Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 49

Grammar

Index
Units Grammar Vocabulary

Unit 1 Pages 3 - 10

Introductions Official interview New neighbors

Indirect speech

Countries and nationalities Jobs and professions part I Numbers Family Houses Places

Unit 2 Pages 11 - 16

School Problems at school

Conditional sentences

School

Unit 3 Pages 17 - 22

Work Interview

Curriculum vitae Covering letter Formal letter Fax

Jobs and professions - part II Actions

Unit 4 Pages 23 - 28

Leisure Invitation

Free time activities Means of transport

Unit 5 Pages 29 - 36

Shopping what food do we need?

Any / some Demonstrative pronouns Question tags

Supermarket

Unit 6 Pages 37 - 40

Directions Is it near?

Adjectives

Shops Street

Unit 7 Pages 41 - 43

Health How are you? what seems to be the problem? Tell me what the problem is

Human body Health

Unit 8 Pages 45 - 46

Banking May I help you? A very high interest rate

Bank

Answer Keys Pages 47 - 48

Bibliography Page 49

Unit 1

Introductions

1. Read the following text.

Official Interview
Sam: Good morning. Officer: Take a seat please. What is your name? Sam: My name is Klaus Schmitt. Officer: How do you spell your surname? Sam: S-C-H-M-I-T-T Officer: What work do you do? Sam: I teach German. Officer: Where do you live? Sam: I live in London. Officer: Where are you from? Sam: I am Austrian. Officer: Are you married? Sam: Yes, I am. My wife is English. Officer: Have you got any children? Sam: Ive got two sons and a daughter. Officer: How old are they? Sam: They are 8 and 6 years old. Officer: OK. Would you please sign this form to say that the details are correct.

2. Rewrite the questions below using the indirect speech, according to the example.
Officer: Are you married?

The officer asked Sam if he was married.


2.1 Sam: I live in Hillingdon. 2.2 Sam: Ive got two sons and a daughter.

3. Fill in the gaps with the given words.

New Neighbours
Diogo: Hello! Its nice to see you. I live next door, at number 16. Neighbour: _____________________ to meet you. Diego: My names Diego. Diogo Castro. Neighbour: Im Nick, and my wifes name is Jennifer. Diogo: I _____________________ youve seen my children. Sara is 8 and Helena is 6. Neighbour: Oh yes, Ive seen them in the garden. Our children are _____________________ already. They live away from home. Diogo: So is it just you and your wife living here? Neighbour: And my _____________________, Isabel. She doesnt get out much. Shes 82! Diogo: Well, Im sure well all get to _____________________ each other _____________________. Susana will _____________________to meet your wife later on. Im sorry, what did you say your wifes name was? Neighbour: Its Jennifer. And your wife is . Diogo: Susana. She is Spanish. Neighbour: What a _____________________! My mother-in-law is Spanish, too. Where does Susana come from? Diogo: Shes from Madrid Neighbour: Well she must come over right away and meet Isabel. Well be expecting her.

pleased know

expect soon

grown up pop in

mother-in-law coincidence

Direct and indirect speech

When using indirect or reported speech, the form changes. Usually indirect speech is introduced by the verb said, as in I said, Bill said, or they said. Using the verb say in this tense indicates that something was said in the past. In these cases, the main verb in the reported sentence is put in the past. If the main verb is already in a past tense, then the tense changes to another past tense; it can almost be seen as moving even further into the past. Verb tense changes also characterize other situations using indirect speech. Note the changes shown in the chart and see the table below for examples. With indirect speech, the use of that is optional.

Direct Speech
Simple present He said, I go to school every day.

Indirect Speech
simple past He said (that) he went to school every day.

simple past He said, I went to school every day.

past perfect He said (that) he had gone to school every day.

present perfect He said, I have gone to school every day.

past perfect He said (that) he had gone to school every day.

present progressive He said, I am going to school every day.

past progressive He said (that) he was going to school every day.

past progressive He said, I was going to school every day.

perfect progressive He said (that) he had been going to school every day,

future (will) He said, I will go to school every day.

would + verb name He said (that) he would go to school every day.

present progressive future (going to) He said, I am going to school every day. He said (that) he is going to school every day.

past progressive He said (that) he was going to school every day

Direct Speech
auxiliary + verb name He said, Do you go to school every day? He said, Where do you go to school?

Indirect Speech
simple past He asked me if I went to school every day.* He asked me where I went to school.

imperative He said, Go to school every day.

infinitive He said to go to school every day.

*Note than when a Yes/No question is being asked in direct speech, then a construction with if or whether is used. If a WH question is being asked, then use the WH to introduce the clause. The situation changes if instead of the common said another part of the very to say is used. In that case the verb tenses usually remain the same. Some examples of this situation are given below.

Direct Speech
simple present + simple present He says, I go to school every day.

Indirect Speech
simple present + simple present He says (that) he goes to school every day.

present perfect + simple present He has said, I go to school every day.

present perfect + simple present He has said (that) he goes to school every day.

past progressive + simple past He was saying (that) he went to school every day. past progressive + simple past He was saying, I went to school every day. past progressive + past perfect He was saying (that) he had gone to school every day.

future + simple present He will say, I go to school every day.

future + simple present He will say (that) he goes to school every day.

Another situation is the one in which modal constructions are used. If the verb said is used, then the form of the modal, or another modal that has a past meaning is used.

Direct Speech
can He said, I can go to school every day.

Indirect Speech
could He said (that) he could go to school every day.

may He said, I may go to school every day.

might He said (that) he might go to school every day.

might He said, I might go to school every day.

must He said, I must go to school every day.

had to He said (that) he had to go to school every day.

have to He said, I have to go to school every day.

should He said, I should go to school every day.

should He said (that) he should go to school every day.

ought to He said, I ought to go to school every day.

ought to He said (that) he ought to go to school every day.

Some other verbs that can be used to introduce direct speech are: ask, report, tell, announce, suggest, and inquire. They are not used interchangeably; check a grammar or usage book for further information.

Shifting of expressions of time


this (evening) today/this day these (days) now (a week) ago last weekend here next (week) tomorrow that (evening) that day those (days) then (a week) before the weekend before / the previous weekend there the following (week) the next/following day

Vocabulary

Countries and Nationalities


Austria an Austrian German Czech Republic a Czech Czech France a Frenchman French Italy an Italian Italian Malta a Maltese Maltese, English Republic of Ireland a Irishman English Spain a Spaniard Spanish Belgium a Belgian Dutch, French, German Denmark a Dane Danish Germany a German German Latvia a Latvian Latvian the Netherlands a Dutchman Dutch Romania a Romanian Romanian Sweden a Swede Swedish Bulgaria a Bulgarian Bulgarian Estonia an Estonian Estonian Greece a Greek Greek Lithuania a Lithuanian Lithuanian Poland a Pole Polish Slovakia a Slovak Slovak United Kingdom Briton English Cyprus a Cypriot Greek, Turkish Finland a Finn Finnish Hungary a Hungarian Hungarian Luxembourg a Luxembourger Luxembourgian Portugal a Portuguese Portuguese Slovenia a Slovenian Slovenian, Italian, Hungarian

Jobs and professions


a teacher a firefighter an executive a mechanic a receptionist a typist a waiter a nurse a secretary a carpenter a doctor a factory worker a baker a policeman a hairdresser a butcher an electrician an accountant a cook a painter

Expressions connected with work


to get a job to do for a living to work shift-work to work nine-to-five to go on strike to temp to be promoted to find work to earn enough money to live comfortably to work nights one week, days the next week to work on regular hours to stop working as a protest against something to work in a place for a very short time, usually organized by a temping office to get a higher position, more money, ...

to be on sick leave to be on maternity leave to apply for a job to be out of a job to be fired to be made redundant

to not go to work because of an illness to not go to work because you're expecting a baby to send letters to a company, to go to interviews, ... to not have a job at the moment to lose your job, often because you made a (big) mistake to be forced to leave your job, because you are no longer needed

Numbers
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 one two three four five six seven eight nine ten 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 twenty-one twenty-two twenty-three twenty-four twenty-five twenty-six twenty-seven twenty-eight twenty-nine thirty 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 ten twenty thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety one hundred

100 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 10,000,000

one one ten one hundred one ten million

hundred thousand thousand thousand million

Write numbers in full


From 21 to 99 we write a hyphen between the tens and the units. twenty-three (23) forty-nine (49) eighty-six (86) 'and' is used to link the hundreds with the tens and units. one hundred and thirty-two (132) one thousand two hundred and seven (1,207) one million six hundred and eleven thousand nine hundred and eight (1,611,908)

Nothing
0 = oh for telephone numbers 0 = zero for temperatures 0 = nought in mathematics 0 = nill in football and other sports 0 = love in tennis and badminton

Family
grandmother grandparents wife aunt grandfather parents husband uncle mother daughter sister niece father son brother nephew cousin

Houses
a terraced house a villa a tent a semi-detached house a skyscraper a caravan a block of flats a palace an igloo a cottage a castle a farmhouse a bungalow

More information about houses


a terraced house a semi-detached house a cottage a bedsit a house next to an other house a house that is attached to another house on one side a small house in the country a flat with one main room and no separate bedroom

Places
a city a suburb a town a village in the country a big and important town close to, but away from the centre of a town or city a large area with houses, shops, offices etc where people live and work a very small town in the country land that is outside towns and cities, including land used for farming

Other
a tenant a landlord/lady someone who rents a house from another person someone who owns a house and rents it to people

10

Unit 2 School School


1. Read the following text.

Problems at school
Teacher: Good evening. I dont think weve met. Im Miss Sharp. Parent: Good evening. Im Mrs. Flanders, Barrys mum. Teacher: Ah, yes. Barry Flanders. Now, Mrs. Flanders, I must tell you that weve been having one or two problems with Barry. Parent: Oh, Im sorry about that. What kind of problems? Teacher: Well, hes a very lively boy, as Im sure you know. Parent: I suppose he is, yes. Teacher: A few days ago I found him chasing a girl around the classroom Parent: Oh, dear! Teacher: And we really cant have that kind of behavior during Math lessons. Parent: Absolutely! Ill speak to him straight away. Please let me know if he causes any more trouble.

2. Answer the following questions. 2.1 Who is Mrs. Flanders? 2.2 Is she aware of her sons behavior? 2.3 Do other teachers have the same kind of situation? 3. Choose the right option. 3.1 If the teacher hadnt called the mother a) She would not learn about her sons behavior. b) She would not have learned about her sons behavior. 3.2 If the student does not change his behavior a) The teacher will be upset. b) The teacher would be upset.

11

4. Put the text in the right order.


A B C D E F G H I Parent: Good evening Miss Sharp. How has Lisa been? Parent: No, not that I know of. But she has been acting strangely at home, too. Parent: You dont mean Ronnie Scott, do you? If hes been near my Lisa Teacher: Dont worry, Mr. Simpson. Ive never seen him anywhere near her. And that might be the reason why shes so unhappy! Teacher: Good evening Mr. Simpson. Its nice to see you again. Teacher: Well, as a matter of fact Ive noticed that her mind has not been on her work lately. Are there any problems at home? Teacher: She has been very quiet during lessons, not her usual bubbly self. Teacher: Has she said anything to you about a boy called Ronnie? Parent: The same at home. She spends most of her time in her bedroom with the door closed. Its not like her.

12

Conditional sentences

There are three types of the if-clauses.

type I II III

condition condition possible to fulfill condition in theory possible to fulfill condition not possible to fulfill (too late)

FORM

type I II III

if clause Simple Present Simple Past Past Perfect

main clause will-future (or Modal + infinitive) would + infinitive * would + have + past participle *

Examples (if-clause at the beginning) type I II III if clause If I study, If I studied, If I had studied, main clause I will pass the exam. I would pass the exam. I would have passed the exam.

Examples (if-clause at the end) type I II III main clause I will pass the exam I would pass the exam I would have passed the exam if-clause if I study. if I studied. if I had studied.

13

Examples (affirmative and negative sentences) type examples long forms + If I study, I will pass the exam. I If I study, I will not fail the exam. If I do not study, I will fail the exam. short/contracted forms If I study, I'll pass the exam. If I study, I won't fail the exam. If I don't study, I'll fail the exam. If I studied, I'd pass the exam. If I studied, I wouldn't fail the exam. If I didn't study, I'd fail the exam. If I'd studied, I'd have passed the exam. If I'd studied, I wouldn't have failed the exam. If I hadn't studied, I'd have failed the exam.

+ If I studied, I would pass the exam. II If I studied, I would not fail the exam. If I did not study, I would fail the exam.

+ If I had studied, I would have passed the exam. III If I had studied, I would not have failed the exam. If I had not studied, I would have failed the exam.

* We can substitute could or might for would (should, may or must are sometimes possible, too).

I would pass the exam. I could pass the exam. I might pass the exam. I may pass the exam. I should pass the exam. I must pass the exam.

14

Vocabulary School
teacher pencil notebook clock map TV (television) teachers aide eraser notebook paper flag pencil sharpener slide projector student desk graph paper board globe computer seat / chair teachers desk ruler chalk bookshelf pen book / textbook calculator chalk tray overhead projector

office classroom gym / gymnasium track lunchroom monitor

nurses office locker locker room principal cafeteria worker

guidance office language lab auditorium assistant principal coach

cafeteria chemistry lab field (school) nurse

principals room teachers lounge bleachers guidance counselor

mathematics English home economics art band school newspaper

algebra history health music orchestra literary magazine

geometry geography industrial arts

trigonometry science drivers education

calculus French typing

choir / chorus student government

drama

football

15

16

Unit 3

Work

1. Read the following text.

Interview
Boss: Good afternoon, Mrs. Robinson. Wont you sit down? Applicant: Thank you. Boss: Youve applied for the position of receptionist. Have you got any experience of that kind of work? Applicant: Yes, I worked in a dentists reception for two years, after my children were born. Boss: Dentists! Thats rather different from our company head quarters. You would be expected to welcome important guests. Sometimes we have famous people visiting, too. Applicant: I would be happy to do that. Boss: But have you ever done it before? Applicant: Well, I met Brad Pitt once Boss: Really? And how did you welcome him? Applicant: I asked for his autograph. Boss: Thank you, Mrs. Robinson. That will be all.

2. Answer the questions. 2.1 2.2 Where had Mrs. Robinson worked? For how long? Was she the right person for the job? Justify.

3. Listen to the dialogue and fill in the gaps. Boss: Good afternoon, Mrs. Robinson. ___________________________________________ Applicant: Good afternoon. What a beautiful office. The reception is very grand! Boss: ___________________________________________ Applicant: Not exactly, but I would have no problem with it, I can assure you! Boss: ___________________________________________ Applicant: I started off in secretarial work, and I was promoted to personal assistant to one of the company directors. I worked there for 5 years, before I was married. Boss: Very impressive. ___________________________________________ Applicant: I have, for two years. It was quite different from this job though. Much more demanding, I think. Boss: ___________________________________________ Applicant: I had to deal with a lot of unhappy people. Sometimes they were in pain, so they could be impatient and rude. It taught me how to be polite and sympathetic at all times.

17

Curriculum vitae

18

Covering letter

19

Formal letter

20

Fax

21

Vocabulary

Jobs and Professions Part II

accountant assembler bus driver computer programmer delivery person foreman lawyer pharmacist real estate agent scientist taxi driver waitress

actor baker butcher construction worker electrician gardener mechanic photographer receptionist seamstress translator welder

actress barber carpenter courier farmer hairdresser model pilot repairperson secretary travel agent veterinarian

architect bookkeeper cashier custodian / janitor firefighter housekeeper newscaster plumber salesperson security guard truck driver

artist bricklayer / mason chef / cook data processor fisherman journalist / reporter painter police officer sanitation worker tailor waiter

Actions

act cook file operate equipment sew wash dishes

assemble components deliver pizzas fly an airplane paint sing write

bake design buildings grow vegetables repair things teach

build things draw guard buildings sell cars translate

clean drive mow lawns serve food type

22

Unit 4

Leisure

1. Read the following text.

Invitation
Jim: Hello. Could I speak to Lucy, please? Lucy: Speaking. Is that Jim? Jim: Yes! Hi Lucy. How did you know it was me? Lucy: Well, I was hoping you would ring. You said you might call yesterday. Jim: Did I? Sorry about that. Do you fancy going out tonight? Lucy: Where are you thinking of going? Jim: I usually go to the Leisure Centre on Fridays. Some of my friends always meet there. Lucy: Ive never been there before. Isnt it just for swimming and weight training? Jim: No, we never do any of that. Theres a little caf and a really nice bar. Lucy: Really? I never imagined that! Jim: So, do you want to come, then? Lucy: Only if you can give me a lift. Its too hard to get there on public transport.

2. Answer the questions. 2.1 Was Lucy expecting Jins phone call? 2.2 Does Lucy know the Leisure Centre? 2.3 When does Jim go to the Leisure Centre? 2.4 Who does he usually go with? 2.5 Did Luc accept the invitation? 2.6 What did she want a lift?

23

3. Read the hotel descriptions and match them to their star ratings.

_____ Star Hotels In this classification hotels will typically be small to medium sized and offer more extensive facilities than at the one star level. Some business hotels come into the two star classification and guests can expect comfortable, well equipped, overnight accommodation, usually with an en-suite bath/shower room. Reception and other staff will aim for a more professional presentation than at the one star level, and offer a wider range of straightforward services, including food and drink. _____ Star Hotels Here you should find spacious and luxurious accommodation throughout the hotel, matching the best international standards. Interior design should impress with its quality and attention to detail, comfort and elegance. Furnishings should be immaculate. Services should be formal, well supervised and flawless in attention to guests' needs, without being intrusive. The restaurant will demonstrate a high level of technical skill, producing dishes to the highest international standards. Staff will be knowledgeable, helpful, well versed in all aspects of customer care, combining efficiency with courtesy. _____ Star Hotels Hotels in this classification are likely to be small and independently owned, with a family atmosphere. Services may be provided by the owner and family on an informal basis. There may be a limited range of facilities and meals may be fairly simple. Lunch, for example, may not be served. Some bedrooms may not have en suite bath/shower rooms. Maintenance, cleanliness and comfort should, however, always be of an acceptable standard. _____ Star Hotels Expectations at this level include a degree of luxury as well as quality in the furnishings, decor and equipment, in every area of the hotel. Bedrooms will also usually offer more space than at the lower star levels, and well designed, coordinated furnishings and decor. The en-suite bathrooms will have both bath and fixed shower. There will be a high enough ratio of staff to guests to provide services like porterage, 24-hour room service, laundry and dry-cleaning. The restaurant will demonstrate a serious approach to its cuisine. _____ Star Hotels At this level, hotels are usually of a size to support higher staffing levels, and a significantly greater quality and range of facilities than at the lower star classifications. Reception and the other public rooms will be more spacious and the restaurant will normally also cater for non-residents. All bedrooms will have fully en suite bath and shower rooms and offer a good standard of comfort and equipment, such as a hair dryer, direct dial telephone, toiletries in the bathroom. Some room service can be expected, and some provision for business travelers.

24

4. Read the complaint letter and identify the items below.

Keep in mind that most errors are unintentional and realize that most businesses and organizations want to address and clear up complaints quickly in order to have satisfied customers or members. Address your letter to a specific person Letters addressed to "Dear Sir" or "To Whom it May Concern" are not as effective and will likely not reach the right person. Call ahead and ask for the name of the manager and his or her administrative assistant. Writing to the assistant may ensure your letter reaches the manager. Begin your letter on a positive tone Consider how you'd react if an angry customer approaches you and shouts obscenities versus someone who smiles who begins the conversion with compliments.

25

Be brief Keep your complaint letter to one page, and write short paragraphs rather than long ones. Be honest and straightforward Include sufficient detail to back up your claim and to show that you have thoroughly researched the subject. However, omit irrelevant details. Maintain a firm but respectful tone, and avoid aggressive, accusing language Keep your complaint letter concise and professional. Send only photocopies of receipts and other documents, and retain all originals Keep a copy of the complaint letter for your records. Get other signatures In many cases, you can increase the effectiveness of your letter by getting several others to sign it with you. This is particularly the case when trying to influence or change legislation, denouncing material from the media, and so forth. Do not threaten! If a company has repeatedly given you bad service and refuses to correct the situation and you feel that your only recourse is to pursue legal action, voice your feelings in a tactful but firm way. However, don't threaten legal action unless you are willing to follow through with it. Avoid making generalizations about the company or organization if your complaint letter focuses on a single individual. Use tact, and be direct, but respectful if you need to make a complaint to or about people that you will still have contact with on a regular basis, your complaint needs to accomplish its purpose without destroying the relationship. Include your contact information Include your name, address, phone number, and e-mail address, if desired, so that the person(s) can reach you to discuss any questions or concerns.

If a first letter does not bring action, assume a stronger but still respectful tone in the next one. If two or three letters do not resolve the problem, send one to the president or CEO of the company or entity. In each case, be firm but polite. CEO Chief Executive Officer

26

Vocabulary

Free time activities


camping tent backpack sleeping bag ten stakes hatchet fountain zoo water fountain tire swing lifeguard lifeguard stand life preserver snack bar refreshment stand sand dune bathing suit/ swimsuit jogging jogging suit running running shorts running shoes ping pong paddle ping pong table net ping pong ball frisbee frisbee karate karate outfit karate belt cycling/bicycling/biking bicycle/bike (bicycle) helmet skateboarding skateboard elbow pads squash squash racquet squash ball work out exercise equipment exercise bike billiards/pool pool table billiards balls pool stick skydiving parachute golf golf clubs golf ball horseback riding saddle reins stirrups weightlifting barbell weights gymnastics balance beam parallel bars mat horse trampoline handball handball handball glove racquetball safety goggles racquetball racquet roller skating roller skates knee pads box boxing gloves (boxing) trunks walking walking shoes bowling bowling ball bowling shoes tennis tennis racquet tennis ball wrestle wrestling uniform (wrestling) mat darts dartboard darts lantern camp stove hiking hiking boots compass trail map band shell bridle path bike rack seesaw rock swimmer wave surfer vendor sunbather suntan lotion / sunscreen mountain climbing hiking boots rock climbing rope harness jogging path duck pond bicycle path bikeway wading pool sand castle seashell/shell beach umbrella (beach) chair (beach) towel tube picnic (picnic) blanket thermos picnic basket rest rooms statue bench playground jungle gym sandbox bathing cap kickboard surfboard kite raft/air mattress beach ball picnic area picnic table grill trash can merry-go-round carousel monkey bars slide swings sand (beach) blanket sun hat sunglasses pail/bucket shovel cooler

27

hit pitch throw cach pass kick serve

bounce dribble shoot stretch bend walk run

hop skip jump kneel sit lie down reach

swing push pull lift swing dive shoot

push-up sit-up leg lift jumping jack deep knee bend somersault cartwheel handstand

Means of Transport
On the road
on foot by train by lorry by bicycle by underground by van by scooter by bus by motorcycle by coach by tram by car

In the water
by ship by boat by submarine by hovercraft

In the air
by plane by helicopter by zeppelin by hot air balloon

Use these verbs


to catch a bus to get on a bus to get off a bus to drive a car to ride a bike

28

Unit 5

Shopping

1. Read the following text.

What food do we need?

Ali: Im going shopping with Lyn. What food do we need? Beth: We havent got any bread or milk. Those are the most important things. Ali: What about fruit? Do we need apples? Or oranges? Beth: Oh, yes. We havent got any fruit. Can you get some bananas and a mango if they look nice? Ali: OK. Ill get some vegetables as well. What do you fancy? Beth: We need onions and tomatoes. Weve got some beef, havent we? Lets have mushrooms with it. Weve got broccoli already, so we dont need any of that. Ali: Shall I get something for dessert? Beth: Well, we dont need it, but Im sure well eat it if you get it! 2. Write the opposites of the words in bold.

29

3. Complete the following dialogue.

At the Chinese Take Away Shop


Assistant: ___________________________________________ Customer: Im still looking. Do you have any vegetable dishes? Assistant: ___________________________________________ Customer: Whats this Bean Curd with Mixed Vegetables? Assistant: ___________________________________________ Customer: That sounds good. And Ill take the crispy seaweed, a portion of plain fried noodles and some curry sauce. What does that come to? Assistant: ___________________________________________ Customer: I think Ill take another noodle dish. Which one is hot? Assistant: ___________________________________________ Customer: OK. Ill have one of those as well. Assistant: ___________________________________________ Customer: Will it be long? Assistant: ___________________________________________

4. Role play. Choose one of the following situations.


a) You are a customer. Yesterday you bought a jar of strawberry jam from the supermarket, but when you opened it, you saw something black inside. You have taken it back to the supermarket, and have asked to see the manager. b) You are the manager of the supermarket. There has been a problem with the jam; some people have complained of finding insects in it. You don't want any publicity about it, so you do as much as you can to make the customer happy. 5. Write a dialogue between the customer and the shop assistant.

30

The quantifiers: any / some

Some and any are used with countable and uncountable nouns, to describe an indefinite or incomplete quantity. Some is used in positive statements: I had some rice for lunch He's got some books from the library. It is also used in questions where we are sure about the answer: Did he give you some tea? (= I'm sure he did.) Is there some fruit juice in the fridge? (= I think there is) Some is used in situations where the question is not a request for information, but a method of making a request, encouraging or giving an invitation: Could I have some books, please? Why don't you take some books home with you? Would you like some books? Any is used in questions and with not in negative statements: Have you got any tea? He didn't give me any tea. I don't think we've got any coffee left.

Demonstrative pronouns
This / that / these / those / none / neither: demonstrative pronouns that substitute nouns when the nouns they replace can be understood from the context. They also indicate whether they are replacing singular or plural words and give the location of the object: Examples of demonstrative pronouns This: singular and near the speaker That: singular and at a distance from the speaker These: plural and near the speaker Those: plural and at a distance from the speaker

31

Question tags
Form
Positive statement - question tag negative You are Tom, aren't you? Negative statement - question tag positive He isn't Joe, is he?

Examples with auxiliaries


You've got a car, haven't you?

without auxiliaries (use: don't, doesn't, didn't)


They play football on Sundays, don't they? She plays football on Sundays, doesn't she? They played football on Sundays, didn't they?

Questions tags are used to keep a conversation going. You can agree or refuse to a sentence with a question tag.

You go to school, don't you? You agree. Yes, I do. You refuse. No, I don't.

You aren't from Germany, are you? You agree. No, I'm not. You refuse. Yes, I am.

32

Although the negative word not is not in the sentence, the sentence can be negative. Then we use the "positive" question tag. He never goes out with his dog, does he?

Have is a main verb in the sentence - two possibilities

We have a car, _____? We have a car, haven't we? mostly British English We have a car, don't we? mostly American English

We use will with the imperative (Simple Present). Open the window, will you? Don't open you books, will you?

We use shall after lets. Let's take the next bus, shall we?

Auxiliary must We must be at home at 8 pm, mustn't we? Yes, we must. No, we needn't.

33

Vocabulary
Supermarket

dairy products milk orange juice cream cheese canned goods soup package goods cereal macaroni juice apple juice grape juice beverages soda diet soda bottled water pineapple juice cranberry juice grapefruit juice powdered drink mix tomato juice juice paks fruit punch cookies rice crackers spaghetti noodles tuna fish (canned) vegetables (canned) fruit low-fat-milk cheese cottage cheese skim milk butter yogurt chocolate milk margarine eggs buttermilk sour cream

chicken turkey ribs swordfish meat ground beef seafood fish shellfish clams frozen foods ice cream deli roast beef corned beef potato salad

chicken legs duck sausages haddock

drumsticks leg of lamb ham trout

chicken breasts pork bacon

chicken wings pork chops flounder

steak

stewing meat

salmon oysters crabs

halibut scallops lobster shrimp mussels

frozen vegetables

frozen dinners

frozen lemonade

frozen orange juice

bologna Swiss cheese macaroni salad

salami provolone seafood salad

ham mozzarella

turkey cheddar cheese

34

snack foods potato chips popcorn condiments ketchup salt (cooking) oil coffee and tea coffee decaffeinated coffee/decaf coffee baking products flour jams and jellies jam household items sandwich bags plastic wrap pet food cat food paper products tissues straws baby products baby cereal checkout area aisle coupons plastic bag magazine shopping cart scanner paper bag (chewing) gum shopper/customer scale bagger/packer candy checkout counter cash register express checkout (line) shopping basket cashier tabloid (newspaper) conveyor belt formula baby food wipes (disposable) diapers napkins paper towels toilet paper paper cups paper plates dog food trash bags waxed paper soap liquid soap aluminum foil jelly marmalade peanut butter sugar cake mix tea herbal tea cocoa/hot chocolate mix mustard pepper olive oil relish spices vinegar pickles soy sauce salad dressing olives mayonnaise corn chips nuts tortilla chips peanuts nacho chips pretzels

35

Clothes
shirt/long-sleeved shirt flannel shirt corduroy pants sweater jacket/sports coat tie/necktie nightshirt (jokey) shorts long underwear/long johns slip socks loafers sandals cowboy boots rain hat coat half slip knee socks sneakers thongs/flip-flops moccasins ski hat raincoat stockings shoes tennis shoes boots hat gloves pantyhose (high) heels running shoes work boots cap parka tights pumps high tops hiking boots beret overcoat blouse skirt v-neck sweater blazer bowtie bathrobe/robe underpants (bikini) panties/underpants turtleneck dress cardigan sweater suit tuxedo slippers boxer shorts briefs pants/slacks jumpsuit overalls three-piece suit (evening) gown undershirt athletic supporter bra short-sleeved shirt dress shirt sport shirt polo shirt/jersey/sport shirt (blue) jeans shorts uniform vest pajamas tee shirt jockstrap camisole

Accessories
ring beads chain tie clip tie pin/tie tack tote bag shoulder bag wedding ring/ wedding band belt backpack book bag necklace earrings cuff links watch/wrist watch change purse/pocketbook/ purse/handbag pearl necklace/pearls key ring/key chain umbrella engagement ring pin

36

Unit 6

Directions

1. Read the following text.

Is it near?
Driver: Excuse me, is Orchard Road near here? Pedestrian: Orchard Road? Thats near the station, isnt it? Driver: I dont know Pedestrian: Yes, Im sure it is. But youre going the wrong way. Driver: So I need to turn round and go back down this road, do I? Pedestrian: No, wait. Just go up to the lights and turn left . Driver: What, these traffic lights, you mean? Pedestrian: Yes. Left at the lights, then left again at the first crossroads. Driver: And will that be Orchard Road? Pedestrian: Thats the High Street. If you go straight down there, past all the shops, youll come to the station. Go under the bridge, and Springfield Road is the first turning on the right. Driver: So, its left, left again, past the shops, under the bridge, and first on the right. Thank you so much.

2. Choose the right option. 2.1 The driver a) did not know the way to Orchard Road. b) did not know if Orchard Road was near the place he was. 2.2 The pedestrian a) told him first the way to Orchard Road. b) told him first the way to High Street. 2.3 The driver a) seemed confused with the given directions. b) did not seem confused with the given directions.

37

3. Complete the text using comparatives, superlatives.

4. Match the picture with its legend.

go downstairs ___

go upstairs___

go left___

go right ___

go straight on ___

38

Vocabulary

Shops
appliance store auto dealer/car dealer bakery bank book store bus station cafeteria child-care center/day-care center barber grocery store hotel maternity shop night club photo shop shoe store train station cleaners/dry cleaners hair salon ice cream shop motel park pizza shop (shopping) mall travel agency hardware store jewelry store movie theater (parking) garage post office supermarket video store health club/spa laundromat museum parking lot restaurant theater vision center/eyeglass store computer store department store gas station/service station hospital library music store pet shop school toy store zoo donut shop clinic clothing store coffee shop concert hall convenience store copy center delicatessen/deli discount store drug store/pharmacy flower shop/florist furniture store

Street
trash container street light bus stop parking meter bridge road median shoulder exit sign one-way street corner do not enter sign police station sidewalk taxi/cab/taxicab meter maid tollbooth divider/barrier left lane broken line yield sign double yellow line traffic light/traffic signal stop sign jail curb taxi driver/cab driver subway exact change lane overpass middle lane solid line service area crosswalk no left turn sign courthouse street bus subway station route sign underpass center lane speed limit sign railroad crossing intersection no right turn sign bench manhole bus driver tunnel highway entrance ramp/on ramp right lane exit (ramp) street school crossing no u-turn sign

39

Street signs

Disabled only.

Don't enter.

Stop.

Don't overtake.

Don't drive over 40.

Don't stop here.

Don't turn right.

Turn round

Keep left.

Turn left.

Don't walk through.

Turn left.

Don't turn back.

Go straight on.

Don't turn left.

Don't cycle here.

Cycle here

Crossroads ahead.

Give way.

Don't park here.

40

Unit 7

Health

1. Read the texts and identify the health problems.

How are you?


Doctor: How are you, Mrs. Young? Patient: Ive been having terrible headaches, recently. Theyre so bad I have to stay in bed. Doctor: Oh dear! Have you taken any pain killers? Patient: Yes. I take the strongest ones I can get from the Chemists. Doctor: You mustnt take too many of those. Have you been under any stress at work or at home? Patient: Well, I lost my job last year, my husband left me.

What seems to be the problem?


Doctor: What seems to be the problem, Mr. Taylor? Patient: My back aches. Doctor: Is there any reason for that that you know of? Patient: Yes. It started hurting after I did some decorating work at home. I had to lift some heavy blocks. Doctor: Well, you must be careful at your age, and ask for help when you need it. Now youll have to rest until it is better. And Ill give you a prescription for painkillers, and some ointment to rub on. Patient: Thank you, doctor.

Tell me what the problem is


Doctor: Good morning. Sit down and tell me what the problem is. Patient: Ive got a terrible cough, and a sore throat. Doctor: How long have you been suffering with this problem? Patient: For about 10 days. Doctor: When is the cough worst? Patient: Its always bad at night and in the morning. All day in fact. Doctor: Im going to listen to your chest. Youll need to take off your shirt. Patient: Is it OK if I pull it up, like this? Doctor: Yes, thats fine. Breathe in for me, would you? Breathe out. Now, hold your breath until I tell you to stop. Patient: Sorry. I couldnt hold it any longer. Doctor: OK. Ive heard enough. Youve got a nasty infection. Ill have to give you some antibiotics to clear it up. Have you had them before? Patient: Yes, but I cant take some of them. Im allergic to penicillin. Doctor: Dont worry. Ill give you a different sort. Patient: Thank you, Doctor.

41

2. Complete the following dialogue.


Doctor: Mrs. Smithers? Come in. How are you today? Patient: Not too well, Im afraid. Ive got a stomachache and I feel sick. Doctor: Do you have any trouble with your digestion? Patient: ___________________________________________ Doctor: Are you eating well? Have you lost your appetite? Patient: ___________________________________________ Doctor: Are your bowel movements normal? Patient: ___________________________________________ Doctor: Id like you to take this medicine. Heres a prescription. Patient: ___________________________________________ Doctor: You need to have an X-ray. Take these notes with you to the hospital.

42

Vocabulary

Human body
head eye pupil nostril tooth-teeth neck arm buttocks shin muscles heel hand fingernail toe hair eyebrow cornea cheek tongue shoulder armpit pancreas leg wrist esophagus (index) finger knuckle big toe forehead eyelid ear jaw sideburn chest elbow thigh bones thumb gallbladder middle finger foot toenail temple eyelashes earlobe mouth mustache abdomen waist knee heart throat windpipe stomach pinky/little finger ankle veins face iris nose lip beard back hip calf brain liver kidneys palm little toe arteries

Health
headache sore throat infection runny nose cramps faint exhausted vomit/throw up scratch hurt-hurt nurse medical technician pediatrician examination table thermometer adhesive tape earache fever/temperature rash bloody nose diarrhea dizzy cough bleed scrape cut-cut x-ray technician dentist cardiologist eye chart gloves cotton balls toothache cold insect bite cavity wart chest pain nauseous sneeze twist bruise swollen doctor/physician (oral) hygienist optometrist scale blood pressure gauge drill anesthetic/Novocain stomachache cough sunburn (the) hiccups shortness of breath bloated wheeze sprain burn itchy lab technician obstetrician surgeon x-ray machine needle/syringe emergency gynecologist psychiatrist stethoscope bandages/gauze backache virus stiff neck (the) chills laryngitis congested burp dislocate break-broke

43

44

Unit 8

Banking

1. Read the texts and complete the missing words.

May I help you?


Bank Clerk: Good morning, madam. How may I help you? Customer: I want to query this transaction on my statement. Bank Clerk: What is the problem with it? Customer: Ive had 25.70 debited from my ________________ but I dont know why. Bank Clerk: Well it has been debited through your ________________, and this is the name of the place where you spent the ________________. The Maypole Pub in Trafalgar Square. Customer: But Ive never been to the Maypole Pub! It must be a mistake.

A very high interest rate


Bank Clerk: Good afternoon, sir. Customer: Id like to ________________ some money from my ________________ account. Can you tell me how much I can take out without notice? Bank Clerk: Im afraid you have to give 3 months notice for any withdrawals from that account, sir. You get a very high interest ________________ because of that. Customer: But I need the money urgently. You must be able to arrange it for me. Bank Clerk: No, Im sorry sir. It cant be done. Customer: Look, you really must help me. Thats my money, and I want it now! Bank Clerk: If youd like to wait over there, sir, Ill get the ________________for you. Customer: Thank you very much.

45

Vocabulary

Bank
checkbook credit card money order security guard check register ATM card loan application automatic teller (machine) monthly statement deposit slip (bank) vault atm (machine) bank book withdrawal slip safe deposit box bank officer travelers checks check teller

46

Answer keys
Page 3 Sam answered he lived in Hillingdon. Sam answered he had two sons and a daughter.

Page 4

pleased / expect / grown up / mother-in-law / know / soon / pop in / coincidence

Page 11

She is Barry Flanderss mother. No, she is not. It is not said. The teacher only mentions Math. b a

Page 12

E A F B G I H C D

Page 16

She had worked in a dentists reception for two years. No, she was not.

Transcription

Wont you sit down? Have you worked in a place like this before? Have you ever worked as a receptionist? In what way?

Page 23

Yes, she was. No, she does not. On Fridays. He usually goes with his friends. Yes, she did. She wanted a lift because its too hard to get there on public transport.

Page 24

Two star hotels Five star hotels

47

One star hotels Four star hotels Three star hotels

Page 29

some / these / without / unsure

Page 30

Are you ready to order, madam? Its what they call To Fu in the supermarkets. It is deep fried before we add the vegetables. Thatll be 7.20. Singapore style is hot. It has chilies and a slight curry flavor. That makes 10.80 altogether. Not long, about a quarter of an hour.

Page 36

b/b/b

Page 38

the most popular line / easier / far / the cheapest / bigger than / the better / less safe / more enjoyable than / suitable 2 4 5 3 1

Page 41

headache / back ache / cough / sore throat / infection / allergy

Page 42

Yes, I havent felt good for the last couple weeks. No, I am not. I have in fact lost my appetite. No, not at all. What shall I do?

Page 44

account / debit card / money transfer / savings / rate / manager

48

Bibliography
Englisch-hilfen.de Learning English online (n.d.). Consulta realizada a 11 de Junho de 2009 a partir de http://www.englischhilfen.de/en/exercises/transport/check.php (grammar) Dubicka, Iwonna & OKeeffe, Margaret (2003). English for International Tourism, pre-intermediate students book. Pearson Education Limited

Molinsky, Steven J. & Bliss, Bill (1994). Word by word Picture dictionary. Prentice-Hall, Inc. New York

UsingEnglish.com (n.d.). Consulta realizada a 11 de Junho de 2009 a partir de http://www.usingenglish.com/glossary/demonstrative-pronoun.html Write Express unblocking writers block (n.d.). Consulta realizada a 11 de Junho de 2009 a partir de http://www.writeexpress.com/complaint.htm

49