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link-state routing protocols Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) ====== SPF Algorithm

Dijkstra's algorithm or shortest path first (SPF) algorithm. This algorithm accumulates costs along each path, from source to destination. ===== Link-State Routing Process 1. Each router learns about its own links, its own directly connected networks. 2. Each router is responsible for meeting its neighbors on directly connected ne tworks. 3. Each router builds a Link-State Packet (LSP) containing the state of each dir ectly connected link. 4. Each router floods the LSP to all neighbors, who then store all LSPs received in a database. 5. Each router uses the database to construct a complete map of the topology and computes the best path to each destination network. ==== Link-state information includes The The The Any ==== link-state routing protocols reach convergence much faster than distance vector routing protocols. Because: Distance vector routing protocols must first run the Bellman-Ford algorithm to p rocess routing updates before sending them to other routers. Link-state routing protocols calculate the SPF algorithm after the flooding is c omplete ===== LSPs do not need to be sent periodically An LSP only needs to be sent: During initial startup of the router or of the routing protocol process on that routerWhenever there is a change in the topology, including a link going down or coming up, or a neighbor adjacency being established or broken LSP also includs sequence numbers and aging information to help router only keep the most current information in its link-state database. ==== Advantages of link-state routing protocols interface's IP address and subnet mask. type of network, such as Ethernet (broadcast) or Serial point-to-point link. cost of that link. neighbor routers on that link.

Each router builds its own topological map of the network to determine the short est path. Immediate flooding of LSPs achieves faster convergence. LSPs are sent only when there is a change in the topology and contain only the i nformation regarding that change. Hierarchical design used when implementing multiple areas. ==== To reduce the size of the link-state databases The use and configuration of multiple areas can reduce the size of the link-stat e databases. Multiple areas can also limit the amount of link-state information flooding in a routing domain and send LSPs only to those routers that need them. ==== Requirements of Link-State Routing Protocols Memory for database CPU for SPF algorithm Bandwidth for flooding ==== OSPF - Degined by IETF in 1987 OSPFv2: OSPF for IPv4 networks (RFC 1247 and RFC 2328) OSPFv3: OSPF for IPv6 networks (RFC 2740) IS-IS - Designed by ISO ISO 10589 Integrated IS-IS, Dual IS-IS supports IP networks Used mainly by ISPs and carriers