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4.1 Introduction The Internet made its debut in India in 1998. The deployment at that time was made through Circuit Switch technology. The real Internet experience could not be achieved as it had limited speed besides erratic performance due to high loading of the Telecom Switches. To overcome these drawbacks, Digital Subscriber Line technology (DSL) technology was deployed. This could achieve partial improvement due to limited availability of Copper loops and distance limitations of 2 to 3 Kilometers. In early 2007, based on WiMAX 802.16.d, ten BTSs were installed in different cities of the country as a pilot project. The effective use of this technology could not be achieved as WiMAX 802.16.d was on Fixed application and did not support mobility.The real use of Internet began only in 2008 with the deployment of Mobile Wireless Broadband in BSNL. Detailed specifications were prepared based on 802.16.e standards with specific nation-wide deployment strategy. 4.2 What is WiMAX WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a wireless digital communications system, defined by the IEEE as the 802.16e standard. WiMAX, was developed to provide a common framework for wireless connectivity in fixed, portable, and mobile environments. It offers the high-speed connection of broadband and provides wireless access, significantly reducing deployment costs associated with laying fiber and extending it to buildings. With its range and open standards design, it will enable wireless access nearly anywhere, simply by turning on a laptop, PC, or other WiMAX enabled device. It also has the potential to bring high-speed access to areas that have, thus far, been uncovered due to a lack of Copper/Fibre. WiMAX can provide Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) up to 15 Km for fixed stations, 3 to 5 Kms for indoor applications and upto 1 Km for Mobile stations from BTS location. In contrast, the WiFi/802.11 wireless local area network standard is limited in most of the cases to only 100 - 300 feet(30-100m). Along with increased and scalable data capacity, these new networks will be capable of supporting new, open Internet models and new device distribution & subsidy models for flexibly accommodating operators business needs. With WiMAX, WiFi-like data rates are 41

easily supported, but the issue of interference is lessened. WiMAX operates on licensed frequencies, providing a regulated environment and viable economic model for wireless carriers. This unique technology is being deployed for the first time in India. Through this BSNL will usher in a new era of growth in rural areas. This technology offers broadband speeds upto 7 Mbps at a distance of 15 Kms. Mobility and roaming is also provided to WiMAX subscribers through this latest technology. 4.3 Applications of WiMAX technology WiMAX technology is the solution for many types of high-bandwidth applications at the same time across long distances and will enable service carriers to converge the all-IPbased network for triple-play services data, voice, and video. WiMAX with its QoS support, longer reach, and high data capacity is positioned for fixed broadband access applications in rural areas, particularly when distance is too large for DSL and cable, as well as in urban/suburban areas of developing countries. Among applications for residential are high speed Internet, Voice Over IP telephony and streaming video / online gaming with additional applications for enterprise such as Video conferencing and 4 Video surveillance, secured Virtual Private Network (with need for high security). WiMAX technology allows covering applications with media content requesting more bandwidth. WiMAX allows portable access applications, with incorporation in notebook computers and PDAs, allowing for urban areas and cities to become metro zones for portable outdoor broadband wireless access. As such WiMAX is the natural complement to mobile networks by offering higher bandwidth and to Wi-Fi networks by offering broadband connectivity in larger areas At the very basic level, WiMAX will offer the capacity for service providers to deploy next generation broadband services cost effectively than today, to a wider customer base, while adding a mobility aspect to those services. More specifically, however, WiMAX will provide a means for service providers to offer Quadruple Play services (voice, video, data, mobile), or Triple Play plus Mobile. Service providers that are able to, on their own, deliver all these services, will have a distinct advantage. So, with WiMAX, providers have the bandwidth and speed to provide VoIP, IPTV (including video on demand), and Internet access. The key, then, lies in its wireless access means, which allows to provide each of these services on a fixed and mobile basis thus turning it into Quad Play. The benefits of fixed WiMAX are evident 42

enough as they are based upon potential cost savings & service efficiency. To enable to provide mobile voice, video, and data, with the speed to allow VoIP calling, video on mobile devices and high-speed data transfers brings a new element to todays growing mobile community. In addition to simple business and consumer connectivity and backhaul applications, WiMAX also brings real enhancements to communications capabilities available to emergency personnel and first responders, which will be able to benefit from not only voice communications, but also video and data transmissions to more effectively respond to situations and coordinate responses. WiMAX also speeds deployment of temporary communications facilities, for international & sporting events and other occasions, for instance, which require temporary access for visitors, media, and personnel. With WiMAX towers already in range, all that needs to be added are the appropriate on-premises equipment to create easy access for such events. In rural areas, where broadband service has until now been limited or impossible, WiMAX makes high-speed access a reality. Eliminating the need for running fiber across rough terrain, or through sparsely populated areas which are both costly endeavors, WiMAX base stations can be built to service the local areas wirelessly, creating a new revenue source with a considerably lower investment. In a fixed environment, WiMAX has the ability to provide similar services to what are already enjoyed by the customers today with the exception that it makes possible the inclusion of a new set of potential subscribers that have relied on PSTN and dial-up service. Add to that the mobile aspect of WiMAX, and consumers, businesses, and government agencies alike will discover a whole new broadband paradigm, which will significantly enhance their ability to conduct their business simply by not being tied down by wires. 4.4 WiMAX- A important Technology for fixed and for mobile wireless broadband. WiMAX is needed as a single technology able to provide fixed and mobile broadband access. The WiMAX standard was needed to reach the lower cost target that proprietary wireless solutions were not able due to volume limitations. WiMAX interoperable solutions enable economies of scale through integration of standard chipsets, making WiMAX Forum Certified products cost-effective at delivering high-capacity broadband services at large 43

coverage distances in Line of Sight and Non Line of Sight conditions. This is possible with WiMAX, thanks to the strong industry support through the WiMAX Forum with more than 350 members including equipment vendors, leading chipmakers and service providers. WiMAX is important for fixed broadband wireless to provide broadband access needed to enterprises and residential users as an alternative for cable and DSL services, particularly when access to copper plant is difficult. WiMAX is important for mobile broadband wireless, as it completes 3G by providing higher performance for data with more than 1 Mbps downstream to allow connection of laptops and PDAs, and complete Wi-Fi by providing much wider coverage. 4.5 Key elements of WiMAX Technology The main element of WiMAX technology is the interoperability of WiMAX equipment, certified by the WiMAX Forum, resulting in mass volume and confidence for service provider to buy equipment from more than one company and that everything works together. The WiMAX Forum put for the first time together leaders in the communications and computing industries to drive a common platform for the global deployment of IPbased broadband wireless services. The key driver of WiMAX technology is OFDM technique and Sub-Channelization which mitigates the problem of interference resulting from NLOS conditions. These are explained as under: Other key elements are cost, coverage, capacity and standard for both fixed and mobile wireless access. 4.6 Wi-MAX network architecture


The WiMAX system broadly consists of a base station and remote stations called CPEs. The Base Station communicates with one or more CPEs. The Base station and the CPE provide RF Air Interface compliant with IEEE 802.16e-2005 standards. The Base station and CPE supports scalable OFDMA with upto 1024 FFT technology. Future expansion to 2048 FFT/20 MHz channel is also possible. The BS & CPE will dynamically select modulation rates for downlink and uplink transmissions based on previous RF link quality measurements and available transmit power. The CPE & Base Station System supports four different uplink Ranging channels as defined in IEEE 802.16e-2005 standards. These are initial ranging, periodic ranging, bandwidth request and handover. The Base Station System and CPE supports packet header compression and/or suppression on the BS to CPE link in both downlink and uplink directions to reduce IP overheads. Base Station is of split configuration type with RF modules alongwith integrated antenna in a single Box (called RF Unit) which is pole or wall mountable. The RF Unit is connected to another unit (called Base Control Unit) through fiber cables carrying IF Tx and Rx signals. The Base Control Unit is having baseband functionalities and common control functionalities for all sectors. Multiple Base Control units can be connected to an indoor unit through Ethernet interfaces. The indoor unit is called System Controller Unit Or Access Service Network- Gateway (ASN-GW) Unit having Access Service Network functionalities. As the result of any successful registration, a CPE will be informed of the unique identity of the BS it is currently registered with. The OCLAN switch is deployed as Tier-2/Tier-1 Network Device in the BSNL Multi Play connecting the Tier-1 RPR to DSLAM in other cities. It supports a wide variety of interfaces, such as 10GE, GE, FE, and POS and can provide multiple service functions such as MPLS, NAT, QoS, and multicast and bandwidth control. The Converters (external) for Base Station Data Interface (Ethernet port) is of two types: (i) Electrical to Optical Converter (ii) Ethernet to STM-1 Converter The CPE has a Visual/ audio indication on the unit indicating receive signal strength for facilitating proper orientation and quick alignment and easy installation. The CPE supports configuration update overthe- air, software upgrade over-the-air and service provisioning over-the-air. CPEs are of the following types and categories: Type I : Indoor Type 45

Type II : Outdoor Type Type III: PCMCIA Type which is a 802.16e-2005 standards based PCMCIA card for laptops and portable applications. The System Controller or ASN G/W, Access Service Network Gateway is responsible for the handovers for portable and mobility applications. Besides, Authentication liaison between the user/device and the AAA server, Security functions such as Local Key Distribution Function (LKDF) for delivering Authentication Keys, Paging Controller (PC), Radio Resource Management and Mobility and connection Management are supported. The ASN interfaces with Connectivity Service Network (CSN) through GE interface. The CSN consists of Home Agent Router (HA), Element Management System (EMS) and AAA server functionality. Each mobile node is assigned to a Home Agent and each mobile will be assigned a static or dynamic IP address belonging to its home IP network Home Agent. When a mobile station moves to another network called a foreign network, the mobile station will register with a Foreign Agent (FA) and the mobile station will be authenticated and authorized by FA alongwith Visited AAA in consultation with Home AAA. The FA assigns a care of address to the mobile station. The mobile station registers the care of address with the Home Agent through the FA which forwards the registration to the Home Agent. The DHCP (Dual Host Control Protocol) Server of OSS/BSS facilitates IP address allocation. The system supports DHCPv4 as a means of providing IP address assignments to the CPEs and any attached host(s). The simple IP Service will allocate dynamic IP or static IP address to the mobile station and provides routing service to the mobile station. The network allows Mobile computing platforms that have had their IP address assigned via DHCP to route outside of their subnet (via a default gateway) without having to manually configure their default gateway setting and also to use domain name services without having to manually configure their DNS server setting. The system securely configures AAA shared secrets to authenticators within the network and supports a mechanism by which the shared secret can be modified. The authenticator within the WiMAX infrastructure will support being configured and utilizes both a primary and secondary next hop AAA server. The EMS (Element Management System) is GUI based and supports Alarms display in different colours, all managed base stations display on the topology map and by clicking the object 46

of the base station on the screen, the detailed information of the base station will be displayed. The EMS system provide alarm management features such as, Current alarm list, Historical alarm list, Pseudo-events notification, Real-time alarm viewer and alarm management, Alarm filtering & thresholding, Event logging, Real-time map viewer with topological associations and NE status, Management link monitoring and NE availability reporting. The Element management also provides Configuration Management functions such as, Configuration & Parameter of the network elements, Auto-discovery & IP address tracking and Software configuration. 4.7 Mobile Wireless Broadband deployment in India India is deploying WAVE-2 Certified IEEE 802.16e-2005 Complaint WiMAX Network through BSNL. 20 MHZ spectrum has already been allocated to BSNL in frequency band of 2635 to 2655 MHZ. BSNL has decided broadly that WiMAX will be deployed using separate Rural and Urban business models. The roll-out of broadband wireless access services in the country with present status is as detailed below:

4.7.1 The WiMAX Rural Project 47

India has 6000 Rural blocks with approx. 650000 villages. BSNL is providing widespread WiMAX coverage in rural areas using support by various Government schemes (like egovernance and USO) for making broadband available. BSNL has taken up the task of providing connectivity to all such initiatives through its WiMAX Rural Projects under two phases. These projects are being supported by Department of Information Technology. 4.7.2 Rural Project Phase-I (1000 BTS) BSNL has decided to provide Wireless Broadband connectivity to 1000 Rural Block Headquarters across the country through WiMAX under Phase-I Project. As of date, 750 BTSs are radiating throughout the country and remaining 250 BTSs are being commissioned progressively. These 1000 Base stations will provide broadband coverage to about 11500 Rural Common Service Centers for e-governance. 4.7.3 Rural Project Phase-II (6863 BTS) In Phase II, it is proposed to provide Wireless Broadband Access connectivity through 6863 BTSs spread throughout the country. These Base stations will provide Broadband connectivity to approximately 41000 Rural Common Service centers of e-governance project. This project is also being supported by Department of Information Technology. The BTSs under this project will be installed by march 2011. Together these two projects will have foot print in more than 50 % of Rural areas and shall cover 60 % of population in Rural areas. This will provide high speed wireless broadband connectivity to these Rural villages. The Rural Common Service Centers are a part of the Bharat Nirman Programme initiated by the Honble Prime Minister of India and will help in bridging the digital divide between urban and rural areas. 4.7.4 The WiMAX Urban Projects For providing mobile wireless broadband access in Urban areas, BSNL has decided that the deployment will be made through two routes, i.e., the deployment through own resources and through franchises. a) Through own deployment Two Circles i.e. Kerala and Punjab were selected for BSNLs own deployment to have firsthand knowledge and experience of WiMAX deployment in Urban areas. BSNL finalized procurement for 1600 BTSs, i.e., 900 for Kerala and 700 for Punjab to be 48

deployed in two years time. The broadband wireless access services in Kerala and Punjab have since been launched and about 700 BTSs are radiating in these two areas. There is good response and customers are being provided WiMAX services in these areas. b) Through franchises A built & operate model, where a franchisee will make Capital investment and operate the network on Revenue share basis. BSNL has made the following arrangements: (i) BSNL has entered into an agreement with a franchisee to provide wireless broadband access services in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra circles on revenue sharing basis. There are about 3000 customers at present. As per target set in the agreement 50,000 customers in each of the three circles need to be enrolled by the franchisee by the year 2011. (ii) BSNL has finalized on franchisee basis, the deployment of BWA services through an expression of interest (EOI) for eleven telecom circles, i.e., Karnataka, Rajasthan, Bihar, Tamilnadu, UP West, Orissa, Kolkota, Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Chennai. Shortly BSNL will be entering into agreement with the selected franchisees for deployment of BWA services in these areas. (iii) BSNL is in the process of floating an EOI for selection of franchisees for five circles, i.e., West Bengal, UP East, J&K, Assam and North East. 4.7.5 Service Offerings BSNL is offering this service at a very low cost with starting tariff of Rs.220 per month in rural areas for speed upto 7 MB. Unlimited download plan is available at the rate of Rs. 999 per month. To kick-start the off-take of WiMAX, BSNL is buying CPEs and will provide to Customers on Rental basis. Meanwhile BSNL is also working on various models of bundling to enable different device manufacturers to provide WiMAX enabled device as a bundled package. BSNL has signed MAP (Market Acceleration Program) with Intel to ensure availability of Embedded devices at affordable cost. This milestone will also help in increase the rural tele- density and also will bring rural areas to the broadband map of the world. The common service centres (CSCs) which are being set up by Department of Information Technology in the rural areas of the country will offer the following services: High speed internet browsing. 49

Video conferencing enabling Tele-medicine and Tele-education. Connectivity for Bank ATMs, Railway Reservation Centers etc. All applications associated with e-Governance projects of the State Governments. Connectivity to Village Panchayats through high speed broadband. Payment of utility bills. Issue of birth certificates. Land records. Vehicle registration etc. 4.7.6 The WiMAX Network Architecture A WiMAX deployment will essentially have two hardware components a WiMAX tower and a WiMAX receiver. The tower is like a cell tower, which can provide coverage within a radius of 15 Kms. The tower connects to the Network using a high-bandwidth connection, i.e., STM-1. The receiver can be an outdoor CPE, indoor CPE or a USB Dongle. Embedded PCs with built-in WiMAX chips can also be utilized as end devices. Future projections Sl Estimates for conditions BSNL Projections Year 2020 Remarks 1 Population 1374 Million As per Census and Growth 2 PC Price 150 USD Price is based on input from Intel * 3 Addressable Market (Income Based) 181 Million Analysis is based on expected penetration 15 %. 4 Technology Share HSPA-60% EVDO- 5% WiMAX- 35% 3G will saturate because of spectrum and also usage for Voice calls. 5 BSNL Market Share in WiMAX 35 To 40 % Expected number of WIMAX operators to be 3 nationally. Approx 20 Million WiMAX connections by 2020 4.7.7 Impediments in deployment of WiMAX technology To the service provider, the benefits of WiMAX as clear, assuming subscribers. But, to win subscribers will take some education. After all, most people only have a bare bones understanding of WiFi, if they have broadband at all. So then, being able to address questions and concerns about WiMAX becomes a key to its successful deployment. The main concerns that WiMAX still faces are:: 1. Technology is still evolving 50

Mobile WiMAX is a globally defined standard currently undergoing trial and interoperability.. At this decade Wimax Technology is not full fledged deployed in most of the areas of the world with very limited users. Security will grow to be a major issue with Wimax Technology. Access and authentication remains the essential wireless concern for enterprise buyers and consumers. There is, however, an increasing alertness that wireless's fragile link may not be in the security mechanism used to protect it, but rather in the insecure coding at the software driver level, which can be broken by intellectual hackers. The prerequisites for a complete Wimax Technology security system are not even covered by the basic specification. The IEEE 802.16 standard and WiMAX only defines the air interface and the physical (PHY) layer and Media Access Control (MAC) layers. This still leaves work to be done on safety and privacy between different communication networks. The risk is significant and that it might be sensible to employ a second line of defence against such an attack. Several weaknesses in privacy and key management (PKM) have also been discovered. PKM prevents eavesdropping and passive attacks by using hashedmessage-authentication code and traffic-encryption keys (TEK). All key negotiation and data-encryption-key generation rely on the authorization key's (AK) secret. The AK is generated by the base station, and the TEK is generated from the AK but only has a 2-bit identifier space, which is insufficient during the AK lifetime. According to experts Wimax technology is still facing problems in security and also vulnerable to Denial-of-Service attacks (DOS), because there is no mechanism in place to specifically detect and discard repeated packets in the message. An attacker could repeat many messages, valid or not, in an attempt to interfere with the operation of the network. The impact of this type of attack can be very high, because it might affect the operation of the communication system within WiMAX Technology. The real test of WiMAX security will come when service providers begin wide-scale network deployments, and researchers and attackers have access to service CPE equipment. Other attacks including WiMAX protocol blurring may enable attackers to further manipulate Base Stations (BS's) or Subscriber Stations (SS's). Until then, the security of WiMAX technology is limited to forecast. Algorithms of power control are applied to enhance the general performance of the system, it is deployed by the base station sending power control information to every Wimax Customer Premise Equipments (CPEs) to control the transmit power level so that the level inward bound at 51

the base station is at a fixed level. In a dynamical changing fading environment this predetermined performance level indicates that the Customer Premise Equipment (CPE) only broadcasts sufficient power to meet this constraint. The communication would be that the CPE broadcast level is supported on worst case circumstances. The power control decreases the general power consumption of the Wimax Customer Premise Equipments (CPE) and the possible interference with other base stations. For Line-of-Sight (LOS) the transmission power of the Wimax Customer Premise Equipments (CPE) is approximately comparative to its distance from the base station and for Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) it is also closely dependant on the clearance and barriers 2. High Cost of Spectrum In the recent concluded auction of BWA spectrum by DOT, the Service operator has to pay for one block of 20 MHz, an upfront license fee of 12,776 crores for all the 22 service Areas of the country. With such a high spectrum cost, it will take many years before the operators are able to break even. Such a situation is likely to create impediments in smooth roll out of BWA services in the country. 3. Less-availability of A.C. power in rural areas The Power outages in Rural areas in India is extremely high and the alternate arrangements of Battery and Alternators do not prove sufficient to provide continuous service to the customers. As such, disconnection in services for a considerable period of time cannot be ruled out at present. Under these circumstances, the success of WiMAX deployment is fully dependent on regular availability of AC supply. Therefore, success of WiMAX will depend upon how fast the infrastructure is improved by the Government in the country resulting in popularity of WBA services to the satisfaction of customers in rural areas. 4. High WiMAX CPE cost Another major hurdle that broadband operators would face is that of the cost of WiMax Customer Premises Equipment (CPEs) that would account for around 50-60 percent of an operator's capex. The cost of WiMax CPEs is likely to remain on the higher side for another 2-3 years. As such, operators would find it difficult to roll out WiMax on a mass scale. Compared to a DSL modem that costs less, the first set of WiMax CPE would cost nearly two-tothree times more (Rs.5000). According to WiMax Forum, the first generation 52

of WiMax Forum Certified CPEs are outdoor-installable subscriber stations. The second generation of CPEs are indoor self-installable modems similar to a cable or DSL modem, which are priced approximately half the price of out-door CPEs (Rs.2500 Rs.3000). Third-generation CPEs are integrated into laptops and other portable devices. Their cost will be considerably less than the price of indoor CPEs (Rs.1500 2000). In the existing scenario, with the high cost of CPE, it is unlikely that India would see a dramatic breakthrough in WiMax deployment. Though WiMax Forum has certified a number of CPEs by different manufacturers, with each one either doing trials or planning, it is unlikely to gain any precedence over DSL or other initiatives immediately because of the high cost of CPE. 5. Low PC Penetration The internet boom has created a volcanic demand for PCs in India, but the low PC penetration (about 30~35 million) is way far less. There is a dearth of availability of PCs as well as their awareness in rural areas and for the WiMAX roll-out to be a success, this aspect assumes significant importance. Under such circumstances, to win the customers in reural areas, the operators will have to introduce attractive bundled schemes for the PCs which will put additional strain on the operator cost. 6. Local applications and content in vernacular Although the Central Government and State Governments have made ambitious plans to promote computerization in every aspect of day-to-day applications, i.e., Tele-medicine projects, Payment of utility bills, Land records, Registration/Issue of Birth/Death Certificates, Driving Licenses, Ration card issue, Mobile Banking, etc., but, their utilization in the Rural populace of the country is limited in view of constraints noted in the above paras. Though our country has different regions having multitude of languages and cultures, we still depend upon applications for WiMAX technology developed in foreign shores. There is enormous potential in our country to develop the WiMAX applications in various dialects suitable for different States/ Regions, but as of today, no local content is visible. The rapid growth of WiMAX in India and its desirable innovations are not possible in the near future as development of local applications and content in different languages is in the nascent stages. 53

4.7.8 Important aspects of WiMAX deployment a) Quality of Service QoS is ultimately the determining factor in a technologys ability to deliver todays highbandwidth services, like VoIP and IP video services, as well as other collaborationenhancing applications. In order to provide QoS, WiMAX providers must be able to ensure low latency. The simple fact is that WiMAX service suffers from nearly no latency across its wireless connections i.e., less than 10 milliseconds from tower to receiver. The majority of any latency occurs from the receiver onward, to servers and end users. Thus, as with any broadband service, it is incumbent upon the business to ensure its network equipment is properly set up to handle these services, and upon service providers to provide the appropriate technology to residential subscribers . b) Security Considerable attention has been given to network security of late, and WiFi deployments, in particular, have come under heavy scrutiny for their lack of appropriate security. WiMAX, on the other hand, has been designed to provide effective security in order to prevent network intrusion and access violations. WiMAX security is defined in the Privacy Sub-layer in the MAC Layer, as specified by WiMAX standards. Fixed WiMAX (802.162004) typically uses X.509 certificates for authentication and 56-bit Digital Encryption System (DES), while Mobile WiMAX (802.16e-2005) uses EAP for authentication and Advanced Encryption System (AES) for encryption. Both employ Privacy Key Management (PKM) for authentication between base station and subscriber station. c) Reliability The Five 9s scenario for network uptime has become the dominant standard for providers when describing their network availability and uptime. However, while landline providers networks may, in fact, be capable of such reliability, which equates to something like five minutes of downtime per year and other factors can cause substantial service outages. Specifically, landline service relies on wires running to the home or business, which represent a single point of failure, barring several incoming lines, which is a costly proposition. Because it provides wireless connections to customer premises, WiMAX eliminates the potential for fibre and cable failures, which, technically, are not a result of a 54

providers network failure. Instead, by deploying redundant transmitters to cover an area, WiMAX providers can easily provide network redundancy, while, at the same time, expanding their service area with the same equipment. By using only licensed spectrum, service providers can be assured they are not competing with other carriers for network resources. Also, since WiMAX radios are predicted to have a lifespan of more than four decades. d) Interference Its no secret that wireless signals are susceptible to interference, i.e., its the nature of the beast, and its a factor that has required attention from providers since the first wireless devices. Even now, older, 2.4GHz cordless phones and other home appliances have the potential to disrupt WiFi signals. Employing counter-interference measures is something providers need to manage, and it really means nothing more than understanding the potential sources of interference within the electromagnetic spectrum, and engineering solutions to work around those obstacles. There are two general types of interference: Out-of-channel interference is a result of other transmitters that are not on the same frequency as the primary radio; and co-channel interference results on the same frequency as the original signal. To eliminate co-channel interference, precautions must me taken to plan frequency use appropriately, use only licensed spectrum, and provide dynamic frequency selection. Out-of-channel interference can largely be avoided through the use of OFDM and OFDMA technologies, as well as any of a variety of antenna designs specifically developed to avoid interference from other devices. 4.8 Comparison of Wi-MAX with LTE Both the technologies are expected to dominate the 4G cellular market. LTE is Long term Employment, Oh&Long Term Evolution, and WiMAX stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. LTE and WiMAX are two major 4G cellular technologies. The LTE vs. WiMAX debate is reminiscent of the erstwhile GSM vs. CDMA battle. We'll compare LTE and WiMAX from the perspectives of air interface features, network architecture, and industry trends. In general, they share more similarities than differences. WiMAX in this article refers to IEEE 802.16e-2005-based mobile WiMAX. a) Air Interface Features. 55

Both LTE and WiMAX aim for superior packet data performance with the peak user data rates in excess of 100 Mbps (e.g., 300 Mbps) and latency less than 10 ms. Achieving such data rates is no small task, and, technologies such as OFDMA and advanced antenna systems are called upon by LTE and WiMAX. While WiMAX uses scalable OFDMA for both downlink and uplink, LTE uses scalable OFDMA in the downlink and a variation of OFDMA called SC-FDMA (Single Carrier- Frequency Division Multiple Access) in the uplink. The use of SC-FDMA results in reduced PAPR (peak-to-average power ratio) for the mobile device at the expense of increased complexity in both the device and the base station. In practice, such PAPR reduction could be reflected in a somewhat larger cell radius or better cell-edge performance in the uplink. The typical subcarrier spacing is 10.94 kHz in WiMAX and 15 kHz in LTE. Such spacing makes the job of the WiMAX receiver a little easier due to flat fading and allows LTE to support faster moving vehicles due to additional resistance to Doppler shift. While STC (Space Time Coding) is a more common transmit diversity for WiMAX, a variation of STC called SFBC (Space Frequency Block Coding) is used in LTE. Both WiMAX and LTE support MIMO (Multiple Input and Multiple Output) and SDMA (Space/Spatial Division Multiple Access) in the downlink and SDMA in the uplink. SDMA is referred to as MU (Multi User)- MIMO in LTE and Collaborative Spatial Multiplexing in WiMAX. In terms of performance, peak user data rates are approximately 75 Mbps and 63 Mbps in the downlink of LTE and WiMAX, respectively, and 37.5 Mbps and 28.8 Mbps and in the uplink of LTE and WiMAX, respectively. These performance estimates assume (10 MHz x 10 MHz) FDD and the use of 2x2 MIMO in the downlink. The performance gap between LTE and WiMAX from the perspectives of average sector throughput and user perceived throughput would be narrower than that for peak performance. The VoIP capacity of LTE can be expected to be somewhat higher than WiMAX due to more efficient resource allocation techniques. While both technologies will eventually support TDD and FDD, early WiMAX deployments use TDD and initial LTE deployments are expected to use FDD. b) Network Architecture. The LTE radio network consists of eNode Bs, while the WiMAX radio network consists of BSs and ASNGWs (Access Services Network- Gateway). The WiMAX core network uses typical IP network nodes such as AAA Server, Home Agent, DHCP Server, and DNS 56

Server and can connect to a Services Network such as IMS. LTE defines a comprehensive core network called EPC (Evolved Packet Core). This includes special entities such as MME (Mobility Management Entity), HSS (Home Subscriber System), SGW (Serving Gateway), PCRF (Policy & Charging Rules Function), and PDN-GW (Packet Data Network Gateway) in addition to the nodes mentioned for WiMAX. It is conceivable that EPC may be used by a WiMAX radio network. EPC can also connect to IMS. c) Industry Trends. WiMAX enjoys a broad ecosystem with competition among numerous vendors, many of them small companies, potentially resulting in a lower cost BS and MS. Most big manufacturers have WiMAX offerings, Motorola, Samsung, Nokia, Alcatel-Lucent, Nortel, Intel, and Cisco. Intel and Cisco are new entrants to the mobile cellular world. Notably absent from the WiMAX list are Qualcomm and Ericsson. LTE has backing from traditional cellular companies including major 3G operators covering more than 90% of the cellular market. LTE is offered by the WiMAX companies mentioned earlier except Cisco and Intel. Assuming (!) that some 1xEV-DO and UMTS systems see LTE overlays, there could be huge economies of scale benefit due to the large number of subscribers, leading to low cost user devices. The cost per eNode B may be somewhat higher than a WiMAX BS due to relatively less intense competition as the typical LTE vendors are likely to be major vendors who may not face serious threats from small companies. In summary, Both LTE and WiMAX have a solid backing from industry heavyweights, which provides adequate ammunition in the fight for dominance. 4.10 Conclusion WiMAX technology holds great promise for delivering new, high-bandwidth communications and information services to both geographically remote areas and large urban populations. From mobile VoIP to social networking, WiMAX is taking off in a big way. 2.5 and 3G networks have enabled users around the world to access data on their handsets and laptops. However, as mobile data services increase and more PC users start using the same broadband Internet applications on the go as they do at home, the expectation is for mobile data traffic to grow by a factor of enormous proportion. And this requirement could easily exceed expectations with a surge in applications like rich social 57

networking which combine Internet multimedia and mobility. Although 2.5 and 3G networks will continue to serve up voice and mobile data for the foreseeable future, these networks will become capacity constrained as mobile broadband data use increases. Hence, the deployment of WiMAX to offload data-intensive mobile broadband applications is inevitable and apt. A quick return of investment(ROI) and the ability to drive profitable services across a diverse customer base are critical to the success of WiMAX deployment. WiMAX adopted advanced technologies such as MIMO and Smart Antennae systems increasing over-all system link-budget during dynamic RF conditions. These enhancements produce higher capabilities over more expansive coverage areas, reducing the number of cells required and lowering infrastructure costs normally associated with indoor usage. With centralized provisioning and simple & rapid installation, WiMAX provides hands-off, error-free networking for a single home or an entire office.