
+ Ê Á
I
/
m
˜
I
/ m
Ë
¯
n Ë
¯
I
= -(- 2) 12x = -24 j m / s
-
-
-
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
\ Á Ê
V
V
V
I /
m
˜
= Á Ê
I
/
m
˜
+ Á Ê
I
/
m
˜
Ë
¯
Ë ¯
Ë
¯
n
n
I
^
^
ˆ
=
Á Ê
-
44 i
-
24 j
˜
m / s
Ë
¯
-
^
Æ
^
ˆ Æ
ˆ
V =
Ê Á
˜
= V
=
-
44 i
-
24 j
= 2 i
I V
I
/ m
m
Ê Á
˜
Ë
¯
Ë
¯
^
Æ ˆ
=
Á -
Ê 46i
-
24 j
˜
Ë
¯
Q: 2) A thin rod of length 3 f is placed along the principal axis of a concave mirror of focal-length ‘f’ such that its
image just touches the rod, calculate magnification?
Solution:
Since image touches the rod, the rod must be placed with one end at centre of curvature.
Case –I
Case –II
Ê
f
ˆ
-
5
f
u
= -
Á 2
f
-
˜ =
Ë
3
¯
3
f
= - f
5 f ˆ
Ê -
)
Ë
(
Á
˜
-
f
u
f
3
¯
5 f
v
=
=
=
u
-
f
- 5 f
2
-
(
-
f
)
3

25

Optics

5 f - - ( - 2 f ) V - V 3 f 3
5
f
-
-
(
-
2
f
)
V
-
V
3 f
3
A
C
=
u
-
5
f
2
A - u
C
-
(
-
2
f
)
3
f
ˆ
7 f
x
= -
Á Ê 2
f
+
˜ = -
Ë 3
¯ 3
f
= - f
Ê - 7 f ˆ
)
Ë
(
Á
˜
-
f
u f
3
¯
7 f
V
=
= = -
u
-
f
- 7 f
4
-
(
-
f
)
3
-
7 f
-
(
-
2
f
)
V
- V
3
4
A
C
\
M
=
=
= -
u
- u
- 7 f
4
A
C
-
(
-
2
f
)
3
CONCEPTUAL POINTS
It a hole is formed at the center of mirror, the image position and size will not change.
The intensity will reduce depending on the size of the hole.
For all object positions a convex-mirror forms a virtual and erect image
PROBLEMS OF MIRRORS
Q: 1) A short linear object of length ‘b’ lies along the axis of a concave mirror of focal-length f, at a distance u from
the mirror. The size of image approximately is
2
Ê V ˆ
2 Ê
ˆ
Solution:
= Á
˜
= Á
f ˜
M axial
˜
Ë
u
¯
f
- u
Ë Á
¯
2
I
Ê
f
ˆ
= Á
˜
˜
O
f
-
u
Á Ë
¯
2
2
È
˘
I
Ê
ˆ
Ê
ˆ
= Á
f fi
˜
Í I
=
b Á
f ˙
˜
Á
˜
˜
b
f
- u
f
- u
Ë
¯ Í
Ë Á
¯ ˙
Î
˚
Q: 2) Two spherical mirrors M 1 and M 2 one convex and other concave having same radius of curvature R are
arranged coaxially at a distance 2R (consider their pole separation to be 2R). A bead of radius a is placed at the
pole of the convex mirror as shown. The ratio of the sizes of the first three images of the bead is
Solution: The first image is formed due to the reflection from concave mirror M 2

\

m =

= -

26

Optics

1 1 2 + = V ( - 2 R) - R 1 1 1
1
1
2
+
=
V
(
-
2 R)
-
R
1
1
1
4
=
-
V
2
R
2R
1
1
-
3
=
V
2R
1
Ê -
2 R ˆ
Á
˜
1
-
2 R
1
m
= -
.
/
V
3
Á
Á Ë
2 R
˜
3
1
˜
¯
2 R
4 R
object distance
=
2
R -
=
3 3
1
1
2
+
=
V
Ê
4 R
˜ ˆ Ê
R ˆ
2
Á -
Á
˜
Ë
3
¯
Ë
2
¯
1
2
2
=
+
V
R
4R
2
4 R
V
=
2
11
4
R
-
V
3
11
2
m
= -
=
=
2
u
-
4
R
11
2
3
3
\ m
=
2
11
3
a
a
So radius of second image
fia
=
.
=
2 11
3
11
a
Similarly radius of third image is
41
1
1
1
\
:
:
Answer
3
11
41
Q: 3)
When an object is placed at a distance of 60cm from a convex spherical mirror, the magnification produced is
1/2. where should the object be placed to get a magnification of 1/3?

= -

Á

3 ˜

a

3

=

produced is 1/2. where should the object be placed to get a magnification of 1/3? =

27

Optics

Solution: u = -60cm V m = - u 1 V = - (or) V
Solution:
u = -60cm
V
m
= -
u
1
V
=
-
(or) V = +30cm
2
-
60
1
1
1
1
1
1
\
=
+
= -
+
=
f
u
v
60
30
60
\
f = +60cm
In second case
1
V
u
m
=
= -
100 V
= -
3
u
3
1
1
1
As
+
=
u
v
f
1
3
1
-
=
u
u
60
u = -120 cm
Q: 4)
Two objects A and B when placed one after another in front of a concave mirror of focal-length 10cm, form
images if same size. Size of object A is 4 times that of B. If object A is placed at a distance of 50cm from the
mirror, what should be the distance of B from the mirror?
Solution:
For object A
For object B
h
f
h
'
f
2
=
f
-
u
h
'
f
-
u
h 1
1
1
1
1
m
h
h
f
- u
2
2
\
=
¥
1 =
m '
h
h
2 f
- u
1
2
1
1
As
h
= 4h
1 and
= h
, f = -10cm
h 2
1
1
2
u 1 50cm
= -
1
- -
10
u
2
\
=
4
- +
10
50
Q: 5)
A concave mirror of focal length 10cm is placed at a distance of 35cm form a wal. How far from the wall
should an object be placed to get in image on the wall?
Solution:
f = -10 cm,
V = -35 cm

m =

2

=

m ' =

u

2

= -

20 cm

28

Optics

1

u

1

10

1

f

1

V

1 1

35 14

\ u = -14 cm

Distance of the object form wall = 35 – 14 = 21 cm

Q: 6) An object is placed at a distance of 36cm form a convex mirror. A plane mirror is placed in between so that the two virtual images so formed coincide. If the plane mirror is at a distance if 24cm from the object, find the radius of curvature of the convex mirror.

Solution:

OP = u = -36 cm V = PI = +12cm

l u t i o n : OP = u = - 36 cm V =
 

1

1

1

1

1

-

1

+

3

1

\

 

=

+

=

+

=

=

 
 

f

u

V

36

12

36

 

18

\

f = 18 cm

 

\

R = 2 f = 2¥18 = 36cm

 

Q: 7)

A convex mirror of focal length ‘f’ forms an image which is 1 n times the object. The distance of the object

which is 1 n times the object. The distance of the object from the mirror is

Solution:

h

1

= +

= -

V

 

h

u

 

V = -

u

 
 

h

 

\

1

=

1

+

1

 

f

V

u

\

=

-

= -

+

= -

29

Optics

1 1 1 = + Á Ë h ¯ u = -(h -1)f Q: 8)
1
1
1
=
+
Á Ë
h ¯
u = -(h -1)f
Q: 8)
An object of size 7.5cm is placed in front of a convex mirror of radius of curvature 25cm at a distance of 40cm.
The size of the image should be
I f
O f
- u
7.5
(
R
/ 2
)
- u
(25/
2)
-
(
-
40)
I = +1.78 cm
Q: 9)
The image formed by a convex mirror of focal length 30cm is a quarter of the size of the object. The distance
of the object from the mirror is
f
Solution:
m =
f
- u
+ 30
Á Ê +
1 ˜ ˆ =
Ë 4
¯
+
30 -u
u = -90 cm
Q: 10)
A concave mirror of focal length f (in air) is immersed in water (m = 4 / 3). The focal length of the mirror in
water will be
4
3
7
3
4
3
Solution:
On immersing a mirror in water, focal length of the mirror remains uncharged.
Q: 11)
An object is 20cm away form a concave mirror with focal-length 15cm. If the object moves with a speed of
5m/s along the axis, then the speed of the image will be
1
1
1
Solution:
-
=
V
20
-
15
V = -60cm
2
= - Á Ê V ˆ
.V
V i
˜
0
Ë
u
¯
2
Ë 20
= 45 m / s
Q: 12) A concave mirror is placed at the bottom of an empty tank with face upwards and axis vertical when Sun-light
falls normally in the mirror, it is focused at distance of 32cm form the mirror. If the tank filled with water
4 ˆ
Á Ê m
˜
Ë
= 3
upto a height of 20cm, then the Sunlight will now get focused at
¯
Ans:
9cm above water level

f

Ê -

Á

u ˆ

˜

˜

h

Solution:

h =

=

u = -40

I (

=

R / 2

)

=

(

25/ 2

)

a) f

b)

f

c)

f

d)

f

Ê 60 ˆ

˜

.(5)
¯

= Á

/ 2 ) = ( 25/ 2 ) a) f b) f c) f d) f

30

Optics

Q: 13) A small piece of wire bent into an ‘L’ shape with upright and horizontal portions of equal-lengths, is placed with the horizontal portion along the axis of the concave mirror whose radius of curvature is 10cm. If the bend is 20cm from the pole of the mirror, then the ratio of the lengths of the images of the upright and horizontal portions of the wire is

R 10

2

2

the upright and horizontal portions of the wire is R 10 2 2 For part PQ

For part PQ

Ê

f

ˆ

= Á

Á

Ë

f

-

u

˜ L

˜

¯

0

Ê

-

5

ˆ

Á

Ë

-

5

-

(

-

20)

˜

¯

2

Ê

= Á

Á

f

ˆ

˜

˜

¯

2

L

0

Ë

f

-

u

Ê

5

 

ˆ

2

-

 
 

˜

Á

Ë

-

5

-

(

-

20)

˜

¯

L

1

=

3

 

L

2

1

L 1

For part QR

L

\

L 0

3

L 0

9

CONCEPT OF NEWTON’S FORMULA (FOR A MIRROR) In this formula, the object and image distance are expressed w.r.t. focus. Consider an object O kept beyond ‘C’ of a concave mirror, and whose image is formed at I with in C.

a concave mirror, and whose image is formed at I with in C. Let OF =

Let OF = x and IF = y From triangle OMC

OC

OM

 

OM

 

=

=

sin q

sin(p

-

a

)

sin a

And from triangle ICM

…………(1)

Solution:

f =

=

=

5 cm

= Á

˜ ¥ L

0

= -

= Á

¥ L

0

=

31

Optics

 
 

IC

IM

 

=

 

………….(2)

sin q

sin a

 
 

Dividing equation (1) and (2) yields

 
 

OC =

OM

=

OP

(since M is close to P)

 

IC

IM

IP

 
 

(or)

x

f

-

-

f

y

=

x

f

+

+

f

y

 

x f - f

2

+ x y - f y = x f - x y + f

2

- f

y

(or)

x y = f

2

\

f

=

x y
x y
 

1)

As

x y =

f

2

(or)

x

a

1

 

y

 

(i.e.) The distance of object and image form the focus are inversely proportional to each other. In other words, the more the object distance (from the focus), the less will be the image distance (from the focus) and vice versa

2)

If

x Æ 0;

y

Æ

and if

x Æ •;

y

Æ

0 .

If

the object is at focus the image is a far off distance and vice-

versa.

 

3)

From xy = f

2

;

if

x =

f

, then

y =

f .

Thus, if the object be at C, then image will also be at C (for a concave mirror) and if the object is at P, then the image will also be at P (for a convex mirror)

4)

Since

f

2

is necessarily +ve for both types of mirror, so x and y bear the same sign, which implies that both the

object and the image always lie an the same side of focus.

 

A) GRAPH OF |x| Versus |y| :

 
 

Since

xy = f

2

represents a rectangular hyperbola, existing in the first and third quadrant

(

f

2

being positive).

 

\ The graph of |y| vs |x| will be a rectangular hyperbola existing only in the first quadrant.

 
   
 

B) GRAPH OF U Versus V :

 
 

Since

xy = f

2

\

(

u - f

)(

v - f

)

= f

2

 

For a convex mirror, u is always negative and V is always positive. Further ‘f’ is also positive.

32

Optics

\ Putting u = x and V = y we have ( ) ( )
\
Putting
u = x
and V = y we have
(
)
(
)
2
x - f
y - f
= f
This is the equation of a rectangular hyperbola with its origin shifted to ( f , f ) and ’x’ being
always negative while y lies between O and f. (see figure) for a concave mirror, u is always
negative, v can be positive (or) negative, ‘f’ is negative
\ u = x, v = y
and
f
= - f
We have, form
(
2
(
u - f
u + f
)(
)(
Or
[
v - f
y + f
x -
)
= f
)
2
= f
(
- f
)]
[ y -
(
- f
)]
2
= f
Evidently it is again an equation of a rectangular hyperbola with origin of coordinates shifted to
the point (-f, -f) (see figure Ø )
1
1
3) GRAPH OF v
VERSUS u
From mirror formula
1
1
1
+
=
v
u
f
1
1
Putting
= x
and
= y
, we have
u
v
1
x
+
y
=
y
It is the equation of a straight line having a slope +1 (or) -1 according as u and v bear the same
33 Optics 1 1 ( ) (or) opposite signs. The intercepts on x and y
33
Optics
1
1
(
)
(or) opposite signs. The intercepts on x and y axis are each
+
or
-
according as the
f
f
object and image are to the right (or) left of the mirror.
For a concave mirror:
u is always –ve
v can be positive (or) negative and f is –ve.
For a convex mirror u is always negative v is always positive and f is always positive.
CONCEPT OF CRITICLA ANGLE
When a ray of light is traveling form denser medium to rarer medium, it get refracted and the ray derivates
away form the normal.
If we keep increasing angle of incidence then at an angle, the angle of refraction becomes 90 0 . This is known
as Critical –Angle (c).
When angle of incidence is increased, further the ray gets reflected back in the same medium. This phenomena
is known as T.I.R.
According to Snell’s Law

34

Optics

sin i b m = a sin r sin i b m = C 0
sin i
b m
=
a sin r
sin i
b m
=
C
0
a sin 90
b m
= sin i
a
C
È b
1 ˘
Í
a sin i
Î
˚
C
fi C depends on colour and and temp
fi C Red > C violet
\ C Red < C violet
fi If temp C Ø
Q: 1)
The sum (diameter d) subtends an angle q radius at the pole of a concave mirror of focal length f. Find te
diameter of the image of sun formed by mirror?
1
1
1
v
u
f
0
v - f
u
Or v = - f
It means image is formed at focus
Taking ' f ' as radius and using
l
q
=
when
l =
d
and
r
=
f
r
d
\
q
=
or
d
= q
f
f
REFRACTION AT SPHERICAL SURFACE:

m

=

˙

Solution:

+

=

we get

1

=

1

(\ u is very large so

1 ª

35

Optics

le From D s OBC and IBC We have i = a + b And
le
From
D
s
OBC and IBC
We have i = a + b
And b = r + r
(or) r = b - r
From Snell’s law
m
sin
i
2 =
sin i
= m
sin r
m 1
2
For small angle of incidence I, we can write
sin i
ª i
and
sin
r ª r
\
m
i
= m
r
1
2
[a + b
]=
[b - r]
m 1
m 2
As ‘i’ is small, and so a , b
and r are also small. Thus
(a + b ) = tan a + tan b
h
h
=
+
- u
+ R
h
h
(
)
R
V
È
h h
˘ È h
h ˘
\
m
+
=
-
1
Í
˙ m
Í
˙
Î
-
u
+ R
˚ 2
Î
R
v ˚
After simplifying we get
m
m
m
- m
2
-
1
=
2
1
v
u
R
m
m
2
2
-
1
m m
1
1
1 =
-
v
m
R
1
1 m
1
m
-
1
2
-
=
2
Æ This formula is derived for convex surface and for real
v
u
R
Image

m

1

sin

r

And

b

- r

=

-

36

Optics

Q:

Case-I:

From denser to rarer medium

m

1

-

m

2

=

m

1

- m

2

v

u