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EXAMINATION DETAILS
Course Code:
MATH2117
Course Description:
Engineering Mathematics C
Date of exam:
29/10/2008 Start time of exam: 1:45 PM Duration of exam: 2hr 15min
Total number of pages (incl. this cover sheet) 5

ALLOWABLE MATERIALS AND INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

1. Write your full name and student number on each examination booklet together with the number of examination
books used. Students must not write during reading time.
2. This is a LIMITED TEXT Exam.

An unannotated copy of Fitz-Gerald, G.F. (ed.), "TABLES", RMIT Lecture Notes in Mathematics, may be taken
into the examination room.
3. Commence each question on a new page. Carry out the instructions on the front cover of the examination script
book and the front of this exam paper.
4. Electronic and bilingual dictionaries are not allowed.
5. Battery powered non-text storing hand-held calculators may be taken into the examination room.
6. In any question, full marks will not be awarded unless sufficient working is shown.
7. Candidates should attempt all questions, and the total mark of all questions in this exam paper is 100.
8. This examination contributes 50% of the total assessment in MATH2117, the remaining 50% being allocated to
the class exercises (20%), class tests (15%) and Weblearn tests (15%).

MATH2117 Examination Semester 2, 2008
1. Let a = 2i + 3j 6k, b = 6i + 2j + 3k and c = i + j + k.
(a) Determine
(i) a b ;
(ii) a b ;
(iii) a b ;
(iv)

b ;
(v) a vector of length three units parallel to b.
(b) Find the value of for which a, b and c are coplanar.
(Hint: consider a scalar triple product.)
(c) Show that vector a is parallel to the plane 3x 4y z = 24 .
(d) Determine the parametric equation of the straight line which passes through
the point (1, 3, 2) and is parallel to vector b .
(e) Determine the point of intersection of the line found in (1d) with the plane
3x 4y z = 24 .
_ _
1 + 1 + 2 + 1
1
2
+ 1
_
+ 2
1
2
+ 1
1
2
+ 1
1
2
+ 2 = 14 marks

## 2. Use the tables, or otherwise, to evaluate:

(a)
_
1/2
0
arcsin x

1 x
2
dx;
(b)
_
x 4
x
2
4x + 13
dx;
(c)
_
dx
x

ln x
.
_
3 + 3 + 3 = 9 marks

Page 2 of 5
MATH2117 Examination Semester 2, 2008
3. (a) If z = 1 2i and w =

## 3 + i, without the use of a calculator, determine the

values of:
(i) w/z ;
(ii) |iz w| ;
(iii)

w
6

;
(iv) arg w
5
.
(b) Without using a calculator:
(i) Express z = 1

## 3 i in polar or exponential form;

(ii) Hence determine the square roots of 1

## 3 i , and represent them on the

same complex plane (Argand diagram).
(c) Solve the following equation for the complex variable z:
z 2 + i
z + 3i
=
z 2
z + 1 i
.
Express your answer in the form z = a + ib .
_
(1 + 1 + 1 + 1) + (2 + 4) + 4 = 14 marks

## 4. (a) Use the denitions of sinh x and cosh x to

(i) prove that cosh(2x) = cosh
2
x + sinh
2
x;
(ii) evaluate sinh(log 5) exactly, that is, without the use of a calculator.
(b) Find
dy
dx
when
(i) y(x) = arctan(4x) ;
(ii) y(x) = ln
_
cosh x 1
cosh x + 1
(c) Using logarithmic dierentiation, determine y

if y(x) = 5
x
e

x
.
_
(3 + 2) + (2 + 3) + 4 = 14 marks

Page 3 of 5
MATH2117 Examination Semester 2, 2008
5. (a) A curve has equation
3xy + y
3
= 5 .
(i) Find y

## at the point P (2, 1). Hence, nd the equation of the tangent to

the curve at point P.
(ii) Determine y

at point P.
(b) Use two iterations of Newtons method, with an initial guess of x
0
= 1 to nd
an approximation to the solution of
2x
3
+ x 2 = 0.
Newtons method for solving f(x) = 0 :
x
n+1
= x
n

f
_
x
n
_
f

_
x
n
_ for n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . .
(c) A ower vase is to be made in the shape of a right circular cylinder (open at
one end and closed at the other) with a volume V , radius r and height h. The
cost of construction is proportional to the total exterior surface area, S, of the
vase.
(i) Show that h =
V
r
2
.
(ii) Show that the exterior surface area is S = r
2
+
2V
r
.
(iii) Determine the dimensions r and h which minimise the construction cost.
_ _
2
1
2
+ 2
_
+ 4 +
_
1 + 1
1
2
+ 3
_
= 14 marks

## 6. The position of a moving particle at time t is given by

r(t) = cos(t)i + sin(t)j + cos(2t)k for t 0.
(a) What is the position of the particle at t =
1
2
.
(b) Find the velocity of the particle, r(t) .
(c) What is the speed of the particle at t =
1
2
?
(d) Write down an integral (do not evaluate the integral) which gives the distance
travelled by the particle between t = 0 and t =
1
4
.
_
1
1
2
+ 2 + 1
1
2
+ 2 = 7 marks

Page 4 of 5
MATH2117 Examination Semester 2, 2008
7. (a) Consider a nite region R, which is bounded by the lines y = 3x + 2, y = 2
and x = 1.
(i) Sketch the region R, and label all relevant points and lines.
(ii) Determine the volume of the solid generated by rotating the region R
about the line y = 1.
(b) Given I =
_
2
0
e
x
2
dx:
(i) Use a sketch of y(x) = e
x
2
on the interval [0, 2] to explain why
2e
4
I 2 ;
(ii) Use Simpsons rule with four strips to estimate the integral I, given
x 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
e
x
2
1.000 0.7788 0.3679 0.1054 0.0183
Simpsons rule: S
n
=
h
3
_
y
0
+ 4
_
y
1
+ y
3
+
_
+ 2
_
y
2
+ y
4
+
_
+ y
n
_
_
(2 + 5) +
_
2
1
2
+ 4
1
2
_
= 14 marks

8. (a) If z =
cos
r
2
, nd
z
r
and
z

## , and verify that

r
_
r
2
z
r
_
+
1
sin

_
sin
z

_
= 0.
(b) The volume of a frustrum of a cone is V =
1
3
h
_
a
2
+ab+b
2
_
, where a and b are
the radii of its ends, and h is its height. If the radius of each end is increased
by 3% and the height is decreased by 2%, nd the approximate percentage
change in the volume.
(c) Evaluate the double integral,
__
R
(2xy + 1) dxdy ,
where R is the region bounded by the graphs of y = x
2
and y = 2 x.
_
5 + 4 + 5 = 14 marks

## e. September 24, 2008 Page 5 of 5

MATH2117 Exam Solutions
Semester 2, 2008
QUESTION 1
(a) Given a = (2, 3, 6), b = (6, 2, 3) and
c = (1, , 1).
(i) Calculating a b:
a b = (2, 3, 6) (6, 2, 3)
= (2 + 6, 3 2, 6 3)
= (8, 1, 9)
= 8i + j 9k
(ii) Calculating a b:
a b = (2, 3, 6) (6, 2, 3)
= 12 + 6 18
= 24
(iii) Calculating a b:
a b
=

i j k
2 3 6
6 2 3

= i

3 6
2 3

2 6
6 3

+ k

2 3
6 2

=
_
9 (12)
_
i
_
6 36
_
j +
_
4 (18)
_
k
= 21i + 30j + 22k
(iv) Calculating

b:

b =
b
|b|
=
6i + 2j + 3k
_
(6)
2
+ 2
2
+ 3
2
=
6i + 2j + 3k

36 + 4 + 9
=
1
7
(6i + 2j + 3k)
(v) Calculating 3

b:
3

b =
3b
|b|
=
3
7
(6i + 2j + 3k)
(b) Vectors a, b and c are coplanar if a b c = 0 :
a b c =

2 3 6
6 2 3
1 1

= 2

2 3
1

6 3
1 1

+ (6)

6 2
1

## = 2(2 3) 3(6 3) 6(6 2)

= 4 6 + 27 + 36 + 12
= 43 + 30
Setting a b c = 0 gives
30 = 43 = 43/30
(c) Vector a is parallel to the plane 3x4yz = 24 if
a and the normal to the plane n satisfy a n = 0 .
Here n = (3, 4, 1), then
a n = (2, 3, 6) (3, 4, 1)
= 6 12 + 6
= 0
(d) Since the line is parallel to vector b, then let the
direction of the line, = b. Thus, vector equa-
tion of the line is
r(t) = (1, 3, 2) + t(6, 2, 3) for t
Parametric equations form:
x = 1 6t
y = 3 + 2t
z = 2 + 3t
_

_
for t
(e) Let the intersection point be (x
0
, y
0
, z
0
) at t = t
0
,
and that this point satises both the equation of
the line:
(x
0
, y
0
, z
0
) = (1 6t
0
, 3 + 2t
0
, 2 + 3t
0
)
and the plane:
3x
0
4y
0
z
0
= 24 .
Equating the above equations to nd t
0
:
24 = 3x
0
4y
0
z
0
= 3(1 6t
0
) 4(3 + 2t
0
) (2 + 3t
0
)
= 3 18t
0
12 8t
0
2 3t
0
= 29t
0
11
29t
0
= 35
t
0
= 35/29
Hence, the plane and line do intersect, and the
intersection point is
(x
0
, y
0
, z
0
) =
_
1 + 210/29, 3 70/29, 2 105/29
_
=
_
239/29, 17/29, 47/29
_
=
1
29
_
239, 17, 47
_
QUESTION 2
(a) u-substitution Technique:
From the tables, we know that
_
dx

a
2
x
2
= arcsin(x/a) + c ,
where c is an arbitrary constant. Thus for a = 1:
_
dx

1 x
2
= arcsin x + c .
Let u(x) = arcsin x, then du =
1

1x
2
dx. When
x = 0, u = arcsin(0) = 0 and when x =
1
2
, u =
arcsin(1/2) = /6, then
_
1/2
0
arcsin x

1 x
2
dx =
_
/6
0
udx
=
_
u
2
2
_
u=/6
u=0
=
1
2
_

2
/36 0
_
=

2
72
(b) Noting that
x
2
4x + 13 = (x 2)
2
+ 9,
then the integrand can be rewritten as
x 4
x
2
4x + 13
=
(x 2) 2
(x 2)
2
+ 9
=
x 2
(x 2)
2
+ 9

2
(x 2)
2
+ 9
.
Let u(x) = x 2 and du = dx, then
_
x 4
x
2
4x + 13
dx
=
_
(x 2) dx
(x 2)
2
+ 9

_
2 dx
(x 2)
2
+ 9
=
_
u
u
2
+ 9
du
_
2 du
u
2
+ 9
=
1
2
_
2u
u
2
+ 9
du
2
3
_
3 du
u
2
+ 9
=
1
2
ln

u
2
+ 9

2
3
arctan(u/3) + c
= ln
_
u
2
+ 9
2
3
arctan(u/3) + c
= ln
_
(x 2)
2
+ 9
2
3
arctan
_
x 2
3
_
+ c
= ln
_
x
2
4x + 13
2
3
arctan
_
x 2
3
_
+ c ,
where c is an arbitrary constant.
(c) u-substitution Technique:
Let u(x) = ln x and du = (1/x) dx , then
_
dx
x

ln x
=
_
du

u
=
_
u
1/2
du
= 2

u + c
= 2

ln x + c ,
where c is an arbitrary constant.
QUESTION 3
(a) Given z = 1 2i and w =

3 + i.
(i) Calculating w/z :
w
z
=
w
z

z
z
=
w z
|z|
2
=
_
3 i
_
(1 + 2i)
1 + (2)
2
=

3 i + 2

3i 2i
2
1 + 4
=
_
2 +

3
_
+ i
_
2

3 1
_
5
=
2 +

3
5
+
_
2

3 1
5
_
i
(ii) Calculating |iz w|:
|iz w| =

i(1 2i) (

3 + i)

i 2i
2

3 i

= 2

3 since 2 >

3
(iii) Calculating

w
6

w
6

= |w|
6
= 2
6
= 64
(iv) Calculating arg w
5
:
arg w
5
= 5 arg w
= 5 arctan
_
1

3
_
= 5 /6
= 5/6
(b) (i) Expressing z = 1

3 i in polar/exponential
form:
= arctan
_
1

3
_
= /6
r =
_
1 + (

3)
2
= 2
z = 2cis (/6)
= 2e
i/6
(ii) Detemining the square root of z = 1

3 i:
z = 2e
i/6
, 2e
i(/6+2)
= 2e
i/6
, 2e
11i/6

z =

2e
i/12
,

2e
11i/12
x
y
z
1
z
2

12
11
12

2
(c) Solving
z 2 + i
z + 3i
=
z 2
z + 1 i
for z:
(z 2 + i)(z + 1 i) = (z 2)(z + 3i)
z(z + 1 i) 2(z + 1 i) + i(z + 1 i)
= z(z + 3i) 2(z + 3i)
z
2
+ z iz 2z 2 + 2i + iz + i i
2
= z
2
+ 3iz 2z 6i
z
2
z 1 + 3i = z
2
+ 3iz 2z 6i
3iz + z 1 + 9i = 0
(1 3i)z (1 9i) = 0
Hence,
z =
1 9i
1 3i
=
1 9i
1 3i

1 + 3i
1 + 3i
=
(1 9i)(1 + 3i)
1 + 9
=
1 + 3i 9i(1 + 3i)
10
=
1 + 3i 9i 27i
2
10
=
14 3i
5
QUESTION 4
(a) Denition of sinhx and cosh x :
sinhx =
e
x
e
x
2
and cosh x =
e
x
+ e
x
2
.
(i) Using denition of cosh x:
cosh(2x) =
e
2x
+ e
2x
2
=
_
e
x
+ e
x
_
2
2
2
= 2
_
e
x
+ e
x
2
_
2
1
=
_
e
x
+ e
x
2
_
2
+
_
e
x
+ e
x
2
_
2
1
= cosh
2
x +
_
e
x
+ e
x
_
2
4
4
= cosh
2
x +
e
2x
+ 2e
x
e
x
+ e
2x
4
4
= cosh
2
x +
e
2x
2 + e
2x
4
= cosh
2
x +
_
e
x
e
x
_
2
4
= cosh
2
x +
_
e
x
e
x
2
_
2
= cosh
2
x + sinh
2
x
(ii) Evaluating sinh(log 5):
sinhx =
e
x
e
x
2
sinh(log 5) =
e
log 5
e
log 5
2
=
e
log 5
e
log(1/5)
2
=
5
1
5
2
=
25 1
10
=
24
10
= 2.4
(b) (i) method 1:
If y(x) = arctan(4x), then tan y = 4x and
d
dx
tan y =
d
dx
(4x)

_
d
dy
tan y
_
dy
dx
= 4
sec
2
y
dy
dx
= 4

dy
dx
= 4 cos
2
y
Since tan y = 4x, then cos y =
1

1+16x
2
,
hence
dy
dx
=
d
dx
arctan(4x) =
4
1 + 16x
2
.
method 2:
From the tables:
_
dx
a
2
+ x
2
=
1
a
arctan(x/a) + c,
where c is an arbitrary constant and a = 0 is
a constant. Dierentiating above expression
with to x:
a
a
2
+ x
2
=
d
dx
arctan(x/a)
Thus, for a =
1
4
:
d
dx
arctan(4x) =
1
4
1
16
+ x
2
=
4
1 + 16x
2
.
(ii) Expanding y(x) = ln
_
cosh x1
cosh x+1
yields
y(x) = ln
_
cosh x 1
cosh x + 1
= ln
_
cosh x 1
cosh x + 1
_
1/2
=
1
2
ln
_
cosh x 1
cosh x + 1
_
=
1
2
ln
_
cosh x 1
_

1
2
ln
_
cosh x + 1
_
Dierentiating the above expression with re-
spect to x:
dy
dx
=
d
dx
_
1
2
ln
_
cosh x 1
_

1
2
ln
_
cosh x + 1
_
_
=
sinhx
2(cosh x 1)

sinhx
2(cosh x + 1)
=
sinhx
2
_
1
cosh x 1

1
cosh x + 1
_
=
sinhx
2
_
(cosh x + 1) (cosh x 1)
(cosh x 1)(cosh x + 1)
_
=
sinhx
2
_
2
cosh
2
x 1
_
=
sinhx
cosh
2
x 1
=
sinh x
sinh
2
x
=
1
sinhx
= csch x
(c) If y(x) = 5
x
e

x
, then
log y = log
_
5
x
e

x
_
= log
_
5
x
_
+ log
_
e

x
_
= xlog 5 +

x
Dierentiating above relation both sides with re-
spect to x provides
d
dx
log y =
d
dx
_
xlog 5 +

x
_

_
d
dy
log y
_
dy
dx
= log 5 +
1
2
x
1/2

1
y
dy
dx
= log 5 +
1
2

dy
dx
= y
_
log 5 +
1
2

x
_
= 5
x
e

x
_
log 5 +
1
2

x
_
provided x > 0.
QUESTION 5
(a) Equation of the curve: 3xy + y
3
= 5.
(i) Dierentiating both sides of the equation
with respect to x:
d
dx
_
3xy + y
3
_
=
d
dx
(5)
3y
d
dx
(x) + 3x
d
dx
(y) +
d
dy
_
y
3
_
dy
dx
= 0
3y + 3xy

+ 3y
2
y

= 0
y +
_
x + y
2
_
y

= 0
At piont P(2, 1):
1 +
_
2 + 1
2
_
y

P
= 0
y

P
= 1
Tangent line:
y
tangent
= mx + c
= y

P
x + c
The curve and tangent line meet at point
P(2, 1) as well:
1 = (1)(2) + c c = 3
Hence, y
tangent
= x + 3.
(ii) From (5a)(i), we have
y +
_
x + y
2
_
y

= 0.
Dierentiating above expression with re-
spect to x:
d
dx
_
y +
_
x + y
2
_
y

= 0
y

+
_
x + y
2
_
y

+
_
1 + 2yy

_
y

= 0

_
x + y
2
_
y

+ 2
_
1 + yy

_
y

= 0
At point P(2, 1), y

P
= 1, we have
_
2 + 1
2
_
y

P
+ 2
_
1 + (1)(1)
_
(1) = 0
y

P
+ 4 = 0
y

P
= 4
(b) Newtons method:
Let f(x) = 2x
3
+ x 2, then f

(x) = 6x
2
+ 1.
Thus,
x
n+1
= x
n

f(x
n
)
f

(x
n
)
= x
n

2x
3
n
+ x
n
2
6x
2
n
+ 1
=
x
n
(6x
2
n
+ 1) (2x
3
n
+ x
n
2)
6x
2
n
+ 1
=
6x
3
n
+ x
n
2x
3
n
x
n
+ 2
6x
2
n
+ 1
=
4x
3
n
+ 2
6x
2
n
+ 1
for n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .
Applying the above relations for two iterations
using x
0
= 1:
First iteration n = 0:
x
1
=
4x
3
0
+ 2
6x
2
0
+ 1
=
4(1
3
) + 2
6(1
2
) + 1
= 6/7
0.857143
Second iteration n = 1:
x
2
=
4x
3
1
+ 2
6x
2
1
+ 1
=
4
_
6
7
_
3
+ 2
6
_
6
7
_
2
+ 1
=
4
_
6
3
_
+ 2
_
7
3
_
6
_
6
2
_
(7) +
_
7
3
_
=
4(216) + 2(343)
(42)
_
36
_
+ 343
= 1550/1855
= 310/371
0.835580
(c) The ower vase is in the form of a right circular
cylinder with one end opened and closed at the
other end.
(i) The volume, V , of the ower vase is xed:
V = base area height = r
2
h
Hence, the height, h, of the ower vase is
h =
V
r
2
.
(ii) The exterior surface area, S, of the ower
vase consists of the base surface and side sur-
face:
S = base surface + side surface
= r
2
+ 2rh
= r
2
+ 2r
V
r
2
= r
2
+
2V
r
,
using the relation obtained in (5c)(i).
(iii) The construction cost, C, of the ower vase
is proportional to the surface area:
C = k
_
r
2
+ 2V/r
_
,
where k is a proportionality constant. Note
that C = C(r), then
dC
dr
=
d
dr
_
k
_
r
2
+ 2V/r
_
_
= k
_
2r
2V
r
2
_
Settinbg
dC
dr
= 0 to nd the critical values:
2r
2V
r
2
= 0
r
3
V = 0
r
3
= V/
r =
3
_
V/
Using the relation from (5c)(i) and above re-
lation r
3
V = 0 to nd h:
h =
V
r
2
=
V r
r
3
=
V r
V
= r
Dierentiating
dC
dr
= 0 with respect to r pro-
vides, and using r
3
= V/ privides
d
2
C
dr
2
= k
d
dr
_
2r
2V
r
2
_
= k
_
2 +
4V
r
3
_
= k
_
2 +
4V
V/
_
= 6 k
That is,
d
2
C
dr
2
> 0 for k > 0 (concave up),
hence the dimensions h = r =
3
_
V/ will
minimise the construction cost.
QUESTION 6
The position of a moving particle at time t is given by
r(t) = cos(t)i + sin(t)j + cos(2t)k for t 0.
(a) Position of the particle at time t = 1/2 :
r(1/2) = cos(/2)i + sin(/2)j + cos()k
= 0i + j + (1)k
= j k
(b) Velocity of the particle:
r(t) =
d
dt
_
cos(t)i + sin(t)j + cos(2t)k

## = sin(t)i + cos(t)j 2 sin(2t)k

(c) Speed of the particlr at t = 1/2 :
speed = | r(1/2)|
= | sin(/2)i + cos(/2)j 2 sin()k|
= |(1)i + (0)j 2(0)k|
= |i|
=
(d) Distance travelled by the particle between t = 0
and t = 1/4 :
distance travelled
=
_
t=1/4
t=0

dr/dt

du
=
_
1/4
0

## sin(t)i + cos(t)j 2 sin(2t)k

dt
=
_
1/4
0

_
sin
2
(t) + cos
2
(t) + 4 sin
2
(2t) dt
=
_
1/4
0
_
1 + 4 sin
2
(2t) dt
QUESTION 7
(a) (i) Sketch of Region R:
x
y
O
y = 3x + 2
y = 2
x = 1
|

2
3 1
2

(1,2)
(1,5)
R
r
outer
= (3x + 2) 1 = 3x + 1
r
inner
= 2 1 = 1
Volume of a disk (elemental volume):
V =
_
r
2
outer
r
2
inner
_
x
=
_
(3x + 1)
2
1
2
_
x
=
_
9x
2
+ 6x
_
x
Approximate volume:
V

all elements
V

all elements

_
9x
2
+ 6x
_
x
When using innite number of elements, or
as x 0, we have the exact volume:
V =
_
1
0

_
9x
2
+ 6x
_
dx
=
_
3x
3
+ 3x
2
_
x=1
x=0
=
_
(3 + 3) (0 + 0)
_
= 6 units
3
(b) Given I =
_
2
0
e
x
2
dx:
(i) The integrand e
x
2
is a decreasing function,
decreasing exponentially from y = e
0
= 1 at
x = 0 to y = e
2
2
= e
4
at x = 2.
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
x
y
y = 2e
4
y = e
x
2
y = 2
The area between the curve e
x
2
and the x-
axis between x = 0 and x = 2 is I, which
is obviously smaller than the rectangular re-
gion,
(x
2
x
1
) (y
2
y
1
) = (2 1)(1 0) = 2 ,
but larger than the rectangular region,
(x
2
x
1
)(y
2
y
1
) = (21)(e
4
0) = 2e
4
.
Hence, 2e
4
I 2.
(ii) Simpsons rule:
Here n = 4, h = 0.5 and
y
0
= 1,
y
1
= 0.7788,
y
2
= 0.3679,
y
3
= 0.1054,
y
4
= 0.0183.
The estimate of the integral I is
I =
h
3
_
y
0
+ 4(y
1
+ y
3
) + 2(y
2
+ y
4
)
_
=
1/2
3
_
1 + 4(0.7788 + 0.1054)
+ 2(0.3679 + 0.0183)
_
=
1
6
_
1 + 3.5368 + 0.7724
_
=
1
6
5.3092
= 0.8849
QUESTION 8
(a) Given z =
cos
r
2
, we have
z
r
=

r
cos
r
2
=
2 cos
r
3
z

cos
r
2
=
sin
r
2
Verifying

r
_
r
2
z
r
_
+
1
sin

_
sin
z

_
= 0
as follows:

r
_
r
2
z
r
_
+
1
sin

_
sin
z

_
=

r
_
2 cos
r
_
+
1
sin

_
sin
2

r
2
_
=
2 cos
r
2
+
1
sin
_
2 sin cos
r
2
_
=
2 cos
r
2

2 cos
r
2
= 0
(b) The volume of a frustum of a cone is
V (a, b, h) =
h
3
_
a
2
+ ab + b
2
_
,
where a and b are the radii of its ends, and h is
its height. Given that
a
a
=
b
b
= 0.03 ,
and
h
h
= 0.02 ,
the approximate change in the volume is
V
V
a
a +
V
b
b +
V
h
h

h
3
(2a + b)(0.03a) +
h
3
(a + 2b)(0.03b)
+

3
_
a
2
+ ab + b
2
_
(0.02h)

h
100
_
2a
2
+ ab
_
+
h
100
_
ab + 2b
2
_

2h
300
_
a
2
+ ab + b
2
_
=
h
100
_
2a
2
+ 2ab + 2b
2
_

2h
300
_
a
2
+ ab + b
2
_
=
2h
100
_
a
2
+ ab + b
2
_

2h
300
_
a
2
+ ab + b
2
_
=
2h
100
_
a
2
+ ab + b
2
__
1
1
3
_
=
4h
300
_
a
2
+ ab + b
2
_
=
4
100

h
3
_
a
2
+ ab + b
2
_
. .
=V
Hence,
V
V
=
4
100
= 4%,
that is, the volume increased by 4%.
(c) The graphs y = x
2
and y = 2 x intersect at
x
2
= 2 x
x
2
+ x 2 = 0
(x + 2)(x 1) = 0
x = 1, 2
Thus, the intersection points are (1, 1) and
(2, 4). It is easy to evaluate the double integral
by using vertical elements:
__
R
(2xy + 1) dxdy
=
_
1
2
_ _
2x
x
2
(2xy + 1) dy
_
dx
=
_
1
2
_
xy
2
+ y
_
y=2x
y=x
2
dx
=
_
1
2
_
_
x(2 x)
2
+ (2 x)
_

_
x(x
2
)
2
+ x
2
_
_
dx
=
_
1
2
_
x
_
4 4x + x
2
_
+ 2 x x
5
x
2
_
dx
=
_
1
2
_
4x 4x
2
+ x
3
+ 2 x x
5
x
2
_
dx
=
_
1
2
_
x
5
+ x
3
5x
2
+ 3x + 2

dx
=
_

x
6
6
+
x
4
4

5x
3
3
+
3x
2
2
+ 2x
_
x=1
x=2
=
_

1
6
+
1
4

5
3
+
3
2
+ 2
_

64
6
+
16
4
+
40
3
+ 6 4
_
= 23/12 104/12
= 27/4
= 6.75
c e MATH2117 Exam 2008s2 Soln.tex