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4, APRIL 1987


Multiple Scattering of EM Waves by Dielectric Spheres Located in the Near Field of a Source of Radiation
A .

Abstract-An analysis of multiple scattering of electromagnetic @M) waves by two loss-free dielectric sphms with radii greater than a wavelength and located in the bear fidd of a source of radiation is presented. The incident field i expressed in terms of spherical vector s wave functions (SywF). Translational and rotational addiiion theorems are employed to express the SVWF of the inddent fktdin the coordinate system associated with the dielectric scatterer. Numerical computations are performed for obtaining the amplitude and phase patterns of fields multiply scattered by two loss-free dielectric spheres, whose centers are l ctd on tbe boresight axis and in the warfield of an open-ended oa e circular eylindrid waveguide excited in its dominant mode. Numerically computed resolis show good agreement with measured results obtained from a systematicexperirnentdstudy on forward scatter performedin the X-band.

I. INTRODUCTION HEPROBLEM OF electromagneticscattering by two conducting spheres placed veryclose t each other due to o incidence of a uniform plane wave has been studied analytically and experimentally Bruning and La [11, [23. Further, by electromagnetic (EM) scattering by a single dielectric sphere excited by an aperture antenna has been studied eariler [8]. However, no published analytical and experimental work is availableintheopen literature on the morecomplicated problem of multiple scattering of EM waves by two loss-free dielectric spheres having radii great& than one wavelength with anarbitrary distance of separation between the two due to radiation from aperture type of source located close to the spheres. This problem is of importance,whenwewant to (b) study influence the of one dielectric object on the EM Fig. 1. (a)Dielectricsphereslocated in the near field of the source. (b) Dominant mode circularwaveguideilluminatingdielectricspheres with scattering behavior of another dielectric object illuminated by their centers lying on the axis of the waveguide. a nearby aperture source. In this paper, we present a detailed analytical, computational, experimental and study on the abovementioned problem, when the dielectric spheres are when r is held constant. For the sake of notational simplicity we consider only two dielectric spheres (Fig. 1). In our located in the near field of an aperture source. analysis, the dielectric constants of the two loss-free dielectric I.ANALYSIS I spheres, and their radii are assumed to be identical, without anyloss of generality. The analysis requires only a trivial We consider the two dielectric spheres to be located in the sphere is near-field of an aperture or any other type of source of EM change, if the dielectric constant and/or radius of one Werent from that of the other. Further, in our analysis, we radiation which could expanded interms of spherical vector be wave functions (SVWF) [3]. Such an expansion ensures the consider the boresight axis of the source of radiation to be oriented in anarbitrary direction, and it does not pass through near or far fields of the incident illumination to possess e* the centers of thetwo dielectric spheres. However, inorder to type of spatial dependence over the B = a constant surface, avoid the problem of mounting two dielectric spheres in the Manuscript received May 14, 1985; revised February 5, 1986. experimental set up as well as tedious computations, only a T h e authors are with the Electromagnetics and Antennas Group, Centre for Systems and Devices, Indian ht t of Technology, Madras 600 036, India. simple aperture type of antenna with its axis passing through tu i e IEEE Log Number 8613194. the centers of both the dielectric spheres is considered in our


0018-926X/87/0400-0399!$01 O 1987 IEEE .OO


measurement and computational efforts reported in Sections II and l of this paper, respectively. I V The analysis presented here, with a little additional effort, could be extended to treat multiple scatteringby three or more dielectricsphereswhen the centers of all thespheres are aligned on a straight line. The coordinate system employed in our analysis is illustrated inFig. 1. The incident field radiated the source in the by x" - y " - z" - 0" system is givenby

which means translation of origin 0' to the location 0 along the the z' axis, the azimuthal index m of the spherical modes is unaltered. Therefore, for the sake of notational convenience, in our analysis, we consider only fields (incident or scattered or total) with azimuthal index . This implies that we m drop the suffix m as well as the summation over azimuthal indexm the in the steps to follow. We define the spherical-mode coefficients of the incident field with azimuthal index m by

Ai, =Fmn Bh = Gmn and .



u = l p=

Wedefinecoefficientsof the sphericalmodes of thefield scattered by the I sphere with azimuthal indexm in the x - y - z - 0 coordinate system by


e " , 4/91.


We follow the ejwrtime convention throughout. In order to facilitate applicationof the boundary conditions, we apply the translational and rotational additional theorems withview to Similarly, coefficientsof the spherical modesof the field a express E', H i appearing in (1) and in terms of x - y - z scattered by the II sphere with azimuthal indexm in the x' (2) - 0 system of coordinates [4], [5]: y ' - z' - 0 ' coordinate system are

. n

n=l m=-n


e, d l + ~ , , ~ ! 3 8, 411 r,




The mth azimuthal harmonic component of the total field (which is the vector sum of the incident field and the fields I scattered by spheres I and I) referred to the x - y - z - 0 system at any point of observation outside the sphere with minimum diameter which encloses the source antenna is

ET =

(AinM:n +&nN&) +

2 (asonMon-t- bsonNon)


(AsonMin +BsonN&),

for r>ro for r<ro


E?do=C (QonMo":,$. bdonN:A),








C(p,u/m, n) and 0 1u/m, n) are known constants [4], [5]. 0, Mo: and No: are defined by (12) (13). and Simplified expressions for F,, and G,,, more suitable for computation, have been presented in [ ] 7. If the center of each dielectric sphere is located on the axis of a circular waveguide,which is also the z-axis of the coordinate system employed for the pattern analysis, the number of azimuthal harmonics (viz number of ejmQ the terms m) while summing up overthe azimuthal index in the scattered field will be the same as those contained in the incident field E', H i radiated by the circular cylindrical waveguide (CCWG). Further, when the sphericalmodes of thefield scattered by the II sphere in the x' - y' - z' - 0' system are expressed in termsof x - y - z - 0 coordinates (Fig. l),

M& = f i o n jn(kr) l a N,",= iion - - (rj,(kr)) kr ar



40 1



P; (COS e)
sin 8



(COS ) e




One can also write expressionssimilar to (10) to (19) for the mth azimuthal harmonic component of the total field, viz., ~dOIn~~(~drO)=~~~n(~rO)+~sOn~n(k~O)+~so~n E?,, Er;lldOl, y f andH?Idolreferred to thex' - y' - z' H (34) - 0 ' system at any point of observation outside the sphere with minimum diarileter which encloses the sourse antenna. bdO~najn(kd~O)=B~ajn(kro)+Bso,ajn(kro)+bso~,ah~ (In this case, E', H i given by (1) and (2) should be expressed (35) in terms of SVWF's in the x' - y' - z' - 0' system performing a suitable translation and rotation of the x" - y " Y d a d o ~ . a j , ( k d r O ) = ( A ~ a j , ( k r ~ ) + A , ~ , a j , ( k r ~ ) + a ~ ~ ' - z " - 0" coordinate system.) ah (kro)) o (36) y There are eight boundary conditions which mustbe satisfied by the components of the total field. Y d d ~ f ~ j ~= (B,bj,(kro)+Bsonjn(kr0) (br~) 1) When the field vectors are referred to the x - y - z + bsod;(kro))yo (37) 0 system: E ~ + E s w + E s o , O = E d ~r=ro at (20) where

- ;

Ei+Es,+Eso,,=Edw at r=ro

(21) (22) (23)




Hi+Hsoe+HsoIO=Hdosr=ro at H~+Hsw+Hsol,=HdOQ at r=ro


&on =


(Bpso, + A pso,)


where E i refers to the incident field, EsM, Esw the field scattered by theI sphere andE,, I 0, ESo the field scattered by the II sphere. (ii) when the field vectors are referred to the x' - y' - z' - 0 ' system:

ELI +Eswl+ E s o f 0= E d o r 0 ' , , ELt +Eso6, +Eso,+' E d o , , , , =

at r=ro at r=ro at r=ro at r=ro.

(24) (25) (26) (27)

Hi/ +Hs,!



H ; , +Ifsw, + H s o I += H d o t 4 / , l

Application of the eight boundary conditions (20)-(27), for each azimuthal haimonic of the total field, leads to a set of , linear simultaneous equations in eight N, unknowns, where N, is the maximum number of spherical modes required to , express.the rnth azimuthal harmonic component of the total field accurately. These simultaneous equations are given by boundary conditions imposed at surface of sphere I:

and A ; B;, and C, are as defined in [11. , Analysisof the fields scattered by the spheres described above be will different from that presented earlier for scattering of plane waves by two conducting spheres [13, [2]. For dielectric spheres, there is a need to consider fields inside each dielectric sphere which imply four additional unknown modal coefficientsto be determinedfor each value ofn and rn. In the case of conductingspheres, only fields scattered outside the sphere need be analyzed [ 13, [2]. Further, application of boundary conditions for scattering by dielectric spheres is more involved than those necessary for two conducting spheres.

I I NUMERICAL I. COMPUTATIONS In the numericalcomputationsperformedwe consider a dominantmodeopen-ended circular cylindrical waveguide, whose boresight axis passes through thecenter of the two lossfree dielectric spheres of indentical radii and relative permit-

bd~najn(kdr~)=Binajn(kr~) +bsonahfi(kro)

0 (Fig. 1) along the z-axis. The spherical modal coefficientsof the incident field (Apu Bpu)in (1) and (2) are computed and +Bso'najn(kro)(29) numerically from the available closed-form expressions for the far fields of a dominant mode open-endedCCWG [6, eq. (1 l), Ydad~najn(kdr~)=(Ainaj,(kr~)+aso,ah~(kro) p. 3371. The unknown spherical modal coeffkients associated +Aso'najn(kro)) (30) with the two dielectric spheres are numericallycomputedwith N, spherical modes for each m( + 1 or - 1) and solving a set , Ydbdonjn(kdro) (BiJn(kro)+ bsod2,(kro> = ofsimultaneous equations in eight Nmx unknowns.These + Bso' d k r o ) )yo (3 1) simultaneous equations expressed in matrix form are given by

- 1

. .



A = 3

2 N x 2N

A4= null matrix of order 2 N x 2N

Fig. 2. (a)Open-endedcircularcylindricalwaveguidepositioned in front of twoplexiglassdielectricspherescoveredwithexpandedpolysterene support. @) P r l disassembled view of open-ended circular cylindrical aty waveguide plexiglass and dielectric spheres covered expanded with polysterene.

A X = B where
A = 6


0 1



A 7


O 0

0 0 hi

* - a

. . . . . .

0 0

. . .

0 0 0

... . -.. . .
*.. . *.. . . . .

00 0 0

. . *.. 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 - Q ... 0

0 0

* - *

hn 2


As = null matrix of order 2N X 2N A9 = identical j form to A3 with Aj and Bj elements n corresponding to translation coefficients from 0 to 0 A = null matrix of order 2N x 2N All = A1
A2 1


= A2

A I 3 = identical in form to A7 with Aj and Bj elements



' ,

'.i .' _____ ............. _......




Fig. 3. (a) E-plane amplitude pattern (far field). (5) E-plane phase pattern (far field). (c) H-plane amplitude pattern (far field). (d) H-plane phase pattern (far field).

AI4 = A,j = A16 =

corresponding to translation coefficients from 0 to 0' null matrix of order 2 N X 2 N A S Ag.

Intheabovesubmatrices j i , d j i , hi, dhi (i = 1, 2) are the spherical Bessel and Hankel functions with argumentkro, and j i d , d j i d are the spherical Bessel functions with argument k d r o . In the first set of numerical computations performed diameter of the aperture of the CCWG is 2.4 cm. FurtherEd = ( E / E ~ ) ~ . ~ = 3.4; ro = ri = 3.2cm; dl = lRol = 6.4cm; d = 9.6 cm;f = 9.358 GHz and, = m. The Gaussian elimination u method with pivoting strategy is employed for matrix inversion. While expanding the incident field in terms of spherical six were into modes (with m = f l), only modes taken accountin the numerical calculation (viz., n = 1-6). While expanding the fieldscattered by each dielectric sphere in terms of spherical modes (with m = k 1) only four spherical modes (viz., N m = 4) were considered. Justification for this is that

no significant difference between the computed results on the total field (amplitude and phase) was noticed when computations performed were with Nmax 3 and N, = 4 as = , illustrated in Figs. 3(a)-3(d). In the second set of numerical computations performed, ro = ri = 6.4 cm. dl = lRol = 9.6 cm and d = 16.0 cm. A l l other parameters remain the same as in the first case. Total far-field patterns obtained in the second set of computations are shown in Figs. 4(a) and 4(b).

IV. EXPENMENTAL STUDY With a view to validate the analyticalandcomputational 1 studies described in Sections 1 and 111, anexperimentwas conducted on multiplescattering of EM waves radiateci froma dominant mode open ended CCWG by two dielectric spheres located close to the waveguideaperture. The dielectric spheres were fabricated out of plexiglass (Ed = 3.4) to the required precision. The center of the two dielectric spheres were located on the axis of symmetry of the CCWG. The diameter andpermittivity of thetwo dielectric spheres, distance of

. ... .~
















(b) Fig. 4. (a)Amplitudepattern (far field). (b) Phasepattern (far field).

. circular

separationbetween these two spheres, a p e m e diameter ofthe waveguide excited in the dominantmodeand its distance of separation from the first dielectric sphere were identical to what was assumed in the numerical computations described in Section III of this paper. The dielectric spheres were positioned in front of the open-ended waveguide with a supportmade up ofexpanded polystyrene whose relative permittivity at the operating frequency is very nearly unity. This support was carefully designed to realize accurate alignment of the centers of the two dielectric spheres with the axis of symmetry of the CCWG. A photograph of the waveguide dielectric spheres assembly employed in our experimental study is shown in Fig. 2(a). Fig. 2 0 ) shows a photograph ofthe half-disassembled view ofh radiator along te with the dielectric scatterers. The return loss at the input port of the open-ended waveguide illuminating the two dielectric spheres was measured with a sweep oscillator (HP Model 8620C mainframe and HP Model 86245A plug in) accompanied by a frequency response test set (HF' Model 87558) and found to be 18 dB at 9.358 GHz. open-ended The waveguide dielectric sphere

assembly was mounted on an azig~uth positioner (SA Model 51050A-22-18) accompanied by a position control unit (SA Model 4111). The far-field gmplitude and phasepatterns were measured inside aq anechoic chamber with a phase amplitude receiver (SA Model 1782, two-channel programmable microwave receiver) accompanied by a pattern recorder (SA Model 1581-02-07). The measured amplitude and phasepatterns we shown in Figs. 3(a)-3(d). Only the forward scattered field was measured i the experiment & conducted. mechanical The positioning arrangement employed for illuminating the dielectric spheres was such that there was considerable blockage of theincidentilluminationon the sphereinand around the backscaqered direction whichprecluded the possibility of measuring scattered field in this direction with reasonable accuracy. Measurement of the amplitude and phase of the total farfield radiated for the second set of computations made (Section m)could, not be conducted. The reson for this is that, in the second case, with an appreciable (approximately sixteenfold) increase in the weight of the scatterers, positioning two dielectric spheres in front of the CCWG witha cantilever



application to spherical scanning, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. AP-33, no. 3, pp. 350-354, Mar. 1985. [4] S. Stein, Additiontheorems for sphericalwave functions, Quart. Appl. Math., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 15-24, 1961. 151 0. R. Cruzan, Translational additiontheorems for sphericalvector wave functions, Quart. Appl. Math., vol. 20, pp. 33-40, 1962. 161 S. Silver, Microwave Antenna Theory and Design. New York: Dover, 1965, ch. 10. [7]P. F. Wacker, Non-planarnear-fieldmeasurements:Spherical scanning, Nat. Bur. Stand., Washington DC, NBSIR75-80, June 1975. [8] W. F. Crosswell, J. S. Chatterjee, V. B. Mason, and C. T. T i a, Radiation from a homogeneous sphere mounted on awaveguide aperture, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. AP-23, no. 5, pp. 647-656, Sept. 1975.

support constructed with of block a fragile and brittle expanded polystyrene (Fig. 2(a)) is not possible.

In the formula employed for expressing the far field of the open endedCCWG [6], the effects of edgediffractionhave not been included, which is pronounced in the E-plane. Alternatively one could obtain the spherical modesof the incident field from the carefully and accurately measured threedimensional pattern of the open-ended CCWG. Oncethis factor is taken into account, better agreementbetweenthe calculated and measured results is possible. The analysis presented and the computations performed, in M. S. Narasimhan (M71-SM78), for a photograph and biography please spite of the approximations made, are clearly validated by the see page 778 of the June 1986 issue of this TRANSACTIONS. good agreement between the calculated and measured results Dresented.

J. H. Bruningand Y . T. Lo, Multiple scattering ofEMwavesby spheres: Part I-Multipole expansion and ray-opticalsolutions, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. AP-19, no. 3, pp.378-390,May 1971. -,Multiple scattering of EM by waves spheres: Part JI Numerical and experimentalresults, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., vol. AP-19, no. 3, pp. 391-400, May 1971. M. S. Narasimhan, S. Christopher, and K. Varadarangan, Modal behaviorofsphericalwavesfroma source of EM radiationwith

S Ravishankar was born in Trichy, India, on April . 26, 1956. He received the B.E. degree (Hons.) in electronics engineering from the Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani (Raj) India, in 1978 andtheM.Tech degree in microwave and radar engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India, in 1980. Since July 1980 he been with the Electromaghas netics and Antennas Group, Centre for Systems and 1 Devices, Indian 2 Institute Technology, of Madras, India, where he is working towardthe Ph.D. degree in near-field electromagnetics.