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Chapter 3 Computer Maintenance And Upgrading

3.1 Assembeling and disasembeling a personal computer The reason to disassemble the computer is: To upgrade. To repair. To add component The most important things to remember when disassembling a computer are Where cards are located. How cables are routed. Orientation of cables and connectors. Hardware used to secure each component. Anything else that might cause confusion when reassembling.

3.1.1 Safety measures taken during computer assembling and disasembeling Langkah-langkah keselamatan yang mesti di ambil sebelum memulakan kerja-kerja pemasangan dan menyentuh barangan komputer 1) Pastikan tempat yang anda hendak menjalankan kerja-kerja pemasangan itu mempunyai lampu yang terang. 2) Meja tempat kerja pemasangan mesti lah besih dan kering.

3) Pastikan perkakas yang hendak di gunakan untuk kerja-kerja pemasangan sudah disiapkan secukupnya, termasuk lampu suloh. 4) Anda mestilah memakai Anti-Static Wrist Strap di pergelangan tangan anda sebelum menyentuh sebarang barangan komputer. Jika anda tidak mempunyai Anti-Static Wrist Strap, anda bolehlah memegang besi besi saperti besi paip air, kisi-kisi tingkap rumah anda bagi melepaskan kandungan elekterik yang ada pada tubuh anda sebelum memulakan kerjakerja pemasangan. 5) Cabutkan kabel kuasa elektrik yang bersambung ke komputer dari soket di tembuk (jika ianya bersambung)

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a. Static precaution Wear the antistatic wrist strap when handling electronic parts to drain the static electricity from your body.
Figure 2.4 Antistatic Wrist Strap

Can cause catastrophic failure or upset failure Protection against ESD Ground bracelet or static strap Ground mats

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Static shielding bags

b. Electrical precaution Pastikan palam kabel kuasa elektrik ditanggalkan dari soket sebelum kerja-kerja memasang dan menanggalkan komputer dijalankan.

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3.1.2 Tools and workplaces Workplaces Procedure and Precaution Bagi menjalankan proses pemasangan komputer perkara-perkara berikut perlu diberi keutamaan. 1) Before maintenance process a. Keadaan tempat menyelenggara i. Pastikan kawasan yang luas dan selesa. ii. Cahaya yang cukup terang iii. Suhu yang sesuai untuk alat-alat elektronik iv. Penebat lantai yang baik seperti getah v. Punca bekalan yang mencukupi vi. Peralatan baikpulih tersusun vii. Jauh dari gegaran b. Meja Senggaraan i. Cukup lebar untuk menempatkan alat-alat pengujian dan alat yang dibaiki. ii. Kedudukan yang sesuai dengan bangku penyelenggaraan c. Alat-alat Senggaraan i. Mempunyai alat-alat asas yang mencukupi dan sesuai. ii. Ada penstabil voltan dan bekalan kuasa sementara. iii. Mempunyai manual seperti litar skematik dan data komponen. iv. Alat pengujian yang mencukupi 2) During maintenance process a. Tentukan tiada cas statik semasa membuka perkakasan dan komponen komputer. b. Menggunakan alat-alat yang sesuai dan betul semasa membuka perkakasan komputer seperti : i. Menggunakan pemateri yang sesuai (15 Watt hingga 18 Watt) ii. Menggunakan penarik (extractor) untuk keluar cip dari soket. iii. Menggunakan sucker atau braided-wick untuk membuang pateri. iv. Menggunakan manual atau rujukan yang betul. 3) a. b. c. After maintenance process Pastikan semua sambungan telah dibuat dengan betul. Pastikan tiada lebihan pateri tertinggal. Pastikan casing yang sesuai dibuat atau dipasang dengan betul supaya tidak berlaku litar pintas semasa pengujian dan diberikan bekalan pada sistem.

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Tools Basic technician toolkit consists

Sebelum memulakan tutorial ini, pastikan anda menyediakan peralatan-peralatan berikut. Himpunan peralatan pemasangan komputer seperti pemutar skru philip, pemutar skru bermagnet, playar muncung tirus, penyepit pengikat kabel kuasa. Manual papan induk dan manual lain-lain kompenan komputer sekiranya dibekalkan oleh pengeluar. Semua perkakasan dan kompenan komputer yang berkaitan seperti CPU, RAM, pemacu, papan induk, kekisi, peranti input dan output dan sebagainya.

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Figure 2.1

PC Components

Figure 2.2

A Screwdriver, A Pair of Plyers and A Long Nose

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Computer part and component

Parts and Pieces A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q ATX case and power supply. Keyboard & mouse Monitor Motherboard Processor Memory Floppy disk drive Hard drive (s) CD-RW drive CD-ROM drive DVD-ROM drive removable-media drive AGP graphics card Sound card Network card Modem Operating system & software

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Type of computer parts and component i. Kekisi (Casing)

Kekisi terdiri dari pelbagai jenis: 1. Model : AT, ATX atau AT & ATX. 2. Saiz : Mini, Midi dan "Full Tower". 3. Bentuk : Desktop & Tower. Bahagian dalam kekisi mempunyai beberapa bahagian utama. 1. "Bracket" pemacu cakera 5.25". Rujuk gambar 2. "Bracket" pemacu cakera 3.5". Rujuk gambar 3. Kotak Bekalan kuasa.(Power supply unit) -bahagian-bahagian lain ialah kabel bekalan kuasa, kabel panel sistem dan dinding pemegang papan induk. Pemasangan : Kekisi adalah merupakan kotak kepada segala perkakasan komputer. Pada kotak inilah semua perkakasan dan komponen akan ditempatkan

ii.

Papan Induk (Motherboard)

Papan Induk mempunyai jenis AT dan ATX, dimana; 1. AT : Suis On/Off secara manual 2. ATX : Suis On/Off secara automatik Jenis AT dan ATX mempunyai perbezaan ketara diantaranya; - Soket bekalan kuasa - Soket penghubung luar (External Connectors) Pemasangan : Biasanya ia dipasang pada dinding kekisi sebelah kanan. Jika kekisi jenis "desktop" ia akan dipasang pada lantai kekisi.

iii.

CPU (Processor)

CPU mempunyai beberapa jenama, model dan kelajuan 1. Pengeluar : INTEL, AMD, IBM, Asus Jenama : Intel Pentium 4, AMD Athlon 64, AMD Phenom, AMD Sempron, Intel Celeron 4, Intel Centrino 2. Model : Katrij - dipasang pada slot 1 atau slot A PPGA - dipasang pada soket 370, soket PPGA 3. Kelajuan : Lebih besar nilainya, lebih laju dan bergantung kepada CPU dan jenisnya (Cth: 866 MHz) 8|Page

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Pemasangan : Merupakan proses pemasangan terpenting dan perlu berhati-hati. Ia dipasang pada soket di papan induk. Pastikan sudut CPU dipasang pada sudut soket yang berpadanan dan betul. Tentukan penanda pada pada CPU sebelum pemasangan dibuat. Penanda ini akan menentukan sama ada CPU yang dipasang betul atau salah. Jika anda memasang pada sudut yang salah, pinpin CPU tidak akan masuk pada lubang-lubang soket.

iv.

RAM (Memori)

RAM mempunyai beberapa jenis yang berbeza bentuk, diantaranya; 1. Jenis : SIMM, DIMM, SDRam, RDRam dll 2. Bentuk : Bergantung kepada bentuk RAM (Cth: 72 pin, 168 pin) 3. Kapasiti : Lebih besar kapasiti, lebih mudah dan cepat komputer mengakses data. (32MB, 64MB, 128MB, 256M, 512MB, 1GB) 4. Jenis Kelajuan : 66MHz, 100MHz, 133MHz dll(bergantung kepada sokongan bas papan induk) Pemasangan : Dipasang pada slot RAM di papan induk yang dikenali sebagai "Bank". Pastikan ia dipasang pada "bank" yang betul. Biasanya terdapat 3 "bank" yang disediakan. Rujuk manual papan induk. Biasanya ia dipasang pada "bank 1" lebih dahulu. v. Pemacu Cakera Keras (Hard Disk)

Pemacu ini ada beberapa jenis, jenama dan kapasitinya iaitu; 1. Jenis : DMA / ATA 66 / ATA 100 2. Bentuk : Bergantung kepada jenis dan jenama.(lihat rajah) 3. Jenama : Quantum, Maxtor, Western Digital, Samsung, dll. 4. Kapasiti :10.2 GB, 20.2 GB, 30.0 GB dan banyak lagi (ke 300 GB untuk PC biasa) Pemasangan: Dipasang pada "bracket" 3.5" di kekisi. Sebelum pemasangan dibuat pastikan "jumper" pemacu diselaraskan sebagai "Primary Master". Sambungan pada kabel IDE juga perlu diberi perhatian iaitu pin 1 pada bahagian kabel yang mempunyai tanda `merah

vi.

Pemacu Cakera Liut (Floppy Disk Drive)

Pemacu ini mempunyai beberapa jenama iaitu; 1. Jenama : Panasonic, Samsung, Sony, dll 2. Kapasiti : 1.44 MB 3. Saiz : 3.5" Pemasangan : Dipasang pada "bracket 3.5" di kekisi. Buat sambungan kabel kuasa dan kabel riben dengan betul. Sila rujuk pada tajuk pemasangan. Berhati-hati semasa penyambungan kabel. 9|Page

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vii. Pemacu Cakera Padat (CD drive) Pemacu ini mempunyai beberapa jenama dan kelajuan iaitu : 1. Jenama : Asus, LG, Creative, Sony, dll 2. Kelajuan : Bergantung kepada pemacu (Cth: 45x, 50x, 52x dll.) Pemasangan : Dipasang pada "bracket" 5.25" di kekisi. Selaraskan "jumper" sebelum pemasangan dibuat. Biasanya ia diselaraskan sebagai "Primary Slave" ataupun "Secondary Master".Bergantung kepada cara penyambungan kabel riben dibuat. Sila rujuk manual pemacu dan papan induk yang dibekalkan oleh pembekal. viii. Kad Bunyi (Sound Card)

Kad Bunyi mempunyai beberapa jenama dan jenis iaitu; 1. Jenama : Sound Blaster, Yamaha, ESS, dll 2. Jenis : Terdapat kad bunyi yang menyokong slot ISA atau PCI.Kebanyakan kad bunyi terbaru menyokong slot PCI. Pemasangan :Dipasang pada slot PCI di papan induk. Sesetengah papan induk sudah mempunyai kad bunyi sedia pasang. Pemasangan kad bunyi tidak diperlukan lagi pada papan induk jenis ini. Selaraskan "jumper" sahaja supaya kad bunyinya aktif. ix. Kad Paparan (Display card atau VGA card)

Kad paparan mempunyai beberapa jenama dan jenis iaitu; 1. Jenama : S3, Asus, Trident, Creative, G-Force dll 2. Kapasiti Paparan : 1MB, 4MB, 16MB, 32MB, 64MB, 128 MB, 256 MB dan 512 MB 3. Jenis : Kad paparan yang menyokong slot PCI, AGP dan PCI Express. Pemasangan: Kad ini dipasang pada slot AGP atau PCI di papan induk. Tentukan jenis kad sama ada menyokong PCI atau AGP sebelum pemasangan dibuat. x. Monitor (Unit Paparan)

Unit Paparan mempunyai beberapa jenama dan sais iaitu; 1. Jenama : NEC, Sony, LG, Macro, Likom, dll 2. Saiz : 14", 15", 17", 20" dll 3. Keupayaan paparan: 0.28 dpi, 0.26 dpi. 4. Model : LCD, CRT, Flat Screen, TFT Pemasangan : Setelah semua perkakasan dan kompenan dipasang pada kekisi, penyambungan kepada unit paparan bolehlah dilakukan.Kabel monitor hendaklah disambung kepada soket kad paparan pada kekisi. 10 | P a g e

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xi. Papan Kekunci (Keyboard) Papan kekunci mempunyai beberapa jenama dan jenis penyambungan iaitu; 1. Jenama : Microsoft, NEC, Acer, dll 2. Jenis Penyambung: Serial, PS2 dan USB. Pemasangan: Disambungkan kepada soket papan kekunci di kekisi (papan induk). Pastikan jenis kabel papan kekunci dan soket adalah dari jenis yang sama seperti PS2, serial atau USB. xii. Tetikus (Mouse)

Tetikus mempunyai beberapa jenama dan jenis penyambung iaitu; 1. Jenama : Microsoft, NEC, Acer, A4, dll 2. Jenis Penyambung: Serial, PS2, USB. Pemasangan: Disambungkan pada soket di kekisi (papan induk). Tentukan palam penyambung dan soket adalah dari jenis yang sama. Contohnya : PS/2, serial ataupun USB. xiii. Pembesar Suara (Speaker)

Pembesar Suara mempunyai beberapa jenama dan jenis iaitu; 1. Jenama : Altec Lansing, Creative, dll 2. Mutu Bunyi: 3-D , Prologic, AC-3, 3. Jenis : Stereo, Sub Woofer, Surround. Pemasangan : Disambungkan pada kad bunyi di kekisi. Pastikan ia disambungkan pada soket audio keluar (line out).

3.1.3 Continuity test, voltage, current and resistance measuring A continuity test is the checking of an electric circuit to see if current flows (that it is in fact a complete circuit). A continuity test is performed by placing a small voltage (wired in series with an LED or noise-producing component such as a piezoelectric speaker) across the chosen path. If electron flow is inhibited by broken conductors, damaged components, or excessive resistance, the circuit is "open". Devices that can be used to perform continuity tests include multimeters which measure current and specialized continuity testers which are cheaper, more basic devices, generally with a simple light bulb that lights up when current flows. An important application is the continuity test of a bundle of wires so as to find the two ends belonging to a particular one of these wires; there will be a negligible resistance between the "right" ends, and only between the "right" ends. 11 | P a g e

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Type of cable and connector EIDE Interface Standards EIDE (Enhanced IDE) interface standards used by most hard drives Modes of transferring data between hard drive and memory o DMA transfer mode o PIO transfer mode

IDE cabling methods Parallel ATA (PATA) technology Serial ATA (SATA) technology

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EIDE standards support two IDE connections, a primary and a secondary Each connection can support up to two IDE devices for a total of four devices on a system o Primary IDE channel, master device o Primary IDE channel, slave device o Secondary IDE channel, master device o Secondary IDE channel, slave device

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Power cord Power to the Motherboard Use a 20- or 24-pin P1 power connector. Some motherboards may require special 4-, 6-, or 8-pin connectors to supply extra power

Power to Peripherals Molex Connectors o The most common type of power connection for devices o Need 5-volts or 12-volts of power is the Molex connector o The Molex connector has notches, called chamfers, that guide its installation

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Mini Connectors o A second type of connector, called a mini connector o Supplies 5 and 12 volts to peripherals, although only floppy disk drives in modern systems use this connector

Splitter & Adapters If there is not enough connectors to power all of the devices inside your PC Purchase splitters to create more connections

Auxiliary Connector Motherboard power connector o Commonly called an AUX connector o To supply increased 3.3- and 5.0-volt current to the motherboard

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Steps when assembeling and disasembeling computer Papan Induk Memasang Papan Induk 1. 2. 3. 4. Pasangkan papan induk pada papan belakangnya. Pasangkan papan belakang pada bingkai UPP Sambungkan kabel-kabel data dan wayar elektrik Sambungkan wayar-wayar lampu dan bebutang bingkai UPP.

Menanggalkan Segala Sambungan 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Menanggalkan kad antaramuka Menanggalkan wayar lampu dan bebutang bingkai UPP Menanggalkan wayar pembekal elektrik papan induk Menanggalkan kabel data pemacu cakera liut dan cakera keras Menanggalkan wayar elektrik kipas UPP Menanggalkan skru pengetat. Menanggalkan papan induk berserta dengan papan belakangnya Menanggalkan papan induk dari papan belakangnya

LANGKAH 1

LANGKAH 2

Kekisi Buka kulit kekisi

Unit Pemprosesan Pusat (CPU) Tentukan penanda pada CPU yang bertanda warna emas bagi memudahkan pemasangan.

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LANGKAH 3

LANGKAH 4

Pin CPU (Pandangan BawahCPU) Unit Pemprosesan Pusat (CPU) - Tentukan susunan pin CPU bagi memudahkan - Buka klip soket CPU. pemasangan ke soket kerana kedudukan yang - Dengan berpandukan susunan pin dan salah akan mengakibatkan kerosakan. penanda pada CPU, masukkan CPU. - Pastikan kesemua kaki dimasukkan ke dalam soket tanpa paksaan. LANGKAH 5 LANGKAH 6

1 : Buka klip Soket CPU 2 : Tutup klip Soket CPU

Unit Pemprosesan Pusat (CPU) - Tutup klip soket pada papan induk. LANGKAH 7

Unit Pemprosesan Pusat (CPU) - Pasangkan kipas penyejuk dan pastikan kedudukan kipas serta klip dengan betul. LANGKAH 8

Kipas Unit Pemprosesan Pusat (CPU) - Klipkan satu persatu. 17 | P a g e

Kipas Unit Pemprosesan Pusat (CPU) - Pasangkan kabel kuasa kipas penyejuk pada tanda 'CPU FAN' di papan induk.

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LANGKAH 9

LANGKAH 10

1 : Ruang untuk klip Soket RAM 2 : Penanda Pin RAM (Key Position) Dalam bulatan merupakan Pin Chip

1 : Ruang untuk penanda Pin RAM Ingatan Capaian Rawak (RAM) Soket Ingatan Capaian Rawak (RAM) - Tentukan penanda yang ada pada RAM. - Tentukan Soket RAM pada papan induk adalah berlabel "DIMM1" atau "BANK 1". LANGKAH 11 LANGKAH 12

Ingatan Capaian Rawak (RAM) Ingatan Capaian Rawak (RAM) - Buka pin kekunci RAM (berwarna putih). - Tekan dari bahagian atas untuk - Masukkan RAM melalui lurah yang telah merapatkan satu kepingan RAM. disediakan mengikut pin RAM dan pin soket - Tutup klip Soket RAM pada Papan Induk. RAM. * Peringatan: Jangan sentuh di bahagian Pin Chip RAM

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LANGKAH 13

LANGKAH 14

Papan Induk (Mainboard) - Tentukan lubang skru pada papan induk.

Plastik dan Skru Penyokong pada Kekisi - Kemudian bandingkan susunan lubang skru pada kekisi. Pasangkan skru dan plastik penyokong di dalam Kekisi.

LANGKAH 15

LANGKAH 16

Papan Induk (Mainboard) - Masukkan papan induk dengan berhati-hati. Pastikan semua plastik dan lubang skru penyokong berada tepat dengan lubang skru pada papan induk. LANGKAH 17

Papan Induk (Mainboard) - Pasangkan skru dengan kemas (jangan terlalu ketat kerana ia boleh menyebabkan merosakkan pada papan induk). LANGKAH 18

Papan Induk (Mainboard) Pemacu Cakera Keras (Hard Disk Drive) - Pastikan kedudukan papan induk kemas. - Kenal pasti soket kabel reben yang Selaraskan 'Jumper Clear CMOS' kepada 'Normal ditandakan ' 1 ' . Mode' (jika ada). - Kemudian tentukan 'Bracket 3.5"' pada kekisi.

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LANGKAH 19

LANGKAH 20

Pemacu Cakera Keras (Hard Disk Drive) Pemacu Cakera Keras (Hard Disk Drive) - Masukkan dengan cara menyorong masuk - Sambungkan kabel reben 40 pin (IDE dari dalam kekisi. Ketatkan dengan skru. Cable yang mempunyai jalur (warna merah) pada soket di pemacu yang berlabelkan '1' LANGKAH 22 LANGKAH 21

Kabel Riben (IDE Cable) Pemacu Cakera Keras (Hard Disk Drive) - Seterusnya, masukkan soket kabel IDE yang - Sambungkan kabel kuasa (Power sama pada satu lagi hujung. Tentukan terlebih Cable) dari bekalan kuasa (Power Supply) dahulu soket penyambung di papan induk itu - Bekalan kuasa mempunyai empat wayar bertanda "IDE 1". Tanda '1' pada soket berwarna Kuning (+12v), Hitam (-), Hitam merupakan tanda untuk dimasukkan kabel (-) dan Merah (+5v). reben IDE yang ada jalur (berwarna). - Soket kabel kuasa hanya dapat dipasangkan di pemacu sekiranya kedudukannya mempunyai bentuk yang sama.

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LANGKAH 23

LANGKAH 24

Pemacu Cakera Liut (Floppy Disk Drive) Pemacu Cakera Liut (Floppy Disk Drive) - Tentukan pin '1' dan pin '34' di belakang - Masukkan dengan cara menyorong masuk pemacu terlebih dahulu. dari dalam kekisi dan ketatkan dengan - Kemudian tentukan 'Bracket 3.5"' untuk skru. memasukkan pemacu ini yang mempunyai lubang terbuka di hadapan kekisi. LANGKAH 25 LANGKAH 26

Pemacu Cakera Liut (Floppy Disk Drive) Pemacu Cakera Liut (Floppy Disk Drive) - Sambungkan kabel reben ( 34 jalur dan jalur - Seterusnya kabel reben 34 jalur yang sama berwarna) pada soket di pemacu yang dipasang dengan pemacu, dipasang pula di berlabelkan '1'. papan induk yang ditandakan "FDD 1". - Pasangkan kabel kuasa dari bekalan kuasa. - Pastikan semua pemasangan kabel kemas. - Kabel ini mempunyai warna dan bilangan yang sama dengan kabel kuasa pemacu cakera keras tetapi bersaiz lebih kecil.

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LANGKAH 27

LANGKAH 28

Pemacu Cakera Padat (CD-Rom Drive) - Kenal pasti soket kabel reben yang ditandakan ' ' 1 ' . - Kemudian tentukan 'Bracket 5.25"' pada kekisi yang mempunyai lubang di hadapan kekisi. - Masukkan dengan cara menyorong masuk dari dalam kekisi dan ketatkan dengan skru.

Pemacu Cakera Padat (CD-Rom Drive) - Sambungkan kabel reben 40 pin (IDE Cable) yang mempunyai belang (warna merah) pada soket di pemacu yang berlabelkan '1'. - Pasangkan kabel kuasa dari bekalan kuasa. (Soket kabel kuasa ini hanya akan dapat dipasangkan sekiranya kedudukannya dalam keadaan betul) - Kabel Audio disambungkan dengan soket penyambung pemacu ini yang ditandakan 'R' dengan warna kabel audio yang warna merah.

LANGKAH 29

Cara memasang kad Paparan dan kad Bunyi adalah sama Kad Paparan (Display Card) Kad Bunyi (Sound Card) - Tentukan slot untuk dimasukkan kad - Tentukan slot untuk dimasukkan kad paparan. bunyi. - Buka penutup slot kad di kekisi yang telah - Buka penutup slot kad di kekisi yang telah ditentukan. ditentukan. - Kemudian pasangkan skru di kekisi untuk - Kemudian pasangkan skru di kekisi untuk mengetatkan kedudukan kad paparan. mengetatkan kedudukan kad bunyi.

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3.1.4 Connection with I/O device Basic Principles of Peripheral Installations Both hardware and software must be installed (hardware is controlled by software) Install all levels of software Device driver must be written specifically for the OS More than one peripheral device might attempt to use same resources Update drivers, the firmware, or both

Installation Overview 1. Install the device (internal or external) 2. Install the device driver 3. Install the application software Using Ports and Expansion Slots for Add-on Device

Ports o Serial o Parallel o USB o IEEE 1394 o SCSI Expansion slots

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Using Serial Ports Transmit data in single bits (serially) Nine or 25 pins Almost always male Originally intended for input and output devices Configured as COM1, COM2, COM3, or COM4

Using Parallel Ports Transmit data in parallel, eight bits at a time Almost always female Originally intended for printers Can be configured as LPT1, LPT2, or LPT3 Port assignments are made in CMOS setup Avoid using a cable longer than 15 feet to ensure data integrity

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Using USB Ports Effortless installation of slow peripheral devices Much faster than regular serial ports; use higher-quality cabling Easier to manage; eliminate need to manually resolve resource conflicts Likely to replace serial and parallel ports Allow for hot-swapping; are hot-pluggable Most current motherboards have one to four USB ports Managed by a USB host controller As many as 127 USB devices can be daisy-chained together using USB devices

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Keyboard Connectors PS/2 connector (or mini-DIN) o Small, round, with six pins DIN (Deutsche Industrie Norm) connector o Round with five pins USB port Wireless connection o Requires a driver

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Other Devices Scanners Web Cameras Biometric Devices Bar Code Readers Touch Screens

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3.1.5 Configure computer to internet Before you can connect to the Internet and access the World Wide Web, you need to have certain equipment. In brief, you must have a computer (preferably running an up-to-date operating system); a modem and access to a telephone line or a local area network (LAN) that is in turn connected to the Internet; and connection software that will allow you to establish an account with a service provider and access the Internet. A modem is not needed when accessing the Internet through a LAN. The Right Hardware To operate most of the current Web browsers and on-line services, you should have a computer with at least 8 megabytes (MB) of random access memory (RAM) and 10 MB of free disk space. If you are unsure of how much RAM and disk space your computer has, consult your user's manual. If you are accessing the Internet outside of a LAN environment, you will need a modem that will connect you with other computers and interpret the data being sent back and forth. Most any modem that is compatible with your computer will do, though the higher the kilobits per second (kbps) rate of your modem, the faster it will transmit data. Modem speed is an important consideration when accessing sites on the Web that contain lots of digitized data. In general, your modem should transmit data at 14.4 kbps or faster to give you optimum performance on the Web. If you are looking to purchase a modem, buy the fastest model you can afford. You must also have access to a live telephone line. Most modems accept the same jacks as do ordinary household telephones, allowing you to connect your modem to a wall jack using standard phone cord. Some cable TV providers have begun offering Internet connections via cable. Such connections provide much faster transmission speeds than standard phone lines, though you will need a special modem that allows you to link your computer with the cable. If you are interested in a cable Internet connection, contact your local cable operator to see if the service is available in your area. You can also connect to the Internet through a LAN with Internet access. If you are unsure as to the capacities of your LAN to do this, contact your site's systems administrator. The Browser As you surf the Web, you will come across sites that state, "This site is best viewed with" and then name a particular browser. Many will even provide a link to a site where you can download the specified browser. Sites make these recommendations because some browsers use special protocols, allowing site creators to offer extra features beyond the standard capabilities of hypertext markup language (HTML). Chief among these browsers are Netscape Navigator Microsoft Internet Explorer Mozilla Firefox

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Extras Most browsers allow for the use of plug-ins, or extra software applications that run as if they were an integral part of the browser. To see the plug-ins for Internet Explorer, go to: http://www.microsoft.com/ie/download/ Browsers also use helper applications that, while not as integral as plug-ins, enhance the browser's capabilities by launching when needed. Helper applications allow your browser to play sound and video files, display animation and other graphic formats, or access special Internet features such as TELNET. Most Web sites that require the use of helper applications will provide links to sites where you can download the necessary software. Connection Options Until recently, the two primary methods of accessing the Internet were through a network connection, allowing users of local area networks (LANs) to go online through their school or workplace systems, and dial-up connections through a modem and phone line. However, new connection options allow for greater speeds and flexibility, while keeping costs to a minimum. The following are some of the newer connection options that you might want to investigate:

Cable InternetThese systems allow your computer to connect to the Internet through the same cable that carries your TV signal. Monthly service charges are usually not much more than standard modem connection costs, but you have to rent or purchase a "cable modem." Additionally, your computer will need an Ethernet card (a special circuit board that allows for network connections). Not all cable service operators offer this service; call your local operator for more information. Satellite connectionsDirecPC allows you to download Internet files via a satellite connection. This is an efficient method for receiving large Web graphics and other items, but you still need a modem connection for other features. You must purchase the connection hardware as well as subscribe to the service. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)An ISDN line is a type of digital phone line that can transmit data many times faster than a conventional modem and phone line. Wireless connectionsPagers, cellular phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs) now allow varying levels of Internet access, from notification of E-mail to limited Web connections. Many of these services remain in the experimental stage. WebTVIntroduced in late 1996, WebTV provides Web and E-mail access through ordinary television sets. The connection is made through a custom high-speed modem. You must purchase a special set-top unit for your TV, plus subscribe to the connection service. Recently, similar systems by other manufacturers have appeared on the market to compete with WebTV.

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3.2 Troubleshooting TROUBLESHOOTING Mengesan dan menyelesaikan masalah dengan langkah-langkah yang telah ditetapkan di dalam komputer.

Masalah perkakasan - jika rosak , perkakasan perlu diganti baru. - Perkakasan juga mungkin perlu diinstall semula. - Cara terbaik untuk meyelesaikan masalah perkakasan ialah dengan membuang sepenuhnya semua perkakasan dan perisian, kemudian menginstallnya semula. Masalah perisian. - perlu remove dan install semula perisian tersebut.

3.2.1 Hardware and software problem POST (Power On Self Test) Satu beep panjang dan diikuti dengan dua beep pendek Komputer mungkin menghadapi masalah pada monitor atau mana-mana kabel penyambung. Satu beep panjang dan diikuti dengan satu beep pendek Komputer mungkin menghadapi masalah pada motherboard. Satu beep pendek Komputer tidak menghadapi masalah. LAMPU PENUNJUK LED Untuk mengesan kerosakan pada LED, kita mestilah mengenalpasti kabel dan penyambungan LED pada motherboard. Beberapa pelompat digunakan untuk menyambungkan LED kepada peranti yang berbeza.

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Troubleshoot hardware problems There are thousands of different models of printers, digital cameras, network adapters, and other hardware accessories (generally referred to as devices) that you can use with a computer running Microsoft Windows XP. Most of the time, you can install and begin using a device right away. Occasionally, however, you might encounter a problem during installation or even when using a device that previously worked. If you run into a problem with your hardware, you may be able to solve it by trying these three things: Troubleshooting problems with new hardware Reinstalling the hardware Identifying a hardware failure Troubleshooting problems with new hardware

When installing new hardware, it is important to follow the manufacturer's instructions exactly, even if they seem counter-intuitive. For example, it may seem logical to connect your new hardware to the computer first. However, many hardware accessories require that you install software before you connect the hardware. Before turning on your computer or connecting anything, read the instructions. If you don't follow the steps in the correct order, Windows XP may not install a device correctly. However, you can usually resolve installation problems by disconnecting the hardware, removing the software, and then following the manufacturer's instructions to install the hardware. Also, if you receive a message requesting that you restart your computer, always do so before continuing.

How to reinstall hardware The best way to resolve hardware problems during setup is to completely remove the hardware and software. Then, start over by reinstalling the hardware according to the manufacturer's instructions. To reinstall hardware 1. Visit the hardware manufacturer's Web site and download the latest software and device driver for your hardware. Note: A driver is the most essential software, because it contains information and instructions that enable Windows XP to interact with the device. The most common problems often lead back to an outdated, mismatched, or improperly installed device driver. If you suspect the problem is with your device driver, read Troubleshoot device driver problems. 2. Shut down Windows XP and your computer. 31 | P a g e

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3. Disconnect the hardware. 4. Start your computer. 5. Uninstall all software related to your hardware. 6. Remove the device driver by following the instructions to reinstall a device driver. 7. Restart Windows XP. 8. Follow the manufacturer's instructions to install the hardware. If reinstalling the hardware with the latest software does not fix the problem, read the next section to determine if you have faulty hardware. If the problem persists, contact the hardware manufacturer for assistance.

How to identify a hardware failure Sometimes, a device is broken, and the only way to fix the problem is to replace it. However, you should first see if the hardware failure is caused by: Improperly installed software. Try reinstalling your hardware. A faulty port. Connect the hardware to a different port or connector if one is available. For example, if the device uses a USB connection, plug the device into a different USB port, and then reinstall the hardware. If the device works, the problem is with your computer's port, not with the hardware. Contact your computer manufacturer for repair information. Computer configuration. Attempt to connect the hardware to a different computer, if one is available. If the hardware works when connected to a different computer, the problem is related to your computer's configuration. Instead of exchanging the hardware, you should contact either the hardware manufacturer or your computer manufacturer for additional troubleshooting assistance. If the hardware fails when connected to a different port on your computer and to a different computer, the cause of the problem is most likely hardware failure. If the hardware is within the warranty period, contact the manufacturer for information about exchanging the hardware. Otherwise, contact a computer repair shop for help fixing the device. Keep in mind that inexpensive hardware, such as a webcam, may be less expensive to replace than to repair.

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3.2.2 Basic maintenance of computer component and software Computer Maintenance Tips Santa may have brought you a new computer or peripheral for Christmas, but he didn't tell you how to take care of it. Now is a good time to get some good computer maintenance habits developed before you get yourself into trouble. Ten tips to keep your computer running smoothly: 1. Never, never, turn your computer off with the power switch until Windows has shut down. The one exception to this rule is when your computer locks up and your hard drive is not running (hard drive light is not blinking). In this situation, you can turn the power off without harmful effects to the hard drive. As cutting the power can also result in lost data or Windows files, you should only do this when you have to. Following this rule will prevent permanent hard drive defects caused by the hard drive heads contacting the surface of the drive disc, and it will prevent a host of Windows problems. Whenever possible, recover from crashes by pressing the Ctrl + Alt + Delete keys at the same time. Press them again to reboot your computer. 2. I highly recommend that you purchase an UPS (uninteruptable power supply) for your computer. This will keep your computer from crashing during power outages, and will protect your computer from low and high voltage occurrences. An UPS is far superior to a surge protector and will save your computer from almost any power type of disaster. (See #1 above for what happens when your computer crashes.) 3. Backup, backup, backup, any data you cannot afford to lose to at least two separate physical drives. So backup data to floppies, Zip disks, CD-RWs etc. The time to backup is when you create something you can't afford to lose. Don't wait until tomorrow. 4. Run Scandisk and Defragment at least once a month. This will keep your hard drive healthy and prevent crashes. Alternatively, purchase Norton Utilities and use it to keep your hard drive healthy. 5. Never unplug peripherals from the computer when it is powered up. Unplugging with the power on can short out the connector socket or the motherboard. The only exception to this rule is if you know a peripheral is "hot pluggable". If you do not know what "hot pluggable" means then ignore this exception. 6. Do keep at least 100 MBs of your C: drive free for Windows to use. If you use Windows Me or Windows XP then you should have 200 MBs of free space on your C: drive. If you do not have enough free space you will choke Windows and it will start dumping data to your hard drive, or it will just get really, really, slow. 33 | P a g e

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Use the ADD/Delete tool in the Windows Control Panel to delete unneeded programs from your drive. You can also use Cleansweep included in Norton Utilities to clean up your drive. If you do use Cleansweep or another hard drive cleaner, do not delete shared files unless you back them up. The cleaners do a rotten job of knowing if another program uses shared files. 7. Do not let a lot of programs load up when you start your computer. They use valuable memory and Windows Resources (Windows internal workspace). All programs in your Windows System Tray (in the lower left of your screen) are running on your computer. Close them if you don't need them or run them and configure them not to load when you boot up. Other programs running in the background can be found by pressing Ctrl + Alt + Delete at the same time. 8. Do use a virus checker regularly. Everyone should use a virus checker. The best type of protection is continuous monitoring from a dedicated anti-virus program like Norton Antivirus. The second best thing is to use is the free online virus checker Housecall provided by Trend Micro. 9. If you have a high speed Internet connection you need a firewall program. A firewall program keeps those who want to hijack your computer from gaining access to your system. You really do not want someone else running your computer. I suggest you purchase and run Norton's Personal Firewall program. Your firewall should boot up with your computer to protect it from invasion. A free personal firewall program is available from Tiny Software. Case in point: When I run Windows Me for 10 hours or more with my DSL connection, my computer is usually attacked by a hacker at least once. Do not think you are safe from hackers!! Hackers use search programs to seek out computers at random. Get a firewall program and use it. 10. Keep track of the software disks you receive with your computer and new peripherals. These disks contain valuable software drivers and programs for Windows and are needed when Windows must be reloaded. Keep these disks and your Windows software disks in a safe, dry, place you never know when you will need them

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a. Cleaning mouse and keyboard As you move the mouse on a flat surface the ball turns the rollers inside and sends signals to the computer, the computer then translates these signals into the movement of the mouse pointer. For this reason it is important to keep the rollers inside your mouse clean, any piece of dust/debris no matter how small can make your mouse behave abnormally.

Firstly unplug your mouse from the PC and get to hand a soft tissue and suitable cleaning fluid (window cleaner is fine).

Notice the removable cover on the bottom of the mouse. Turn the mouse cover anti-clockwise to release the ball, remove the cover and take the ball out.

Use the soft tissue to clean the mouse ball, be sure to remove all dust/hair/debris.

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Next, notice the 3 rollers within the mouse casing, these are what we need to clean. You can improvise on how to clean the rollers, using your fingernail gets good results, if the mouse hasn't been cleaned before then you will see lots of dust on the rollers, whichever way you choose to clean them make sure you remove all traces of dust/debris as the smallest piece can cause the mouse to behave erratically. When you have removed all traces of dust/dirt from the rollers and the ball is nice and clean, simply put the ball back in and replace the cover turning clockwise to lock it in place. Plug the mouse back into your machine and turn the machine on, now your mouse should be as good as new. Cleaning your keyboard - How to clean your computer keyboard Computer Keyboards can get dirty very easily, to clean the surface of a keyboard is very straight forward, in this guide however we will show you how to clean your keyboard thoroughly as well as giving it a quick once over, we will guide you through with the aid of photos and diagrams. We have split the guide into two parts, the first part is for keyboards that just need a quick clean, the second part is for membrane keyboards (most standard keyboards) and includes removing the keys for a thorough cleaning. What you will need:

lint free cloth. dry cloth or duster. suitable cleaning fluid (isopropyl alcohol). cotton buds. Can of compressed air or vacuum cleaner. Flat tip screwdriver (optional for thorough clean).

Moderate cleaning (quick and easy) First, shutdown your PC and remove the mains plug, unplug the keyboard (remember which socket) and hold it upside down to release any debris from inbetween the keys (pressing the keys is a good way to release it). If you have a can of compressed air then use it to blow any debris from around and under the keys, if not then use the hose of a vacuum cleaner to remove it. 36 | P a g e

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Now take one of the cotton buds and put a couple of drops of the cleaning fluid on it, use the cotton bud to clean the sides of the keys as seen in fig 1.1. After cleaning the sides of the keys take your lint free cloth and dampen it with your cleaning fluid (don't put the liquid directly on the keyboard), give the surface of the keyboard a good wipe over using the cloth to trace the contours of the keys (see fig 1.2). When you have finished give the keyboard a wipe over with the dry cloth/duster, you should now have a nice clean keyboard, to clean it more thoroughly follow the guide below. Thorough cleaning (takes longer and requires patience) Standard membrane keyboards only (not laptops or non-membrane keyboards) Shutdown your PC and remove the mains plug, unplug the keyboard (remember where it was plugged in) and hold it upside down to release any debris from inbetween the keys. This is where the patience comes in, make a note of the position of all the keys or you will have trouble putting them back correctly, alternatively just remove the letter keys A - Z from the keyboard (which is where the most of the dust/debris will be) and refer to fig 1.4 as a reference to put them back. All the keys can be removed although the larger keys (space bar, enter key, shift keys, backspace, caps lock, etc) can be difficult to put back so you might avoid removing them. Remove the keys using the screwdriver, ease the screwdriver under the key and gently lift the key top off (see fig 1.3).

When you have removed all the keys (except any keys you wish to avoid) use the compressed air (or vacuum cleaner) to remove any dust and debris from inside the keyboard. Now is a good time to give the keys a proper clean, for best results clean each one individually (the patience thing again) with the cloth and cleaning fluid, when clean, wipe them over with the dry cloth. Before replacing the keys, take your lint free cloth and dampen it with your cleaning fluid (don't put the liquid directly on the keyboard), give the surface of the keyboard a good wipe over ensuring to clean as much as possible any keys that you haven't removed. 37 | P a g e

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When the keyboard is nice and clean replace the keys according to your notes or if you have just removed the letter keys use fig 1.4 as a guide, to put the keys back on position the key in place and press gently but firmly until it clicks home. After replacing all the keys give the keyboard a quick wipe over with your dry cloth and you have a nice clean keyboard.

b. Removing dust from the interior computer case

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c. Defrag and disk clean up Hard Drive Maintenance, A guide to Defragmenting your hard drive using Defrag Defragmenting your hard drive is an integral part of keeping your PC healthy, the defrag utility which ships with windows is very simple to use and can give a boost to your PC's performance. This guide will show you how to defragment your hard drive in Windows. In this section:

What is defragmenting and why should I do it ? Defragmenting in Windows 98/ME. Defragmenting in Windows XP.

What is defragmenting and why should I do it Fragmentation is caused when an operating system breaks a file into pieces because there is not enough space on the storage device where the file was originally saved. One example of this would be where a file was originally saved, then modified causing the file to be larger in physical space than first anticipated, the operating system will then break the file into 2 or more pieces and store them in different parts of the storage area. The system would then keep a record of where the different parts of the file are stored, this is achieved through the use of a File Allocation Table (FAT) or similar file system such as NTFS. Then, when the operating system requires the file again, it will query the file system (FAT/NTFS/or other) to find out where the different parts of the file are located on the partition (drive). Defragmentation is the term given to the process of scanning the file system and rejoining the split files back into consecutive pieces. The process of defragmenting can be time consuming, but it is one of the easiest ways to increase the performance of your PC, the frequency of which a PC should be defragmented will directly depend on the amount of usage.

Defragmenting in Windows 98/ME Before you start ensure you have enough time to complete the defragmentation process, it can be anything from 30 mins up to several hours depending on how much use the PC has had since the last defrag was completed. To start the defrag utility, click on the Start button, then hover your mouse over Programs, then hover over Accessories, then hover over System Tools, then click on Disk Defragmenter. 39 | P a g e

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Windows 98/ME will now ask you which drive you wish to defrag, select the drive you want to defrag (usually C:) from the pull down menu and then click the OK button. The Defrag utility will then start defragmenting the selected drive as seen in fig 1.1 below:

note: Sometimes the defrag utility will report that it can't defrag the selected drive because the drive has errors, if this is the case then run the Scandisk utility first, to start the Scandisk utility, click on the Start button, then hover your mouse over Programs, then hover over Accessories, then hover over System Tools, then click on Scandisk Once it is complete simply close the defrag utility. Defragmenting in Windows XP First of all make sure you have enough time to complete the defragmentation, the amount of time will depend on how much use your PC has had since the last defragmentation. To start the defrag utility, click on the Start button, then hover your mouse over all programs, then hover over Accessories, then hover over System Tools, then click on Disk Defragmenter. This will start the defrag utility, you will see the defrag dialogue box as shown in fig 2.1.

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In our example in fig 2.1 we have just one hard drive, if you have more than one hard drive then it will be visible in the window. The next step is to highlight the drive you wish to defragment (one left click on the drive), then click on the Analyze button, this will check the selected drive for fragmentation, the utility will then tell you whether the drive needs defragmenting or not. If the drive needs defragmenting simply click the Defragment button, once clicked the utility will begin defragmentation of the drive, it may take a few hours depending on the size of the drive. Once it is complete simply close the defrag utility. d. Virus protection Antivirus software, An overview of anti-virus software In this section we cover one of the most important aspects of computer maintenance, antivirus protection. The virus The internet is an excellent tool, and no doubt has changed the way most people communicate, unfortunately the internet, email in particular, has created an easy to target medium for the spread of computer viruses, as you have probably heard these viruses can cause absolute chaos to whole networks of computers at a time. A virus is basically a malicious computer program, the effect of viruses differ, some either modify, delete or steal data and others may give control of your PC over to their creators via the internet, one thing they all have in common is that if you get infected and you don't have antivirus software you might not know you have it until it is too late. A Worm refers to a virus that can replicate and spread by itself over a network (the internet for instance), these are getting very common and are among the biggest trouble makers on the internet. A virus/worm can sit on your machine for months (potentially even years) without doing anything and then be triggered by a certain date/time to do what it has been designed to do, this is referred to as its payload. As these viruses/worms become ever more advanced, the need for antivirus software has never been so great. Antivirus software Antivirus software is designed to keep your PC free of these computer viruses & worms, it does so by scanning your PC's file system looking for known viruses, if a virus is found it will inform you and then take steps to remove the virus threat. Good antivirus software will automatically check any files being transferred to and from your computer, any antivirus software should at least scan attachments of incoming emails automatically (even if the option can be turned off). 41 | P a g e

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Virus definition files Antivirus software usually works by checking a file for certain patterns of binary code, the patterns which it uses to identify viruses are stored in what is known as a virus definition file, when a new virus comes out the virus definition file needs to be updated to include the new virus' pattern. The importance of keeping these definition files updated cannot be overstated, basically antivirus software without updated definition files is useless. Most good antivirus software will update these files automatically (or at least have the option to do so), the update of the definition files is usually achieved by having the software connect via the internet to the vendors website (server), and then downloading and installing the latest virus patterns. This is why it is important to purchase antivirus software from an established company, imagine you bought antivirus protection and then 6 months later the company went bankrupt, where would you get your virus definition updates from ? If you don't have antivirus software then check out these antivirus products from established developers:

McAfee VirusScan Norton Antivirus AVG Antivirus Avast Antivirus Panda Antivirus e. Spyware protection

Spyware is computer software that is installed surreptitiously on a personal computer to intercept or take partial control over the user's interaction with the computer, without the user's informed consent. While the term spyware suggests software that secretly monitors the user's behavior, the functions of spyware extend well beyond simple monitoring. Spyware programs can collect various types of personal information, such as Internet surfing habit, sites that have been visited, but can also interfere with user control of the computer in other ways, such as installing additional software, redirecting Web browser activity, accessing websites blindly that will cause more harmful viruses, or diverting advertising revenue to a third party. Spyware can even change computer settings, resulting in slow connection speeds, different home pages, and loss of Internet or other programs. In an attempt to increase the understanding of spyware, a more formal classification of its included software types is captured under the term privacy-invasive software.

PC Tools's Spyware Doctor (one free edition doesn't remove anything but protects, the other free edition removes but protects partially and uses a limited database) DriveSentry (free version (3.1) will remove spyware) SUPERAnti Spyware (free version fully detects and removes spyware, but does not provide protection) Trend Micro's HijackThis (free)

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3.3

Hard Disk Formation and CMOS/BIOS configuration

3.3.1 Component of hard disk

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3.3.2 Formatting and Re-formatting hard disk Low-Level Formatting Occurs at the factory Process of writing sector and track markings on the disk Expected to last for the life of the drive Considerations When Purchasing a Hard Drive Capacity Spindle speed Technology standard Cache or buffer size Average seek time Match drive to motherboard Communicating with the Hard Drive Controller

Calculating Drive Capacity on Older Drives For drives less than 8.4 GB Determined by number of heads, tracks, and sectors on the disk, each sector holding 512 bytes of data Hard Drive Size Limitations Operating system DOS and Windows 9x FAT16 Windows NT/2000/XP FAT16 Windows 2000/XP FAT32 Windows 9x FAT32 Windows 2000/XP with Service Pack Maximum size supported 2.1 GB; cannot be used on hard drives that exceed 8.4 GB 4 GB 32 GB 137 GB Larger than 137 GB

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Methods of Retaining Backward Compatibility CHS (Cylinder, Head, Sector) The drive was accessed by specifying its cylinder, head and sector address. More appropriately, it was referred to as accessing the drive through its "geometry" Large mode or ECHS (Extended CHS) mode A transition change in the way a drive was accessed in order to work around the 504 MB barrier, however, the addressing was still done in terms of cylinder, head and sector numbers and then translated one or more times before actually accessing the drive itself LBA (Logical Block Addressing) mode It is a means by which a drive is accessed by linearly addressing sector addresses, beginning at sector 1 of head 0, cylinder 0 as LBA 0, and proceeding on in sequence to the last physical sector on the drive, which, for instance, on a standard 540 Meg drive would be LBA 1,065,456. I.e, each sector is assigned a unique "sector number"

Installing a Hard Drive 1. Set jumpers or DIP switches; physically install drive; attach power cord and data cable 2. Inform CMOS of new drive 3. If installing an OS on the drive, boot from OS setup CD (and skip next two steps) 4. If drive is not intended to hold an OS, use Fdisk or Disk Management to create partition(s) and divide extended partition into logical drives 5. For second drive, use Format command or Disk Management to high-level format each logical drive

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Jumper Settings

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3.3.3 Partitioning hard disk Hard Drive Partitions and Logical Drives Active partition Its the bootable partition. OS installed in this partition. Only one drive can be set as the active partition on a computer Primary partition The primary partition marked as active contains the OS. Also referred as System Partition Extended partition Can be broken down into smaller drives accessible to the OS. These drives are referred to as logical partitions or logical drives Logical partition Exists in an extended partition

Choice of File Systems FAT16 Supported by all Windows systems FAT32 (and VFAT) Supported by Windows 95 Second Edition, Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows XP NTFS Supported by Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP Each logical drive has its own file system

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When to Partition a Drive First install a new hard drive Existing drive is giving errors Suspect a virus has attacked the drive Want to wipe a hard drive clean and install a new OS i) Using Fdisk to Partition a Drive

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After using Fdisk, you must reboot the PC before you format the drive Commands used to format logical drives C, D, and E: Format C:/S Format D: Format E: ii) Using Windows to Partition and Format a New Drive Boot from Window setup CD Follow on-screen directions to install Windows on new drive The setup process partitions and formats new drive before it begins Windows installation

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3.3.4 CMOS and BIOS

satu cip statik RAM (SRAM) yang dibina menggunakan teknologi CMOS dan menggunakan kuasa yang rendah ketika operasi. CMOS biasanya digunakan di dalam sistem komputer untuk bekerjasama dengan aturcara di dalam BIOS untuk menyemak dan mengaktifkan operasi sistem komputer. mengandungi maklumat berkaitan konfigurasi masa, tarikh dan tahun dan sistem akan melaksanakan kiraan berterusan walaupun selepas komputer dimatikan

CMOS - Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor

Bersifat meruap atau volatile dan sementara

Press <F1> ATAU Del to enter Setup(bergantung jenis cip BIOS) disambungkan kepada satu bateri 9V ~ 18V untuk membekalkan kuasa sentiasa kepada cip dan seterusnya mengekalkan data di dalamnya.

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sistem asas masukan/keluaran yang mengawal perjalanan operasi sistem komputer

BIOS merupakan papan litar atau cip yang berada pada papan induk dan bertindak mengawal atau menguruskan bagaimana sesebuah sistem komputer berfungsi atau beroperasi

BIOS - BIOS (BASIC INPUT/ OUTPUT SYSTEM) Jenis jenis BIOS dipasaran - AMI BIOS, Award, Phoenix, DTR, MR, Quadtel, gateway 2000, Sony PC, IBM PS/2 dll

bersifat kekal dan non volatile atau meruap.

komponen pertama yang dikenalpasti oleh mikropemproses sebaik sahaja komputer diaktifkan (booted up).

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3.3.5 CMOS and BIOS configuration PENGENALAN Selepas era pengenalan kepada komputer IBM PC/AT, beberapa konfigurasi bagi suis DIP telah ditukar dan dikurangkan berbanding ketika era komputer PC/XT. IBM memilih untuk menyimpan parameter bagi setup sistem di dalam satu cip IC RAM yang berkuasa rendah, dipanggil CMOS RAM, tanpa menghadkan konfigurasi sistem yang sedia ada. CMOS RAM yang digunakan sebenarnya bergabung dengan RTC (Real Time Clock) dalam satu cip IC. Apabila satu komputer jenis AT dihidupkan, sistem atribut yang tersimpan di dalam CMOS RAM akan dibaca oleh BIOS yang tersimpan dalam cip ROM. BIOS kemudiannya akan menggunakan sistem atribut tersebut ketika operasi normal. Amatlah penting supaya setting yang betul digunakan pada sistem konfigurasi atau masalah akan wujud dalam sistem. CMOS dan BIOS merupakan cip utama yang dikaitkan dengan sistem POST (Power ON Self Test). BIOS sebenarnya merupakan satu aturcara yang ditulis untuk membolehkan satu komputer melakukan ujian kendiri terhadap sistemnya. BIOS disimpan dalam satu cip ROM yang dipanggil EPROM.

CMOS CMOS merupakan singkatan daripada Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor. Ia sebenarnya merujuk kepada satu cip statik RAM (SRAM) yang dibina menggunakan teknologi CMOS dan menggunakan kuasa yang rendah ketika operasi. RAM CMOS biasanya digunakan di dalam sistem komputer untuk bekerjasama dengan aturcara di dalam ROM BIOS untuk menyemak dan mengaktifkan operasi sistem komputer. Aturcara atau arahan yang tersimpan di dalam RAM CMOS bersifat volatile (meruap-data hilang apabila bekalan kuasa dimatikan) berbanding ROM BIOS yang bersifat non-volatile (tak meruap data kekal walaupun bekalan kuasa dimatikan). Oleh itu cip CMOS RAM biasanya disambungkan kepada satu bateri 9V ~ 18V untuk membekalkan kuasa sentiasa kepada cip dan seterusnya mengekalkan data di dalamnya. Cip CMOS RAM biasanya mengandungi maklumat berkaitan konfigurasi masa, tarikh dan tahun dan sistem akan melaksanakan kiraan berterusan walaupun selepas komputer dimatikan. Jika bateri yang disambungkan kepada cip CMOS RAM telah lupus atau rosak, secara tak langsung maklumat yang ada tersimpan di dalam cip akan terjejas.

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Paparan CMOS semasa ujian POST oleh BIOS Rajah 8.1.1 di bawah menunjukkan paparan yang dapat dilihat sebaik sahaja satu sistem komputer berjaya melepasi peringkat pertama pengujian. Paparan tersebut menunjukkan semua perkakasan yang diuji berfungsi. Peringkat seterusnya untuk menentukan baki perkakasan seperti tetikus dan papan kekunci boleh berfungsi.

Rajah 8.1.1 Paparan CMOS

BIOS (BASIC INPUT/ OUTPUT SYSTEM) BIOS adalah singkatan daripada Basic Input/Output System merupakan sistem asas masukan/keluaran yang mengawal perjalanan operasi sistem komputer. Aturcara BIOS biasanya disimpan di dalam cip ROM yang bersifat kekal dan non volatile . Semasa memulakan sesebuah sistem komputer (ON), perkara berikut mungkin dialami: Cahaya atau lampu yang berkelip-kelip kelihatan pada skrin paparan, papan kekunci dan juga pemacu cakera. Beberapa perkataan dan nombor yang mungkin tidak anda fahami kelihatan silih berganti pada skrin monitor yang hitam dan akhirnya skrin Windows 95 atau Windows 98 muncul di skrin (sekiranya anda menggunakan sistem pengoperasian tersebut)

Keadaan di atas berlaku dalam tempoh masa 5 hingga 10 saat adalah komputer sedang mengenal pasti sistem komputer berdasarkan program yang telah ditulis di dalam BIOS. Kenapa perlu menukar ROM BIOS yang baru? Kebanyakan komputer masa kini perlu mengupgrade cip ROM bios sentiasa untuk membolehkan komputer menampung pelbagai peranti, perisian atau port tambahan. Lazimnya komputer klon yang dijual di pasaran tidak 100% serasi IBM dan dengan mengupgrade ROM bios, semua teknologi baru boleh dicapai.

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Secara amnya, BIOS merupakan papan litar atau cip yang berada pada papan induk dan bertindak mengawal atau menguruskan bagaimana sesebuah sistem komputer berfungsi atau beroperasi. Cip ini mungkin dalam bentuk EPROM atau ROM jenis yang lain. Cip BIOS hanya mampu menampung sejumlah kecil data atau arahan sahaja. Terdapat banyak jenis BIOS yang terdapat di pasaran, contohnya AMI BIOS, Award, Phoenix, DTR, MR, Quadtel dan sebagainya. ROM BIOS merupakan komponen pertama yang dikenalpasti oleh mikropemproses sebaik sahaja komputer diaktifkan (booted up). BIOS menyimpan sejumlah aturcara yang disimpan secara kekal oleh pengilang cip ke dalam cip ROM BIOS.

Bahagian utama pengoperasian cip BIOS

Tugas Utama CMOS dan BIOS Tugas-tugas yang dilakukan oleh BIOS semasa komputer dimulakan adalah seperti berikut: BIOS akan secara automatik mengaktif dan mencapai data atau maklumat yang berkaitan dengan jenis pemproses mikro yang digunakan (sama ada Pentium II, Pentium III dan sebagainya) dari CPU. BIOS melaksanakan ujian kendiri (power-on self-test) dalaman terhadap CPU. Seterusnya BIOS membaca maklumat berkaitan dengan sistem komputer daripada peranti yang dinamakan CMOS (Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor); yang berada pada cip masa nyata (Real time chip RTC) bersam-sama dengan jam sistem dan bateri. CMOS mengandungi maklumat yang berkaitan dengan perkakasan seperti jenis pemacu cakera keras, pemacu cakera liut dan saiz ingatan utama sesebuah sistem komputer. Apa yang membezakan ROM BIOS ? ROM BIOS dibezakan berpandukan jenis komputer PC yang kita ada, XT atau AT. Semua pengeluar motherboard menggunakan chipset yang pelbagai, antara yang popular termasuklah INTEL VLSI Technology, Western Digital dan CHIPS. Selepas maklumat daripada CMOS dicapai, BIOS kemudiannya menentukan jumlah ingatan utama yang ada dan membandingkannya dengan nilai yang sedia ada di dalam CMOS. Sekiranya nilai sedia ada tidak menyamai nilai yang ada di dalam CMOS, satu 55 | P a g e

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mesej amaran akan dipaparkan pada skrin. Dua kemungkinan berlaku, iaitu terdapat masalah pada cip ataupun menambah jumlah ingatan (upgrade) tanpa terlebih dahulu memaklumkan kepada sistem komputer secara rasmi. Seterusnya BIOS mencari sistem pengoperasian (contohnya Microsoft Windows) yang digunakan oleh sistem komputer tersebut mengikut maklumat yang diberikan oleh CMOS. Setelah sistem pengoperasian ditemui, BIOS menyerahkan tugasnya kepada sistem pengoperasian tersebut.

Namun demikian tugas BIOS tidak berhenti di situ sahaja. Di sepanjang masa sistem komputer digunakan, BIOS masih beroperasi sebagai tulang belakang yang menyediakan penghubung di antara pengguna dengan sistem pengoperasian. Antaramuka Pengguna (Teks atau Grafik

Perisian Sistem Pengoperasian

Perkakasan (Dengan BIOS) Rajah 8 : BIOS bertindak sebagai tulang belakang yang menghubungkan pengguna dengan sistem pengoperasian CMOS dan BIOS merupakan dua cip IC yang berbeza di mana kandungan data dalam BIOS adalah kekal dan tidak boleh diubah oleh pengguna (melainkan dengan peralatan yang sesuai dan jika perlu). Kandungan dalam CMOS boleh diubah oleh pengguna disebabkan CMOS adalah cip RAM yang boleh melakukan operasi baca dan tulis.

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KAITAN DI ANTARA CMOS DAN BIOS CMOS digunakan kerana ia lebih kebal hingar (kurang gangguan bunyi), menggunakan kuasa yang lebih rendah, dan mempunyai keupayaan penyimpanan yang lebih baik berbanding chip TTL (Transistor Transistor Logic). Kelemahan CMOS adalah ia perlu disambungkan kepada bateri kerana ciri-cirinya yang meruap (volatile), oleh itu satu bateri (+3 ~ +18 V) biasanya disambungkan kepada cip CMOS RAM untuk mengekalkan prestasi kendaliannya. EPROM atau Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory merupakan satu cip atau peranti ingatan rawak yang berupaya untuk melaksanakan operasi baca sahaja (Read Only). Selepas sesuatu cip EPROM diaturcara, pengguna tidak boleh mengubah kandungan datanya. Biasanya pengilang atau pengeluar computer akan mengatucara EPROM dengan aturcara BIOS semasa di kilang lagi sebelum sampai kepada pengguna. EPROM sebenarnya satu cip ingatan yang boleh diaturcara dan ditulis berulangkali dengan mengunakan peralatan khas. Untuk memadam kandungan cip EPROM, cip ini akan diletakkan pada peralatan yang dipanggil EPROM Eraser. Peralatan EPROM Eraser ini akan memancarkan cahaya ungu (Ultra Violet UV) ke atas tetingkap EPROM dan memadam kandungan yang ada di dalam EPROM. Proses ini akan memadam kesemua kandungan atau aturcara yang disimpan dalam EPROM. Untuk mengaturcara EPROM, satu peralatan yang dipanggil EPROM Programmer digunakan dan satu perisian khas digunakan supaya aturcara yang ditulis boleh disimpan ke dalam EPROM. Aturcara yang dimasukkan adalah di dalam bentuk bahasa kod mesin (Binari File). Kebanyakan pakar komputer menggunakan panggilan BIOS dan CMOS bagi mewakili operasi POST yang dilaksanakan oleh satu sistem komputer mikro. Ini menimbulkan kekeliruan kepada pengguna akan kedudukan sebenar aturcara permulaan sistem diletakkan. BIOS dan CMOS RAM bukan merupakan satu cip yang sama; BIOS (ROM- Read Only Memory) dan CMOS RAM (RAM Random Access Memory). Walau bagaimanapun, BIOS dan CMOS RAM berkait rapat kerana BIOS menyimpan aturcara perkukuhan (firmware) yang disimpan oleh pengilang untuk memulakan sistem, manakala CMOS RAM menyimpan parameter bagi sistem setup. BIOS akan membaca kandungan data dalam CMOS ketika komputer mula-mula dihidupkan dan membekalkan rutin setup yang membenarkan pengguna untuk mengubah kandungan data dalam CMOS.

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KONFIGURASI, KAEDAH DAN APLIKASI KONFIGURASI BAGI CMOS DAN BIOS Setiap kali kita menekan butang kuasa pada komputer, sistem secara automatik akan mengarahkan mikropemproses membaca atau mengenal pasti arahan yang disimpan di dalam cip BIOS. Cip BIOS menyimpan semua arahan yang mengarahkan computer dan sistem untuk mengenal pasti beberapa konfigurasi yang ditetapkan untuk komputer tersebut. Cara yang paling mudah untuk mengkonfigurasi CMOS dan BIOS adalah dengan memasuki setup utility dengan menekan kekunci F1 (mungkin berbeza bagi sesetengah komputer) dan paparan berikut dapat dilihat pada skrin monitor. Press <F1> to enter Setup Jadual 8.4 (a) menunjukkan konfigurasi dan aplikasi CMOS dan BIOS yang ditentukan oleh pengilang untuk satu sistem komputer berasaskan mikropemproses Intel Pentium 4. Paparan ini membekalkan maklumat kepada pengguna tentang kedudukan kesemua perkakasan storan dan ingatan dalam sistem, konfigurasi peralatan plug and play , pengurusan kuasa, maklumat terperinci tentang CMOS dan BIOS, mengubah dan menetapkan kata laluan (password) serta beberapa pilihan setting yang lain. CMOS Setup Utility Copyright 1984 2002 Award Software Standard CMOS Features Advanced BIOS Features Advanced Chipset Features Integrated Peripherals Power Management Setup PnP/PCI Configurations PC Health Status Frequency / Voltage Control Load Fail Safe Defaults Load Optimized Defaults Set Supervisor Password Set User Password Save & Exit Setup Exit Without Saving

Esc : Quit Item F8 : Q-Flash Exit Setup

F10

: :

Select Save &

Change CPUs Clock & Voltage Jadual 8.4 (a) Konfigurasi dan aplikasi CMOS / BIOS pada setup utility

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Jenis Cip BIOS AMI BIOS Award BIOS DTK BIOS IBM PS/2 BIOS Phoenix BIOS ALR PC Compaq PCs

Arahan kekunci memasuki setup <Del> semasa operasi POST <Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Esc> <Esc> semasa operasi POST <Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Ins> selepas <Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Del> <Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Esc> atau <Ctrl>+<Alt>+<S> <F2> utk sistem PCI atau <Ctrl>+<Alt>+<Esc> untuk sistem bukan PCI <F10>

Gateway 2000 PC <F1> <F3> semasa PC memualakn sistem, kemudian logo Sony dipaprkan dan tekan <F1> Jadual 8.4 (b) Kekunci untuk memasuki utility setup Sony PC Jadual 8.4 (b) memberikan pelbagai kekunci arahan yang perlu digunakan untuk pengguna dapat memasuki utility setup mengikut jenis-jenis komputer peribadi yang biasa terdapat di pasaran masa kini. Jika kekunci arahan yang salah ditekan, pengguna tidak dapat memasuki utility setup pada sistem. Biasanya, kekunci arahan dapat dilihat sebaik sahaja komputer memulakan sistem atau semasa operasi POST dilaksanakan. CMOS Setup Utility Copyright 1984 2002 Award Software Standard CMOS Features
Date (mm : dd : yy) Time (hh : mm : ss) IDE IDE IDE IDE Primary Master Primary Slave Secondary Master Secondary Slave Mon, Oct 7 2002 11 : 3 : 29 Item Help Menu Level

[WDC WD200EB-75CPF0] Change the day, month, year [None] <Week> [FX54 + + W] Sun to Sat [None] [1.44M, 3.5] [None] [Disabled] [All, But Keyboard] 640K 130048K 131072K <Month> Jan to Dec <Day> 1 to 31 (or maximum allowed in the Month) <Year> 1999 to 2098

Drive A Drive B Floppy 3 Mode Support Halt On Base Memory Extended Memory Total Memory

Jadual 8.4 (c) Paparan CMOS mengandungi maklumat pemacu dan kapasiti sistem. 59 | P a g e

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Jadual 8.4 (c) memberikan maklumat berkaitan dengan penetapan tarikh dan masa; penentuan storan primer dan sekunder seperti cakera keras, pemacu cakera optik dan lain-lain. Selain daripada itu, ia juga memaparkan maklumat tentang jenis-jenis cakera liut, cip ingatan utama yang digunakan dan kapasitinya dalam sistem. Jadual 8.4 (d) memberikan maklumat berkaitan dengan BIOS terutamanya cara-cara untuk memulakan sistem sebaik sahaja komputer dihidupkan atau selepas satu perkakasan atau perisian baru diinstall ke dalam sistem komputer. Ia juga menyatakan maklumat arahan yang perlu dilakukan oleh sistem semasa memulakan komputer. Contoh-contoh arahan adalah seperti peranti mana yang perlu dikesan dahulu untuk melakukan proses Boot.

CMOS Setup Utility Copyright 1984 2002 Award Software Standard CMOS Features
Date (mm : dd : yy) Time (hh : mm : ss) IDE IDE IDE IDE Primary Master Primary Slave Secondary Master Secondary Slave Mon, Oct 7 2002 11 : 3 : 29 Menu Level [WDC WD200EB-75CPF0] Change the day, month, year [None] [FX54 + + W] <Week> [None] Sun to Sat [1.44M, 3.5] <Month> [None] Jan to Dec [Disabled] [All, But Keyboard] 640K 130048K 131072K <Day> 1 to 31 (or maximum allowed in the Month) <Year> 1999 to 2098 Item Help

Drive A Drive B Floppy 3 Mode Support Halt On Base Memory Extended Memory Total Memory

Jadual 8.4 (c) Paparan CMOS mengandungi maklumat pemacu dan kapasiti sistem.

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Jadual 8.4 (d) juga merupakan pernyataan tentang langkah-langkah yang perlu dilaksanakan semasa operasi POST (Power On Self Test) dilaksanakan oleh komputer.

CMOS Setup Utility Copyright 1984 2002 Award Software Advanced BIOS Features
BIOS Flesh Protection First Boot Device Second Boot Device Third Boot Device Boot Up Floppy Seek Boot Up Num-Lock Password Check Interrupt Mode HDD S.M.A.R.T. Capability [Auto] [Floppy] [HDD 0] [CDROM] [Disabled] [On] [Setup] [APIC] [Enabled] Item Help [Auto] Allows BIOS to update flash data during POST. It still prevents other unauthorized utilities to update flash [Enable] Always prevent BIOS and unauthorized utilities to update flash

Jadual 8.4 (d) Maklumat memulakan sistem sebaik sahaja komputer dihidupkan atau selepas satu perkakasan atau perisian baru diinstall CMOS tidak menyimpan data yang boleh disesuaikan dengan kesemua peralatan dan persisian yang ada pada sistem komputer. Biasanya pengilang hanya menyediakan rutin setup yang asas dan terpulang kepada pengguna untuk menetapkan konfigurasi berdasarkan peralatan yang digunakan bersama-sama sistem komputer tersebut. Perkara-perkara berikut perlu dilaksanakan untuk mengkonfigurasi CMOS Setup: Mengenal pasti setup asas yang digunakan oleh komputer mikro dengan memasuki CMOS utility setup. Pastikan setting yang di buat oleh pengilang untuk peralatan seperti cakera keras, cakera liut, kapasiti ingatan dan sebagainya memenuhi kehendak sistem. Enable (membolehkan) kesemua sistem ingatan cache (dalaman dan luaran) supaya boleh digunakan semasa operasi mikropemproses. Meminimumkan masa-tunggu (Wait-states)bagi RAM. Membolehkan (Enable) operasi ROM berbayang (ROM Shadowing). Membolehkan (Enable) pengurusan kuasa (power management).

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Selain daripada itu, penjagaan bateri CMOS yang rapi dan teliti juga menjamin ketahanan dan keselamatan data yang terkandung di dalam CMOS RAM. Ia perlu ditukar secara berkala, biasanya lima tahun sekali untuk memastikan bateri sentiasa membekalkan kuasa pada cip IC. Bateri yang terlalu lama, boleh menghasilkan kebocoran bahan elektrolit berasid yang mungkin boleh merosakkan motherboard. Sebelum menukar bateri, pastikan juga data dalam CMOS telah disalin ke dalam bentuk hardcopy atau softcopy. Hanya dengan memutuskan atau mengeluarkan bateri yang bersambung pada cip IC CMOS RAM, data di dalam cip akan hilang kerana sifatnya yang meruap (volatile). Pastikan penggantian bateri adalah mengikut spesifikasi yang ditentukan oleh pengilang dan mengikut jenis yang ditetapkan. Selepas mengganti bateri CMOS, sistem perlu dimulakan semula (restart)

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3.4 Server hardware Configuration Definisi Server Server / pelayan di dalam rangkaian menjalankan tugas yang spesifik. Satu server boleh menjalankan beberapa tugas atau dikhaskan untuk satu tugas tertentu sahaja. Control access to the resources on a network. A server manages the resources on a network and clients access the resources on the server. Provides services to other computers, or the software that runs on it like the internet sites like Google and Yahoo

3.4.1 Various type of server Jenis-Jenis Server i. Application Server Sebuah perisian yang digunakan untuk menghantar aplikasi kepada pengguna komputer atau peranti, kebiasaanya melalui internet dan menggunakan HTTP Ia berbeza berbanding web server iaitu penggunaan kandungan yang dinamaik dan banyak dihubungkan kepada enjin pengkalan data. Membolehkan aplikasi client/server dan juga datanya dicapai oleh pengguna. Sebagai contoh, server menyimpan banyak data yang mempunyai struktur yang mudah supaya mudah dicapai oleh pengguna. Dengan application server, pangkalan datanya akan berada dalam server, hanya keputusan yang terhasil dari permintaan pengguna sahaja yang akan diterima oleh komputer client Mudah untuk pembangunan aplikasi kerana aplikasinya tidak perlu diprogram dan banyak digunakan dalam bidang perniagaan.

ii. Entry level server Perkakasan / komputer yang digunakan sebagai server. Menyediaakan tempat dimana data disimpan supaya pengguna boleh mencapai data padanya. o Entry class servers Exceptional flexibility and expandability for growing businesses Mid-range workloads with smaller footprint 1 to 4 processors Example: HP Integrity rx6600 Server o Midrange servers Superb for low-cost server consolidation High performance and availability 8 to 32 processors Example : HP Integrity rx8640 Server

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o High end servers Outstanding high-end performance and availability Perfect for data-intensive workloads and consolidation Enhanced scalability to 128 processors Example : HP Integrity Superdome with the new sx2000 chipset64 (Intel Itanium processors)

iii. Web Server Program komputer yang bertanggungjawab untuk menerima permintaan HTTP daripada pengguna yang juga dikenali sebagai web browser. Data-data yang diminta akan dihantar berdasarkan permintaan pengguna kebiasaanya dalam bentuk dokumen HTML dan link objek (gambar dsb)

Differencess between web server and application server A Web server exclusively handles HTTP requests, whereas an application server serves business logic to application programs through any number of protocols. iv. E-Mail Server Aplikasi yang menerima email daripada pengguna atau email server yang lain. E-mail server kebiasaannya mengandungi ruang simpanan, peraturan yang perlu diikuti oleh pengguna dan senarai pengguna Ruang simpanan adalah tempat di mana email pengguna disimpan

Other Type of server Application server a server dedicated to running certain software applications Communications server, carrier-grade computing platform for communications networks Database server provides database services Proxy server Provides database IT server in services Fax server provides fax services for clients File server provides file services Game server a server that video game clients connect to in order to play online together Standalone server an emulator for client-server (web-based) programs Web server a server that HTTP, WWW, COM, ORG, NET, CC, Info, and TV clients connect to in order to send commands and receive responses along with data contents.

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Server Types This list, courtesy of serverwatch.com, categorizes the many different types of servers used in the marketplace today. Click on the server category you'd like to know more about, and you will be taken directly to a serverwatch.com page that provides additional information and resources.
Server Platforms A term often used synonymously with operating system, a platform is the underlying hardware or software for a system and is thus the engine that drives the server. Application Servers Sometimes referred to as a type of middleware, application servers occupy a large chunk of computing territory between database servers and the end user, and they often connect the two. Chat Servers Chat servers enable a large number of users to exchange information in an environment similar to Internet newsgroups that offer real-time discussion capabilities. Fax Servers A fax server is an ideal solution for organizations looking to reduce incoming and outgoing telephone resources but that need to fax actual documents. FTP Servers One of the oldest of the Internet services, File Transfer Protocol makes it possible to move one or more files securely between computers while providing file security and organization as well as transfer control. IRC Servers An option for those seeking real-time discussion capabilities, Internet Relay Chat consists of various separate networks (or "nets") of servers that allow users to connect to each other via an IRC network. Mail Servers Almost as ubiquitous and crucial as Web servers, mail servers move and store mail over corporate networks (via LANs and WANs) and across the Internet. Proxy Servers Proxy servers sit between a client program (typically a Web browser) and an external server (typically another server on the Web) to filter requests, improve performance, and share connections. Telnet Servers A Telnet server enables users to log on to a host computer and perform tasks as if they're working on the remote computer itself. Web Servers At its core, a Web server serves static content to a Web browser by loading a file from a disk and serving it across the network to a user's Web browser. This entire exchange is mediated by the browser and server talking to each other using HTTP. Also read ServerWatch's Web Server Basics article.

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3.4.2 Differences between server and personal computer Perbezaan di antara server dan personal computer 1. Fungsi Server is a pc which can support multiples application running at one time whithout any trouble Server can handle multiple simultaneous connection whereas PC cant Any PC can act as a server, but a server for a company should have better quality components. And depending on your needs, often hot-swap drives and power supplies, etc. to reduce downtime

2. Saiz Saiz hard disk bagi server mampu mencecah sehingga Terabait, menjadi tempat menyimpan data yang besar Saiz hard disk PC adalah bergantung kepada keperluan pengguna tersebut A server may have faster hard drives with more storage capacities 3. Jenis Sistem Pengoperasian Server Win NT, Win Server 2003, Mac Os X, Solaris PC Win 98, Win 2000, Win XP, Win Vista, Mac Os, Linux, Red Hat 4. Hardware component Direkabentuk untuk beroperasi selama 24 jam 7 hari The components in a server can usually handle higher stress. The hardware components in a server have gone through much more testing for reliability. A big difference between a server and a regular PC is the I/O capability. It may have redundant storage (RAID) devices for high availability and reliability. The motherboard design is different with faster buses, so on. server usually doesn't need a top-of-the-line video card or a big screen monitor. 5. Harga Harga untuk Server adalah mahal berbanding PC

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3.4.3 RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive / Independent Drives (or Disks) Gabungan dua atau lebih hard disk yang mana ia digunakan untuk proses pembetulan data dan juga meningkatkan prestasi capaian data. Kebiasaannya digunakan pada server. Membolehkan data yang sama disimpan di banyak tempat In computing, the acronym RAID (originally redundant array of inexpensive drives (or disks), also known as redundant array of independent drives (or disks), refers to a data storage scheme using multiple hard drives to share or replicate data among the drives. Depending on the configuration of the RAID (typically referred to as the RAID level), the benefit of RAID is to increase data integrity, fault-tolerance, throughput and/or capacity, compared with single drives. In its original implementations, its key advantage was the ability to combine multiple low-cost devices using older technology into an array that offered greater capacity, reliability, speed, or a combination of these things, than was affordably available in a single device using the newest technology.

Basic functions Fundamentally, RAID combines multiple hard disks into a single logical unit. There are two ways this can be done: in hardware and in software. o Hardware combines the drives into a logical unit in dedicated hardware which then presents the drives as a single drive to the operating system. o Software does this within the operating system and presents the drives as a single drive to the users of the system. RAID is typically used on servers but can be used on workstations. This is especially true in storage-intensive computers such as video and audio editing.

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Jenis-jenis RAID a. Level 0 - Striped Disk Array without Fault Tolerance Pembahagian data secara berjujukan mengikut blok pada harddisk yang terlibat. Ini dapat mempercepatkan data dicapai. Bagaimanapun sekiranya salah satu daripada hard disk rosak, keseluruhan data akan hilang.

RAID 0 (untuk kepantasan kerja)

RAID 0 yg dikenali juga sebagai kaedah Striping digunakan utk mempercepat operasi hardisk. Kapasiti keseluruhan hardisk kaedah ini adalah bersamaan jumlah kapasiti hardisk pertama ditambah dengan hardisk kedua. Kaedah ini dilakukan dgn cara membahagi data secara terpisah ke dua buah hardisk tersebut. Jadi, separuh data ditulis ke hardisk pertama dan separuhnya lagi ditulis ke hardisk ke dua. Secara teorinya, cara ini akan mempercepatkan operasi harddisk. Keburukan kaedah ini adalah apabila salah satu hardisk rosak maka seluruh data akan hilang.

A RAID 0 can be created with disks of differing sizes, but the storage space added to the array by each disk is limited to the size of the smallest disk. For example, if a 120 GB disk is striped together with a 100 GB disk, the size of the array will be 200 GB.

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b. Level 1 -- Mirroring and Duplexing Data yang sama dalam harddisk akan digandakan. Masa yang diambil untuk membaca data akan bertambah tetapi masa untuk menulis data sama dengan harddisk tunggal

RAID 1 (untuk keselamatan atau salinan data) RAID 1 dikenali juga dgn sebagai kaedah Mirroring digunakan utk mendapatkan keselamatan data atau salinan (backup). Kaedah ini dilakukan dgn cara menyalin / meniru data harddisk pertama ke harddisk kedua. Jadi, segala data yg ditulis pada hardisk pertama akan juga ditulis pada hardisk kedua. Apabila salah satu hardisk rosak, maka data pada hardisk yg satu lagi masih ada. Keburukan dari kaedah ini, adalah tiadanya peningkatan proses hardisk, malahan lebih perlahan berbanding keupayaan hardisk single (biasa) atau non-RAID. Selain itu, kapasiti keseluruhan yg anda dapat dgn kaedah ini hanyalah sebesar kapasati satu hardisk saja.

c. RAID 0+1 (untuk kecepatan+backup) Kaedah ini merupakan kombinasi RAID 0 dan RAID 1. Dimana selain memperoleh kecepatan masa, data kita juga lebih selamat. Untuk kaedah ini diperlukan minimum 4 harddisk. Kapasiti keseluruhan yg anda dapat adalah sejumlah kapasiti 2 hardisk. Biasanya kaedah RAID 1 digunakan utk server, sebab server mengutamakan keselamatan data. Sedangkan utk pengguna PC rumah, RAID 0 lebih banyak digunakan kerana yg diutamakan peningkatan proses harddisk.

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d. Level 2 -- Error-Correcting Coding Data disimpan dalam bentuk bit-bit berbeza daripada bentuk blok (level 0 dan 1) Menyediakan kemudahan untuk pembetulan data secara automatik

Each bit of data word is written to a data disk drive (4 in this example: 0 to 3). Each data word has its Hamming Code ECC word recorded on the ECC disks. On Read, the ECC code verifies correct data or corrects single disk errors. Advantages:

"On the fly" data error correction Extremely high data transfer rates possible

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Other Type of RAID Level 0 -- Striped Disk Array without Fault Tolerance: Provides data striping (spreading out blocks of each file across multiple disk drives) but no redundancy. This improves performance but does not deliver fault tolerance. If one drive fails then all data in the array is lost. Level 1 -- Mirroring and Duplexing: Provides disk mirroring. Level 1 provides twice the read transaction rate of single disks and the same write transaction rate as single disks. Level 2 -- Error-Correcting Coding: Not a typical implementation and rarely used, Level 2 stripes data at the bit level rather than the block level. Level 3 -- Bit-Interleaved Parity: Provides byte-level striping with a dedicated parity disk. Level 3, which cannot service simultaneous multiple requests, also is rarely used. Level 4 -- Dedicated Parity Drive: A commonly used implementation of RAID, Level 4 provides block-level striping (like Level 0) with a parity disk. If a data disk fails, the parity data is used to create a replacement disk. A disadvantage to Level 4 is that the parity disk can create write bottlenecks. Level 5 -- Block Interleaved Distributed Parity: Provides data striping at the byte level and also stripe error correction information. This results in excellent performance and good fault tolerance. Level 5 is one of the most popular implementations of RAID. Level 6 -- Independent Data Disks with Double Parity: Provides block-level striping with parity data distributed across all disks. Level 0+1 A Mirror of Stripes: Not one of the original RAID levels, two RAID 0 stripes are created, and a RAID 1 mirror is created over them. Used for both replicating and sharing data among disks. Level 10 A Stripe of Mirrors: Not one of the original RAID levels, multiple RAID 1 mirrors are created, and a RAID 0 stripe is created over these. Level 7: A trademark of Storage Computer Corporation that adds caching to Levels 3 or 4. RAID S: EMC Corporation's proprietary striped parity RAID system used in its Symmetrix storage systems.

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Disk Array Controller A disk array controller is a device which manages the physical disk drives and presents them to the computer as logical units. It almost always implements hardware RAID, thus it is sometimes referred to as RAID controller. It also often provides additional disk cache. A disk array controller name is often improperly shortened to a disk controller. The two should not be confused as they provide very different functionality.

RAID Controllers and RAID Controller cards Definition: A RAID controller is a hardware device responsible for managing physical drives in a system and presenting them to the computer as logical units The setting up of RAID 0 and RAID 1 can be done either via software or hardware. Some operating systems allow you to setup RAID in the software itself. A better option is to have a dedicated piece of hardware controlling the RAID functions. A guide to software RAID in Linux. RAID controller chips are often imbedded in the motherboard. They also come in the form of a PCI expansion cards. Hardware RAID You need to ensure that the RAID controller card is designed for the type of hard disks you are using. A RAID controller card designed for use with IDE hard disks will not take SCSI hard disks. A controller designed to provide just RAID 0 functions will not allow you to set up a fault tolerant array. The big names in the RAID controller business are Adaptec, Highpoint, Intel and Promise. Highpoint and Promise supply most of the RAID chips that are imbedded in both single CPU and dual processor motherboards. They also make the RAID controller cards which are sold on their own. Intel uses it's RAID controller chips in motherboards they produce, Adaptec is mainly known for it's SCSI based products including SCSI cards and SCSI RAID controller cards. Many of the manufacturers also build specialist RAID controller cards for use in "non-standard" situations, eg low profile RAID controller cards for use in restricted spaces like 2 U server cases etc. You can even get RAID for use with newer technologies like SATA. Companies like 3Ware manufacture SATA RAID controller cards.

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