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Final Evaluation of Safer Environment for Girls in Kaski and Tanahun District (Evaluation in Dec 2011)

Final Report

Submitted to:

Save the Children, Nepal Country Office

Bagdurbar, Sundhara

Kathmandu, Nepal

Submitted by:

Irada Parajuli Gautam Independent consultant Kathmandu, Nepal Tel.: 4811001, 9851062124 Email: irada_parajuli@yahoo.com

17 th March, 2012

List of Acronyms


Convention on the Rights of the Child


Central Child Welfare Board


Chief District Officer in District Administration Office


Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against W


Child Friendly Local Governance


Child Friendly Village Development Committee


Child Group Network


Codes of Conduct


Child Protection Committee


Child Rights Officer


Child sexual abuse


Children as Zones of Peace


Decentralized Action for Children and Women


District Project Advisory Committee


District Child Protection Committee


District Child Welfare Board


District Development Committee


District Education Office


Department of Education


District Public Health Office


District Women & Children Office


Early Childhood Development


Early Childhood Education and Development


External Development Partner


Female Community Health Volunteer


Government Organization


Hotel Association Nepal


International Non Government Organization


Monitoring and Evaluation


Ministry of Education


Ministry of Health and Population


Ministry of Local Development


Memorandum of Understanding


Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare


Mid-Term Review


Non Government Organization


National Life Style Survey


National Plan of Action


National Planning Commission


Public Private Partnership


Rights-Based Approach


School Management Committees


Social Welfare Council


Safer Environment for Girls Program


Village Child Protection Committee


Voluntary Counseling and Testing


Village Development Committee


Water, Sanitation and Health


Team organizing local institute

Table of Contents



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY………………………………………….







1.1 Background…………………………………………



1.2 National context…………………………………………. 8

1.3 National response………………………………………






Tools and techniques…………………………………….



Sample…………………………………………………… 12


Ethical consideration……………………………………



Constraints and limitations………………………………



Evaluation districts………………………………………





3. FINDINGS…………………………………………………………




Relevance of the project to country context……………






Efficiency………………………………………………… 19





Sustainability of project………………………………….



Child participation………………………………………



Lessons learned of SEGP………………………………



Best practices……………………………………………



Issues and challenges of SEGP…………………………


3.10 Partners‟ Capacity………………………………………











ANNEX 1…………………………………………………….


ANNEX 2…………………………………………………….


ANNEX 3…………………………………………………….


ANNEX 4…………………………………………………….


ANNEX 5…………………………………………………….


ANNEX 6…………………………………………………….


ANNEX 7…………………………………………………….


ANNEX 8…………………………………………………….



I would like to express my gratitude to TOLI for providing overall coordination and

assistance throughout the final evaluation process and congratulate the organization for

their achievements with the Safer Environment for Girls Program over the past decade. I

would also like to extend my heartfelt gratitude and thanks to all the child clubs,

schoolteachers, parents, district stakeholders and TOLI staff in Kaski and Tanahun

districts for giving their time and valuable insights during the evaluation. Special thanks

to Ms Hajra Sabnam for accompanying me and sharing her experiences, as well as the

western regional team of Save the Children Nepal for assisting logistical arrangements.

Last but not the least, I would like to thank Mr. Dilli Guragai (Child Rights Governance

and Protection Technical Advisor), Tarun Adhikari (Design, Monitoring and Evaluation

Advisor), Sita Ghimire (Program Development and Quality Director), Kirti Thapa (Child

Rights Governance and Child Protection Manager), and Save the Children Nepal‟s

country office staff who shared relevant documents and provided me with valuable

comments, guidance and support during the evaluation and its presentation.

Irada Parajuli Gautam

Independent Consultant


Team Organizing Local Institution (TOLI) is a non-governmental, non-profit organization that was officially registered in the District Administration Office (DAO) of Kaski in July 1993. Save the Children has partnered with TOLI since 2000.

The Safer Environment for Girls Program addressed child sexual abuse and early child marriage through interventions that engaged parents, teachers and other stakeholders through child protection initiatives. During the project period, there was an observed increase in the trends of reporting and responding to cases of child rights violation. The Women and Children Service Center of the District Police Office became functional, which improved the protection of children in school settings and empowered children to protect themselves from violence, sexual abuse and exploitation. As of 2011, the project covered two districts: Kaski (one sub-metropolitan city, one municipality and three villages) and Tanahun (one municipality and four villages).

The Safe Environment for Girls Program succeeded in breaking the silence on important issues that are too often ignored. Girls suffering from violence, sexual abuse and exploitation have started to raise their voices. Almost all stakeholders expressed positive perceptions of the program and its impact. There was a great demand for follow-up and monitoring of the existing mechanisms established under the program. The stakeholders that participated in the evaluation expressed their desire to continue their support of the program and its interventions. However, they also expressed concern over whether or not their abilities and inputs would be sufficient to sustain the results on their own.

Over the past two years, local stakeholders were involved in the annual planning process through participation in the half yearly and yearly review system. The parents, children, teachers, and concerned district authorities were actively involved in this program. The issues raised during the review and planning process were recognized as social priorities and the direct grassroots involvement made response generation significantly easier. 75% of the TOLI project objectives set in the annual project agreements have been achieved, with the exception of early child marriage. The attitude and behavior of service delivery organizations are highly positive and supportive in comparison to the baseline. The targeted survivors are attending school and living with their families, with the exception of two survivors whose families were forced to migrate due to received threats. Children's leadership has strengthened as well. Children have actively engaged in planning, coordinating and managing child clubs, and have started to freely speak out on protection issues without hesitation.

There is evidenced commitment among various stakeholders on sector-related issues (i.e. education, emergency rescue and protection) and continued support for children as the program phases out. The primary mechanisms for program sustainability lie in the linkages formed between child clubs, CPCs, district level children networks, DCWBs and DEOs, the formative interactions with stakeholders and the DPAC involvement of teachers and parents. Throughout the project period, maximum child participation was

achieved by engaging child clubs, children networks, and CPCs at the school and community level.

Having partnered with TOLI for 11 years, Save the Children Nepal (SCN) decided to phase out the existing partnership starting January 2012. An exit strategy has been developed and shared with district stakeholders. SCN and TOLI have sought commitment among concerned authorities to ensure that the project results will be sustained as much as possible. Throughout the partnership, SCN continually focused on strengthening local capacity in preparation for intervention sustainability after phasing out.

The objectives of this final evaluation are:

To assess project effectiveness and overall impact

To analyze the achievements of the project relative to the set objectives

To review the effectiveness of the planned sustainability measures

To generate learning and document the understandings of the stakeholders, including children, affected by the project interventions

To suggest strategies for relevant policy measures

This evaluation assesses both the achieved results and the exit plan. It is an opportunity for both organizations to reflect on their progress and lessons learned. The government provides local structures to ensure access to education, health, and child protection services at the grassroots level through the DEO, DPO, DHO, DCWB, WCO, DDC, and VDC. Each of these structures needs to be mobilized, functionalized and strengthened to effectively monitor the prevention and protection of children from CSA, violence and exploitation.

During the evaluation, the main voiced concern was that the program‟s achievements would be lost after SCN‟s support is phased out. If TOLI starts back at square one, the partnership will amount to nothing more than a waste of resources. SCN must work in collaboration with local NGOs and mobilize existing government structures at the grassroots level to achieve extensive coverage, expansion, community ownership, sustainability and cost effectiveness.

Kaski and Tanahu Districts were visited for the purpose of this evaluation. Based on the evaluation findings, there are a number of suggested recommendations. The recommendations are prioritized and categorized under the following headings:

1. Addressing child protection issues

2. Management issues: capacity building, coordination and monitoring

3. Partnership and networking

4. Addressing child-friendly education

5. Operational level

6. Advocacy to establish community support systems at the local level

1.1 Background


Team Organizing Local Institution (TOLI) is a non-governmental, non-profit organization that was registered in the District Administration Office of Kaski in July 1993. Save the Children Nepal (SCN) has partnered with TOLI since 2000. The main focus of the partnership was child protection with special emphasis on protection from sexual abuse and violence against children, particularly girls. Education, HIV/AIDS and child disabilities have been taken into consideration as crosscutting themes. As of 2011, the project covered two districts: Kaski (one sub-metropolitan city, one municipality and three villages) and Tanahun (one municipality and four villages).

In December 2011, SCN commissioned an external evaluation of their 11-year partnership and program with TOLI. The objectives of the final evaluation were inter alia to assess the achievements, effectiveness and efficiency of the project and its approaches, assess the overall impact, examine the institutional capacity of TOLI and draw programmatic lessons that can be widely disseminated to support future development of the program.

Considering the length and breadth of the program, a comprehensive final evaluation was felt necessary to analyze its achievements relative to the set objectives and to assess overall impacts. SCN also deems it necessary to review the effectiveness of the sustainability measures that have been planned and to document stakeholder perceptions, including the children benefitted by the project interventions.

The overall approach of SEGP was to form and strengthen child clubs, child club networks and CPCs at the school and community level in an inclusiveness manner and to develop a mechanism to institutionalize partnership between CPCs and child clubs. The program also supported infrastructure maintenance of drinking water, toilets, libraries, and educational materials to create safer environments in schools and developed coordination with a variety of relevant stakeholders to support internalization, implementation and mass media mobilization against CSA, violence and exploitation.

1.2 National Context: Violence, Sexual abuse and Exploitation

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), which is ratified by Nepal, states that children have a right to live free from abuse. Violence against women and girls (VAW&G), including trafficking, has been a serious concern in Nepal for decades. The pervading patriarchal value system reinforces discriminatory social attitudes and behaviors towards girls, increases their vulnerability to violence and denies them equal rights. Women are threatened by violence from before birth to old age. The main causes behind violence against girls in Nepal are the prevalence of patriarchy, the entrenched socio-cultural mindset of society, and the lack of consistent and comprehensive efforts to address violence and CSA.

According to recent data, between 5,000 and 12,000 girls between the ages of 10 and 20 are trafficked outside the country for forced prostitution under exploitative conditions. 1 The IIDS and UNIFEM study reveals that girls between the ages of 12 and 18 are often trafficked. 2

Children are trafficked outside of the country to India and the Middle East for commercial sexual exploitation or forced marriage. They are also trafficked within Nepal for involuntary servitude as domestic servants, hotel workers, circus entertainers, factory workers and beggars.

Research suggests that up to 36% of girls and 29% of boys have suffered child sexual abuse. 3 Child marriage is still rampant throughout the country. The patriarchal value system reflects the influence of religion, socio-culture and media, and contributes to trends of early child marriage. According to the law, both girls and boys must be 20 years old to marry without the consent of guardians and 18 years old for marriage with guardian consent. 4 Roughly 47% of the population and 55% of the girls in Nepal get married between the ages of 15 and 19. 5 Both girls and boys tend to get married before the age of 17.

1.3 National Response

The following section outlines the various national level policies and plans relevant to the protection of women and girls from violence, sexual abuse and discrimination:

Article 22 of the Interim Constitution recognizes the rights of the child and the CPA agrees to protect the rights of women and children in a special way.

In all 3,913 VDCs, the Ministry of Local Development (MoLD) has earmarked 20% of block grants for funding projects designed to empower children, women and other disadvantaged groups.

The Child Friendly Local Governance (CFLG) National Strategic Framework has been prepared by the MoLD.

All District Police Offices have women and children service centers. Child Protection Committees (CPCs), Paralegal Committees, Village Child Protection Committees (VCPCs) and District Child Protection Committeess (DCPCs) have been mobilized as child protection watch groups and are cited as best practices.

Child clubs and child club networks have been established at the VDC and DDC level. Major successes in this component include (a) increased consultation with children during the formulation child related plans and policies, (b) formation of over 10,357 child clubs, 6 (c) implementation of Child Friendly Village

1 Government of Nepal 2009 National Plan of Acton on Gender Based Violence for 2010.

2 Integrated Institute of Development studies( IIDS) and UNIFEM 2005 „Status and Dimension of Trafficking Within the Nepalese Context.‟

3 WHO 2004

4 Country Code 1963

5 CBS 2001 6 CCWB, (2010). Statistical Figures: The State of Children of Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal.

Development Committees (CFVDC) and municipality programs, (d) the MoLD directed all VDCs to allocate 15% of their annual budget to fund activities for ensuring the rights of children, and (e) participation of children in the DCWB and DCPC activities as well as meetings and activities at the community level VDCs and SMCs (though this varies greatly between and within the participating communities and districts). Overall the participation of children at all levels has noticeably increased, and awareness is increasing by the day.

The Gender Equality Act (2006), Human Trafficking Act (2007), Domestic Violence Control and Punishment Act (2009), Foreign Employment Act (2007) and Regulation (2008) are in place.

The 2007 Interim Constitution of Nepal explicitly prohibits violence against women and girls: “No physical, mental or other form of violence shall be inflicted on any woman girl, and such an act shall be punishable by law.” 7

The Government of Nepal has adopted a 13 point national policy to combat trafficking along with all other discriminatory and exploitative practices directed towards women and girls, and to uplift their socio-economic status for prevention and protection of victims from sexual exploitation.

An Action Plan on VAW (2010) has been launched by the Prime Minister of Nepal, calling for the celebration of 2010 as a violence free year. The launch coincided with the 16 days of activism on violence against women and girls in Nepal on 25 th December 2009. 8

A Procedural Guideline on Sexual Harassment against Working Women and Girls in Cabin Restaurants and Dance bars has been approved by the Supreme Court of Nepal. 9 A Guideline has also been developed and published to promote legal provision on camera hearings. 10

The National Day Against Trafficking has been declared and celebrated since September 2007, calling for greater commitment from all sectors to address trafficking against women and girls.

The Government of Nepal has approved the new National Plan of Action against Trafficking in Persons -2068 (NPA), the National Minimum Standard on Victim Care and Protection -2068 (NMS), and Standard Operating Procedures on Rehabilitation Centers -2068 (SOP).

The Masters in Gender Studies curriculum includes a “Men Engage” component to address VAW&G. The Office of the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers organized a Planning and Review Workshop on Implementation of the National

7 Article 20 of the Interim Constitution of Nepal 2007.

8 The Prime Minister of Nepal declared the year 2010 as Violence Against Women Free and has developed a joint plan involving various line ministries, the UN System in Nepal, I/ NGOs and other concerned stakeholders. In his address, the PM also urged all men and boys to join hands in working towards the end of VAW&G. To address the issues and concerns of the affected, there is a provision for a complaint desk, and at the office of the Prime Minister there is a provision for a 24 hours hotline telephone service. In addition, there are provisions for providing legal assistance, psychosocial counseling and health care included in the work plan that came out from the Prime Minister‟s office for addressing GBV.

9 Propublic, 2008. Verdict and Procedural Guideline from Supreme Court on Sexual Harassment against Working Women in Dance Bars and Dance Restaurants. 10 National Judicial Academy 2008. In Camera Hearing Guideline.

Plan of Action against GBV under the chair of Chief Secretary, Mr. Madhav Prasad Ghimire on March 21, 2011 and meetings are organized among all secretaries of different ministers each month.

The National Women‟s Commission has also started discussing and piloting GBV IMS.

2.1 Tools and Techniques


The methodology of this evaluation was primarily a qualitative study in which various participatory and exploratory techniques were applied (See check-list in ANNEX 3). Quantitative data from secondary sources was also included to complement the analysis and expand the conclusion. Participatory tools and interactive sessions in particular) were not only used to extract the information, but also to facilitate interactive two-way learning. The evaluation process was a learning experience for both groups, including evaluators and stakeholders at the district and central level. The following qualitative and participatory techniques were used in this evaluation:

1. Documents review of project reports, monitoring reports, etc.

2. Focus group discussions (FGDs) with child clubs members, teachers and parents

3. Interactive meetings with the DCWB, DDC, DEO, WCO, TOLI, children and school teachers

4. Case study collection

2.2 Sample

Program districts were visited for qualitative data collection. Various documents were reviewed and 12 FGDs were carried out with school representatives, children, teachers and parents from the program areas. Similarly, 12 interactive meeting were conducted. There were a total of four schools selected in two districts. The schools were selectively chosen to capture as much diversity as possible and represent a variety of geographical locations (i.e. rural, urban, semi urban) and socio-cultural settings in attempt to provide a representative picture of the district situation. The schedule and selection of target locations and groups was finalized in consultation with TOLI on the first day of the field visit. School selection parameters were:

One school from Kaski district head quarters

One from Lekhnath municipality

Two schools from Tanahun interior municipality and VDC (one school from interior VDC)

Categories and Individuals met

TOLI Executive Members




Children club members


District authorities


Parents Group members


Other NGO staff


TOLI staff


Total Individuals met


2.3 Ethical consideration

Confidentiality regarding serostatus or any other personal information regarding individual participants was strictly maintained during all discussions, interactions and analysis. During FGDs and interactive sessions, extreme care was taken to respect individual views, ethnic characteristics and gender differences. The purpose and process of the evaluation was clearly explained to all participating individuals before any FDGs and interactive sessions began so that they could actively participate in the process. The evaluator ensured the guiding principle of ethics for GBV (i.e. respect, non discrimination, confidentiality, and safety) while expressing their views.

2.4 Constraints and Limitation

During the final evaluation, an unintended event occurred in the Tanahun district police office that complicated the situation: one of the local police killed his wife. All of the district stakeholders could not be consulted as planned. Due to half yearly exams, the district children network was not available for consultation and most of the students who participated in the discussion were only available for less than an hour and lived near the district headquarters. Proximity of district headquarters and access to information may have introduced certain biases into the evaluation results. The staffs of Tanahun‟s women and children service center were out of station. Targeted schools were phased out in the end of 2011. We therefore decided to drop the phase out school from the evaluation sample during the field visit. VCPCs were not formed in TOLI working VDCs and therefore not available for consultation. Simultaneous video documentation and field evaluation of the girls' project made organization especially hard for TOLI. Due to the Nepal Banda, the consultant had to walk to attend a meeting with three stakeholders in the district headquarters of Kaski.

2.5 Evaluation Districts

Table 1: Districts and Date for Stakeholder’s Consultation


Date of Field visit Including Travel Time


December 17-19, 22 and 23, 2011


December 20-21, 2011

2.6 Timeline

The evaluation work started the first week of December, 2011, and was completed by the end of the month.



3.1 Relevance of the Project to the Country Context

As per SCN‟s Country Strategy Plan (CSP) 2010-2013, the protection of children was recognized as the highest priority. 34% of the total marriages in Nepal are child marriages, 11 more than 12,000 women and girls are trafficked to India every year, and approximately 12,000 children are growing up in institutions. 12 Out of the 40,000 girls working in 1,200 cabins and dance restaurants in Kathmandu Valley, half will become victims of trafficking and sexual exploitation. 13 Cases of sexual abuse are significantly prevalent among adolescents and children: 13% boys and 15% girls have experienced contact forms of sexual abuse. 14

Prior to the project implementation, a base line study was conducted in 2005 by SCNN and edited by Keshari Kanksakar on SEGP. During FGDs with community and teachers, 59 cases of child marriage were identified in Pokhara. According to the teachers, 75% of child marriages take place among Dalits, Janjati and other marginalized groups in Kaski. During FGDs with community people in Surkhet and Kaski, 34 rape cases were identified. Teachers, fathers, stepfathers, brothers, so-called boyfriends, strangers, drug addicts, grandfathers and neighbors reportedly perpetrated these cases. The victims were girls, boys and sisters-in-law. During the community discussions in Surkhet and Kaski, 16 cases of girl trafficking were recorded. Seven of the girls were nabbed in the trafficking process, six were returned, three were forced to engage in the sex trade, one was found working in a cabin restaurant and one was found to be HIV positive.

Schools were selected on the basis of school visits and their initial positive response to the program. It is assumed that issues of violence, sexual harassment, CSA apply everywhere and especially for girls. These issues are faced on the way to school and during travel regardless of geographical location or ethnic status. Schools were selected that had not previously started any intervention on CSA and violence. Due to the limited number of staff, the evaluation was started in urban and semi urban areas rather than very remote areas. Easy transportation access was prioritized to ensure the feasibility of quality follow up and monitoring. This also enabled immediate response in cases of severe violence, which need to be registered in the District Police Office as quickly as possible. The evaluation therefore started in the schools adjoining district headquarters.

11 CCWB 2008

12 CCWB 2008

13 HR commission report 06/7

14 CWIN/ Save the Children

Case Study 1: Child clubs as legal advocates in Lekhnath Municipality

A 7 year old girl was raped by a 17 year old boy who studied in the same school of

Lekhnath Municipality, Kaski District in grades 2 and 9 respectively. The rape occurred on March 30, 2007 in a wheat field at 3:30 pm. At that time, the parents of the girl were working as laborers in another field. With five younger daughters and one son at home, the eldest daughter was responsible for looking after the house and younger siblings while the parents worked. The elder sister searched for her younger sister. She went to wheat field and found her younger sister being raped. The culprit ran away when she confronted him about his behavior. The younger sister eventually came back to her senses after repeated efforts to feed her water and wash her face, however she was still unable speak. Out of fear, they decided to not officially disclose the case. They did, however, inform and consult their relatives. They were unaware of the importance of conserving proof of the crime and washed all of the younger sister‟s clothes and injuries. The next day morning, they took her to Gandaki Regional Hospital. The doctor said that the girl was raped and suggested that they report the incident to the local police. After filing the case, the police arrested the culprit and forwarded the case to the district court.

The culprit‟s and victim's families were relatives and very poor. Both of them used to

work in the same farm. The father of the culprit wanted to negotiate a settlement and offered the victim‟s family 65,000 Nrs as compensation. According to family sources, the victim‟s father was an alcoholic and did not possess the decision making capacity needed

to handle the situation properly.

On April 30, 2007, TOLI invited the parents and relatives of the victim to a meeting. Relatives and other community members continued to persuade them to negotiate a settlement privately. Few suggested taking the case against the culprit to court. The local child network was activated in close association with TOLI in response to the case. Outside pressure also came from media through radio interviews and newspaper press appeals.

On May 6, 2007, the Lekhnath Municipality child club organized a rally for students with play cards and banners to advocate for sending the culprit to jail and providing compensation to the girl for her rehabilitation and education. Thanks to TOLI and the child clubs efforts, the case was taken to court and legally resolved. The victim is now with her family and regular attending school.

There were three main objectives of SEGP:

Objective 1: Establishing child abuse, exploitation, violence and child marriage as an issue of social concern. Objective 2: Empowering children (especially girls) to protect themselves from and respond to violence, abuse and exploitation. Objective 3: Strengthening the child protection system at the District, VDC and community level to prevent and respond to CSA, exploitation and violence.

All SEGP activities focused on breaking the silence and fighting against children rights violations, especially among girls who suffer from gender based violence. The activities

included sensitization about CSA, violence and exploitation, mobilization of social actors to take action, protection of survivors and provision of recovery and reintegration


spelled out and no system existed to track what types of violence, abuse and exploitation were solved or how many cases were solved at the child club and organizational level. There were also no benchmark measurements, such as a baseline, midterm or final assessment, to track the impact indicators progress over time (See ANNEX 4).

The objectives, results and impact indicators, however, were not clearly

Most of the process indicators were easily measured and observed at the activity level through monitoring visits. The exchange of experiences, information and participation between the different project actors was facilitated through trainings, orientations, half yearly and yearly reviews, meetings and other informal exchanges.

Case Study 2: Profile of the Women and Children Service Center’s work in Pokhara

Chandra Gurung, inspector of the women and children service center in Pokhara, reported that SEGP is well known and highly appreciated for its work with child clubs at the school and community level. Children manage most of the minor problems related to teasing, vulgar abuse, harassment or violence within their school and community. Only major problems are referred through TOLI, including rape or attempted rape cases. She further shared that only one child marriage case had been registered. During evaluation time, the team collected information on the forms of violence received in center. In one case, a15-year-old girl was rescued from a hotel in Pokhara where she was working as a sex worker. Through local coordination, they rescued the girl and sent her to CWIN Kathmandu via CWIN Pokhara for psychosocial counseling. However, the girl ran away the day after being transported to Kathmandu and came back to the hotel in Pokhara. The women and children service center rescued the girl from the hotel again and put her in custody for few days to convince her not to run away and accept their services. The girl asked why she was the only one rescued when there are other girls working at hotel. She didn't feel any guilt in working as a sex worker. The girl was reintegrated with her family in Baglung district at the time of evaluation. The question now, is how long she will stay with her family. Other cases at the time of evaluation included a 15-year-old girl that was gang raped by four male relatives between the ages of 13 and 16, and a 14-year-old girl that was sexually abused by her adoptive family. Chandra Gurung said that parents came to the service center to report cases of lost

During the field visit in Tanahun it was reported that a 14-year-old

girl who worked at hotel in Pokhara had become pregnant. The hotel owner was arrested for investigation. Bhagwati Pahari, a private advocate, shared a story about a girl in grade four that had covered herself in kerosene, burned and died after being sexually abused by a teacher. Stories like this are widespread but remain hidden unless there is strong support from people and organizations to raise the issues. There must be more awareness, lobbying, advocacy, follow up and continuous support so that these issues do not result in death.

children (khojtalas).



The TOLI project methodology is based on promoting active community participation and building the capacity of child clubs, district children networks, CPCs, families and teachers. The aim is to ensure that children have control over their lives, seek their rights and respond to their duties.

IEC materials have been widely distributed to sensitize stakeholders on CSA, violence and exploitation. Innovative approaches have been used, including children‟s poems and songs, case study sharing, and orientation on “tricky safety measures.Numerous rallies and campaigns have been organized in the program districts, sometimes in collaboration with other NGOs. Children have actively participated in competitions and events related to the prevention of CSA, violence, exploitation and child marriage. Parent and women‟s groups are now more alert against child marriage and immediately inform TOLI if any such incidence occurs. Through the training programs, participants organized interaction programs on child marriage in the community. After training, the attitude and behavior of previously abusive teachers changed towards children, especially girls. In the past, the teachers saw girls as weak and unable to participate in activities at the same level as boys. After workshops and orientations, opportunities to play football and volleyball are now extended to girls.

To ensure adequate professional involvement, sensitization trainings were organized for relevant professionals such as teachers, parents, police and members of the WCO, DEO and DCWB. These meetings have been important to secure support and cooperation and redefine the unique roles of each stakeholder. A checklist was developed by TOLI to identify the most serious types of violence, abuse and exploitation to monitor. After the street drama show, parents and community people requested the child club to perform the drama in other local communities as well. During the 16-day campaign against violence and women, different line agencies and organizations voiced appreciation for the dramas and requested that a drama be performed against child marriage during the campaign.

After the training from TOLI, the participants conducted the same training within their respective schools. 48 child clubs actively engaged to raise awareness on CSA and child marriage, and implemented different activities in schools and communities. Schools also gave responsibility to child clubs to organize Friday programming. 48 child clubs implemented at least 75% of their planned activities. Child protection codes of conduct were implemented in 15 schools. The CPC members provided support to the child clubs and organized inter-school poem and debate competitions. Through the initiation of community based CPCs, one child marriage case was overturned. Through the initiation of child clubs, the girl and boy were convinced to continue their education and remain unmarried until age 21.

The DEO, DCWB and CPC committed support for the implementation of child protection codes of conduct in schools. The importance of theses codes was discussed with different stakeholders, and all participants defended their necessity.

Case Study 3: Ganga and the Barai child club

Ganga (name changed) used to be teased by her school friends because of the language she used. They used to call her language „Dhotini Bhasa.‟ Children frequently refused to play with her and teachers ignored her. They did not ask any questions to her in class and punished her for small mistakes. Boys used to tease her at school but she couldn‟t respond. Her father restricted her from going outside their home. Due to the language difference, she was scared to talk with her peers and refrained from asking questions in class. She was therefore unable to get good marks in her exams and unable stand up for herself when she was mistreated.

Ganga then joined the Barahi Child Club. As the child club became more active she began engaging in extra activities. Since her involvement with the club, her relationship with her teachers and peers has improved, her exam marks have progressed significantly and she is beginning to raise her voice.

Here are what Ganga, her mother and her teacher had to say:

“Her father went India to earn money and only returned every two years. She used to sell vegetables, but her father told her to go to school. Now her teachers appreciate her and her studies have improved. I was so proud when she got a prize at the district level. Her work has even been recognized by different non-government organizations” - Ganga‟s Mother

“Nowadays, Ganga is highly sought after for programs within school, outside school and with other school students in inter-school competitions. The head teachers have wondered who will be able to take Ganga‟s place in the school after she graduates. It was discovered that child sexual abuses were happening in our school. Ganga spoke against child abuses that happen in schools and other places. She participated in a drama at our school to raise awareness about child sexual abuses and participated in debate and essay competitions. She started anchoring the school‟s program and performed a lead role in nearly each and every activity.” – Focal Teacher (Radha Timilina)

Due to various trainings and workshops, I am now more aware of sexual harassment, violence and exploitation. These types of issues quickly draw my attention now. Others used to warn that engagement in child clubs would hamper your studies, but it has helped me a lot. My interest in my studies and outside knowledge has increased. In my view, every child should be free from all kinds of sexual exploitation and if any child is facing such exploitation, he/she should be able to raise their voice against it. Thus, I suggested that we organize a meeting at least 3 times a year to give training on how to protect oneself from child sexual abuses. I used to be scared all the time. I am really surprised to see all the changes that have come to my life. My teacher Radha Timilsina has played an important role in all these changes. My father and mother have also played a great key role in this process.” – Ganga

TOLI is lobbying government lawyers, the DEO, DCWB, police Station, WDO and other organizations against CSA. The issue has become more visible, but without strong enforceable laws the community people prefer solving the issue privately. During annual review meetings, stakeholders have praised TOLI for raising such a challenging issue and making it more visible.

The capacity of child club members has been strengthened. Regular meetings with the CPCs to coordinate action on cases of abuse have been very helpful for referral. The committee may decide to contact the administration, police, lawyers and medical personnel if incidents are not taken seriously. Frequent meetings with relevant NGOs have improved coordination and allowed issues and individual cases to be addressed more effectively. The meetings have also provided opportunities to organize press releases and campaigns and coordinate advocacy efforts. These meetings serve as an opportunity to share best practices and to encourage one another to improve interventions.



This section provides insight on how effectively the resources allocated to the TOLI projects were used, including quality and adequacy of technical, financial, and personnel management. Technical support has been provided by SCN, an international organization working for children rights. TOLI has provided and organized most of the training activities and conducted the monitoring process. Regarding financial resources, SCN is the primary source of funding (90% of total funds). According to the 2011 document review, 74% of the budget was spent for program activities, monitoring, organization development and equipment and 26% was spent on program staff cost, which has proved fairly beneficial to the target population.

It was reported that TOLI provided 50,000 NRS to the DCWBs in Kaski and Tanahun as part of a basket fund for child protection issues. The planned activities for 2011 were almost finished at the time of evaluation and only 1,500 NRs had been expended beyond the provided budget. This very nominal debt was managed by TOLI independently.

TOLI has strengthened coordination and cooperation with the DDC, DEO, DCWB, WCO, INSEC and other relevant organizations for more effective implementation and greater achievement. There is good coordination with the Child Protection Network (loose forum of GO‟s and NGOs) in Tanhaun and Kaski for child protection. In Tanhaun, child protection programs against child marriage and child sexual abuse are implemented through coordination and cooperation with the Child Protection Network.

During the Kaski district evaluation, the observed police center had a child friendly setting (i.e. child friendly activities, play materials and children‟s books) supported by TOLI with the support of SCN. In Tanahun, no such child friend space was observed although all the materials were ready.

The project coordinator was responsible for staff management. The management style is participative at all levels and staff members were demonstrated strong commitment to the project. In general, their working environment appeared to be motivated, caring and positive. Staff turn over is reported to be low and professionals are proud to work for TOLI. During the evaluation activities, they were eager to participate, enthusiastic to express their feelings and opinions and respectful to one another. The cohesion of the staff is important to ensure self-care and activity quality. Decision makers proved to be flexible and open minded and young professional were often given opportunities to demonstrate their management capacities.

The use of complaint boxes across the four areas yielded different results. In Kaski Shree Barahi HSS, Malepatan, no complaints were received this year. Teachers claimed that because students are now sensitized on the issues, teasing and speaking vulgar words has stopped. In Gagangaunda HSS, Lekhnath municipality, the complaint box was not installed or used due to recent construction work. In Shree Panchamuni HSS, Dulegaunda, Tanahun, they opened the complaint box every week and if any problems were reported they were shared with the child club. Smaller reported issues are sorted out by the club itself while larger issues are referred to the school principal. In Shree Barahi HSS at Farakchaur, they opened it twice every week. One of the complaints they received commented on the teachers' poor teaching performance and recommended that she be transferred. Children mentioned that such issues could not handled by the child club since teachers were recruited from DEO, so they referred the complaint to the school principal.

3.4 Impacts

The awareness-raising program has had a noticeable impact in target areas. Children are now more aware on issues related to CSA, violence and exploitation. It is apparent that the awareness-raising sessions organized by TOLI have been successful in mobilizing children in this cause. Despite being hesitant at first, participants in the trainings gradually opened up to the subject and shared their feelings and experiences. Children are now more aware of the difference between „good and bad touch,‟ know how to protect themselves and know where to seek help. The increased number of cases reported to TOLI indicates that the dissemination of information is working.

Case Study 4: Mina Thapa brings justice to Sangita’s case in Kaski

Sangita‟s (name changed) case was registered on 2065/1/18. With the support of the local child club, she went to the Lekhnath police office to surrender Sita Nepali as the perpetrator, but the police officer said they couldn‟t do anything there and suggested that she be taken to the district police office. Sita Nepali ran from the Lekhnath police office. It was discovered that Sita Nepali had sold Sangita to two taxi drivers for 1,100 Nrs who raped her in turn. Sangita‟s mother and Mina Thapa (child group leader that is now working as an advisor) realized what had happened when perpetrator Sita Nepali had returned to Gagangauda without Sangita. When the police officer failed to show interest in the case, Mina Thapa took Sangita to Nawajyoti Child Network. The club volunteered to accompany them to the Kaski District Police Station to file the case against the

perpetrator. DSP Bhojraj Ojha however, said that it was not rape because the girl had given consent and refused to file the case.

After consulting with women advocates, it was noted that according to Act no.1 of Muluki Ain, sexual relations with a girl below the age of 16 year is known as a rape regardless of whether or not consent is granted. The police officer only agreed to file the case after being verbally informed of this law. The case was registered after 25 days of the incident. Mothers groups reproved Mina Thapa for supporting a girl like Sangita, The police officer restricted the case file and she received threats from the taxi driver for helping Sangita. Mina Thapa continued her job and succeeded in bringing justice to the survivor with the help of Sangita‟s relatives. Mina Thapa‟s family abandoned her for helping Sangita.

Sangita was a poor student at the time. She passed her classes but was not interested learning. The local child club sent her to Shakti Samuha (a united group of survivors against trafficking) for protection throughout the case. After coming into contact with Shakti Samuha, her studies improved and she passed in second division. She slowly began to mature. She is now a hard working member of Gogangaunda Child Club and is building her leadership skills.

Mina Thapa continued to be threatened by the perpetrator for supporting Sangita. The local mothers group criticized Sangita for having reprimandable character. Regardless of the community‟s discouragement and censure, Mina Thapa and Sangita filed a case against the perpetrator and won. After winning the case, the community‟s attitude has changed positively toward Sangita. Kaski district court charged the perpetrators for human trafficking and rape. Sita Nepali, Navaraj Thapa and Dirgha Bahadur Gurung were sentenced to 10/10 years of imprisonment and 50/50 thousand in fines as a relief fund to the survivor. According to the Act 1of Muluki Ain, if a girl between the ages of 10 and 14 is raped then the perpetuator will be sentenced to 10 /10 year imprisonment and fined an amount that depends on the case and condition. In a defense of survivor‟s case, district government attorney Mr. Shiva Bahadur Ranabhat and advocates Mr.Kamal Prasad Aryal and Ms Bhagwati Pahari took charge.

“My group has helped me a lot. Without them I couldn‟t have succeeded in winning the case. Mina didi has helped me a lot throughout this case. In the coming days I will prove myself as a good human being.” – Sangita

Mina Thapa received training from a child‟s group on CSA, violence and exploitation. Thanks to this training, she was able to succeed in bringing formal justice to Sangita and the perpetrators. This issue helped change the community‟s attitude and proved that violence can be brought to justice with a strong voice: “I‟m happy that my effort has succeeded- Mina Thapa

“The child club has helped her a lot and we can see signs of serious change before and after the case was registered.” – Mohan raj baralSchool Principal of Gagan Gaunda HSS, Lekhnath Marg

Boys participation has been helpful. They are recognizing their important role in ending violence. It is reported that teasing, harassment and the use of vulgar words have stopped completely in schools. Boys are beginning to play a supportive role to end violence.

The schoolteachers and DEO mentioned that in the past, parents have not sent girls to school regularly, particularly during times of menstruation. Now girls are going to school more regularly. In some cases, teachers have granted permission for girls to take leave from school if they are experiencing severe pain during menstruation.

During the evaluation in both districts, the DEO was very positive about establishing a child friendly mechanism in schools. They cited a need for collaboration and coordination from the beginning of project, and argue that discussion and interaction is needed with RPs and school supervisors on the issues raised by the program. They raised concern over the fact that they were not consulting when initially selecting the target schools.

In both districts, DEO authorities mentioned that they are very happy to extend codes of conduct, complaint boxes and sanitary pads to other schools according to a more girl friendly strategy. The DEO has already started to build and support separate toilets for girls. The linkages and NGO referral mechanisms to ensure access to legal services are currently functioning well.

Voices from the field:

I am very happy with this program. It has given opportunities to many children of our village who are deprived of resources. This program has given space for all children and safeguarded our right to a bright future. People never used to talk about such issues openly. After creating awareness among the children, teachers, parents, people are now slowly raising the issues and accepting them. I wish this program would continue in the future and support many other children who are in real need. 15-year-old girl studying in Grade 10

The Child Rights Protection Committee was formed with representatives from relevant government authorities and NGOs in both districts. The task of this committee is to identify the issues, lobby and advocate for policy making. The program also encouraged monthly meetings at the school level and district level. The project has proven very effective in terms of changing gender roles and encouraging boys and girls to work together.

[Please see ANNEX of staff analysis based on results]

Unintended Results

The coordination and collaboration with various governmental and non-governmental organizations has brought much support for the project activities and made project

implementation easier. Interactions have been organized between service providers (e.g. police, DEO, DCWB, DHO and lawyers) and children so that the latter could hear the problems children encounter when trying to access their services. This has helped encourage providers to offer friendlier services and also taught children about the services they are entitled to and how to access them.

The introduction of sanitary pads for girls in school, establishment of complaint boxes and creation of codes of conduct are activities that can be easily replicated throughout the country with minimal technical support.

During focus group discussions, children reported that they used to feel shy and scared. Their problems used to be left unheard, but now they are confident enough to express their problems in a simple and direct manner. They now feel a new sense of hope.

Though there is equal participation among boys and girls in child clubs, the boys were found to be less expressive during the evaluation. This was felt by other stakeholders as well during their monitoring visits.

The schoolteachers expressed that child marriage is still very common among Dalits in comparison to other groups. Of the three girls who were married last year in a child club in Shree Barahi HSS, Farakchaur, all were Dalit. Each of the marriages was driven by socio-economic factors.

There remains some stigma and hidden discrimination against survivors. At the private level, family relatives often reject and reprimand mothers. The problems faced by the survivor families are worse in the absence of male members at home, which also doubles the burden of social and economic responsibilities.

Case study 5: The power of empathy

A girl was not allowed to wear a red tikka on her forehead like her elder sisters because she had been sexually abused and was therefore considered impure. This mistreatment tormented her severely and she attempted to commit to suicide. Her mother realized the situation and expressed her love, care and empathy. Now the girl is regularly in school. The mother shared the story with the TOLI team and now the entire family is positive and supportive. From this scenario, it is clear that communities need to be mobilized and sensitized for the better treatment of survivors. If people do mistreat survivors, it gravely affects their emotional wellbeing. Too often, community people neglect cases of sexual abuse, refuse to acknowledge that it happened and ignore the needs of survivor families.

New child clubs are established without coordinating with existing child clubs in schools. Most of the programs are designed according to the organization‟s priorities, while children‟s priorities are often overshadowed. Without a long-lasting action plan, children are uncertain about the programs. According to the monitoring visit report, few children felt their studies had been hampered due to program activities.

According to INSEC Coordinator, there is very little coordination among the institutions and stakeholders or action taken beyond mere lip service. TOLI staff also noted unhealthy competition among NGOs. TOLI facilitated interactions and consultations among district authorities and NGOs to finalize the code of conduct. The Children Nepal organization put the code of conduct boards in certain schools that TOLI was supposed to cover. DEO authorities in Kaski reported that many child clubs were formed within the same school by different NGOs, resulting in an inefficient overlap of resources.

Though the children are aware of the complaint box, the use and access of the boxes in Kaski HSS, Malepatan and Gangaunda HSS in Lekhanath remains minimal. The complaint box activity was found to be less meaningful in these cases and the chances of misuse are high. During the time of evaluation, it had only been two months since the code of conduct was publicized and put on the wall. It therefore requires further follow up and monitoring.

3.5 Sustainability of the Project

Sustainability needs to be seen from the viewpoint of community ownership rather than merely focusing on program continuation. The presence of child clubs in schools and the knowledge children have gained will help protect them from CSA, violence and exploitation for their entire lives. Children have passed their knowledge and skills on to new leaders and therefore helped sustain their knowledge and skills in their schools for years to come.

In every school, 9,000 14,000 Nrs was given to the child club to manage child club activities and emergencies. Strategies were designed to ensure access and response services to survivors with mobilization and support from local government structures and other NGOs. It was envisioned that once child clubs are trained, they would train new members as a scheduled extra curricular activity in the school annual calendar. In addition to this, it was discussed how to sustain the attitude and behavior change that was achieved over the project period. Most of the children clearly expressed that the changes acquired over the period would remain with them throughout their lifetime. Parents, schoolteachers, DPAC members and other stakeholders agreed that the changes in attitude and behavior were permanent.

The LDO in Kaski mentioned that VDCs and DDCs are allowed to allocate 10% of their budget for children. The LDO in Kaski suggested that it is necessary to strengthen the capacity of the program in three ways: fund, function and functionaries. Without establishing these three key areas, the program cannot be effectively handed over or phased out. It needs to mainstream the issues and provide support accordingly. The LDO

representative questioned whether or not TOLI had used such mechanisms in its working areas.

TOLI suggested that the program could be sustained if it focuses on mobilizing existing groups formed by government offices or other NGOs and initiating social dialogue among different stakeholders.

Financial sustainability is important at the district level. The absence of external support could undermine the programs sustainability. Although the DEO, DCWB, DHO and WCO in both districts expressed their willingness and commitment to protect children from violence, abuse and exploitation, but no solid actions or decisions have been taken in this regard.

Sustainability will depend upon the extent to which action is taken and commitments are followed up. All the stakeholders mentioned that external support is needed to enhance the capacity of child clubs, families and stakeholders. Over the past two years, TOLI has focused on holding the DPAC, CC, District Children Network, District Child Rights Protection Committee and DCWB more accountable, strengthening existing structures and establishing a matching fund.

3.6 Child participation

TOLI has started mixed-gender child clubs. In each child club, there are 30-35 members that meet every month. The clubs easily reach more members and mainstream their knowledge, skills and experiences to new members. As mentioned earlier, child club leadership is continually passed on to upcoming classes. All child clubs formed by TOLI are already affiliated with the DCWB in Kaski and Tanahun.

Almost all participating children mentioned that they have developed a more positive attitude and have more confidence in making their own decisions. Child club involvement has not only built confidence but also provided opportunities for participation in trainings, meetings and interactions with district authorities and other outside visitors.

Voices from the field:

"Before being a member of a child club, I only knew that was in my school books. After joining the child club I got involved in various activities. I did not know much about children‟s problems in the beginning. I didn‟t know how seriously simple teasing could affect children. I learned this after hearing other children share in the child club. Now I have changed a lot. My parents and teachers are also noticing this change on me. Now I tell my friends about creating a secure environment for the girls." -- Boy of a child club

All stakeholders reflected positively on the grassroots participation and mobilization of child clubs. Children are now speaking up and demanding the services they need and deserve from NGOs, DCWB, DEO, women and children service centers, private lawyers,

VDCs, WCO and DHO. Group solidarity has strengthened self-confidence. The children indicated that when they came to the training they were given a valuable opportunity to share their issues. This sharing and discussing has helped them work through their problems.

With a solid network and monthly meetings, the clubs have been able to expand their membership. They demonstrated their capacity to manage their lives with resilience. The club members are able to identify the issues and refer fellow children to different organizations to receive services. The child clubs have demanded that service providers listen to their needs and respond to them accordingly. Children repeatedly mentioned:

"Now we must move ahead and develop confidence among ourselves to look after other children and secure their future.” Those people who were initially against them now respect and support the clubs. In the beginning, the children were nervous to share their thoughts and feelings with each other. Now however, they have started to trust each other and create a positive environment for building their strength. The children have developed confidence and self-respect and learned to solve their problems by themselves. The children defend that the simple act of being loved and cared for has helped make their life more comfortable.

Voices from the field:

I never used to believe that I could learn from children. After seeing a drama performed by the child club however, I was really touched. The drama taught me that jokes could affect others negatively. We affect others not only through physical touch, but also with our verbal words. -- Lok Bahadur Tamang (local community member)

It was a whole new experience for me. It is a hard thing to be born as a girl in a conservative and gender discriminatory society as a girl. I wanted to prove to society that there is nothing a girl can‟t do – she only needs an opportunity. I want to express my gratitude to TOLI, which has provided me orientation, training on CSA and child rights and opportunities to interact with parents, teachers and district stakeholders. Apart from that, I gained confidence. I am aware of the issues related to sexual abuse, violence and trafficking. I have changed a lot since the training. The children who had participated in the training oriented their respective child clubs on what they learned. I want to help other girls like me, so I have started to work as a volunteer as a child club advisor. I always have and always will have good wishes for Safe Environment for Girls. I hope the program will be able to help many girls, as it helped me, to become self-reliant and confident. There are not enough words to express how thankful for TOLI and their help.

Girl in Farakchaur CC

“This program has really helped our knowledge and practice of equal treatment for girls. The program provides space for children to demonstrate their capacity and potential. If we don't like teachers' behavior, we show dramas and reflect their behavior to make them realize their behavior. We want this program to continue. It will be very beneficial to the new children after we leave our school and group. Rupa Sunar (chairperson of children club and district network Sree Barahi HSS Farakchaur, Tanahun)

The child clubs are organizing watchdog activities, public demonstration, rallies and public debates against child violence. The children support each other and come together as friends to the police office and TOLI office.

Voices from the field:

I came to learn about various issues like trafficking, sexual abuse and HIV/AIDS. I also learned about life skills and ways of building confidence. These trainings and classes have boosted up my confidence. My view of life has changed. I have become more positive towards life. I am very much interested and committed to my work. I have built a vision for myself where I am doing well in this field. Not only has my positivity increased but society‟s way of looking at me has changed as well. Nowadays, people talk to me properly; they don‟t spread rumors and make foul remarks anymore. I have gained respect and love from everyone around. No one can exploit me and I can prevent from all sort of violence, I hope I can continue my work. My life has a new meaning now. I have gained respect and skills which has made me independent. -- A girl working as an advisor for the child club before she was a member of the child club

This program has really helped our knowledge and practice of equal treatment for girls. The program provides space for children to demonstrate their capacity and potential. If we don't like teachers' behavior, we show dramas and reflect their behavior to make them realize their behavior. We want this program to continue. It will be very beneficial to the new children after we leave our school and group. Rupa Sunar(chairperson of children club and district network Sree Barahi HSS Farakchaur, Tanahun)

3.7 Lessons Learned of SEGP

The program has enabled increased openness for reporting problems that used to be hidden and generated a grassroots demand for access to services. As per the findings of evaluation, the organization ought to be commended for making such positive progress on this very sensitive issue. All sectors of society in Nepal find it difficult to speak openly on matters relating to sexual behavior. It is even more difficult to address the issue of CSA and exploitation, where there is considerable denial and an accustomed practice of silence.

Coordination with line agencies, concerned organization and child protection networks has not only made implementation easier, but also increased the sense of ownership and positive reception of the program. Working in coordination with VDCs has helped make implementation effective and some VDCs have provided funding for child clubs.

In the case of rape, there is a high chance a victim‟s family will win the case if they report the case themselves and lodge FIR. The staff needs to be responsive to the particularities of each case in such situations rather than moving in with a pre-conceived plan of action and remaining a facilitator rather than as an expert.

Mobilizing the media is good tool for advocacy efforts and mainstreaming the issues to a broader audience.

Different line agencies and concerned organizations have made commitments to formulate a child protection code of conduct for the entire district. TOLI formed 48 child groups in the area. This has been a successful entry strategy. Links have been made with the DCWB, DEO and women and child service centers. Now further links need to be built with existing community groups such as women‟s groups, mothers groups and youth clubs. Strengthened linkages between child clubs and community groups will make it easier to respond to and support survivors. Further follow up can be done through community groups to ensure that survivors receive the services they need and deserve.

When the child clubs are united and empowered, survivors have the strength to recover their lives in a dignified manner. The support system provided by child clubs helps survivors and families sustain their lives and become less dependent to NGO partners.

It is important to have formal and informal dialogue between government service providers, NGOs and service receivers to reduce gaps in coverage. Regular interaction helps strengthen the relationship between all stakeholders and enables the extension of services in a friendly and cooperative manner.

Good teamwork needs to be continually nurtured. Teamwork is the key for organizations to achieve their desired output. The work team should cultivate the “we feeling” that is critical to program success.

Continued efforts are needed to ensure that community structures and mechanisms are strong enough to assume responsibility for the wellbeing of children. The capacity of

TOLI has to be strengthened to start a care and support program for survivors and continue its holistic response system. The staff should practice good listening skills and not lose their patience. The problems should be empathized and not just sympathized with.

All stakeholders need to collaborate while organizing programs. Collaboration develops a positive attitude for taking and sharing responsibilities, resulting in the efficient and effective delivery of the services in a sustainable way.

To reinforce protection, close ties ought to be kept with the DCWB. Lobbying efforts need to continue to ensure that the issues of child abuse and violence are taken seriously.

Giving spaces for children and families to express their feelings is important for creating a positive community environment. It is critical to bring up and review the updated issues of survivors so that corrective action can be taken immediately.

The responsibility for identifying and monitoring survivors could be given to the community people. This would encourage community involvement and ownership of the program activities. Community ownership assures the effectiveness of programming; therefore community members ought to be involved from the beginning.

The planning process among implementing agencies needs to be strengthened. The planning exercise should start with community prioritization of their needs. When dealing with CSA problems, it is necessary to identify the challenges and alternative solutions. It is necessary to analyze whether the problem is genuinely felt at the community level.

Significant changes were observed after including boys in the program against violence. Boys are now playing a supportive role in dealing with the issues of violence against girls. Whenever children are included and involved with social issues, they have worked with full dedication to realize significant change. Therefore children should not be isolated, but encouraged to participate actively. Children should not be viewed only as beneficiaries they are active change agents. Working together among teachers, political leaders, journalists and human rights activists in dealing child issues is found to be beneficial in overcoming obstacles as well.

Experience sharing among children networks helps encourage new members to report their problems. The sense of community found among fellow children gives survivors the strength they need to recover from their traumas and live their life in a dignified manner.

Training and awareness sessions should be conducted in a participatory way. Activities such as role-plays, dramas, case studies and experience sharing are creative learning tools that encourage active child participation.

Good relations must be upheld with all sectors of society. Community people need to be included in all phases of the project, including the planning phase. Listing out the pros

and cons of the proposed plan after community discussion helps ensure that the program is conducted smoothly well received.

3.8 Best Practices that can be replicated in the future

Support of the Local Government and Local Groups

TOLI has facilitated linkages at all levels with different sectors and coordinated with DPAC for program monitoring. Interactions between DPAC and child clubs have given DPAC an opportunity to see what‟s happening in the field. TOLI made a joint plan with communities to decide when and where meetings would take place and who would participate to discuss community priorities and the issues of violence, CSA and child marriage. Thanks to coordination with DPAC, TOLI and child clubs are receiving support from all sectors at all levels. The successes of SEGP were only possible because of the widespread participation among stakeholders. District level forums acknowledged TOLI‟s hard work during the evaluation. The police, lawyers, other NGOs, doctors and district courts now take the issues submitted by TOLI and child clubs seriously.

Referral System

Child clubs manage minor problems like teasing, verbal abuse and beatings themselves. In the case of major problems like rape or attempted rape, the clubs contact TOLI and refer the victim. Child clubs work as an informant within their village and share their experiences at parent‟s group meetings. Of the nine registered cases, seven are now attending school regularly and carrying on a normal life. The remaining two survivors were forced to migrate from their home village due to threats received from their abusers‟ family and therefore withdrew their cases.

Among the children who completed SLC, a few work at a radio program, others work as researchers for a child marriage survey and most volunteer as child club advisors in their community. Children report that teasing and vulgar language has become less common, and that when it does happen, it is resolved immediately. Children who are receiving scholarships have continued their education and support other children who are facing similar difficulties. They recommend expanding scholarship opportunities to other needy children in the child club. Children are now contacting the women and children service center or Ms Bhagwati Pahari, (Private Advocate, treasurer of Bar association) directly for advice on how to take legal action against any violence they experience. If children feel their rights are violated, they are now raising their voices and report such incidents to the child club or school complaint box.

Sanitary pad access

The sanitary pad concept is a best practice that can be easily continued and replicated by other schools and organizations. Users paid 5 Npr as a minimum charge for using the sanitary pads. After the introduction of this simple system, absenteeism among girls decreased and more girl students stayed for the entire day of school regardless of

menstruation. Almost all teachers and children reported that girls attended school more regularly during menstruation. Instead of having to go home if they begin menstruating

during school time, the girls can easily ask for a sanitary pad by saying "Girl problem." If girls have severe abdominal pain they can request their teachers for leave without having

to answer further questions.

Confidence building through child clubs

A girl studying in grade 10 had faced a lot of problems with her schoolteacher. Her socio-

economic status and family status was low and the teacher accused her of having a love

affair with a boy who was in reality only her friend. After becoming involved in the child club at Barahi HSS, Malepatan, club members explained to the teachers that it is not good

to accuse and blame girls of misconduct unnecessarily. Girls and boys should be allowed

to be best friends without any inappropriate rumors. Due to increased child club involvement, girls are now regular in school and work hard in their studies. Child club members participated in various activities conducted in school and became more confident. Swarswoti Neupane from Shree Barahi HSS has noticed that her youngest daughter who participates in a child club is now more confident than her elder daughter who is not in a child club.

Good relationships with parents and teachers and school performance

During the evaluation, almost all school principals and focal teachers expressed that it has been a matter of pride for the school to have a safe environment for children as initiated by TOLI. In a district level program, the principals of the various schools had expressed their happiness with TOLI for providing children with an opportunity to participate in SEGP.

Such praise and acknowledgement was echoed among the parents at Patneri Village. During an interaction session with the parents, one mother observed, “My daughter has lot of friends, has a new leadership capacity and she teaches me to do things. In one of the meetings there was interaction between parents and their children. Only at that time did I come to understand my daughter‟s feelings towards parents and the things she likes and dislikes of us that we usually never pay attention to. From that meeting I learned how important it is to listen to children's voices in daily life. We feel very proud.”

Children of Patneri Village also spoke positively about the program: “Through this program children are learning about child rights, child sexual abuse, violence, trafficking and safety measures. This program enhanced our knowledge about various issues, built our confidence and ability to deal with different situations and improved our education. With this new level of confidence, we can analyze and ask questions to teachers. Now we can easily clarify things that are not clear which allows us to mange our study time more effectively.

Sensitization Program

The sensitization program, which raises awareness of “tricky safety measuresfor children at the school and village level, is a good approach for protecting children from CSA, violence and exploitation. The Women and Children Service Center has become actively involved in the monitoring and interaction program organized by TOLI. At present, there are free services provided by two women lawyers supported by UNDP to help children and women write service applications. The service center approachable for children and managed by four women staff members, including a lead inspector.

There are other organization such as CWIN, Shakti Samuha, Children Nepal, INSEC, Kopila Nepal, CWS, Nepal House, Advocacy Forum and CAPCORN who are also working on protection activities for children. There are paralegal committees in 30 VDCs and two municipalities. In these committees, one boy and one girl represent the child clubs. There are more than 65 orphanages in Kaski district. Girls that need shelter are most frequently sent to Shakti Samuha or CWIN. Children are also often referred to Pokhara through coordination with DCWB Kaski from Tanahun. Another option is Sewa Kendra in Tanahun, which is supposed to be a shelter for women but now accepting girls thanks to coordination with the DCWB.

This program has challenged stereotypical gender roles. Girls were found to be more vocal in comparison with boys throughout the evaluation. Communities have started to reguard girls more positively. Belonging to a group has helped them realized that they are not alone. Their new community has given them hope and courage. Sanitary pad access, complaint box mechanisms and established codes of conduct welcome all children to school and ensure friendly access to education, regardless of status.

3.9 Issues and Challenges of SEGP

The TOLI had given last minute attention to trafficking prevention and psychosocial counseling for survivors and their families. When talking with parents and NGOs, it was found that the social support for survivors and their families from neighbors and relatives was very weak. This is perhaps due to the lack of orientation, sensitization and integration. SEGP was not well coordinated or linked with other SCN programs in education and HIV/AIDS. This kind of coordination has been beneficial for developing sustainability.

Coordination with VCPCs was not been mechanized within the program structure to the extent that was anticipated in the project document. All the schools were phased out at the end of December 2011. It was very difficult to follow up on survivors outside of school due to the low number of social workers.

There were social movement programs against child marriage but their impact has been very low. The children from child clubs had married of their own accord, not because of pressure from their parents.

According to the children, there are still writings on the wall and make matching of name connection has not decreased. Schoolteachers suggested that an outsider rather than a student had come and written such words on the school and toilet walls.

The major gap identified during the document review was unsystematic and irregular participation of children, especially at homes, schools, VDCs, DDCs and health posts. The dependence of child clubs on donor agencies was also cited as one of the major issues that will challenge their sustainability. Also, laws and policies to ensure the rights of children and the decisions made by MOLD/Ministry of Women Children and Social Welfare are only minimally implemented at the community level due to a lack of awareness.

The transition of children from child clubs to youth clubs is not planned or mechanized. Children are not prepared for the transition. Their capabilities are not fully utilized or realized when they transfer from child clubs to youth clubs.

There is a lack of systematic information updates. Reports or records on the number, magnitude, extent and nature of problems are not available at the school or district level.

There are various structures throughout the country to protect the rights of all children and survivors (DDC, VDC, VCPC, DPO, DHO, WCO, DCWB, etc.), yet none of them are actively mobilized or functioning to prevent and respond to cases of violence, sexual abuse and exploitation unless NGOs are involved.

Many district authorities had not heard of SEGP before the phase out process began. They did not know that the program had been implemented for 11 years.

In both districts, the psychosocial needs of survivors and families have not been explored or analyzed to prioritize their needs. TOLI offers positive listening, time, space and privacy and treats all survivors with respect, safety, confidentiality, non-discrimination and acceptance. Staff may need counseling training to improve the service they offer to their clients.

There is a lack of mechanisms in place to monitor their participation in extra activities, school performance and regular attendance. There is still discrimination and stigma associated with CSA and rape, which makes it difficult for survivors to access participation and opportunities. When replicating the program in other areas, SCN should consider integrating the basic principles of GBV to address the attitude and behavior of society and ensure that survivors are equally benefited by all services. It is also critical to explore how survivor participation can be increased in other development activities implemented by SCN or other organizations.

The protection and safety of survivors and families has not received much attention by all stakeholders. During the eleven-year period, nine cases were registered. Out of those nine, two survivors were forced to move due to threats received from their abusers.

Paralegal committees and NGOs were present, yet none of them addressed these survivor safety issues.

Changing behavior is a long process and people are still very suspicious and uncooperative. Even the families of survivors would sometimes prefer to settle the case with money instead of taking legal action. The limited number of social mobilizers made it particularly difficult to change behavior and attitudes at the grassroots level.

Among district authorities, schoolteachers and parents, there is a continuous expectation for support. This expectation is one of the greatest challenges facing TOLI. TOLI will be hard pressed to provide sufficient follow up and monitoring in the absence of external support.

TOLI has faced a number of challenges regarding child marriage. Child club members have gotten married even when they knew they shouldn't marry before reaching the age of

20. This hampered the realization of the SEGP objective to reduce early child marriage.

Cooperation with the police remains difficult, as they tend to rely greatly on TOLI. The procedure stipulates that the police should handle the cases in court, however the police still expect TOLI to oversee and support the entire procedure. Sometimes survivors retract their case claim for fear of being rejected by their family and community. Staff and child security is an issue of growing importance as they received threats from abusers while pursuing legal action on behalf of survivors.

It is still difficult to solve cases through legal means. Community members are still very much influenced by considerations of money and relationships. It is particularly difficult to follow through on legal action when powerful community members are involved and their interests are not served. Chandra Gurung, Inspector of the Women and Children Service Center, argued that the main challenges are rooted in the people‟s preference to mediate issues at the local level rather than pursue formal legal redress. According to the INSEC and CWIN representatives, a mechanism needs to be developed to work on common issues like CSA, trafficking and exploitation.

3.10 Partners’ Capacity

Implementing the SEG program in Kaski and Tanahun has been a valuable experience for TOLI. Over the 11 years, TOLI has greatly strengthened its capacity to prevent CSA and exploitation. The program helped TOLI realize the need to focus on child protection issues. SEGP in Kaski and Tanahun has further strengthened the image and credibility of TOLI at the district level. The TOLI team and organization is dedicated and committed to realizing a safer environment of girls. Staff members have done their best to collaborate and coordinate with authorities and advocate on these important issues. The staff appeared to be motivated and caring and demonstrated strong commitment to the project. Almost all the working staff was female, which helped their work with children.

TOLI has learned management skills, established financial and procurement systems and procedures from SCN and expanded their contact with district authorities over the course of the project period. This program has played a catalytic role in expanding their contact with schools and various local and district level structures, including the DEO, DHO, DPO, WCO, DDC, DCWB, VDC. TOLI has reported that their own knowledge, attitude and capacity on CSA, exploitation and violence issues have greatly improved. The organization realized that the project should balance both prevention and response including psychosocial counseling.

One of TOLI‟s strengths is their seasoned working relationship with child clubs, District Children Networks, District Child Rights Protection Committees and CPCs in schools. They are committed and dedicated to action. They are in regular contact with schoolteachers. In fact, the Principal of Gagangouda from Lekhnath Marg is a board member of TOLI.

TOLI is recognized as a group working on raising awareness of child sexual abuse, violence and exploitation. Their work is very much appreciated as a way of increasing the community‟s capacity to protect children. During the phase out process, district authorities acknowledged that it was a commendably transparent process. They expressed regret that other NGOs fail to do the same and often enter communities without notifying the district.

TOLI has shown commitment to taking action against issues of violence. Through their work, they have raised the voice of those who have suffered and had their rights violated. TOLI follows up on its cases regularly until the victims receive justice.

The weakness of this organization is that it has depended on one international organization partner for the past eleven years on child protection issues. TOLI lacks linkages and networks with other donors and private sectors. There is a great need to strengthen report writing and proposal writing skills in order to build the capacity of the organization. Most of the board members are highly educated but lack time to develop these strategic skills.


SEGP is highly demanded by all stakeholders. The evaluation demonstrates that the program has been successful in promoting the protection of children from CSA, violence and exploitation, upholding children‟s basic right to education and championing practices for child participation and development.

The school-based sanitary pad mechanism, complaint box and code of conduct activities can be replicated in other districts with broad based consultation and participation among children, teachers, parents SMCs and DCWBs.

Local government structures, particularly at the VDC and DDC level, are expected to allocate 10% of their budget for children. This allocated budgeted could be mobilized for continuing SEGP if the VDC/DDC people are sensitized to the importance of CSA, violence and exploitation.

Families, teachers, NGOs, district authorities, and DCWBs expressed the need to allocate more resources for child protection and to extend services further into remote areas. While documenting a plan for the extension of child protection services is important, it is even more important to ensure that such plans are galvanized into real action.

Besides a lack of accountability to action, the evaluation also found program weaknesses related to monitoring. Virtually no monitoring system currently exists to track or record the problems that are solved at the organization and child club level. Similarly, there needs to be an improved system for tracking survivors that have reintegrated with their families to monitor their daily like and status within their family and community.

The initiation of social dialogue on child protection issues among all district stakeholders in both districts was only observed in the last two years of the project period. DEO authorities clearly expressed concern that there had not been true district level interaction for the school selection process from the beginning.

The psychosocial effect of CSA, violence and exploitation on children was widely felt to be one of the most serious problems. TOLI and district authorities reported a lack of psychosocial services. Without these services, survivors often suffer from fear of society and low confidence due to their feelings of loss, confusion and insecurity.

Legal protection is required to ensure the security of staff and children working for child rights protection. There is a need to coordinate more effectively with the GBV network, human rights defenders, women human rights defenders, women‟s federations and district bar associations to safeguard the safety of staff. There is a lack of coordination among NGOs and government offices to monitor activities and clarify who is doing what. Often there is a duplication of activities by different agencies without being aware of each other‟s support programs. There are no tracking systems in place to monitor this

kind of inter-agency information. Service providers need to know whom they are serving and then record and report that information to inform future planning and management of resources.

During the evaluation, it was found that the number of young girls becoming sex workers is increasing. It is therefore recommended that further coordination be developed with hotel associations at the national level and district level to reduce the sexual exploitation of girls.

The recommendations proposed by this evaluation are based on the evaluation of Kaski and Tanahun districts. It is the responsibility of all sectoral team members to prevent and respond to CSA, violence and exploitation. The interventions on policy programs and prevention and protection activities need strong commitment and action from decision makers (i.e. government offices and donors) for adequate resource allocation, effective coordination among implementers and establishment of effective monitoring mechanism.

In light of the programs benefits, there is an urgent need for expansion as needed in other districts. SCN and its partner organizations should meet their commitment to protect children from CSA, violence and exploitation through the following means:

Awareness: Ensuring that all SCN staff and local partners are aware of the current problems, magnitude and risks related to CSA, violence and exploitation.


staff and partners understand how to minimize the risk.

Raising awareness and providing training on good practices to ensure that

Reporting: Ensuring that SCN and its local partners know what steps to take whenever concerns arise regarding the protection of children.

Responding: Ensuring that appropriate action is taken to support and protect children whenever concerns arise regarding access to services.

Based on the findings, the recommendations have been prioritized under the following headings:

4 Addressing Child Protection Issues

4.1 SCN should work with the Central Child Welfare board at the national level, DEO, DDC and DCWB at the district level, and ensure that all stakeholders will fulfill their responsibilities to protect children from CSA, violence and exploitation.

4.2 Conduct training for child facilitators, volunteers, teachers, parents, NGOs, women‟s group leaders and other community leaders to raise awareness on CSA violence and exploitation as well as the basic principles and practices of

protection and care. Mobilize VCPCs to monitor and report cases of CSA and violence immediately.

4.3 SCN should facilitate maintenance of the minimum standard in the children's homes as per the child protection policy, which is virtually non-existent. LDO in Kaski mentioned that there are more than 65 children's orphanage homes (Bal Griha), which need to be monitored. He found that many children from children's homes were used as foreigner beggars.

4.4 SCN should facilitate the development of clear referral mechanisms for legal issues related to survivors. This would involve working closely with legal organizations, the DCWB and the WCO. The process of law enforcement also needs to be improved. Social and emotional support for survivors and legal awareness especially on CSA, violence and exploitation among children needs to be widely recognized.

4.5 SCN should establish a referral mechanism for survivors through the NGO network and mainstream government services from the grassroots to district and district to national level. There is a need for a regular monitoring mechanism of service sites and referral institutions would be beneficial to maintain optimum care and support for survivors for the compliance of standards and protocols by service providers.

4.6 SCN should support DCWB‟s work and strengthen their coordination role in child protection issues and referrals.

5 Management Issues (i.e. capacity building, coordination, monitoring, data- based)

In light of the evaluations observations, it is clear that commitments for support and resource allocations for sector issues need to be more closely monitored to track whether or not they are translated into action. The DCWB, WCO officer in Kaski and other district authorities expect coordination and experience sharing among all stakeholders on child protection issues for their commitment and responsibilities. This process ought to clearly be spelled out and taken into action from the beginning, not only at the phase out stage.

5.1 SCN and its local partners should jointly assess the possibility of alternative mechanisms for regular monitoring to improve the DCWB‟s management capacity. SCN should advocate for additional information on the DOE and EMIS section to monitor the status of child marriage and survivors. Advocacy efforts should target the DEO and RPs to encourage regular monitoring and ensure that child marriage cases and survivors attend school regularly.

5.2 TOLI should perform regular monitoring and study the impacts of codes of conduct (which was established at the time of evaluation) to see whether or not it

is effective. Complaint box activities also need to be continuously monitored to ensure the mechanism is continued after phase out from TOLI.

5.3 In new target areas, SCN should orient, activate and mobilize the DCWB, DCPC, VCPC, DPO, DDC, DEO, RPs, school supervisors and schoolteachers in their roles and responsibilities for child protection. Sensitization training should be planned to strengthen the capacity of VCPCs and DCPCs on child protection issues.

5.4 SCN should support the reporting of disaggregated information on survivors' record keeping, periodic assessment of progress, establishment of a regular and feedback system and introduction of alternative monitoring mechanisms among VDCs and districts to see the support and progress made.

5.5 SCN must coordinate internally to ensure that child protection issues are integrated into all programs and constantly monitor the current status of child protection issues.

5.6 SCN should coordinate with the MOE/DOE to integrate issues of CSA, violence and exploitation in school curriculum. Coordination with the DEO and PABSON would be pursued to expand the program to boarding schools.

6 Partnership and Networking

There appear to be opportunities for greater networking, particularly with local government offices. For example, the VDCs and DDCs allocate 10% of their budget for children. DEOs also have funding to pay for schooling.

6.1 SCN and its local partner should focus communication and coordination district stakeholders at the beginning of the future projects to procure local funds.

6.2 In order to build the capacity of partner organizations, overall program management and capacity needs to be strengthened and built into agreements as required.

6.3 A common coordination forum with representation from the all child protection agencies and linkages with the GVB network should be established for advocacy purposes at the national and district level to allocate more resources for girls' safety and increase the efficiency of activities.

6.4 SCN should coordinate a mapping exercise of “who is doing what” to address child protection issues and collaborate different agencies. At the same time, it is necessary to seek strong commitment from all allies, donors and government offices to address child protection issues.

6.5 MWCSW and its district (i.e. the DCWB and WCO) should take the lead role in organizing meetings among concerned authorities (i.e. the DPO, DEO, DHO, DDC) to share and foster understanding on practical issues related to child protection.

6.6 Partnership with HAN should be initiated for policy dialogue at the national level and for district level implementation to reduce the sexual exploitation of girls.

7. Integration of SEGP Program

7.1 SCN should lobby the DOE at the national and district level for improved coordination and government integration in programming. Government structures should also be lobbied to provide matching funds for establishing complaint boxes, codes of conduct and sanitary pad systems and ensuring program sustainability.

7.2 There should be a better communication and sensitization among VECs, VCPCs, parents and teachers, so that they could make proper arrangements for child friendly education. With support from the DEO and RPs, it can be done throughout the district (not only targeted schools) to increase regular attendance in school and decrease drop out due to menstruation or violence.

7.3 SCN and TOLI should seize the opportunity of the “Welcome to School” global campaign to disseminate safety tricky measuresto prevent CSA and violence.

7.4 SCN should extend implementation to other districts where girls‟ enrolment is comparatively low, apart from the systematic targeting of government schools in this program.

7.5 SCN and its local partners should promote dialogue to link supportive and positive mothers groups with adolescent peer support groups and identify positive individuals from civil society organizations and GBV networks that are interested in supporting survivors and their families.

8. Operational level

8.1 School/VDC selection should be done in more coordinated way with full participation from the DDC, DEO, VDC and other stakeholders to ensure representation of deprived and marginalized communities and consolidate efforts to reduce child risk and vulnerability.

8.2 SCN and its local partners should organize regular sharing programs among NGOs, DCWBs, DEOs, DHOs, WCOs and DPOs within the districts to enhance understanding on practical issues related to child protection issues.


Continual assessment of CSA, violence, exploitation and survivor status should be an integral part of programming to contribute in experiential sharing and advocacy to the wider community.

8.4 Promote the participation of children in schools, villages and other existing groups. Support children‟s access to resources and opportunities for extra activities. The rights and hopes of children and their achievement should be constantly on the agenda at all levels, especially in the family, VDC, DDC and DCWB. Children should be involved in the decision making process and included as full and active partners in identifying their own issues and planning, implementing and assessing programs that will have more sustainable impact.

9. Advocacy for community support systems against discrimination of survivors

Advocacy to protect survivor‟s rights is very weak and might be one reason for the current low level of reporting. It was observed that there was a complete lack of emotional and social support mechanisms within communities for families affected by CSA, violence and exploitation. The evaluation shows that many survivors still face discrimination in daily life. Hence listening, creating a climate of confidence, discovering new values, collecting their strength is highly recommended. Active participation of survivors and their families may help to enhance self-esteem and develop a sense of identity within the community. It may also help generate collective strength among survivors in society.

9.1 Organize orientations, training, and awareness activities on child protection issues focused on reporting and survivor's rights (i.e. safety, respect, confidentiality and non discrimination) to government offices and NGOs. Information should be disseminated at various political rallies and local festivals in every village on how to prevent and respond to CSA, violence and exploitation. A broad based campaign, mobilized through posters, TV, radio and other media, should be organized to raise awareness on child protection issues.

9.2 Partner organizations should sensitize district authorities, service providers, families and communities on the basic principles underlying GBV to promote the development of a friendly environment for accessing services.

9.3 While expanding in other districts, the program should development sustainability mechanisms through schools, teachers, SMCs, child clubs, PTAs and women‟s groups.

9.4 Wider community awareness on laws and policies should be raised to ensure the rights and safety of survivors through community support groups or coordination with district women and children service centers and children's homes that are provide initial food and accommodation for survivors.

9.5 SCN and its local partners need to strengthen existing support mechanisms to provide psycho-social support to survivors and their families through the WCO, DCWB or NGOs while expanding in new districts.

9.6 There is a need for integration, collaboration and coordination among the different projects outside and inside of SCN (i.e. education, livelihood, nutrition, HIV/AIDS interventions) in order to coordinate services and create a greater positive impact on survivors and families. Exploring and building new linkages should be a priority.

9.7 Identify existing local facilitators, youth and volunteers who are interested in working on child protection and psycho-social rehabilitation. The capacities of those facilitators needs to be built so that they can provide social and emotional support for the survivors and ensure safety, respect, confidentiality and non- discrimination in day-to-day life.

9.8 SCN should support income-generating activities for vulnerable parents by providing trainings in vocational skills, micro credit and savings. These life skills empower and enable caretakers and to take care children in the long term.


Sexual abuse of children can be defined as contact or interaction between a child and an older or more knowledgeable child or adult (e.g. a person in a position of authority, trust or power, such as a parent or caretaker, a sibling, or a stranger) when the child is being used as an object of gratification for an adult‟s or an older child‟s sexual needs and gratification. These contacts or interactions are carried out against the child using force, trickery, bribes, threats or pressure, and without informed consent for which the child is not developmentally prepared. Sexual abuse can be physical, verbal or emotional.

Sexual exploitation is the use of a child for sexual purposes in exchange for cash or in- kind favors between the customer, intermediary or agent and others who profit from the trade in children for these purposes. The commercial sexual exploitation of children consists of practices that are demeaning, degrading and often life threatening to children. There are three primary and interrelated forms of commercial sexual exploitation of children: prostitution, pornography, and trafficking for sexual purposes. Other forms of sexual exploitation of children include child sex tourism, and forced marriages.

As per IASC guideline

Gender-based violence is an umbrella term for any harmful act that is perpetrated against a person‟s will, and that is based on socially ascribed (gender) differences between males and females.

Acts of GBV violate a number of universal human rights protected by

international instruments and conventions.

Around the world, GBV has a greater impact on women and girls than on men

and boys.

The term “gender-based violence” highlights the gender dimension of these types

of acts; in other words, the relationship between females‟ subordinate status in

society and their increased vulnerability to violence so it is necessary to address

the GENDER INEQUALITIES that cause and contribute to the violence.

The nature and extent of specific types of violence vary across cultures, countries,

and regions. Examples include: Sexual violence, including sexual exploitation/

abuse and forced prostitution, Trafficking, Forced/early marriage, Harmful

traditional practices and Domestic violence.


1. Annual Plan for SEGP, 2011, TOLI

2. Annual Progress Report January to December 2010, TOLI

3. Brochure of SEGP 2005,

Safe Environment for Girls Program (SEGP) by Team

Organizing Local Institution (TOLI), Gharipatan, Pokhara 17

4. Brochure of code of conduct ( Achar samhita) MOE and its relevant stakeholders 2066

5. DPAC, Joint Monitoring Report Oct 2010, - Bharat Raj baral, CRO, DCWB kaski

6. Drafted code of conduct in Nepali, TOLI , 2068

7. Exit Plan with TOLI/ WSHC25 -26 April, 2011 Pokhar a




(January to

2011(July to September)

March) ,Half




June) ,

Quarterly report

9. Guidelines child protection and development program in Nepali, Nepal government

ministry of women children and social welfare,2066

10. Legal and Advocac y Report, 2010, Bhagwati Pahari, Legal and advocacy officer

11. M&E Plan of Safe Environment for Girls Program (SEGP),2010, TOLI

12. Midterm review report of TOLI in Tanahun, 2068, July

13. Mid-Term draft report -Review of the National Plan of Action (NPA) for Childre n;

(2004/05 2014/15)

14. Monthly project tracking tool for tracking of activities and budget for SEGP in Kaski and

Tanhaun ( Jan to Dec 2011)

15. National plan of action for children 2004 - 2014, HMG, ministry of women children and

social welfare, Central child w elfare board, March 2004

16. Project Proposal Summary and Approval, January to 31 st December 2011

17. Process Guideline for the Safe Environment for Girls Program (SEGP) ,2004


19. Terms of Reference for Evaluation of „Safe Environment for Girls‟ Program‟ Dec 2011

20. Save the Children Nepal Country Strategy Plan , 2010 -2013

Project Tracking









Regional and and budg



Exit Plan for SEGP - Team Organizing Local Institution (TOLI )

Developed capacity assessment form for child clubs

Capacity mapping of child clubs

Identified and continued discussion with working structures and stakeholder for sustainability

Child Club are listed in DCWB and Municipality

Discussed on Create Basket fund in DCWB

Prepare letter to be sent to schools for exit of the program

Coordination and collaboration with DEO for implementation of code of conduct in school

Prepare the organization for the exit, Plan for meeting with district/community stakeholder to inform about the exit

Linkage Child Club with DCWB, Include child protection issues in DCWB periodic planning and in District Child Network periodic plan

Develop capacity of the structures for resource exploration & mobilization the fund from VDC through VDC level CCN and VCPC.

Initiate for the commitment from local print media to publish child protection issues.

Follow up the implementing action the code of conduct in through out the district through District Education Office

Discussed in real action of phase out with all concern stakeholders in VDC, school and districts on program exit

Review on their action plan and support in their initiatives

More linkage, coordination and collaboration with government agencies

Continue support to the structures even after the exit of the program. Provide morale support to the structures

Identify new program and submit the proposal.

Maximum utilization the organization belong material and advertise it for fund collection and mobilization

Developed follow up plan and implement for sustainability of program structure and issue.

Make aware the staff on exit of the program.

Support to stakeholder and agency in related issue even program is phase over

Voluntary support in related issue to maintain coordination/collaboration with line agencies


(TOLI) Gharipatan, Pokhara Safer Environment for Girls Program, Its Coverage and Chronological History


No of





Focused Activity




Concept sharing, staff hiring, feasibility survey




Identification and categorization of unsafe spaces, listing out of the school for program expansion, children‟s progress on study collected




Concept Sharing with different stakeholders, School and district level support committee formation, program expansion




Concept sharing in School with teacher and student, child club formation, home visit, interaction with the stakeholders to make spaces safe for the children, capacity building




Program expansion, capacity building of the children, experience sharing, problem identification




Program expansion, concept sharing, Child Protection Committee formation




Discussion with parents and community people, Capacity building of CPC, meeting with child club graduated children




Capacity building of child club and network, CPC formation, physical support to school, Focus on prevention and emergency support including legal, educational and medical support, capacity building of staff




Expansion in primary and lower secondary School (learning from 2007), Orientation to parents, teacher and stakeholders on CSA/CP




Relationship buildup between children and parents, strengthening of stakeholders on CSA, Training for phase out, IEC material developed




Coordination and linkages build up with line agencies and stakeholders, consolidation for girls friendly schooling




Phase out and mainstreaming of the program








Check List for FGD and KII

How is the participation of parents, children, survivor, teachers, students, District authorities( DPO, WDO, Govt lawyers, women and children service center, DEO, DDC, VDC, DCPC, VCPC) had involved in designing the project and annual planning process towards creating safe and supportive environment for children?

Is this recognized as social issues and prioritized is there significant results due to their involvement ?

What sort of child protection systems are established for girls / safety in this district,

school, village?

How far survivors have gone through normal life, ( eg easy access to health care,

continue education, getting legal aid as per need and living in their own families /

communities )

What are the mechanisms to prevent and respond ( CSA, child marriage and trafficking ) at local level?

How is the attitude and behaviors of service delivery organizations and communities

towards survivor in terms of caste, age, gender, and poverty?

How far the district line agencies are supportive, are they allocating resources to support the project? Is child protection code of conduct has implemented already in schools?

What are the changes that the projects bring at personal level, in their families, schools, and communities? Could you pls give evidences

What are the lessons learned in this program and how can these built upon in future


Are there any unintended or unexpected results of the program and why and how it happen

What approaches are being used for sustainability of the program

How far children are able to prevent and protect from CSA, child marriage, trafficking and violence?

What innovation factors are in place for the project success?

What sort of challenges faced to implement the project?

Check List for focus group discussion (FGD) and key informant interview (KII) as per group:

Executive Board / Toli staff

During the last 10 years how far the org could address the changing need of target group

Based on last year experience from phase out what new ideas come for exit plan

How far district stakeholders are playing positive and supportive role

Do they support continuously after phase out in last year

What are the existing services are available to respond CSA, violence, trafficking

How is organization overall capacity in terms of staffing structure, technical competency, governance, how far the issues come from financial audit are addressed

What was your selection criteria of village or school for the program, how far the vulnerability group reached

What were the innovation for the project, what direct and indirect benefits you feel, observed from this program, How those changes are possible, what contributed to bring such changes / results?

What is the coverage portfolio in different phase of project- piloting, expansion, and consolidation,

Could you pls explain what chronological order had gone through in project period, and what process has followed to bring full fledge project to exit out?

What is the link between impact and project intervention, how far it contributed

How is the referral mechanism- do you receive any problem referred by child club, child network, and what support your are providing

What are the existing services are available to respond CSA, violence, trafficking

How far the existing mechanism has been utilized and responded for the protection of children? Is it functioning continuously?

How to go further- what suggestions you like to give for future similar projects?

District Stakeholders:

How is your overall impression of the program, what you like most

How far you had involved and contributed,

How is organization overall capacity in terms of staffing structure, technical competency, governance?

How is the referral mechanism- do you receive any problems referred by child club, child network, Toli, and what support your are providing


available to respond CSA, violence,







Children / Teachers / Parents

What direct and indirect benefits you feel, what you like, observed from this program? What new innovations are there, how happy you are from this program

How those changes are possible, what contributed to bring such changes / results?

What is the link between impact and project intervention, how far it contributed

How is the referral mechanism- do you referred survivor and what support your are providing

What are the existing services are available to respond CSA, violence, trafficking and child marriage?

How far district stakeholders are playing positive and supportive role

The results which are achieved at present how can it sustain in long term

What sort of challenges faced to implement the project at being children / parents

, teacher ?

Any suggestion - How to go further- what suggestions you like to give for future similar projects?


Level of Results

Indicators -Safe Environment for Girls Program -2010


Create protective environment for children from abuse, exploitation & violence.

Objective 1: Child abuse, exploitation, violence established as an issue of social concern.


Indicator 1.1.1:

Result: 1.1 Stop the violence, abuse, and exploitation in schools and communities

Most serious types of violence, abuse and exploitation will be stopped in 10 schools and 2 communities of working area

This indicator is relevance, however severe forms of violence such as rape or try to rape was reported very low ( only 9 ) from all selected schools for last 10 yrs and there is no tracking system on what type of violence, abuse, exploitation solved and how many were solved in school and communities.


Based on discussion with TOLI during evaluation, it mentioned that they stopped 70 % of violence, abuse and exploitation however there is no any measurement such as baseline assessment , midterm and end line assessment to see the impact indicators.


Indicator 1.2.1:

Result: 1.2 Child marriage practices will be reduced significantly in the program areas.

# of child marriage cases stopped and documented.

This indicator can be reduced but not completely stopped. Despite the child marriage campaign; child marriage has been continued even children from network did child marriages who know the child marriage law and its consequences. In last year only 3 child marriage happened from Tanahun district which is the great challenge faced. Only one child marriage case registered in both district. Based on discussion with TOLI during evaluation it mentioned that they stopped 50 % of child marriage however there is no measurement of initial assessment, mid term and final assessment in all program area.


Indicator 1.3.1:

Result 1.3:

100% survivor children who reported as survivors provided with basic services and at least 50% of rape cases succeeded in favor of survivor.

Rape cases responded in favor of survivor children

This indicator is relevance but understanding of the basic services should be clearly spelled out. During evaluation; staff perceived the basic services mostly to get from police, lawyers, medical personnel, education but less focused on safety, respect, non - discrimination , confidentiality, livelihood, emotional support for survivor and families , which are equally important while integration at community.

Objective 2: Empowering children to protect themselves and use the appropriate mechanism to respond to abuse, exploitation and violence they may encounter

Result 2.1:

Indicator 2.1.1. 332 children will enhance their knowledge to protect from potential risks out that 199 children will be able to take action against potential risks

Child club members able to identify potential risks and action taken

This is relevance to protect itself. It mentioned that 90 % of children they identified potential risks and action taken however it need to spell out what are the potential risks for children

Result 2.2:

Indicator 2.2.1 : At least 85 new cases reported

Children able to

This indicator is relevance, about 80 % use complain box mechanism for reporting small forms of violence however severe forms of violence reported was very low for last 10 years.



mechanism for

case reporting

Result 2.3:


Child club children engaged in awareness rising against abuse, exploitation and violence.

Indicator 2.3.1: # of child club members engaged in raising awareness

This is highly relevance to prevent CSA, violence at wider level. It mentioned that about 80 % of child clubs/networks conducted meeting regularly, developed action plan and implemented the planned activities.

Objective 3: Strengthening child protection system at District, VDC and community level to prevent and respond to abuse, exploitation and violence

Result 3.1.:

Indicator 3.1.1: 15 schools will have a child protection code of conduct and implemented it

Child Protection code of conduct in Schools developed by DEO and implemented it

This indicator is also relevance to establish the system, free from violence, abuse, and child friendly education. 70% schools have established code of conduct with wider consultation of CPC, DEO and SMC, PTA, Child clubs teachers

Result: 3.2 Child protection structure strengthened and able to respond.

Indicator: 3.2.1 # No of child protection structure functional.

This indicator needs to be measurable, again tracking system on what type of violence, abuse, exploitation solved and how it responded from those structures in school and communities, quality and continuity of reporting mechanism needs to be spelled out. Respond of child protection structure to do follow up at community / family for survivor's situation is vital

Result 3.3:

Indicator 3.3.1:


and CPCs

1. # of CC and CPC phased out.

strengthened and

2. # of CC and CPC actively continued program in school after phased

continued there


activities in

1 st

indicator is not relevant, why we want to see CC and CPC phased


out? 2 nd indicator needs to spell out clearly so that it can be measure.

Impact Based on TOLI analysis on the basis of the impact of the programme (i.e. changes happening under different dimensions), to what extent has progress been made towards achieving the CSP objective? 1 = No progress and 10 = Objective achieved

Safer environment for girls Kaski and Tanahun











Objective 1: Establishing child abuse, exploitation, violence and child marriage as an issue of social concern. Result 1 Stop the violence, abuse and exploitation in schools and communities



Result 2:

Incidence of child marriage in the community responded and stopped.

Result 3:

Rape cases responded in favor of survivor children

Objective 2:


Empowering children especially girls to protect themselves from and respond to violence, abuse, exploitation

Result 1:

Child club members able to identify potential risks and action taken (the risk like, touching the sensitive organ, one sided love letter, teasing, & using vulgar words)

Result 2 :

Children report cases to appropriate mechanism

3- Child club children engaged

in awareness rising and acted as pressure group against abuse, violence and exploitation. Objective 3:
in awareness rising and acted as
pressure group against abuse,
violence and exploitation.
Objective 3: Strengthening child
protection system at District,
VDCs and community level to
prevent and respond to abuse,
exploitation and violence.
Result 1
School developed Child
Protection Policy and
implemented it.
Result 2
Child Protection structure
strengthened and able to respond
Result 3
CC and CPCs strengthened and
continued there activities in

Working area for SEGP



Child Club








































Pokhara Sub-











Sarangkot VDC









Bhalam VDC









Vyas municipality










Dulaigauda VDC









Jamune, VDC









Chang VDC









Ghasikuwa VDC



















Details of Children Benefitted
























































































































Profile of Partner NGOs

Team Organizing Local Institution (TOLI) is a non governmental/non profit making organization registered in DAO Kaski in July, 1993 under the association registration Act 2034 and affiliated with SWC and NGO's Federation of Nepal. With the inspiration from restoration of democracy in Nepal followed by Government of Nepal (GON) eight plan policy, this organization was born to implement development projects as a supplementary organization of GON. Since TOLI is professional organization, one of the major silent features of it lies on advocacy without any prejudice. However the stepping stone of TOLI's activity was intervention in children, women and natural resource management sectors.

The Value of TOLI is "Participatory approach" through institutional development of the grass root level organizations, whereas the empowerment of the children, women and disadvantaged group through capacity building on holistic right based approach is its thrust. The socio-economic development & justice of needy children, women and disadvantaged group is the commitment.

Participation of target groups in the process of decision-making, implementation, evaluation and sharing benefits of project is the approach with financial transparency and accountability.

Strategy of TOLI

Empowerment of the children, women and disadvantaged groups with fulfilling overall process to achieve projects' goal is the short-term strategy.

Issues / Area of TOLI

Natural resources Management and Environment

Child Protection (Child Sexual Abuse and violence and Exploitation)

Women empowerment

Intuitional Development

Income and Skill Development

Social Capacity Building

The organization has been working in association with the following networks:

Social Welfare Council

NGO Federation

NGOCC, Kaski, Tanahun

District Child Welfare Committee, Kaski, Tanahun

Nepal Parma culture Group

Civil Society Development Council, Kaski

District Education Network, Kaski

District Agriculture Network

Civil Society Network for Peace

Vision, Mission, Goal and Objective of the Organization


An equitable, prosperous and inclusiveness through democratic governance.

(Equal wages, free from sexual harassment, reciprocal access and control over the resources, positive attitude and behavior, enhanced decision making capacity, equal

participation in development activities, freedom to speak, free from

all forms of

discriminations against caste, class, gender and disability. Financially self-sufficient, safer mother and child health, enhanced leadership capability, well managed natural and human resources, adequate provision of technical and skill oriented education)


To mainstream participatory gender and social inclusive society.

To ensure right based approach in development plans and programs.

To institutionalize capacity enhancement at all levels.

To establish and implement rule of law.

To reduce risks through preparedness, mitigation and adaptation.


Poverty reduction and good governance at the local level


To restore livelihood condition of the deprived and underprivileged population of urban and rural areas.

To manage natural and human resources for the productive and gainful employment.

To institutionalize the capacity enhancement of the local institutions at the regional, disctrict and VDC level.

To advocate for sustainable development and justice society.

To strengthen partnership with the government, donor, INGOs, civil society and local communities.

To institutionalize and enhance the knowledge management in rural and urban development sector.

Core values of the organization

1. Transparency

Financial transactions and reports of the organization will be maintained with transparency. Stakeholders will be informed timely about important agendas and decisions that influence the organizational life.

2. Participatory It is expected the active participation of all stakeholders in organizational activities. Moreover, the important decisions will be taken through participatory method.

3. Information sharing & Knowledge management. Organizational activities will be disseminated to the stakeholders' time to time using appropriate mean of communication.

4. Accountability Each and every members, executive board and staffs are would have responsibility according to their designation.

5. Partnership The organization can adopt partnership policy to run projects and programs when needed.

6. Cost effectiveness The organization will give emphasis over its professional efficiency to carrying out activities. It will also keep serious consideration on time factor.

7. Sustainability

8. Gender & Social inclusion.

Analysis of target groups and working area

Target group: socio economically underprivileged & deprived population with major focus on Women, Children, Dalit, Janajati and poor people

Selection criteria:




Physically Accessible

Willingness for the participation

Lack of healthy living opportunity in terms of physical and mental well being

Lack of opportunity in quality education

Inadequate number of organizations working in this field.

Facing hindrance in socialization process

b. Women, dalit, janajati and poor people

Socially/economically back warded

Unorganized, uneducated and lower standard of awareness

Lack of alternative knowledge and skills to improve quality of life

Lack of access to natural resources

Working Area:

Currently working in Kaski and Tanahun district

According to the need/demand and availability of resources the working areas could be extended.

TOLI Organogram of the ( SEGP ) Project

TOLI Organogram of the ( SEGP ) Project 60

ANNEX 6 Program Scheduled for the Evaluation of safer environment for girls in Kaski and Tanahun

Day-1 Saturday 17 Dec 2011

for girls in Kaski and Tanahun Day-1 Saturday 17 Dec 2011 Time Activity Remarks 12:40 Departure





Departure to Pokhara via Buddha air


Day 2 Sunday 18 Dec 2011 Kaski




10:00- 10:30

Shared plan with TOLI Program Co-ordinator and finalized the schedule



Meeting with women and children service center ( Chandra Gurung )


12:00-1:00 pm

Meeting with women and children officer Purna Shrestha , and child right officer Bharat Raj Baral


2:00- 3:00pm

Meeting with DEO focal person , Ramesh Raj Poudel ,

joint secretary

3:00- 3:30

Travelling to Gagangouda school



Meeting with school Teachers at Gagangouda higher secondary school



4.30- 5:30

Meeting with children club at Patneri ( Chetana Samudayik Bal Samuha )


5:30- 6:00

Meeting with Parents at Patneri village ward no 1 Lekhnath Municiplaity


Day 3 Monday 19 Dec 2011 Kaski district





Meeting with Guru Prasad Subedi, LDO, Kaski Pokhara



Meeting with Ms Bhagwati Pahari, Private Advocate

Treasurer Bar

1:30- 2:00

Meeting with Shiva Bdr Ranabhat, District Government Attorney


2:30- onwards

Due to Banda worked at hotel


Day 4 Tuesday 20 Dec 2011 Tanahun,




8:00 9:30am

Travel to Tanahun


10:30- 11:30

Meeting with Shree Panchamuni bal samuha at school

Dulegaunda VDC,

11:30 -12:00

Meeting with Shree Panchamuni school teachers

Dulegaunda VDC,

12:00- 12:30

Travel to Damauli



Meeting with DEO and team


13:30- 2:30

Travel to Farakchaur



Meeting with Shree Barahi HSS, Adarsha Balclub



municipality -4


Meeting with Teachers , Shree Barahi HSS Farakchaur

Vyas municipality -4

Day 5 Wednesday 21 Dec 2011 Tanahun




8:00- 9.30

Travel to Damauli


10:00- 11.30

Meeting with CRO in Damauli



Meeting with Women and children office supervisor






Meeting with DDC- program officer , social desk



Travel to Pokhara


Day 6 Thursday 22 Dec 2011






Breakfast and travel to Toli office



Discussion with Toli team


12:00- 12:30




Travel to Malepatan-4 Pokhara


1:00-2:00 pm

Discussion with shree Barahi HSS children club


2:00- 3:00

Discussion with shree Barahi HSS, school teachers


3:00 -3:15

Back to TOLI office


3:30 - 4:30

Continue discussion with TOLI staff


4:30 - 5:30 pm

Discussion with Executive board

Most of the members were out of station

Day-7 Friday 23 Dec 2011




8:00 9:30

Prepared for debriefing summary of field


10 :00 -11:00

Debriefing to TOLI team



Departure to Kathmandu via Buddha air


ANNEX 7 List of the Participants met in the SEGP Evaluation , Kaski and Tanahun

Children club at Patneri -1 Lekhnath municipality ( Chetana Samudayik bal Samuha )


Name of Children Participants






Rohit Sunar





Krishna Sunar





Min Sunar





Arbin Sunar





Sudip Sunar





Sangita Sunar





Sabita Adhikari





Anjana Adhikari





Mira Adhikari




Shree Panchamuni HSS Children club at Dulegaunda VDC, Damauli



Name of Children Participants






Krishna Gurung





Sagar Rokaya





Manoj Gurung





Dammar Gurung





Roshan Khad





Surya Gahatraj





Bidros Gurung





Suman Pun





Rasmita Shrestha





Ashmita Sunar





Kusum BK





Nirmala Sunar





Sabina Khatun





Jenisha Sunar





Sunita Sunar





Sangita Bk





Sushila sigdel





Pratima Sapkota





Sarmila shrestha





Punam BK