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Instructions for MBA 2nd year students: GITAM [Period: 1/8 9/82012] Course : Sales and Distribution Management

t Evaluation: 5-1 Ordinal Scale

Schedule, day-wise plan is enclosed. Details (2/8 9/8/2012) will be sent shortly to you all. For 1/8/2012 only (Details) Detailed, team-wise, group-wise (Time-wise) planning has been done for you all (Enclosed) From 2/8 upto 9/8/2012, both days inclusive, all 12 teams in each group will be expected to: i) ii) Pre-decide and choose your own sub-topics (Team-wise) within the given day-wise conceptual framework. Deliberation time: 10 minutes per group + 5 minutes for debate 15 minutes (1512 = 180 = 3 hours) + Time for common deliberations: 30 minutes. Time plan: Total = 3 hours/group. iii) iv) Intensive in-team and across-team logical deliberations will help you all to open up: A basis for developing much-needed self-confidence. All deliberations should combine conceptual aspects. (Say 9 Modules for Motivation one Module per team). Relevance to Management Marketing Management Sales Management Achieve firms clearly defined objectives Generate planned revenues regularly

Satisfy buyers/ users + (Customer satisfaction and retention).

Corporate Social Responsibility

Purpose: 1. Complete course by 9/8/2012 2. Get into self-learning mode via: Few basic lectures Given back-up notes Role Playing Case Studies Intensive, team-wise debate and deliberations.

3. Gain self-confidence 4. Improve your audio-visual presentation competencies i.e. soft skills My assumption You (all) are here to learn, gain knowledge and confidence and make a long-term, rewarding career for yourself.

Session Nos. 1 Dates and Days 1/8/2012 (Wednesday) 2/8/2012 (Thursday) Approximate Time 9 AM 7PM (One hour lunch break in between) 9 AM 7 PM (One hour lunch break in between) Conceptual aspects Role Playing: ABN (P) Ltd. Sales Force Optimisation: 7 variables: Relative impact of 6 Ps on Marketing and Sales Management: 4 caselets Motivation: BTZ case Pedagogy By 12 team / group Remarks Sent on 17/7/2012

Audio-visual presentations (12 teams/group. Notes, cases Discuss it team-wise Discuss, team-wise Discuss, Team-wise 12 team/group to be circulated in

3/8/2012 (Friday) 4/8/2012 (Saturday) 5/8/2012 (Sunday) 6/8/2012 (Monday) 7/8/2012 (Tuesday)

9 AM 7 PM (One hour lunch in between) 9 AM 7 PM (One hour lunch in between) 9 AM 7 PM (One hour lunch in between) 9 AM 7 PM (One hour lunch in between) 9 AM 7 PM (One hour lunch in between)

Control: RAC case

Guidance: ADL case

advance Case to be forwarded.

8/8/2012 (Wednesday)

9 AM 7 PM (One hour lunch in between)

Role Playing: Automatic Injection Moulding Machines Channel Management: Including internal Conflict Management: Product-service specification: Case: Consumer Perishable and Non-durable items. Leadership and Innovation: Its impact on quality Sales Management: ITC case study

12 team/group

- Level-V Leadership by HBS - Michigan Survey Research Centre: Corporate Planning Module - Igor Ansoffs :Product market mix Discuss, debate how ITCs Management went about: Use relevant conceptual inputs.

Phase-2: For students Session Nos. 9 Dates and Days 9/8/2012 (Thursday) Approximate Time 9 AM 7 PM Conceptual aspects Wholistic problem solving and decision making: Its impact on Sales and Marketing Management: - Differences between Sales and Marketing Management - Intra and inter departmental LACK of coordination, communication and cohesion: PROCESS - Production orientation vs. Super Ordinate Goal concept - Top Managements lack of coordination amongst: * Long term qualitative Goals (Mission and Vision) * Clearly defined usually short term quantified achievable targets * Lack of appreciation of SWOT: Lack of clarity for assessment of available Strengths and Weaknesses: [Constraints and limitations] * Lack of detailed Corporate Strategy to Marketing Strategy to Sales Strategy * Lack of relevant organizational structure and needed sales-service structure to achieve: i) Customer satisfaction ii) Achievement of Corporate Objectives iii) Application of much needed Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) iv) Neglect of Change Management Case: Integrated case study on MBIL. Pedagogy Wholistic appreciation by students. Cumulative impact on Sales Management. 12 team/group presentation on topics to be pre-decided by different teams (12) in each of the two groups. Remarks

Phase-3: If called for For Faculty Session Nos. 10 Dates and Days 10/8/2012 (Friday) Approximate Time 9 AM 4 PM (One hour lunch in between) Conceptual aspects Faculty level, team-wise discussion, debate and finalise why and how ITC conceptually, as a whole, had been successful in the last few decades in India [Indicators: Present sales turnover Rs. 31,000 crores: 13 divisions 1984-85: Total sales turnover Rs. 2000 crores: 2 divisions Pedagogy Team-wise discussion, debate and finalization. Remarks Team-wise, Faculty will be encouraged to use and implement, by using this case study, the following: - Problem Solving Approach (PSA) of Harvard Business School - Michigan Survey Research Centre: Corporate Planning Module: Concept of Gap Analysis - Igor Ansoffs Product market mix module.

SESSION-1 (1st August, 2012: Wednesday)

Instructions for ROLE PLAYING for all students, who are expected to function in teams of roughly 10 students per team.

For every group of 120 students, there will be 12 teams.


A GENERAL FORMAT ON SALES AND MARKETING MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS, AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF MANAGEMENT [Paradigm common for Role Plays] Management, alongwith its 12 step approach, goes through, for any function, all these 12 steps. Briefly, these are as follows: Step-1: Step-2: Step-3: Step-4: Setting of Goals: Mission and Vision Setting of clearly defined Objectives within the Goal definition. Identification of constraints and limitations, at a point of time. Generation of all feasible alternatives for solving problems, achieving objectives, and, finally, reach pre-defined long term qualitative Mission and Vision (Goals). Using a tabular format for comparison, each relevant alternative is analysed, based on cost and benefit aspects. This is known as cost-benefit analysis (CBA). Reach an optimum decision Detailed plan for implementation. Develop and organize and/or restructuring of an existing organization. Ensure, through Motivation, Control and Guidance (MCG), optimum utilization of Human Resource in different types of Organisation cultures. Go in for test market approach, if called for Go in for planned commercial launching Develop Management Information System, to ensure planned feedback, follow-up and replanning.


Step-6: Step-7: Step-8: Step-9:

Step-10: Step-11: Step-12:

As a natural follow-up, Annual Business Plan (ABP) of any organization has to be worked out. Based on the ABP, the steps will be as follows: Prepare Annual Marketing Plan (AMP) Annual Sales Plan (ASP: This will be a combination of existing sales objectives (Refer: Cell1 of Igor Ansoffs Product market mix as well as, as and when called for, Cell-2 (Product development) and Cell-3 (Market development). Depending on the scenario and overall PESTLE (Political, Economic, Social-cultural, Technological, Legal and Environment), all the above will vary and may even include planned concentric diversification and/or even nonconcentric diversification (Cell-4)

Annual Business Plan (ABP) This is a mother document for any organized activity.

Based on researched data, past experience, future prospective requirements (Potential forecasting) and a firms available competencies, ABP is prepared, taking into account concepts like SWOT, segmentation-targetting- positioning (S-T-P), Corporate Planning Module, Igor Ansoffs productmarket mix and similar time-tested theories, guidelines. It is a road map on how to go, where to go. Annual Sales Plan (ASP) This, as an integral part of ABP and Annual Marketing Plan (AMP) is built up by using available potential approach (Route-1) and/or workload approach (Route-2). Route-1 [Top-down estimation] There are, say, 1000 prospects In short run (One year) 500 can be converted (Theoretically) to buying population (Customers)A plan. A-B-C analysis shows: At a point of time A (Bulk buyers) : 50 parties Probable responses Annual purchase probability = 100 units/party 50 20 Total 10050=5,000 = 5,000 = 7,000

B (Medium buyers) C (Small, scattered buyer population)

: :

100 parties 350

Total probable = 17,000 demand at a point of time Route-2: Grass route level Workload approach [Bottoms Up Planning] (MBO approach) Say One sales person can call on 10 parties every day i.e. 3,000 calls/year of 300 working days. Conversion of prospects = 50% i.e. 1,500 effective call equivalent needed to reach target. (Balance: Cold Calls) Break-up of ABC analysis [Actuals possible] i) A (Total: 50: Relevant 25: Probable response rate per call X1 units Probable sales/year = 25X1200 calls = 5,000 X1 Units B Category (Total: 100) Actual response from: 50 = 50X2400 calls


Rate of response/call= X2 (Lesser than X1) iii) C Category: Total: 350 Actual response from: 200 Response rate/call: X3 (X3 minimum) One year

= 20,000 X2 units = 200X3900 calls = 1,80,000 units per year.


500 prospects (Out of 1,000 prospects) are relevant: 275 actual number of customers PRACTICALLY POSSIBLE One salesman to make 10300=3,000 calls per year A-B-C analysis: A: 50 (Relevant: 25) Probable sales = 25X1*200 = 5,000 X1 units B: 100 (Relevant: 50) Probable sales = 50X2400 calls = 20,000 X2 units C : Total: 350 Actual No.of customers 200 Probable sales = 200X3900 calls = 1,80,000 X3 units [Total effective calls = 1,500]

Probable sales from one sales person (Per year) (Theoretically, 1,500 effective calls out of 3,000 calls will ensure actual conversion to purchase). = 5,000 X1 + (200 calls) 20,000 X2 + (400 calls] 1,80,000 X3 [900 calls) = (X1 = Probable sales per call: A category) (X2 = Probable sales per call : B category) (X3 = Probable, very low sales per call from C category)

X units/year : Sales [1,500 effective calls]

OUTPUT FROM THE ABOVE TWO ROUTE ESTIMATIONS Via planning: Arrive at issues like

1. Which segments (A,B,C all or none or parts) to emphasise? Why 2. Response rates (X1, X2, X3) per call to be quantified, for each target segment. 3. Will R.R. (Response Rates) vary between: - Maintenance calls (Existing buyers) - Developmental calls (New prospect conversion) To quantify response rates, separately for maintenance and developmental calls. 4. How many sales persons are needed to cover A,B,C categories to reach per year?

Very practical

A category: B category C category

Practical conversion probability [Relevant buying population] 25 big pargies 50 medium parties 200 parties very small, scattered customers.

5. Based on practical number of effective calls per year (Consider travelling time, waiting time, actual contact time AND a minimum of needed planning and administrative time), work out: 5.1 5.2 5.3 Number of sales, service persons needed, based on allocated sales targets (Sales calls and response rates) Their selling, distribution (S&D) expenses. Workload allocation, on sales type prospect type principle i.e.: Who will service bulk buyers? Who will coordinate with Distribution Channel Members? Rest: Optimum utilization of available sales resource.

6. At senior level Coordination with Internal: Marketing team. Also Logistics Market Research activities/ other researches, if an any


Ads & Publicity


Sales Promotion

Competitive data

& Execution Annual Sales Plan (ASP), therefore, is a basis for Sales Management Team (S.M.T.) for: -

Planning (Short term, mid-term and sometimes long term) specific, quantified, achievable sales targets in pre-defined geographical areas, targetted at clearly focussed buyer-user segments (With available product-service mix), subject to known 6 Ps (Product, price and terms, place i.e. methods of distribution, promotional mix, process, people), not forgetting present competition. Organising: Determine area-specific, individual sales targets, with proper sales type (Deliverer, order taker, order getter, missionary type, technical and, finally, solution vendor) and fit with relevant product-service type i.e.: Consumer products Perishable Non-durable Durable [Emphasis here is on extensive promotion and distribution] Industrial Standard Fabricated Capital plant and equipment.

[More focus on person-firm-level personal relationship] (Intangible) Services General Tailor-made [Total problem solving mentality]


Periodic audit of norms for sales-service achievement and solve all internal problems of coordination-communication-cohesion amongst: * * * * Local (Branch level) sales, service personnel Regional/district level sales, service personnel State level personnel And All directions from central head office, which also can be de-centralised..

Performance norms (Time based), sales-service person-wise will have to be fixed depending on factors like, say: Business cycle Seasonal demand Tastes preferences [Say, tea types: ABN case] Local competition Local social-cultural norms Geographical size i.e. scatter of buyers, users, population density, available local wholesalers distributors dealers retailers stockists agents even upto Pan shops [i.e. length, width, density of channels] Most important: Available trained sales-service personnel (Number, personality profiles, education, experience, willingness to excel etc.). Even compensation norms(Salary, perquisites, incentives) will be related to actual sales, service standards. For any function, including Sales-Service Management, selection-training (From time to time often on the job), all types of Hand holding (Spot direction), deployment (Sales vs. personality profile fit) are all critical to bring out quality performance from all employees, who need to be motivated from time to time. Number, types of people and their Working climate have to be created. Train them, deploy them for suitable activities.



One important norm is: Compensation: It can be a combination of: Direct salary: High, medium, low as per prevailing industry norms Perquisites Meet timely on-the-job expenses for travelling, boarding, lodging and all other miscellaneous expenses (Say for entertainment of customers, look after local Contact people, keep happy indirect distribution channel members and the like).

Most important of all: Performance related (Achievement) rewards (Or even punishments for non-performance as in enclosed ABN (Pvt.) Ltd. case study).

Using Frederick Herzbergs two-factor theory, both hygiene and non-hygiene factors need to be looked into, bring out the best from all employees. For any function, at any level, leadership innovation and willing To change with changing environment, all, cumulatively play an important part to ensure employee level motivation-control(Often self) guidance. Internal Process (P5): - Simultaneously, all other functional planning needs to be organized. These will be for: Production, Planning and Control (PPC) Human Resource Management (HRM) Research and Development process (R&D) Financial planning and control, including all costing Materials Management plans and programmes Logistics: Both internal and external Any other back-up functions, if called for, can also be organized, for, say, planning and implementation for all services including Utility functions.

In other words, any efficient and effective organization will have to ensure all internal coordination, communication and cohesion so as to: Satisfy customers and convert prospects to customers, maintain customers Ensure firm-level objective achievement. (Refer: Michigan Survey Research Centres 8 point criteria). Plus: Corporate Social Responsibility (C.S.R.)

We are going to use ABN (P) Ltd. case study, for detailed analysis in so far as re-launching of the RR brand is concerned, for this case study alone. Necessary Steps will be as follows: Step-1: Using Market Research Techniques of assessment and/or forecasting, work out the existing market demand in the city of Kolkata and also the future relevant potential. For these, both past, present and future possible trends need to be assessed on aspects like: Price sensitivity Tastes and preferences for specific urban tea drinking segments. Others like competition

Step-2: Using the concept of geographical coverage and usage propensity, it has been decided that 16 out of 28 Zones, in the city of Kolkata, will be very relevant for: Very interested in RR brand Medium interested Low interested Not interested at all (These sub-segment, for the time being, can be ignored).

Using the above, for this case study alone, the following have been pre-decided, i.e.: Three existing wholesellers Thousand relevant dealers, out of 1718 total number of dealers, for servicing 16 chosen subsegments (Zones), of probable tea drinkers (Darjeeling type of flavor). Here, theoretically, 6 million families of probable RR type of tea drinkers have been assessed to exist, out of a total of 12 million households, in Kolkata city, of all types of tea drinkers.

Concept of S-T-P has been utilized here. Step-3: Internally within the organization, only available three senior sales personnel (Product Managers), besides the Group Product Manager will be involved. Also, five existing sales persons will also be involved. V.P. too can be involved (Total: 10 persons) Step-4: Sitting in SMs chair and using basic principles of Time and territory management, how will you / your team like to re-focus your sales teams cumulative energies to achieve your given team target of, say, having 10% of related market share? In absence of Hard data, present your : Overall strategy (Conceptual) Process, step by step (Operational) Logic for your decision. Assumptions are permitted. Hint: The conceptual steps, needed to be used, should first be highlighted. For example, is it necessary to assess? Quantification of demand, potential for RR/similar tea brands? [Relevant need, want?] Present competitive inroads, Extent of buyer, dealers satisfaction or dissatisfaction with other tea brands? How to reposition RR in buyers minds?

How to go about ? Broad steps :- Can be: Markets demand and future potential needs to be known, based on both past, present and future possible trends (For this case, price sensitivity, tastes and preferences for specific urban tea drinking segments etc.) [How?] Geographical coverage and usage propensity needs to be known / assessed. For example, out of 28 Zones, which zones may be :Very interested in RR brand (For this case study) Medium interested. Low interested Not interested at all (Ignore for the time being). [Question: How to test this concept?]

Obviously, along with quantitative (Most probable requirements) needs (RR / similar brands), qualitative expectations should also be identified ie : Package/Container shape, size (Design), colour, type of printing needed Availability near, say, buyers doorstep (This will mean local level dealer, retailer relationship) Awareness creation (Is sampling necessary ?) [Question: Will three current bulk wholesellers alone be sufficient to cater to all relevant retailers?] Fixation of first year (1998-1999) level, achievable business target for RR (For this case) in Kolkata say for 1998-1999 period, to start with. [Basis for fixation] Since current awareness level is low, as also Image of the firm as a steady and regular packed tea supplier, considerable internal Belt tightening measures, like the following (To mention only a few) need to be taken and implemented :Macro level awareness creation via TV, special types of advertising, may be via publicity also (Costs too need to be assessed first and budgetted). Micro level contacts in pre defined, say, 16 zones (Out of 28 grand total) in Kolkata for, say, 1,000 contacts via :Present wholesalers and their much needed rejuvenation or, if nothing else works, elimination over a period of time. Local level dealers and retailers to be personally contacted by all eight Sales personnel : Specific contact targets need to be given, though bulk wholesellers/some sales personnel (Who may have an axe to grind) may not like too much this type of attempt to re-organise/totally revamp direct sales/supplies, like in the case of soft drink sales team, all of whom are given specific monthly targets. Besides fixing commissions and incentives (To be pre-decided for A-B-C levels separately vis a vis present competitive norms, which must be known), specific local targets also need to be fixed, as also their internal needs for sales promotion, free sampling and merchandising. At a later stage, lucky draws, coupons and the like can also be organised, all aimed at recreating buyer level interest and keep it flying. [Now: Are all the above possible for a loss making division?] Every sales person will be given specific :Monthly targets to be achieved via all the ten officials (Say two zones/officer), who will be given specific : * Sales targets (Including for V.P.: Bulk buying houses?) * Monthly S & D (Selling & Distribution) budgets. * Daily/weekly/monthly actual sales contact norms, to be supervised by the three senior MBA type officers (Who too have to justify their Expensive presence) plus handle two direct zones per head every month. [A suggestion only] * Quick Problem solving measures need to be taken on a war footing. For example, depending on the zone, responsibility for daily replenishment of stocks will be allotted to specific sales person. If anything goes wrong for daily supplies, he/she will be held responsible by SM directly. * Obviously, all monetary collections will be every sales officials responsibility. Specific target(s) has to be given for every time period.

Debate on the following statements: For allotted zones and all efforts needed to service local dealers, retailers, every sales person will be held fully responsible and accountable, including taking action for any needed problem solving measure. In general, as a broad rule of thumb, 60 to 80% of time of each sales person has to be out in the market / allotted zones, which, if called for, may even be circulated / rotated amongst the sales personnel, to measure relative sales efficiencies. Besides dealer level special incentives, incentives for Extra ordinary (To be pre defined) performance by sales personnel will also have to be designed and implemented regularly. Complacency has to give way to active participation. For laggards, who refuse to be trained and perform, removal may be mutually beneficial even if they fail to perform after vigorous retraining. Only a few Measures have been suggested. Participants may like to come out with other suggestions and how these can be implemented by the management within prefixed time and cost measures. A basic question: Within one year, are all these re-organizational attempts actually possible, especially at the field level? Debate and state your views.

Guidelines: team-wise for role playing 1. One or two teams (10 or 20 people) will sit on one side of few tables, which have to be centrally located in the middle of the Seminar Room. This will form the Decision Making Unit (DMU) team i.e. a combination of Techno-Commercial personnel of any organization (ABN or otherwise), who will be sub-divided as follows, with chest markings [Example: Team-1: Initiators]. INITIATORS: Based on detailed internal discussions, the Initiators will be pre-selected, who MAY feel the need for change over from existing brand/supplier to a new brand/supplier (R&D, Marketing, Finance people etc.) INFLUENCERS: Few people will be involved here. Depending on the product/service to be bought and utilized, and the magnitude of purchase (Quantity, quality, price, any others like credit terms, need for before-during-after sales service etc.), the number and types of Influencers will vary. Students will be expected to decide on the number as well as Personality Profile (P.P.) of the Influencers, who may be from Marketing, R&D, Finance, Maintenance etc. BUYERS: Few people (Size and P.P.types to be decided by the students) will be involved in this Materials Management function. They will be primarily concerned with Technical, Commercial, Service requirements to be provided by the supplier organization.(Balance technical and commercial issues). DECIDERS: Depending on the Organisation Culture, the number of P.P. will vary. Normally, these people, depending on the size and types of organization, can be designated as General Managers, Factory Managers, Regional Managers, Divisional Managers or even higher. ACTUAL USERS They will be the operational people, who will be buying and using the concerned product/service. This people will be mainly involved with aspects like product specifications, quantities to be delivered at a time, delivery schedules, before-during-after sales service etc. These people are normally concerned with functional aspects and not necessarily price, credit terms etc., except for individual or family level types of purchases-usage. Gate Keepers: Depending on the Organisation Culture, the number and types of P.P. will vary. For example: In many family-oriented organizations, these people can be traditional and culture based personnel, who may not like to changes at all!! These people will pose a major obstacle to new suppliers and new types of products and services.

The above team(s) will form the Integrated Buying Team, who have to decide in advance, issues like: What are their Goals and Objectives? What are their specific constraints / limitations? [Assume wherever relevant] What are available feasible alternatives of suppliers/brands? In advance: Prepare, preferably in a tabular format, the list of purchase criteria and their relative ranking/weightages. Based on the above tabular format, analyse each and every supplier on specific issues, which have to be pre-decided by the Buying Team BEFORE they invite the suppliers to make their presentations, one by one. They will also decide on the time of presentation and may even terminate suppliers, who are not Upto their expectations. Guideline-2: Sales Teams:

There will be at least 6 sales teams, who have to present their Unique Selling Proposition (UPS), one by one over a maximum period of 20 minutes each, if not lesser. Each Sales Team, say Term No.-3, will consist of 10 people, who will come in together and make their cumulative sales presentation. In advance, detailed preparation is called for regarding who and how, in each sales team, will be concerned with the following steps of the selling process: How did they organize Prospecting and Lead generation? (Sub-team of Team No.3: An example) How did they organize, internally, their pre-presentation approach? Which aspects of the 6 Ps will be emphasized and why? Who will handle the OBJECTIONS, which can be for: Technical issues Commercial issues Service-related issues Organisation specific issues Any others?

Sales presentations: Who will organize these? How may times? In each presentation, what will be presentation exposure and why? Who will Close the sales? For this specific case, what will be their pre-planned Terms of closures? Any others like, say, getting the contract, advance payments etc?

Follow-up, feedback and replanning: In Team No.3, for example, who will be concerned with the aspects of MIS i.e. Marketing Information System? How will they organize their achievements? Advance pre-planning is absolutely critical before the actual sales presentation(s) is organized. PPTs etc. can be organized, as and when needed.

To sum-up so far: Two teams (Maximum of 20 people) will form the Buying Team (Decision Making Unit teams) Six teams will organize their sales presentations, one by one (610 students) In addition: The balance four teams will be common denominators. Around the presenting and buying teams, separately, these team members (Say, Team Nos. 9, 10, 11 and 12) will sit separately and assess objectively each team member in their assigned Role. Each observing team (Team Nos. 9, 10,11 and 12) will prepare IN ADVANCE, their basis for evaluation, very clearly and presenting in a tabular format. Each of these teams (Separately) will evaluate, on pre-specified norms (You can use an Ordinal Sales of 5-1: Explained later) their team-wise basis for evaluation of performance. You can use: Average Weighted factor Or, Priority ranking Or, any other basis, to be pre-decided well in advance.

The above four teams (9,10,11 and 12) will be the Observation Teams. They have to give their observations, using PPTs, on: The Buying Teams (1 and 2) The six Selling Teams: All to be organized, team by team Even the decision(s) by the Buying Team can be questioned and debated.

An overall evaluation: Prof.(Dr.) P.K.Ghosh and Mr. Sankar Mukherjee, or any other available Faculty, will separately evaluate, on a pre-prepared tabular format, each of the above-mentioned: Two Buying Teams (DMU) 6 Presenting Teams Finally, the four Observation Teams.

In each participation, debate and logical discussions will be encouraged, only based on detailed prior planning and preparation, which MUST be team-specific (Concept: Team method of functional analysis and presentation). Good luck, Enclosed: ABN(P) Ltd. case study: Session-1 (1/8/2012)

Key: Ordinal Scale: 5: Excellent, 4: Very good, 3: Good, 2: So-so, 1: Not acceptable.

TIME PLANNING (Role Playing Exercise) An example of how Role Playing will be organized? [Basis: ABN case study] Step-1: Teams 1,2: DMU: To give a 10 minute (PPT) level of presentation to all concerned [To clarify ABNs managerial expectations clearly] Step-2: DMU on one side: Presenters on opposite side of the divider tables (Teams: 3,4,5,6,7,8) Observers will sit around the DMU teams (1,2) and presenters, separately, in a circular fashion (Teams 9, 10, 11, 12) [Separate observations analysis team level presentations of their team-specific opinions, views in a systematic, professional tabular format compare / contrast all the first 8 teams, one by one after all 6 presentations are over (6+2 teams). Step-3: Separately: Team-wise advance preparation is a MUST. First 10 minutes by DMU: General views.

6 presenting teams Record/present systematically say over 20 minutes/team + 10 minutes of debate and discussions (30 minutes 6 = 3 hours) DMU to decide and present their views (20 minutes maximum): After 6 presentations 4 Observers (10 minutes/team 4 = 40 minutes).

Step-4: Sum-up: (10 minutes) Dr. Ghosh, Mr. Sankar Mukherjee and any others. Overall views on TABULAR FORMAT: 12 TEAMS

5 points (Ordinal scale): 5-1 Ordinal Scale evaluation To the point * * * * * Approx time plan:

Decisions taken: Logic Quality of team specific advance preparation Quality of presentations [Body language + PICTURE principle] Logic and impact of decisions, views, opinions Quality of leadership and innovation. 260 minutes ( 5%) = 4 hours, 20 minutes/group

Per day

[2 Groups (122 teams) 8 hours, 40 minutes]

9 AM to 7 PM everyday (One hour break in-between for lunch).

LIST OF PROBABLE ISSUES Session-1: List of probable issues to be discussed, to be debated, decisions taken (Example: ABN case study)

Students in teams have to decide on their own which issues to be discussed, why and how, by whom? 1. DMU level They can delegate separately to 6 presenting teams (Who will do what?) 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 2. Six presenters: 2.1 2.2 2.3 ABP: Annual Business Plan AMP: Annual Marketing Plan Annual Sales Plan (ASP) Symptoms. Problem formulation. Problem identification. Setting objectives. Constraints / limitations. Activity plan: A tabular format. Specific decisions (Via C.B.A.).

Demand, potential (Kolkata) per year

Specific, annual sales target setting

Overall selling strategy i.e. how to go about?

How much quantity via Indirect distribution channels

Via 8 existing sales personnel

Path to achieve sales targets within available resources.

3 existing wholelsllers

Choose 1,000 dealers in 16 Zones

6 million relevant households

Channel Management and internal conflicts

Who will handle then?

How to motivate, control and guide them?


Work out: Sales budget Expenses for * Promotion * Distribution (+ S&D expenses)


How to interact with internal marketing team on which issues? Their functions? Decide Example: R&D Market Researches Any others?

3. Top Management: How to? (Wholistic) Plan Control Organise Direct/guide Compensate? (Via relevant staffing)

Students: Teamwise detailed planning is called for by every team, in advance, for every session similar to this type of planning (Contents to be forwarded via local Faculty).

Case study
ABN (P) Ltd : Loose tea versus packed tea from a very well known tea marketer. Preface : Path of least resistance is a natural human phenomenon. Given the choice, and relative freedom, any sales executive (Or for that matter any person) will prefer to service known customers / segments, where the vendor firm, its products / services are known and the sales person is known intimately and may be even at a personal level, where he can call All the shots and can even pressurise the decision makers to take, for example, more than their usual monthly supplies by Calling in old debts. However, for new products, new prospects and dealers, on the other hand, specially when competitive firms are already operating, the job of a sales person becomes much more difficult since he/she has to :Organise considerable energy investment to identify, in each prospective firm, dealer or both the specific decision making unit members (DMUs), who have to be contacted may be quite a few times before positive response can be expected via the AIDA route (Awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, decision, adoption). There are major possibilities of regular rejection, humiliation resulting in frustration. In many cases, especially for new product / service launch, or even relaunch. This case is all about relaunch of a fast moving consumer good. It is a very well-known, nicely flavoured 100% Darjeeling tea, whose brand name is RR, packed and promoted earlier in beautifully designed and printed tin cans, specially made for them by Metal Box Ltd with an eye also to the export market. A number of permutations and combinations may be relevant for this low level of market acceptance * * The manufacturing and/or marketing firm may not be too well known, vis vis existing suppliers [Firms image]. The product (Or service) may not be acceptable due to variety of intrinsic factors like (In this case):- Tea flavour or liquor or both - Type of packaging and its disposability - Price and dealer level terms - Distribution efficiency - Indifferent promotion via :* Advertising, * Publicity * Sales promotion * Personal selling and quality of sales personnel * Mix of the above. - And, most important of all, Quality and frequency of service, which may be a major differentiator amongst vendor firms. Low level of motivation of sales personnel, many of whom are traditional and refuse to change. The sales team may be too high handed and even obnoxious as per the dealers expectations (FMCG products need, usually, extensive and wide spread dealer/retail network, and they have to be Suitably managed, by marketers sales team).

* *

Dr.PKG, in the role of a researcher, had found many Evidence regarding propensity of many so called sales professionals (Many of whom have liberal education with MBAs from good management institutes) to sit in air conditioned offices, give long lectures in impeccable English language, plan and ponder in innumerable never ending internal meetings, with hardly any time to spare for those, who really count (For this case) ie 1,718 dealers and retailers in twenty eight separate Zones of Kolkata city. All these big medium, small and very small resellers stocked some types of loose and/or packed tea from many large or medium tea production firms. They, in turn, needed to service literally millions of tea buyers, all over the metropolis, on a daily basis. This case, therefore, deals with a fast-moving consumer item, which needs fast-paced, effective intensive distribution, backed by well-planned promotional inputs. Quality should be in tune with targetted buyer-user level expectations. For ABN (P) Ltd ,the newly appointed group product manager, a young man of 35 years with a MBA from a good management institute from Delhi (His parents were in Delhi) and related experience of nearly ten years in other FMCG manufacturing companies, was located at Kolkata in middle of 1997 at this quite well known firms head office. They owned a number of tea gardens in North of West Bengal. This new appointees name was Sanjeev Malhotra (SM). He was assisted by a few other sales professionals, all of them with MBA(s) from a variety of management institutes, ranging from IIM, Bangalore to IISW&BM, affiliated to University of Kolkata. SM reported to a Vice President (Marketing) Mr AKN, an old timer in this firm and not a MBA himself. The newest appointee, as an adviser, was MKN, who was earlier the managing director in a very well known IMFL marketing firm (Indian made foreign liquor) and a very well known marketer, who had risen from the ranks once again a non MBA. The sales set up was as follows:

ABN(Pvt) Ltd MKN, Adviser (60+ age) AKN, VP(Marketing) [58 years, B.A] * SM, Group product manager (MBA, 35 years)

Product managers

BM (32 years of age from IIM, Bangalore)

SKC (33 years age, from IISW&BM)

Ms SK (30 years of age and MBA from IISW&BM)

Retail sales officers (all non MBAs, highly experienced around 40-45 years of age) (3 persons : In charge of different parts of Kolkata) 5 sales persons He will soon retire. SM will be groomed, after few years, to be elevated to this position.

Above set up was only to look after sales of packed tea of different brand names. This case study is concerned only with a particular brand name RR, which had failed to click in the Kolkata market in early 80(s). This same tea was being relaunched in the same market, this time in 500 gm paper carton/composites, suitably printed, prior to commercial launch. Other sizes could also be considered, if market needs were properly identified. MKNs magic formula (Marketing wizard) Similar meetings had been held with a market researcher from a management consultancy company (XYZ Pvt Ltd). Her name was Ms PP, a 28 year old Honours Graduate with three years of field research experience. She had six field investigators under her supervision. These brief meetings (Three, one after another) were to identify why earlier this brand had failed in spite of the fact that product quality was indeed very high, especially targetted at those, who valued flavour over liquor and for whom price sensitivity was lower. An important possible causative factor for commercial failure, as suggested by the retail sales officers, who were expected to be nearest to the market, was usage of expensive tin containers, which were non disposable. Also, other brands, except those for export purposes, from firms like Tata Tea, Goodricke and several other tea marketing firms mainly used paper/composites at slightly lower prices. Back up advertising support was, however, much lesser from this traditional organisation as also was lack of free sampling. Both dealer level, and may be even consumer awareness, were lower as expressed by the highly practical adviser, who stressed that:

It was necessary to assess first how many dealers and retailers of any type of tea (Loose, packed, both) were physically present in 28 separate Zones of Kolkata (As per physical layout chalked out in a map). Relevant information on these centres had to be recorded. Out of these, how many stored their packed tea, specially RR or any other brand from their firm. Also, what other tea brands from other companies were stocked. Views and opinions of these channel members were to be solicited regarding :Their firms (ABN) total support system, as a whole, for the presently available market image of tea brand, especially RR, which had failed commercially All tea brands Any other complaints ?

At a point of time, market credibility of ABN also needed to be assessed. Interestingly, all old timers, except SM (A relative new comer) were fidgety regarding this intensive, firstever attempt at detailed market investigation, which was bound to come out with plenty of data (Subjective and otherwise), some of which may not be too palatable to the firms office based sales personnel. Mr MKN also insisted that, based on the market data to be generated, he would like the consultancy firm and others to work out: Zonewise: Concentration of ABC dealers and retailers and how much of packed tea each of this sub segments stored at a point of time and how much these channel members sold, say, every two weeks (Only packed tea) brandwise [available in standard reports by a leading research firm]? As stated earlier, record views and opinions of these channel members, specially regarding the RR brand (As compared to Similar other brands). Actual sales of their brands (Especially RR, which had been physically relaunched few months back in this city) every two weeks, during the last three months to assess impact, if any, due to seasonality or any other factors. Comparison with sales of other similar (Price range wise) brands from other tea marketing organisations.

Presently, this firm (Following their age old concept of bulk selling to agency houses) sold in bulk to three wholesellers in this city. A major job of each retail sales officer was to coordinate supplies to each of these big wholesellers and ensure that they had enough stocks, at any point of time, so that they could move packed tea to other local dealers and retailers in each of these pre defined 28 geographical zones. Few zones, due to price and taste factors, may not be ABNs Cup of tea, at that point of time. Mr MKN rightly felt that, for each similar tea brand, for this case study on RR, it will be interesting to compare, zonewise:Physical comparison of stock movement of RR/all similar brands (Say every two weeks) by each of their wholesellers, as compared to total movement of all similar packed tea brands.

Based on data (To be generated), for each zone, separate analysis can be done for :-

A class of retailers (Bulk) B class of retailers (Medium) C class of retailers (Small). From the above, MKN and SM will decide whether to organise supplies directly to each zone on their own (Like the soft drink manufacturers: Pepsi, Coca Cola etc) by using their own vehicles / or those taken on long term contract. Entire distribution system, if called for, can undergo a massive, much needed change, which will harp on all their sales people to be On their toes rather than be couped up in air conditioned offices and be involved with continuous internal, mostly non productive meetings. The entire structure may have to be revamped. Need for MIS :However, logical Steps have to be worked out, based on reliable, valid, consistent and substantial market information namely:Goals and objectives for Kolkata city need to be clearly worked out first. Specific zonewise targets, based on total demand now (For all similar brands). Constraints of the firm / RR brand may have to be targeted at specific user classes. Hence, specific zones may have to be selected for distribution. Cost benefit analysis ie : Direct supplies to few zones For others, via wholesellers.

Simultaneously, concepts (Like the following) have to be taken into consideration :Cost of a sales call (Bunch of calls for each pre specified zone for specific time periods) to organise :Direct supplies Or Supplies via wholesellers as at present Opportunity costs : For example, only if wholesalers are used, what are the ? * Costs (To the company and to the distributors) * Benefits to the local dealers, retailers, and also in quantitative (Sales) terms to the marketing firm (And consequent sales value, gross profits). [Suggest: cost benefit analysis is needed prior to decision making]. Study findings (From this six week old intensive assignment : End 1997 early 1998) 1,718 dealers and retailers in all were identified and interviewed in Kolkata. Zonewise details had been recorded (A-B-C analysis could be organised). Less than 50% of these reselling units stocked this companys any packed tea brand ! (An indicator of the relative current wholeseller level inefficiency and also lackadaisical approach of full time sales personnel). Direct sales teams efforts could now be quantified in terms of actual, much needed distribution coverage.

For RR brand, only 5% of the stores had stored this brand. Based on the earlier launch, some residual memory had been triggered in few cases during this 1997 end early 1998 study.

Quite a few shop owners stated that :Awful back-up service by this companys direct field sales personnel, especially for restocking purposes. They (Sales people) hardly took any interest ! Even old due cheques (For the company) were not collected ! In few cases, Ms PP was requested to collect these old cheques, on behalf of the company!! Merchandising was a relatively foreign concept to this particular company, which was still steeped in the monopolistic mode, even during 1997-98.

In subsequent meetings (After the survey), it also came to light that :Most of the sales persons time and energy were spent (by the existing sales personnel)on the existing wholesellers and pressurising them to stock as much as possible (Pressure technique). Very occasionally, other dealers and retailers were visited (Less than 10% in year) since they were expected to be serviced by the wholesalers !! No records or data were kept on actual time (And energy) utilised on real time sales contacts, waiting and travelling time and definitely not on related administrative time, which accounted for highest time spending. Very poor data on competition. Theoretical planning (And forecasting) was resorted to, based mainly on past historical data. Hardly any information were obtained and then maintained on :Changing tastes and preferences of ultimate tea buyers and users. What were their preferences and basis for brand choice ? How to influence their preferences ? Finally, what all to do to improve sales efficiency and effectiveness ?

Dilemma for SM : MKN wanted to re establish RR brand in Kolkata city within 1998-1999. Specific quantitative target too had been given to SM, a dynamic new comer, along with allowable budget for any type of sales promotion (How about the Vice President and his role?) Quality and cost wise, RR brand belonged to a top category. Where was the firm going wrong?

Questions Based on the case study ABN (P) Ltd, groupwise, students need to solve the issues mentioned below: 1. Why is relaunching necessary? Has it any connection with the Product Life Cycle (PLC) concept? If so, for which phase of PLC curve is this selling strategy relevant? Debate and discuss. 2. In this particular case, identify systematically the following: What are the Symptoms (Use SWOT concept) in this case? Using Brainstorming Sessions, identify all possible causative factors ie problems, which have contributed, cumulatively, to the above-mentioned Symptoms? Pinpoint the key causative factors (For example these can be): Poor distribution system (What should be the right one?) Poor promotion (AIDA concept) [what should be done? How?] Lack of market knowledge including those of competition In general, a lackadaisical attitude and casual Management approach Anything else?

(Using CBA technique, what will be your Description and prescription for this Sales Management problem? Be completely specific and kindly do not be vague). 3. How will you implement decisions taken by your group? (Use Activity Analysis)

Using all the above as a backdrop, conceptually, organise the following: What specific activities need to be taken by the Sales Management Team (SMT) for effective relaunching of RR brand? Using a matrix approach, activitywise, approximate time and cost estimate in greater Kolkata city for: All the 1,718 dealers Or, decide FIRST on your STP approach ie sales strategy [What may be the cost centres?] Finally, IF you had a free hand, what type of organisation structure you think will be effective? Present your logic.


Using activity analysis, groupwise, in a matrix format, approximate your selling and distribution expenses (S&D). Obviously, your own Sales Management approach will be basis for all resource planning.


[Use given case study]. Assume data logically

Selling & Distribution (S&D) expenses: A format for budgeting

Sr Nos Activities (List these) Selling expenses (Cost centres) Distribution Inventory Anything else? Total expenses (Rs./time period)