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Optics 

_{} 
The study of light and vision is called optics. 

_{} 
Light is a form of energy which is propagated as Electromagnetic waves which produces the sensation of sight in us. 




Geometrical optics treats propagation of light in terms of rays and is valid only if wavelength of light much lesses than the size of obstacles. 

i) Light does not require a medium for its propagation 

ii) It’s speed in free space (vaccum) is 3 x 10 ^{8} m/s 

iii) It is transverse in nature 


In the spectrum of e.m.w. it lies between u.v. and infrared region and has wavelength between 4000 to 

7000 
O A . i.e (0.4m m 
to 
0.7m m) 



Indigo is not distensible from blue. 

BASIC  DEFINATIONS Source: 

A body which emits light is called source. Source can be a point one (or) extended one. 

(a) 
Selfluminoussource: The source which possess light of it own. Ex: Sun, Electric arc, Candle, etc. 

(b) 
NonluminousSource: It is a source of light which does not possesses light of its own but acts as source of light by reflecting the light received by it. Ex: Moon, object around us, Book…….etc. 


Isotropic Source: It gives out light uniformly in all directions. Nonisotropic Source: It do not give out light uniformly in all direction. Medium: Substance through which light propagates is called medium 



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Ray: The straight line path along with the light travels in a homogeneous medium is called a ray. A single ray cannot be propagated form a source of light. Beam: A bundle can bunch of rays is called beam it is called beam it is of following 3 types Convergentbeam: In this case diameter of beam decreases in the direction of ray 







_{} 
Divergent Beam: It is a beam is with all the rays meet at a point when produced backward and the diameter of beam goes on increasing as the rays proceed forward. 



_{} 
Parallel Beam: It is beam in which all the rays constituting the beam move parallel to each other and diameter of beam remains same 




Object: An optical object is decided by incident rays only. It is if two kinds Real Object: In this case incident rays are diverging and point of divergence is the position of real object. 

_{} 



_{} 
Virtual Object: In this case incident ray are converging and point of convergence is the position of virtual object. Virtual object cannot be seen by human eye be cause for an object can image to be seen by eyes, ray received by eyes must be diverging. 


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Image: An optical image is decided by reflected (or) refracted rays only. It is of two types. (a) Real Image: This is formed due to real intersection of reflected (or) refracted rays, Real image can be obtained on screen. 




VirtualImage: This is formed due to apparent intersection of reflected (or) refracted light rays. Virtual image can’t be obtained on screen. (Note: Human ray can’t distinguish between real and virtual image because in both case rays are diverging) 




_{} REFLECTION: 

The phenomenon by virtue of which incident light energy is partly or completely sent back into the same medium from which it is coming after being obstructed by a surface is called reflection. The direction of incident energy is called incident ray and the direction in which energy is thrown back is called reflected ray. It is of two types. 



_{} LAWS OF REFLECTION: 

1) First Law: The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal to the reflecting surface at the 

point of incidence, all lie in one plane which is 
^' 
r 
to the reflecting surface. 

2) The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection _{–}_{i} _{=} _{–}_{r} . Note: 

1) The laws of reflection are valid for any smooth reflecting surface irrespective of geometry. 
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2) Whenever reflection takes place, the component of incident ray parallel to reflecting surface remains uncharged, while component perpendicular to reflecting surface (i.e. along normal) reverse in direction. 

Æ 
^ 
^ 
^ 
Æ 
^ 
^ 
^ 

r 1 
= x i + y j + z k 
, 
r 2 = xi + y j  z k 

3) Vector form of laws of Reflection: 

^ 
^ 
^ 
^ 
ˆ 
^ 

R 
= 
I 
 Ê Á Ë 2 I.N 
˜ ¯ 
N 

_{R} _{Æ} Unit vector along the reflected ray 

^ 

I Æ 
Unit vector along the Incident ray 

^ 

N 
Æ 
Unit vector along the normal ray 


Image formed by a plane mirror: 

a) Point Source: For construction of image of a point source it is sufficient to consider any two rays falling on mirror. The point of intersection of corresponding reflected rays give the position of image as shown in figure. 



OA = AI 
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From figure
_{3}_{q} _{=} _{1}_{8}_{0} q = 60
0
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d
Net
= 2p  2q
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Velocity of Image: 

Let 

x _{O}_{/}_{m} = xcoordinate of object w.r.t. mirror x _{I}_{/}_{m} = xcoordinate of image w.r.t. mirror y _{O}_{/}_{m} = ycoordinate of object w.r.t. mirror y _{I}_{/}_{m} = ycoordinate of image w.r.t. mirror For plane mirror 



x O/m = x I/m 

Differentiating both sides w.r.t. time (t) 

d 
d 
( x 
) 

dt ( x O / m ) =  
dt 
I 
/ m 

È Æ V ˘ ˙ =  
È 
Æ 
˘ 

V 
˙ 

Í Î O / m ˚ x 
Í Î 
I 
/ 
m ˚ 
x 

Æ 
Æ 

V  V =  
V 
 
V 

Ox mx Æ 
Æ Ix 
mx 

V Ix = 2 V  mx 
V Ox 

Similarly y _{I}_{/}_{m} = y _{O}_{/}_{m} Differentiating both sides w.r.t. time we get 

Æ Ê Á V I / m ˆ ˜ = Ê Á 
Æ 
ˆ 

V O / m 
˜ 

Ë ¯ y Ë 
¯ y 

In nutshell, for solving numerical problems involving calculation of velocity of image of object with respect to any observer, always calculate velocity of image first with respect to mirror using following points. 

Æ Á Ê V I / m ˆ ˜ = Ê Á 
Æ O V / 
m ˆ ˜ 

Ë ¯ 11 Ë 
¯ 

11 

ˆ Ê Á ˜ Ë Æ Ê Á Æ O I V V =  / m ¯ 1 Ë 
/ 
m ˆ ˜ ¯ 
1 

Æ V I / m = Ê Á Ë Æ V I / m 
ˆ Æ 
ˆ 

Ê Á + ˜ V I / m ˜ ¯ ¯ Ë 

11 
1 

Velocity of image with respect to required observer is then calculated using basic equation for relative motion. 

Æ Æ 
Æ 

V A / B = V A  
V B 

Note: If the velocity of the object (w.r.t mirror) is not in a direction normal to the mirror, then the velocity of the object can be resolved into two components one normal to the mirror (v _{n} ) and the other along the mirror (v _{p} ). The image has velocities –V _{n} and V _{P} , normal to and along the mirror. 

Q: 1) 
Point object is moving with a speed V before an arrangement of two mirrors as shown in figure. Find the velocity of image in mirror M _{1} w.r.t. image in mirror M _{2} ? 
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V I 1 
and V
I
2
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Q: 8)
A ray of light making angle 20 ^{0} with the horizontal is incident on a plane mirror with itself inclined to the horizontal at angle 10 ^{0} , with normal away from the incident ray. What is the angle made by the reflected ray with the horizontal?
Solution:
AO = Incident ray OB = Reflected ray
The reflected ray goes along the horizontal. Hence angle made by the reflected ray with the horizontal is zero.
Q: 9)
A ray of light making angle 10 ^{0} with the horizontal is incident on a plane mirror making angle _{q} with the horizontal. What should be the value of _{q} , so that the reflected ray goes vertically upwards?
a) 30 ^{0} Solution:
b) 40 ^{0}
c) 50 ^{0}
d) 60 ^{0}
Number of Images Formed by two InclinedPlane Mirrors:
a) When mirror are parallel: In this case, infinite images are formed due to multiple reflections.
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Optics
\
M E
1
1
=
x
Say
=
N E
1
=
1 (AE)
2
…… (1)
\
M E
2
1
=
y(Say)
=
N E
2
=
1 (BE)
2
………(2)
V
sin a
 gt
V cosa
(
tana  tanq
)
(b) St. line
^ 1 r
to mirror
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Optics
Solution:
PS = Shadow on the mirror P’ Q’ = Inversed shadow of PQ on the screen
Let 
a = angle of incidence 

Then 
PS = h tana 
and 
QS = h seca 
From the properly of image P’ Q’ = _{2}_{(}_{h} _{s}_{e}_{c} _{a} )cosa _{=} _{2}_{h}
Q: 3)
A plane mirror is placed at parallel of yaxis, facing the positive xaxis. An object starts form (2m, 0, 0) with a
^ Á Ê 2 i 
^ 
ˆ 

velocity of 
+ 
2 j 
˜ 

¯ 
. The relative velocity of image with respect to object is along
Ë
m / s
Solution:
Relative velocity of image with respect to object is in negative xdirection as shown in figure.
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xdirection is
directed towards positive ydirection after reflection from the surface at some point ‘P’. Then coordinates of point ‘P’ are Solution: From figure
Q: 4) A reflection surface is represented by the equation
x 2
+ y
2
= a
2
. A ray traveling in negative
9
9
q
ˆ
˜
¯
Q: 5)
A ray is traveling along xaxis in negative xdirection. A plane mirror is placed at origin facing the ray. What should be the angle of plane mirror with the xaxis so that the ray of light offer reflecting from the plane mirror
passes through point (1m, Solution:
3 m )?
Q: 6)
angle 30 ^{0} at a point just inside one end of A. The plane of incidence coincides with the plane of the figure. The maximum number of times the ray undergoes reflection (including the first one) before it emerges out is Solution:
Two plane mirror A and B are aligned parallel to each other as shown in the figure. A light ray is incident at an
d =
0.2 tan30
0 =
0.2
\ Max. No. of reflection =
= 30
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Optics
REFLECTIN FROM CURVED SURFACE: (Spherical – Surface only) A curved mirror is a smooth reflecting part of any geometry. The nomenclature of curved mirror depends on the geometry of reflecting surface. There are different types of curved mirror like paraboloidal, ellipsoidal, cylindrical, spherical ….etc.
SignConversion:
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Optics
_{}
Rules for RayDiagrams 1) A ray of light parallel to principal axis passes (or) appears to pass through four after reflection.
2) A ray of light passing through focus (or) appears to pass through focus becomes parallel to principalaxis after reflection.
3) A ray of light passing through (or) appears to pass through centre of curvature is reflected back.
4) A ray of light hitting pole is reflected making equal angle with principal oxis
Note:
_{}
1) Focal length and radius of curvature of plane mirror = a 2) Concave mirror = Convergent mirror Convex mirror = Divergent mirror Relation between focallength and radius of curvature:
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Optics 

È 
R ˘ 

Í Î f 
^{=} 2 
˙ 
Both for concave and convex mirror. 

˚ 


Mirror formula (or) Mirror Equation: 

The relation between u, v and f of a mirror is known as mirror formula 

È 1 
1 
1 ˘ 

= 
+ 
˙ 

Í f Î u 
v 
˚ 

_{} 
Relation between the speeds of object and image formed by a spherical mirror We know that, mirror formula is given by 

1 
1 
1 

+ 
= 
……….(1) 

u v f Differentiating both sides w.r.t. time (t), we get 

1 
du 
1 
dv 

 
 
= 
0 

u 
2 . dt 
v 
2 
. 
dt 

1 
dv 
1 
dv 

=  
= 
0 

v 2 . 
dt 
u 
2 
. 
dt 

dv 
=  
v 
2 
dy 
…………(2) 

dt 
u 
2 
. 
dt 

Since dv dt 
= v 
i 
= speed of time 

^{d}^{u} = dt v 
0 
= speed of object 

Ê v ˆ ˜ 2 

\ v i 
= Á 
.v 0 
………….(3) 

Ë 
u 
¯ 

From equation (1), 

v = 
u f 
( 
or 
) 
v 
= 
f 

u  
f 
u 
x 
 
f 

Hence equation (2) become 

v i Ê =  Á Á 
f ˆ ˜ .v ¯ ˜ 
0 

Ë 
u 
 f 


Linear magnification: It is defined as the ratio of the size (or) height of the image to the size (or) height of the object. 

size of image 
= 
height of image 

m = 

size of image 
height of image 

È 
I ˘ 

\ 
M 
˙ 

Í Î 
^{=} o 
˚ 

_{} 
Magnification produced by concave mirror: 
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Optics 

^{v} 
v 
v 

+ 
= 

u 
v 
f 

^{v} 
+1= v 

u 
f 

v 
= 
v 
1= v 
 
f 

u 
f 
f 

Since 
m =  
v 

u 

Ê v 
 
ˆ 

) 
 

=  Á Á Ë 
f f 
˜ ˜ ¯ 
( or 
m = 
f f 
v 

Note: 
a) +ve magnification mean both object and image are upright b) –ve magnification means, object and image have different orientation (i.e.) if object is upright, then image is inverted. 

_{} 
LATERALMAGNIFICATION (m _{L} ) 

m _{L} = 
length of image 
= 
L 
i 

length of object 
L 
0 

For extended objects the lateral magnification can be obtained by independently imaging the two end points and calculating the length of the image. There is no direct formula to obtain the magnification. However, if the length of the object is small, them the lateral magnification can be directly obtained from equation 

1 
1 
1 

+ 
= 

u 
v 
f 

Differentiating both sides, we get 

du 
dv 
= 0 

 
 

2 
2 

u 
v 

È dv 
v 
2 
˘ 

Í Î 
du 
=  u 
2 
= m L 
˙ ˚ 

Q: 1) 
What do we do if the size of the object is large as compared to the distance u? Analysis: 

For extended object 



m = 2 
V A  V B 

u A  u B 

For tip A 

u = (x + L) 
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\
m =
= 
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= 
Á
3 ˜
a
3
=
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Optics
m =
2
=
m ' =
u
_{2}
= 
20 cm
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1
u
1
10
1
f
1
V
1 1
35 14
\ u = 14 cm
Distance of the object form wall = 35 – 14 = 21 cm
Q: 6) An object is placed at a distance of 36cm form a convex mirror. A plane mirror is placed in between so that the two virtual images so formed coincide. If the plane mirror is at a distance if 24cm from the object, find the radius of curvature of the convex mirror.
_{S}_{o}_{l}_{u}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{:}
OP = u = 36 cm V = PI = +12cm
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
 
1 
+ 
3 
1 

\ 
= 
+ 
= 
+ 
= 
= 

f 
u 
V 
36 
12 
36 
18 

\ 
f = 18 cm 

\ 
R = 2 f = 2¥18 = 36cm 
Q: 7)
A convex mirror of focal length ‘f’ forms an image which is ^{1} n times the object. The distance of the object
which is ^{1} n times the object. The distance of the object from the mirror is
Solution: 
h 
1 = + =  
V 

h 
u 

V =  u 

h 

\ 
1 
= 1 
+ 
1 

f 
V 
u 
\
=

= 
+
= 
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f
Ê 
Á
u ˆ
˜
˜
h
Solution:
h =
=
u = 40
I (
=
R / 2
)
=
(
25/ 2
)
a) _{f}
b)
f
c)
f
d)
f
Ê 60 ˆ
˜
.(5)
¯
= Á
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Q: 13) A small piece of wire bent into an ‘L’ shape with upright and horizontal portions of equallengths, is placed with the horizontal portion along the axis of the concave mirror whose radius of curvature is 10cm. If the bend is 20cm from the pole of the mirror, then the ratio of the lengths of the images of the upright and horizontal portions of the wire is
R 10
2
2
For part PQ
Ê
f
ˆ
= Á Á Ë 
f  
u 
˜ L ˜ ¯ 
0 

Ê 
 
5 
ˆ 

Á Ë  5 
 
(  
20) ˜ ¯ 

2 Ê = Á Á 
f 
ˆ ˜ ˜ ¯ 
2 
L 
0 

Ë 
f  
u 

Ê 
5 
ˆ 
2 

 

˜ 

Á Ë  5 
 ( 
 20) 
˜ ¯ 

L 1 = 3 

L 2 
1 
L 1
For part QR
L
\
L 0
3
L 0
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CONCEPT OF NEWTON’S FORMULA (FOR A MIRROR) In this formula, the object and image distance are expressed w.r.t. focus. Consider an object O kept beyond ‘C’ of a concave mirror, and whose image is formed at I with in C.
Let OF = x and IF = y From triangle OMC
OC 
OM 
OM 

= 
= 

sin q 
sin(p 
 
a 
) 
sin a 
And from triangle ICM
…………(1)
Solution:
f =
=
=
5 cm
= Á
˜ ¥ L
0
= 
= Á
¥ L
0
=
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Optics 

IC 
IM 

= 
………….(2) 

sin q 
sin a 

Dividing equation (1) and (2) yields 

^{O}^{C} = 
OM 
= 
OP 
(since M is close to P) 

IC 
IM 
IP 

(or) 
x f   
f y 
= 
x f 
+ + 
f y 

x f  f 
2 
+ x y  f y = x f  x y + f 
2 
 f 
y 

(or) 
x y = f 
2 

\ 
f 
=
x y


1) 
As x y = f 
2 
(or) 
x 
a 
1 

y 

(i.e.) The distance of object and image form the focus are inversely proportional to each other. In other words, the more the object distance (from the focus), the less will be the image distance (from the focus) and vice versa 

2) 
If x Æ 0; 
y 
Æ 
• 
and if 
x Æ •; y 
Æ 
0 . 
If 
the object is at focus the image is a far off distance and vice 

versa. 

_{3}_{)} 
_{F}_{r}_{o}_{m} xy = f 
2 
; 
if 
x = f 
, then y = 
f . 

Thus, if the object be at C, then image will also be at C (for a concave mirror) and if the object is at P, then the image will also be at P (for a convex mirror) 

4) 
Since f 
2 
is necessarily +ve for both types of mirror, so x and y bear the same sign, which implies that both the 

object and the image always lie an the same side of focus. 

A) GRAPH OF x Versus y : 

Since xy = f 
2 
represents a rectangular hyperbola, existing in the first and third quadrant 

( 
f 2 being positive). 

_{\} The graph of y vs x will be a rectangular hyperbola existing only in the first quadrant. 



B) GRAPH OF U Versus V : 

Since xy = f 
2 

\ 
( u  f 
)( v  f 
) 
= f 2 

For a convex mirror, u is always negative and V is always positive. Further ‘f’ is also positive. 
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Optics
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Optics
m
=
˙
Solution:
+
=
we get
1
=
1
(\ u is very large so
^{1} ª
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m
1
sin
r
And
b
 r
=

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Q:
CaseI:
From denser to rarer medium
m 
1 
 
m 
2 
= 
m 
1 
 m 
2 
v 
u 

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