UTOMATIC
YNAMIC
NCREMENTAL
ONLINEAR
NALYSIS
TRANSOR for FEMAP
User Guide
Report ARD 1016
September 2010
ADINA R & D, Inc.
TRANSOR for FEMAP User Guide
September 2010
ADINA R & D, Inc. 71 Elton Avenue Watertown, MA 02472 USA
tel. (617) 9265199 telefax (617) 9260238 www.adina.com
Notices
ADINA R & D, Inc. owns both this software program system and its documentation. Both the program system and the documentation are copyrighted with all rights reserved by ADINA R & D, Inc.
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.
ADINA R & D, Inc. makes no warranty whatsoever, expressed or implied that the Program and its documentation including any modifications or updates are free from errors or defects. In no event shall ADINA R&D, Inc. become liable to the User or any party for any loss, including but not limited to, loss of time, money or goodwill, which may arise from the use of the Program and its documentation including any modifications and updates.
Trademarks
ADINA is a registered trademark of K.J. Bathe / ADINA R & D, Inc.
All other product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
Copyright Notice
” ADINA R & D, Inc. 2010 September 2010 Printing Printed in the USA
Table of Contents
TRANSOR for FEMAP User Guide
Table of Contents
1 Introduction 
4 

1.1 Install and uninstall TRANSOR for FEMAP in FEMAP 
4 

1.2 Explanation of ADINA menu entries of TRANSOR for FEMAP 
5 

1.2.1 Model Settings menu 
5 

1.2.2 FSI Boundary Conditions menu 
10 

1.2.3 Initial Conditions menu 
10 

1.2.4 Analysis Settings menu 
11 

1.2.4.1 Static Analysis Settings 
11 

1.2.4.2 Dynamic Implicit Analysis Settings 
13 

1.2.4.3 Dynamic Explicit Analysis Settings 
15 

1.2.4.4 Frequency/Mode Analysis Settings 
17 

1.2.4.5 Mode Superposition Analysis Settings 
19 

1.2.5 General Solution Settings menu 
20 

1.2.6 Nonlinear Solution Settings menu 
24 

1.2.7 Analyze menu 
27 

1.2.8 Load Results menu 
28 

1.2.9 User Guide menu 
28 

1.3 
Explanation of ADINA CFD menu entries of TRANSOR for FEMAP 
28 
1.3.1 Materials menu 
29 

1.3.2 Boundary Conditions menu 
33 

1.3.3 Initial Conditions menu 
40 

1.3.4 Analysis Settings menu 
41 

1.3.5 General Solution Settings menu 
45 

1.3.6 CFD Analyze menu 
48 

1.3.7 FSI Analyze menu 
49 

1.3.8 Load Results menu 
50 

2 TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA Structures 
51 

2.1 Translation of Coordinate Systems 
51 

2.2 Translation of Finite Element Entities 
51 

2.2.1 Node 
51 

2.2.2 Element 
51 

2.2.2.1 Line Elements 
51 

2.2.2.2 Plane Elements 
52 

2.2.2.3 Volume Elements 
53 

2.2.2.4 Other Elements 
53 

2.2.3 
Material 
53 
2.2.3.1 Isotropic Materials 
53 

2.2.3.2 Other Types Materials 
54 

2.3 
Translation of Loads 
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2.3.1 
Finite Element Loads 
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2.3.1.1 Body Loads 
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2.3.1.2 Nodal Loads 
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2.3.1.3 Elemental Loads 
55 

2.3.1.4 Nonlinear Force Loads 
55 

2.3.2 
Geometric Loads 
55 
2.4 Translation of Constraints 
56 

2.5 Translation of Connections and Regions 
56 

2.5.1 Translation of Connections 
56 

2.5.2 Translation of Regions 
56 

2.6 Translation of Functions 
57 

2.7 Translation of Initial Conditions 
57 

2.8 Example 1 
57 

2.9 Example 2 
69 

3 TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA CFD 
84 

3.1 Translation of Coordinate Systems 
84 

3.2 Translation of Finite Element Entities 
84 

3.2.1 Node 
84 

3.2.2 Element 
84 

3.2.2.1 Line Elements 
84 

3.2.2.2 Plane Elements 
84 

3.2.2.3 Volume Elements 
85 

3.2.2.4 Other Elements 
85 

3.2.3 
Material 
85 
3.3 Translation of Loads 
85 

3.4 Translation of Constraints 
86 

3.5 Translation of Functions 
86 

3.6 ADINA CFD Material Models 
86 

3.6.1 Constant Material Model 
86 

3.6.2 Kε Turbulence Model 
87 

3.6.3 RNG Kε Turbulence Model 
88 

3.7 
ADINA CFD Boundary Conditions 
88 
3.7.1 Wall Boundary Conditions 
89 

3.7.2 FSI Boundary Conditions 
90 

3.7.3 Boundary Pressure Boundary Conditions 
91 

3.7.4 Fixed Pressure Boundary Conditions 
91 

3.7.5 Inlet Velocity Boundary Conditions 
92 

3.7.6 Inlet Turbulence Boundary Conditions 
92 

3.8 ADINA CFD Initial Conditions 
92 

3.9 ADINA CFD Elements 
93 

3.9.1 2D FCBI elements (3 and 4node) 
93 

3.9.2 3D FCBI elements (4, 5, 6 and 8node) 
94 

3.9.3 FCBIC elements 
96 

3.10 
Example 
97 
4 TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA OneWay FluidStructure Interaction 
110 
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Table of Contents
4.1 Introduction 
110 
4.2 Running Oneway FSI 
110 
4.3 Example 
111 
Appendix1: List of Figures 
132 
Appendix2: List of Tables 
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Chapter 1: Introduction
1
Introduction
TRANSOR for FEMAP is a graphical user interface between FEMAP and ADINA. It allows users to use FEMAP for all their pre and postprocessing and use ADINA as the solver. It is targeted to users who are familiar with the FEMAP environment but wish to benefit from the powerful features of the ADINA solver.
TRANSOR for FEMAP is fully integrated within the FEMAP environment and communicates with FEMAP using its Application Programming Interface (API). For pre processing, TRANSOR for FEMAP is activated inside a FEMAP session and it can access the FEMAP database directly. For postprocessing, TRANSOR for FEMAP can convert the ADINA results to FEMAP neutral file which can be imported into FEMAP directly.
1.1 Install and uninstall TRANSOR for FEMAP in FEMAP
TRANSOR for FEMAP installation and uninstallation are activated through “Custom Tools” toolbar as shown below.
If “Custom Tools” toolbar is not visible in the FEMAP main window, please activate it using the Tools, Toolbars. menu.
For Windows Vista user, please run FEMAP by selecting “run application as Administrator” inside Femap.exe before the above installation step.
After installation, two new menus named ADINA and ADINA CFD will be added to the right of the Help menu in FEMAP with the following content:
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ADINA Model Parameters Model Settings FSI Boundary Conditions Initial Conditions
Analysis Parameters Analysis Settings General Solution Settings Nonlinear Solution Settings Analyze Load Results User Guide
ADINA CFD Model Parameters Materials Boundary Conditions Initial Conditions Analysis Parameters Analysis Settings General Solution Settings CFD Analyze FSI Analyze
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.2 Explanation of ADINA menu entries of TRANSOR for FEMAP
1.2.1 Model Settings menu
The “Model Settings” menu is used to input the settings that are part of the model, not the solution. It includes element settings, material settings, contact settings, etc.
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• Master Degrees of Freedom
A degree of freedom not selected by this parameter is deleted from the entire model. The default is for all degrees of freedom to be active.
• Kinematics Settings
Kinematics settings define the kinematic formulation.
Displacements/Rotations Small: small displacements and rotations are assumed. Large: large displacements and rotations are assumed. (Default is Small).
Strains Small: small strains are assumed. Large: large strains are assumed. (Default is Small).
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Note: Large strains are only admissible for element groups of type 2D solid, 3D solid and shell with certain material models.
Large Strain Formulation: specifies the large strain formulation to be used for 2D solid, 3D solid and shell elements. Default: ULH is used for implicit analysis and ULJ is used for explicit analysis. ULH: updated Lagrangian Hencky formulation is used. ULJ: updated Lagrangian Jaumann formulation is used.
• Element Settings
Use Incompatible Modes: specifies whether incompatible modes are included in the formulations of 4node 2D and shell elements and 8node 3D elements. (Default is Automatic, which disables “Incompatible Modes” for explicit analysis, and otherwise enables “Incompatible Modes”).
u/p Formulation for Almost Incompressible: indicates use of either displacement or u/p interpolation formulation. The default selection (unchecked) assumes a u/p formulation for element groups with material models Ogden, MooneyRivlin, and ArrudaBoyce. For all other material models the default selection (unchecked) assumes a displacement formulation. (Default is unchecked).
• Material Settings
Extrapolate StressStrain Curves: automatically extend the stressstrain curves to a strain value of 100.0 by default. (Default is checked).
Convert from Engineering to True StressStrain: converts stressstrain curve input from engineering stressstrain to true stressstrain. (Default is unchecked).
• Mass Matrix Settings
Mass matrix settings select the type of mass matrix to be used in implicit dynamic analysis. For static analyses, the mass matrix type is used only in evaluating centrifugal and massproportional loads. Note that lumped mass is always used in explicit analysis. (Default is Consistent).
Consistent: consistent mass matrix. Lumped: lumped (diagonalized) mass matrix.
• Rayleigh Damping Settings
Rayleigh damping settings specify the coefficients which define a consistent damping matrix C as a linear combination of the system mass matrix M and the system stiffness matrix K.
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Alpha: Rayleigh damping factor α. (Default α = 0.0). Beta: Rayleigh damping factor β. (Default β = 0.0).
Note: The specification of Rayleigh damping is ignored for both a frequency analysis and a mode superposition analysis.
• Other Settings
Calculate Reactions: indicates whether reaction forces and moments corresponding to fixed or prescribed degrees of freedom are evaluated and printed into ADINA .out file. (Default is checked).
Bolt Force Increments: specifies the number of steps to iterate for calculation of bolt force. (Default is 1).
Rigid Link Displacement: specifies the kinematic formulation for rigid link. Default: As set by “Kinematics Settings”. Small: Small displacement formulation. Large: Large displacement formulation.
• Shell Settings
Shell Thickness Integration Type: specifies the type of numerical integration through the shell thickness. (Default is Gauss Integration).
Shell Thickness Integration Order: specifies the integration order through the shell thickness. (Default is 2 for Gauss Integration; 5 for NewtonCotes and Trapezoidal Integrations).
Stiffness Factor for Nodes with Zero Drilling Stiffness: assigns drilling stiffness to rotational degrees of freedom with zero stiffness associated with shell nodes connected to beams, rigid links, etc. The actual stiffness used is obtained by multiplying this factor by the rotational stiffness at the shell nodes. (Default is 0.0001).
Use 3DShell Element: indicates whether to use 3Dshell elements. (Default is unchecked).
Include Warping Rotation DOF: indicates whether to include warping rotation degree of freedom in 3Dshell elements. (Default is unchecked).
Use Tying to Prevent Locking: indicates whether to use tying in 3Dshell elements for locking prevention. (Default is checked).
Number of u/p DOFs in RS Plane: specifies the number of pressure degree of freedom used in the u/p formulation in rs plane of 3Dshell elements. (Default is Automatic).
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Number of u/p DOFs in T Direction: specifies the number of pressure degree of freedom used in the u/p formulation in t direction of 3Dshell elements. (Default is Automatic).
• Contact Settings
Default Contact Displacement Formulation: specifies the default displacement formulation used for contact analysis. (Default is Large).
Allow Tensile Consistent Contact Forces on Quadratic 3D Elements: specifies whether to allow tensile consistent contact forces (quadratic 3D elements only). (Default is unchecked).
No. of Iterations to Pairing Contact Node to Target Segment: indicates the number of iterations for which previous target segments are stored for contactor nodes in order to suppress oscillation between adjacent segments. Such oscillation can occur when a contactor node approaches the junction between two adjacent target segments. The default value is zero, which indicates that no such checking and associated storage are required. When the number of iterations is larger than zero, it allows such oscillation to be detected and eliminated.
Notes:
1. The maximum number of iterations is 99.
2. This parameter has no effect if the nodetonode contact algorithm is used.
3. This parameter should be less than the maximum number of equilibrium iterations.
Use Automatic Orientation of Contact Surfaces: indicates whether the contact surface orientations are determined by ADINA. That is important in contact analysis involving shells or rigid contact surfaces. In these cases the user had the burden to determine which is the proper contact side. The automatic determination will be based on individual contact pairs. (Default is unchecked).
• 9/27Node Element Conversion
9/27Node Element Conversion converts 2D solid, 3D solid or shell elements by changing the number of nodes of the element.
Convert Elements from 8/20 Nodes to 9/27 Nodes: indicates whether to convert 8node to 9node quadrilateral elements and 20node to 27node brick elements. (Default is unchecked).
Element Type to be Converted: selects the type of element to be converted. (Default is 2D Solid).
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Assign Skew System to Created Nodes: indicates whether skew system is assigned to newly created nodes if all other nodes on the element face are assigned a skew system. (Default is unchecked).
Assign Loads and Initial Conditions to Created Nodes: indicates whether existing nodalbased prescribed loads (e.g., displacement, temperature, velocity) and initial conditions are applied on the newly created nodes. (Default is unchecked).
Check Nodal Coincidence against All Nodes: indicates whether nodal coincidence is checked with newly generated nodes or all existing nodes. When a node already exists at a location, no new node will be created. (Default is unchecked).
1.2.2 FSI Boundary Conditions menu
The “FSI Boundary Conditions” menu provides the definition of fluidstructure interface for ADINA Structures. The FSI boundary conditions can be applied to curve/element edge for 2D model and surface/element face for 3D model.
Model Type: indicates the model dimension.
General 3D: 3D model. 2D in YZ: 2D model in YZ plane.
1.2.3 Initial Conditions menu
In the “Initial Conditions” menu all the user defined load sets in FEMAP appear in the dropdown list. The user can pick one of them to use for initial conditions.
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1.2.4 Analysis Settings menu
The “Analysis Settings” menu is used to set all analysis specific input required for ADINA Structures. It includes detailed settings for static, implicit dynamic, explicit dynamic, frequency, and modal superposition analyses.
1.2.4.1 Static Analysis Settings
• Automatic Time Stepping (ATS)
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ATS Scheme: selects a method of automatic incrementation control during analysis, such as Automatic Time Stepping (ATS), Total Load Application (TLA), and TLA with Stabilization (TLAS). (Default is None. When the analysis involves fluidstructure interaction, the default is Automatic Time Stepping (ATS)).
ATS Settings
Max Subdivisions Allowed: specifies the maximum number of permitted subdivisions of any given time step. For a time step of magnitude ∆t, the program will not attempt to subdivide below a time step of magnitude (∆t divided by this value). (Default is 10).
Max Time Step Factor: a factor that limits the maximum time step that can be attained during analysis. (Default is 3.0).
Factor for Dividing Time Step: specifies the division factor used to calculate time step subincrements. (Default is 2.0).
For Next Time Step: indicates whether the original time step, attempted before ATS subdivision occurred, will be used again for the next time step after convergence. (Default is “Determined by ADINA”).
TLA Settings
Number of Time Steps: specifies the number of time steps to use for the solution. (Default is 50).
Max Number of Iterations: specifies the maximum number of equilibrium iterations allowed to achieve convergence in any time step (subdivided or accelerated). (Default is 30, and the maximum value is 999).
Max Incremental Displacement Factor: specifies the maximum incremental displacement factor. The maximum incremental displacement allowed in any iteration is equal to this factor multiplied by the maximum model dimension. (Default is 0.05).
TLAS Settings
Stiffness Matrix Stabilization Factor: specifies the stiffness matrix stabilization factor. (Default is 1.0E10).
LowSpeed Dynamics Damping Factor: specifies the lowspeed dynamics damping factor. (Default is 1.0E4).
LowSpeed Dynamics Inertia Factor: specifies the lowspeed dynamics inertia factor. (Default is 1.0).
Contact Damping Factor: specifies the contact damping factor. (Default is 1.0E3).
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• Model Stabilization
Chapter 1: Introduction
Use LowSpeed Dynamics: indicates whether or not the lowspeed dynamics option is to be used. (Default is unchecked).
LowSpeed Dynamics Damping Factor: specifies the lowspeed dynamics damping factor. (Default is 1.0E4).
LowSpeed Dynamics Inertia Factor: specifies the lowspeed dynamics inertia factor. (Default is 1.0).
Stiffness Matrix Stabilization: sets the option to stabilize the stiffness matrix. (Default is No).
Stabilization Factor: specifies the stiffness matrix stabilization factor. (Default is 1.0E
10).
Contact Damping
Apply Contact Damping: indicates whether damping stabilization is applied for contact analysis. (Default is No).
Normal Contact Damping Coefficient: specifies the normal contact damping coefficient. (Default is 0.0).
Tangential Contact Damping Coefficient: specifies the tangential contact damping coefficient. (Default is 0.0).
Note: Refer to the ADINA manuals for more information on these options.
1.2.4.2 Dynamic Implicit Analysis Settings
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• Automatic Time Stepping (ATS) Scheme
ATS Scheme: selects a method of automatic incrementation control during analysis. (Default is None. When the analysis involves fluidstructure interaction, the default is Automatic Time Stepping (ATS)).
ATS Settings
Max Subdivisions Allowed: specifies the maximum number of permitted subdivisions of any given time step. (Default is 10).
Max Time Step Factor: a factor that limits the maximum time step that can be attained during analysis. (Default is 3.0).
Factor for Dividing Time Step: specifies the division factor used to calculate time step subincrements. (Default is 2.0).
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For Next Time Step: indicates whether the original time step, attempted before ATS subdivision occurred, will be used again for the next time step after convergence. (Default is “Determined by ADINA”).
• Time Integration Method
Method: selects the method to be used for direct time integration. (Default is Newmark).
Delta: coefficient for the Newmark method. (Default is 0.5 and Delta ≥ 0.5).
Alpha: coefficient for the Newmark method. (Default is 0.25 and Alpha > 0.0).
Gamma: coefficient for the BatheComposite method. (Default is 0.5 and 0.0 < Gamma < 1.0).
• Contact Damping
Apply Contact Damping: indicates whether damping stabilization is applied for contact analysis. (Default is No).
Normal Contact Damping Coefficient: specifies the normal contact damping coefficient. (Default is 0.0).
Tangential Contact Damping Coefficient: specifies the tangential contact damping coefficient. (Default is 0.0).
1.2.4.3 Dynamic Explicit Analysis Settings
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Chapter 1: Introduction
• Time Step Control
Time Step: indicates the method of time step selection for explicit analysis. (Default is “Automatic (Use Total Time Specified)”).
Time Step Magnitude Update Frequency: defines how often the time step magnitude is updated in explicit analysis. (Default is 1.0).
Time Step Magnitude Scaling Factor: factor used to scale the calculated time step in explicit analysis. (Default is 0.0).
Global Mass Scaling Factor: specifies the factor to scale the mass (densities) of the entire model (at the beginning of the analysis) to increase the critical time step size required for stability when the explicit time integration scheme is used. (Default is 1.0).
Minimum Time Step (Mass Scaling): specifies the minimum time step size used to determine if mass scaling will be applied to elements (at the beginning of the analysis). (Default is 0.0).
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Minimum Time Step (Element Removal): specifies the minimum time step size used to determine if an element will be removed in an explicit time integration analysis. (Default is 0.0).
1.2.4.4 Frequency/Mode Analysis Settings
• Solution Method
Specifies the method of frequency calculation. (Default is Subspace Iteration).
• Output Settings
Calculated Modal Stresses: indicates whether or not to calculate modal stresses for post processing. (Default is unchecked).
Output Intermediate Solution Information: specifies whether or not the intermediate solution information is printed. (Default is unchecked).
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• Lanczos Settings
Use Shifting Procedure: specifies whether to use automatic shifting procedure for the Lanczos iteration method. When the number of frequencies to be calculated is large, using the automatic shifting procedure can reduce the computation time significantly. (Default is Automatic).
No. of Frequencies per Shift: specifies the number of frequencies to be calculated for each shift in the Lanczos iteration method. (Default is 50).
• Frequency Range
Calculated Frequency in an Interval: specifies whether or not the lowest frequency calculation by the subspace and the Lanczos iteration methods are confined to a specified interval. (Default is unchecked).
Lower Bound: indicates the lower bound frequency (radians/time) of the interval in which the subspace iteration method and the Lanczos iteration method calculate the lowest frequencies. (Default is 0.0).
Upper Bound: indicates the upper bound frequency (radians/time) of the interval in which the subspace iteration method and the Lanczos iteration method calculate the lowest frequencies. (Default is “Cutoff Circular Frequency”).
• Frequencies/Mode Shapes
Number of Frequencies/Mode Shapes: specifies the number of frequencies and corresponding mode shapes to be calculated. The actual number of frequencies calculated may be reduced whenever the maximum, specified either by the cutoff circular frequency or the upper bound on the solution interval (for the subspace iteration method), has been exceeded. (Default is 1).
Number of Mode Shapes to be Printed: indicates the number of mode shapes to be printed in the results output file. (Default is 0).
• Solution Settings
Allow Rigid Body Mode: specifies whether or not rigid body modes are allowed. Should be used when the lowest frequency may be zero, or any part of the model may be insufficiently supported. (Default is unchecked).
Rigid Body Mode Shift: indicates the rigid body mode shift to be applied when “Allow Rigid Body Mode” is checked. (Default is 0.0, and this will result in a value being automatically determined by the analysis program).
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Cutoff Circular Frequency: specifies the cutoff circular frequency (radians/time). The frequency calculation is stopped if “Cutoff Circular Frequency” has been exceeded. (Default is 1.0E8).
Max. Number of Iterations per Eigenpair: specifies the maximum number of iterations per eigenpair (frequency, mode shape) allowed during solution. (Default is 24).
• Subspace Settings
Use Acceleration Scheme: specifies whether or not acceleration schemes (shifting and overrelaxation) are to be employed during subspace iteration. (Default is unchecked).
No. of Iteration Vectors Used Simultaneously: indicates the number of iteration vectors to be used simultaneously by the subspace iteration method. (Default equals the min(2 * “Number of Frequencies/Mode Shapes”, “Number of Frequencies/Mode Shapes” + 8) if “Calculated Frequency in an Interval” is checked. Default is 16 if “Calculated Frequency in an Interval” is unchecked).
Convergence Tolerance: indicates the convergence tolerance used by the subspace and the Lanczos iteration methods in the iteration for frequency values. (Default is 1.0E6 if “Calculated Frequency in an Interval” is unchecked and “Subspace Iteration” method is used. Default is 1.0E10 if “Calculated Frequency in an Interval” is checked and “Subspace Iteration” method is used. Default is 1.0E9 if “Lanczos Iteration” method is used).
Starting Vectors: specifies the method of generating starting vectors for the subspace iteration method. (Default is Lanczos).
Standard: standard starting vectors are used. Lanczos: the Lanczos method is used to generate starting vectors.
Number of UserProvided Starting Vectors: indicates the number of userprovided starting iteration vectors for the subspace iteration method. (Default is 0).
1.2.4.5 Mode Superposition Analysis Settings
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Chapter 1: Introduction
• Frequencies and Normal Modes Data
Calculate Frequencies & Mode Shapes: indicates that ADINA Structures is to first perform a frequency analysis (in the same run). (Default is checked).
Read from File (<problem filename>.mds): indicates that the frequencies and mode shapes are assumed available, on file, from a previous analysis. (Default is unchecked).
Number of Modes to Use: specifies the number of modes for a mode superposition analysis. (Default is 0).
All other explanations for this dialog box are the same as “Frequency/Mode Analysis Settings” in section 1.2.4.4.
1.2.5 General Solution Settings menu
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The “General Solution Settings” menu provides the settings that are part of the solution process for both linear and nonlinear analysis. It mainly includes time steps, solver, and restart analysis options.
• General
Solution Start Time: specifies the solution start time. For a restart run it must equal a solution time at which data was saved from a previous run. (Default is 0.0).
Continue Even When NonPositive Definite Stiffness Matrix Encountered: specifies the preferred behavior of ADINA Structures when a zero or negative diagonal element is encountered, i.e. when the system matrix is not positive definite. When checked, ADINA Structures will always continue execution. If an exact zero pivot is encountered, ADINA assigns a very large number to the diagonal term, effectively attaching a very stiff spring to the degree of freedom. When unchecked, ADINA Structures stops if the stiffness matrix is not positive definite for a linear analysis. For a nonlinear analysis, ADINA Structures stops if the stiffness matrix is not positive definite unless the automatic time stepping (ATS) option is used, or a contact analysis is being performed. (Default is unchecked).
• Solver
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Equation Solver: selects the type of solution algorithm used to solve the equilibrium equation system. (Default is Sparse Solver).
Sparse: a sparsematrix solver is used. 3DIterative: an iterative solver is used for models with relatively large number of 3D higher order elements. Multigrid: a multigrid solver is used.
Solver Settings: defines control data for the iterative solution of the matrix system of equilibrium equations.
Max Iterations: specifies the maximum number of iterations for the iterative solver to converge. (Default is 200 for a 3DIterative solver; 1000 for a Multigrid solver).
Epsilon a Tolerance: specifies the convergence tolerance for the iterative solver. (Default is 1.0E6).
Epsilon b Tolerance: specifies the convergence tolerance for the iterative solver. (Default is 1.0E4).
Epsilon i Tolerance: specifies the convergence tolerance for the iterative solver. (Default is 1.0E8).
Shift Factor: factor used to make preconditioning more effective within the iterative solver. Values of Shift Factor greater than 1.0 makes the preconditioning matrix more diagonally dominant. (Not used for the 3DIterative solver. Default is 1.0).
Note 1: For the 3DIterative solver, only “Epsilon b Tolerance” is used in the convergence checking.
Note 2: Refer to the ADINA manuals for more information on these options.
• Solution Diagnostics
Solution diagnostics provides diagnostic information to the user about the progress of
solution, the mesh, the analysis settings or results.
For Overall Solution: diagnostics of solution progress. It outputs a wide range of information about the progress of solution. Output includes material points switching from elastic to plastic, contact nodes changing status, loose convergence tolerances, ATS performance, and matrix illconditioning. (Default is None).
None: No diagnostic checking. Minimal: Only critical information is output. Detailed: Output all detected issues.
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Related to Contact: diagnostics of contact definitions (at the start of solution). (Default is None).
None: No diagnostic checking. Minimal: Only critical information is output. Detailed: Output all detected issues.
• Restart Analysis Options
Restart Previous Analysis: when checked ADINA Structures performs a restart analysis, reading data from a previous run, verifies the data and executes. (Default is unchecked).
Number of Steps to Save in the Restart File: specifies the number of solution time steps to save in the restart file. Assume the value of this parameter is N, then
When N = 1, the number of steps saved in the restart file is dictated by “Frequency of Saving to Restart File” (see below). When N > 1, the number of steps saved in the restart file is limited to N. (Default is 1).
Frequency of Saving to Restart File: specifies the frequency of saving ADINA Structures’ results to the restart file. Assume the value of this parameter is N, then
When N = 0, “Frequency of Saving to Restart File” is set to the “Number of Steps” in the first “Time Steps” block when explicit time integration is used; set to 1 otherwise. When N > 0, restart file is overwritten every Nth time steps. When N < 0, restart file is appended every Nth time steps. (Default is 0).
Restart Data from
Current <problem filename>.res: uses the current <problem filename>.res as the restart file. (Default is checked).
File: restart file specified by user. (Default is unchecked).
• Time Steps
Defines a time step sequence which controls the time/loadstep incrementation during analysis. The sequence is defined as a number of periods for which a given number of constant time steps is specified.
Number of Steps: indicates the number of steps to be taken in a time step sequence period. (Default is 1).
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Time Increment: indicates the constant time step magnitude, in time units, for a time step sequence period. (Default is 1.0).
Output Interval: controls the output time steps at which results are saved on the FEMAP neutral file. Assume the value of this parameter is N, then every Nth step will be saved for output. (Default is 1.0).
1.2.6 Nonlinear Solution Settings menu
The “Nonlinear Solution Settings” menu provides the settings that are specific to nonlinear analysis. It mainly includes iteration scheme and convergence tolerance options.
• Nonlinear Iteration Scheme
Maximum Number of Iterations: specifies the maximum number of iterations within a time step. (Default is 15, 1 ≤ Maximum Number of Iterations ≤ 999).
ADINA Structures will terminate execution if this maximum number is reached without achieving convergence, unless the automatic time stepping (ATS) option has been enabled, whereby the time step is subdivided a given number of times to try to reach convergence.
Line Search Settings
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Use of Line Search: sets the use of line searches within the iteration scheme. (Default is No).
Convergence Tolerance: specifies the line search convergence tolerance. (Default is
0.5).
Energy Threshold: specifies the line search energy threshold. This parameter is only used if line search is activated (e.g., when “Use of Line Search” is YES). During each equilibrium iteration, if the unbalanced energy is less than Energy Threshold, no line search will be performed. (Default is 0.0, Energy Threshold ≥ 0.0).
Lower Bound: indicates the lower bound for line search. (Default is 0.001, 0.0 ≤ Lower Bound < 1.0).
Upper Bound: indicates the upper bound for line search. (If there is contact, the default is 1.0; otherwise, the default is 8.0. Upper Bound ≥ 1.0).
Plastic Algorithm Used in Large Strain: sets the algorithm used in plasticity. Type 1 plastic algorithm is the original algorithm and type 2 plastic algorithm is a modified algorithm. (Default is Type 1).
This parameter is used for implicit time integration (static or dynamic), and 3D solid elements or shell elements under the following conditions:
(1) Large displacement, large strain kinematics; (2) 3D solid elements: ULH formulation, elastoplastic and plastic materials; (3) Shell elements: ULH formulation, elastoplastic and plastic materials.
For a given load step size, convergence is affected by this parameter. If the iterations do not converge with type 1 plastic algorithm because the Jacobian determinant in the elements becomes nonpositive, switching to type 2 plastic algorithm can sometimes obtain convergence. Hence type 2 plastic algorithm allows larger load steps than type 1 plastic algorithm, in general. But if the iterations already converge with type 1 plastic algorithm, switching to type 2 plastic algorithm slows down convergence.
The converged solution is not affected by the choice of this parameter.
The typical use of type 2 plastic algorithm is in metal forming. In metal forming, the metal being formed is typically very thin and modeled either with shell elements or with thin 3D elements. Type 2 plastic algorithm allows large load steps, and hence fewer load steps, to obtain the solution.
Max Incremental Displacement/Iteration: specifies the maximum incremental displacement that is allowed in an iteration. This feature is generally useful for contact analysis where rigid body motion before the bodies come into contact may result in
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excessive displacements. A zero value means there is no limit on incremental displacements. (Default is 0.0).
•
Convergence
Convergence Criteria: selects the convergence criteria to be used, and thereby which of the other parameters are considered. (Default is Energy).
Energy: energy convergence criterion. Energy and Force: energy and force (moment) convergence criteria. Energy and Displacement: energy and displacement (translation, rotation) convergence criteria. Force: force (moment) convergence criterion. Displacement: displacement (translation, rotation) convergence criterion.
Energy Tolerance: specifies the relative energy tolerance. (Default is 0.001).
Contact Force Tolerance: specifies the relative contact force tolerance. (Default is
0.05).
Min Reference Contact Force: specifies the reference contact force. (Default is 0.01).
Displacement Tolerances
Translation/Rotation Tolerance: specifies the relative displacement (translation, rotation) tolerance. (Default is 0.01).
Reference Translation: specifies the reference translation. Default of 0.0 means the program will calculate the reference value.
Reference Rotation: specifies the reference rotation. Default of 0.0 means the program will calculate the reference value.
Force Tolerances
Force/Moment Tolerance: specifies the relative force and moment tolerance. (Default is
0.01).
Reference Force: specifies the reference force. Default of 0.0 means the program will calculate the reference value.
Reference Moment: specifies the reference moment. Default of 0.0 means the program will calculate the reference value.
Note: Refer to the ADINA manuals for more information on these options.
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1.2.7 Analyze menu
Chapter 1: Introduction
Under the “Analyze” menu the user can specify the job name and heading. This menu also provides the memory, processor and model type settings. The “Create .in file” button will generate ADINA Structures .in file (ADINAIN batch command input). The “Create .dat file” button will generate ADINA Structures .dat file (analysis data). The “Run model” button will run the job with ADINA Structures analysis.
Job Name: specifies ADINA .in file as the job name. The default is the current model’s name. The user can change the default job name or its directory by using the “Select a folder” button.
Heading: specifies a title for the problem. (No more than 256 characters are permitted).
System Info
memory (RAM), the available physical memory, and “Max. Memory for Solution” used if the toggle Automatic is checked.
:
shows the number of processors on the machine, the total physical
•
Options
Number of Processors: specifies the number of processors. (Default is 1).
Automatic: when this option is selected, the “Max. Memory for Solution” is set to the 80% of total physical memory. The amount of physical memory (RAM) on the system can be checked by clicking on the “System Info …” button. (Default is unchecked).
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Max. Memory for Solution: specifies the maximum memory to be used for the solution. It includes the memory allocated for data storage and the memory used by the sparse solver. (Default is 0, the program will try to allocate as much memory as required by the sparse solver for an incore solution).
Memory for Sparse Solver: specifies the maximum memory to be used for the sparse solver. (Default is 0, the program will try to allocate as much memory as required by the sparse solver for an incore solution).
Memory for Storing Model Data: specifies the amount of memory that the program can use to store matrix and element information. If the sparse solver is used in the solution, additional memory will be allocated by the program for the sparse solver on top of this memory allocation. (Default is 16 MB).
ADINAAUI Memory: specifies the amount of memory to be allocated for the AUI program. (Default is 16 MB).
Output ADINA Input File in Interactive Mode: when this option is selected, the user can use ADINA AUI to read the input file for further interactive processing. (Default is uncheck).
Model Type: selects the model dimension. (Default is General 3D).
1.2.8 Load Results menu
The “Load Results” menu loads the analysis results in FEMAP neutral file format.
FEMAP Neutral File: specifies the FEMAP neutral file for postprocessing. (Default is the current model’s name).
1.2.9 User Guide menu
The “User Guide” menu loads the user guide of TRANSOR for FEMAP.
1.3 Explanation of ADINA CFD menu entries of TRANSOR for FEMAP
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1.3.1 Materials menu
Chapter 1: Introduction
The “Materials” menu defines the material with constant properties and the turbulence K Epsilon material for ADINA CFD.
• Material with Constant Properties
Density: specifies the density of the fluid. (Default is 0.0).
Viscosity: specifies the coefficient of viscosity. (Default is 0.0).
Specific Heat: specifies the specific heat at constant pressure. (Default is 0.0).
Fluid Bulk Modulus: specifies the fluid bulk modulus. (Default is 1.0E20).
Thermal Conductivity: specifies the coefficient of thermal conductivity. (Default is
0.0).
Reference Temperature: specifies the reference temperature. (Default is 0.0).
Coefficient of Surface Tension: specifies the coefficient of surface tension. (Default is
0.0).
Coefficient of Volume Expansion: specifies the coefficient of volume expansion. (Default is 0.0).
Specific Heat at Constant Volume: specifies the specific heat at constant volume. (Default is 0.0).
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Rate of Heat Generated/Unit Volume: specifies the rate of heat generated per unit volume. (Default is 0.0).
Acceleration due to Gravity: specifies the global system components of acceleration due to gravity. (Default is X=0.0, Y=0.0, Z=0.0).
Note: This dialog is activated when Laminar flow model is selected under the “Flow Assumptions” tab of ADINA CFD “Analysis Settings” menu.
• Turbulent KEpsilon Material
Basic
Density: specifies the density of the fluid. (Default is 0.0).
Laminar Viscosity: specifies the coefficient of laminar viscosity. (Default is 0.0).
Specific Heat: specifies the specific heat at constant pressure. (Default is 0.0).
Fluid Bulk Modulus: specifies the fluid bulk modulus. (Default is 1.0E20).
Laminar Thermal Conductivity: specifies the coefficient of laminar thermal conductivity. (Default is 0.0).
Reference Temperature: specifies the reference temperature. (Default is 0.0).
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Coefficient of Surface Tension: specifies the coefficient of surface tension. (Default is
0.0).
Coefficient of Volume Expansion: specifies the coefficient of volume expansion. (Default is 0.0).
Specific Heat at Constant Volume: specifies the specific heat at constant volume. (Default is 0.0).
Rate of Heat Generated/Unit Volume: specifies the rate of heat generated per unit volume. (Default is 0.0).
Type: indicates whether the standard or the renormalization group (RNG) KEpsilon model is to be utilized. (Default is Standard).
Advanced
Turbulent Flow Model Constants
C1: specifies the constant C1. (Default is 1.44).
C2: specifies the constant C2. (Default is 1.92).
C3: specifies the constant C3. (Default is 0.8).
Cmu: specifies the constant Cmu. (Default is 0.09).
Sigma K: specifies the constant σ . (Default is 1.0).
k
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Sigma T: specifies the constant σ . (Default is 0.9).
t
Sigma Epsilon: specifies the constant σ . (Default is 1.3).
ε
Von Karman Constant: specifies the Von Karman constant κ . (Default is 0.4).
Dimensionless Distance from Wall Boundary: specifies the dimensionless distance from a wall boundary, where the calculations for velocity, temperature and k , _{ε} are performed. (Default is 70).
Acceleration due to Gravity: specifies the global system components of acceleration due to gravity. (Default is X=0.0, Y=0.0, Z=0.0).
TwoLayer Model
Use TwoLayer Zonal Model: selects the type of constants input for the twolayer zonal model. (Default is OFF).
OFF: deactivates the twolayer zonal model. with Default Constants: activates the twolayer zonal model with default constants for internal flows. with Input Constants: activates the twolayer zonal model with direct input constants for internal flows.
cl: specifies a constant for internal flows in the twolayer zonal model. (Default is 2.43).
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Am: specifies a constant for internal flows in the twolayer zonal model. (Default is 100).
Ae: specifies a constant for internal flows in the twolayer zonal model. (Default is 100).
Minimum Critical Reynolds Number: specifies the minimum critical turbulent Reynolds number that defines the range of viscosityaffected nearwall layers. (Default is
50).
Maximum Critical Reynolds Number: specifies the maximum critical turbulent Reynolds number that defines the range of viscosityaffected nearwall layers. (Default is
400).
Preferred Number of NearWall Layers: specifies the preferred number of viscosity affected nearwall layers. (Default is 10).
Note 1: This dialog is activated when Turbulent KEpsilon flow model is selected under the “Flow Assumptions” tab of ADINA CFD “Analysis Settings” menu.
Note 2: Refer to the ADINA manuals for more information on these options.
1.3.2 Boundary Conditions menu
The “Boundary Conditions” menu is used to define the wall, fluidstructure interaction (FSI), boundary pressure, fixed pressure, inlet velocity and inlet turbulence boundary conditions for ADINA CFD analysis. The wall, FSI, and boundary pressure boundary conditions can be applied to curve or element in 2D model, and to surface or element in 3D model. The fixed pressure, inlet velocity and inlet turbulence boundary conditions can be applied to point, curve, surface or node in both 2D and 3D models.
• Wall Boundary Condition
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Velocity at Wall Boundary: specifies the type of boundary velocity. (Default is Conventional).
Conventional: velocity at the boundary is controlled by the “Slip Condition” parameter. Tangential: tangential velocity. Rotational: velocity resulting from a rotating angular velocity.
Tangential / AngularVelocity
Magnitude: specifies the magnitude of the velocity. (Default is 0.0).
Time Function: specifies the time function of the tangential velocity or angular velocity. (Default is 0).
Normal to Plane formed by Boundary Normal and Tangent: specifies the normal direction of the plane determined by the boundary normal and tangential directions using the righthand rule. Values are specified in the global coordinate system. (Default is X=1.0, Y=0.0, Z=0.0).
Position of Origin of Rotation: specifies the global coordinates of the origin of the axis of rotation. (Default is X=0.0, Y=0.0, Z=0.0).
Slip Condition: specifies the slip coefficient. When “Slip Condition” is No, the slip coefficient is 0.0 which indicates a "noslip" condition. When “Slip Condition” is Yes, the slip coefficient is 1.0. (Default is No).
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Thermal Condition
Chapter 1: Introduction
Type: specifies the type of thermal condition on the wall. (Default is Local Heat Flux).
Local Heat Flux: the heat flux on the wall that is specified by the Value parameter within this command. Local Temperature: the temperature on the wall that is specified by the Value parameter within this command. Global: thermal condition is specified at the global level.
Value: specifies the temperature or heat flux on the wall. (Default is 0.0).
Time Function: specifies the time function of the temperature or heat flux on the wall. (Default is 0).
• FSI Boundary Condition
FluidStructure Boundary Number: indicates the label number of a "fluidstructure boundary". This number is defined by “FSI Boundary Conditions” menu in ADINA Structures, which specifies that part of the structure that is to interact with the fluid boundary. (Default is 1).
Note: A fluidstructure boundary with the specified number must be defined in the ADINA Structures model.
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All other explanations for this dialog box are the same as the “Wall Boundary Condition” dialog box.
• Boundary Pressure Boundary Condition
Magnitude: specifies the boundary pressure magnitude. (Default is 0.0).
Time Function: specifies the time function of the boundary pressure. (Default is 0).
• Fixed Pressure Boundary Condition
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Magnitude: specifies the fixed pressure magnitude. (Default is 0.0).
Time Function: specifies the time function of the fixed pressure. (Default is 0).
• Inlet Velocity Boundary Condition
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Inlet Velocity X: prescribes a value for the Xvelocity degree of freedom. The special value Free may be given, indicating that the degree of freedom is not to be prescribed. (Default is Free).
Inlet Velocity Y: prescribes a value for the Yvelocity degree of freedom. The special value Free may be given, indicating that the degree of freedom is not to be prescribed. (Default is Free).
Inlet Velocity Z: prescribes a value for the Zvelocity degree of freedom. The special value Free may be given, indicating that the degree of freedom is not to be prescribed. (Default is Free).
Time Function: specifies the time function of the inlet velocity. (Default is 0).
• Inlet Turbulence Boundary Condition
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Load Values: indicates whether the turbulence loads, KineticEnergy and Energy Dissipation, are input directly or computed from other (more physical) quantities, namely, the turbulence intensity, the velocity at the boundary and the dissipation length scale. (Default is Direct Input).
Direct Input: KineticEnergy and Energy Dissipation are input directly. Computed: KineticEnergy and Energy Dissipation are computed. Compute K only: compute KineticEnergy and set Energy Dissipation to Free. Compute E/w only: compute Energy Dissipation and set KineticEnergy to Free.
Time Function: specifies the time function of Load Values. (Default is 0).
Direct Input of Load Values
Prescribed Value for KineticEnergy: prescribes a value for the kineticenergy degree of freedom. The special value Free may be given, indicating that the degree of freedom is not to be prescribed. (Default is Free).
Prescribed Value for Rate of Energy Dissipation: prescribes a value for the rate of energy dissipation degree of freedom. The special value Free may be given, indicating that the degree of freedom is not to be prescribed. (Default is Free).
Compute Load Values from
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Turbulence Intensity: specifies the turbulence intensity, usually defined as the ratio of the root mean square velocity to the timeaveraged velocity at the boundary. (Default is 0.025, 1.0E5 ≤ Turbulence Intensity ≤ 1.0).
Mean Velocity at Boundary: specifies the mean timeaveraged velocity at the boundary. (Default is 0.0, 0.0 ≤ Mean Velocity at Boundary ≤ 1.0E8).
Dissipation Length Scale: specifies the dissipation length scale such as the hydraulic diameter in internal flows. (Default is 1.0, 1.0E8 ≤ Dissipation Length Scale ≤ 1.0E8).
Note: The Turbulence Intensity, Mean Velocity at Boundary and Dissipation Length Scale are only active when Load Values is Computed or Compute K only or Compute E/w only.
1.3.3 Initial Conditions menu
The “Initial Conditions” menu is used to define the initial velocity, initial pressure, initial temperature and initial turbulence for ADINA CFD analysis. The initial conditions can be applied to a surface in a 2D model, and to a solid or volume in a 3D model.
Initial Condition Type: defines an initial condition and assigns it to geometry entities.
Velocity: specifies an initial velocity for the X, Y and Z directions. (Default is X Velocity = 0.0, YVelocity = 0.0, ZVelocity = 0.0).
Pressure: specifies an initial pressure. (Default is 0.0).
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Temperature: specifies an initial temperature. (Default is 0.0).
Turbulence: specifies initial KEnergy and EDissipation. (Defaults are KEnergy = 0.0, EDissipation = 0.0).
1.3.4 Analysis Settings menu
The “Analysis Settings” menu is used to set all analysis specific input required for ADINA CFD. It includes detail settings for analysis type, flow assumptions, FSI and solver.
• Analysis Type
Analysis Type: selects the type of analysis to be performed. (Default is SteadyState).
SteadyState: steadystate analysis. Transient: time dependent analysis.
Transient Analysis:
Defines the time integration parameters for a transient flow analysis.
Integration Method: this option chooses between the first order Euler method or the second order RungeKutta method (ADINA composite scheme). (Default is Euler).
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Euler: Euler method. Composite: ADINA composite scheme method.
Integration Parameter: specifies the time integration parameter for implicit time stepping. When the Integration Parameter is 0.5 it corresponds to the trapezoidal rule, and a value of 1.0 corresponds to the Euler backward integration. (Default is 1.0 for Euler; 2 2 for Composite).
Note: For both the Euler and Composite methods, the user can choose the Integration Parameter as follows.
0.5 
≤ Integration Parameter ≤ 1.0 for Euler method. 
0.5 
< Integration Parameter < 1.0 for Composite method. 
Automatic Time Stepping (ATS)
ATS Scheme: enables automatic incrementation control during the analysis. (Default is None).
Courant Number: specifies the courant number. (Default = 1.0E20).
• Flow Assumptions
Flow Dimension: indicates the fluid flow dimension. (Default is General 3D).
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General 3D: 3D fluid flow. 2D in YZ: 2D fluid flow in the YZ plane.
Chapter 1: Introduction
Flow Type: indicates the fluid flow type. (Default is Incompressible).
Incompressible: incompressible flow. Low Speed Compressible: lowspeed compressible flow. Slightly Compressible: slightly compressible flow.
Flow Model: indicates the fluid flow model. (Default is Laminar).
Laminar: no turbulence is involved. Turbulent KEpsilon: a kε turbulence model is used.
Includes Heat Transfer: indicates whether the heat transfer analysis is included. (Default is checked).
•
FSI
FSI Coupling: specifies the coupling for FSI problems. (Default is No).
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•
Solver
Equation Solver: selects the type of solution algorithm used to solve the equilibrium equation system. (Default is Sparse for FCBI elements; default is AMG1 for FCBIC elements).
Sparse: a sparsematrix direct solver is used. AMG1: an algebraic multigrid solver of Type 1 is used. This solver uses less memory with smoother convergence pattern.
Note: The selection between FCBI and FCBIC elements is under the ADINA CFD “General Solution Settings” menu.
Sparse Solver Settings
Max Number of Iterations: specifies the maximum number of iterations within a time step. ADINACFD will terminate execution if this maximum number is reached without achieving convergence. (Default is 15).
AMG1 Solver Settings (for FCBIC Elements only)
Relaxation Factors in Outer Iteration: defines the control data for outer iteration variables.
Velocity: specifies the relaxation factor for velocity. (Default is 0.75).
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Pressure: specifies the relaxation factor for pressure. (Default is 0.3).
Temperature: specifies the relaxation factor for temperature. (Default is 0.99).
TurbulenceK: specifies the relaxation factor for turbulenceK. (Default is 0.97).
TurbulenceEpsilon: specifies the relaxation factor for turbulenceEpsilon. (Default is
0.97).
Reduction Numbers in Inner Iteration: defines the control data for inner iteration variables.
Velocity: specifies the reduction number for velocity. (Default is 0.01).
Pressure: specifies the reduction number for pressure. (Default is 0.01).
Temperature: specifies the reduction number for temperature. (Default is 0.1).
TurbulenceK: specifies the reduction number for turbulenceK. (Default is 0.1).
TurbulenceEpsilon: specifies the reduction number for turbulenceEpsilon. (Default is
0.1). 

1.3.5 
General Solution Settings menu 
The “General Solution Settings” menu provides the settings that are part of the solution process. It mainly includes time steps, nondimensional analysis settings, and restart analysis options.
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• General
Solution Start Time: specifies the solution start time. For a restart run it must equal a solution time at which data was saved from a previous run. (Default is 0.0).
• NonDimensional Analysis Settings
Defines the scaling factors used for the nondimensional procedure.
NonDimensional Analysis: indicates whether the nondimensional analysis is used. (Default is No).
Coordinates of the Length Datum: specifies the coordinates of the length datum for the X, Y and Z directions. (Default is X=0.0, Y=0.0, Z=0.0).
Length Scale: specifies the length scale. (Default is 1.0).
Velocity Scale: specifies the velocity scale. (Default is 1.0).
Density Scale: specifies the density scale. (Default is 1.0).
Specific Heat Scale: specifies the specific heat scale. (Default is 1.0).
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Temperature Scale: specifies the temperature scale. (Default is 1.0).
Temperature Datum: specifies the temperature datum. (Default is 0.0).
MassRatio Scale: specifies the massratio scale. (Default is 1.0).
Analysis in NonDimensional Form: indicates whether the analysis is performed in non dimensional form. (Default is checked).
Output in NonDimensional Form: indicates whether the output is in nondimensional form. (Default is unchecked).
• Restart Analysis Options
Restart Previous Analysis: when checked ADINA CFD performs a restart analysis, reading data from a previous run, verifies the data and executes. (Default is unchecked).
Save Restart Info. for Last [ ] Results Save Steps: controls the saving of restart data. Assume the value of this parameter is N, then the restart data is saved at the last N times when porthole data is saved. (Default is 1).
For example, if a user requests to save results at every other time step, and the total number of solution time steps is 11, then the porthole data will be saved at steps 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. Setting N = 3 will result in restart data saved at steps 7, 9, and 11.
Restart Data from
Current <problem filename>.res: uses the current <problem filename>.res as the restart file. (Default is checked).
File: restart file specified by user. (Default is unchecked).
• Element Formulation
FlowConditionBased Interpolation Element: selects the type of FCBI elements. (Default is Yes).
Yes: FCBI elements are generated. FCBIC: FlowConditionBased Interpolation Center (FCBIC) elements are generated.
• Time Steps
Defines a time step sequence which controls the time/loadstep incrementation during analysis. The sequence is defined as a number of periods for which a given number of constant time steps is specified.
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Number of Steps: indicates the number of steps to be taken in a time step sequence period. (Default is 1).
Time Increment: indicates the constant time step magnitude, in time units, for a time step sequence period. (Default is 1.0).
Output Interval: controls the output time steps at which results are saved on the FEMAP neutral file. Assume the value of this parameter is N, then every Nth step will be saved for output. (Default is 1.0).
1.3.6 CFD Analyze menu
Under the “CFD Analyze” menu the user can specify the job name and heading. This menu also provides the memory and processor settings. The “Create .in file” button will generate ADINA CFD .in file (ADINAIN batch command input). The “Create .dat file” button will generate ADINA CFD .dat file (analysis data). The “Run model” button will run the job with ADINA CFD analysis.
Job Name: specifies ADINA CFD .in file as the job name. The default is the current model’s name. The user can change the default job name or its directory by using the “Select a folder” button.
Heading: specifies a title for the problem. (No more than 256 characters are permitted).
System Info
memory (RAM), the available physical memory, and “Max. Memory for Solution” used
if the toggle Automatic is checked.
: shows the number of processors on the machine, the total physical
•
Options
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All other explanations for this dialog box are the same as ADINA “Analyze” menu in section 1.2.7.
1.3.7 FSI Analyze menu
Under the “FSI Analyze” menu the user can specify the necessary job names. This menu also provides the memory and processor settings. The “Run model” button will run the job with ADINA FSI analysis.
Currently, only oneway FSI is supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP. In oneway FSI the fluid analysis is run first and the fluid stresses acting on the structure are saved in a file (with .fsi extension). Next, the structural analysis is run and the program reads the fluid stresses from the .fsi file as loads on the structure, resulting in the structural deformations and stresses.
ADINA Input File: specifies an ADINA Structures .dat file (analysis data).
ADINA CFD Input File: specifies an ADINA CFD .dat file (analysis data).
•
Options
Run: selects whether to run a fluid analysis only or a structural analysis only.
Fluid Only: runs fluid analysis only. When running fluid only, both the fluid and structure .dat files must be specified. Structure Only: runs structural analysis only. When running structural analysis only, one can specify just the structure .dat file.
All other explanations for this dialog box are the same as ADINA “Analyze” menu in section 1.2.7.
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1.3.8 Load Results menu
The “Load Results” menu loads the analysis results in FEMAP neutral file format.
FEMAP Neutral File: specifies the FEMAP neutral file for postprocessing. (Default is the current model’s name).
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Chapter 2: TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA Structures
2 TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA Structures
The purpose of the ADINA Structures part of TRANSOR for FEMAP program is to integrate the ADINA Structures capabilities to FEMAP. In this way, FEMAP users can create, solve and postprocess their structural models all inside FEMAP. Many NX Nastran features are available in FEMAP and also in ADINA Structures. The ADINA Structures part of TRANSOR for FEMAP complements this by providing additional capabilities (not available in NX Nastran or FEMAP) that can aid the FEMAP or NX Nastran user in the solution of their models via ADINA Structures. These capabilities can be defined using the dialog boxes under the ADINA menu.
This chapter discusses how the FEMAP features relate to the ADINA Structures features and presents two useful examples.
2.1 Translation of Coordinate Systems
In FEMAP basic rectangular, cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems are always predefined. The user can also create additional coordinate systems that are needed for the model.
The basic cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems in FEMAP are translated into ADINA Structures as local cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems. User defined coordinate systems in FEMAP are also translated into ADINA Structures as local coordinate systems. However, if these coordinate systems are used as nodal output coordinate systems in FEMAP, then they are translated as skew systems in ADINA Structures.
2.2 Translation of Finite Element Entities
2.2.1 Node
Nodal coordinates are always translated by TRANSOR for FEMAP in the global rectangular coordinate system, no matter how they are defined in FEMAP. However, if output coordinate systems are selected, the corresponding skew systems are created during translation in order to properly specify constraints.
Note that nodal permanent constraint is not supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP.
2.2.2 Element
In FEMAP there are four main element types: line elements, plane elements, volume elements and other elements.
2.2.2.1 Line Elements
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For line elements, the rod, bar, (linear) beam, DOF spring and gap elements are supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP.
The rod element is translated into ADINA Structures as a truss element without torsional stiffness, i.e., only axial force is transmitted by the element. Thus, only the rod element property of area is translated into ADINA Structures to define a truss cross section. All other properties are ignored.
The bar element is translated into ADINA Structures as 3D (Hermitian) beam element. Its properties of area, moment of inertia I1, moment of inertia I2, torsional constant, Y shear area and Z shear area are translated into ADINA Structures to define a beam cross section which can only be used for elastic Hermitian beam. All other properties are ignored.
The (linear) beam element is translated into ADINA Structures as 3D (Hermitian) beam element without support of beam offsets and beam releases. Its properties of area, moment of inertia I1, moment of inertia I2, torsional constant, Y shear area and Z shear area are translated into ADINA Structures to define a general type beam cross section which can only be used for elastic Hermitian beam. All other properties are ignored. In addition, a tapered beam with different properties at each end of the beam is not supported.
The DOF spring element is translated into ADINA Structures as spring element. Its properties of fucntion dependences are not supported.
The gap element is translated into ADINA Structures as a nonlinear spring element where the axial properties are represented but the transverse properties are ignored. Its properties of initial gap, compression stiffness, tension stiffness and preload force are translated into ADINA Structures to define a nonlinear relationship between relative displacement and force from which the stiffness and force of a nonlinear spring element are obtained. All other properties are ignored.
2.2.2.2 Plane Elements
For plane elements, membrane element (linear and parabolic), plate element (linear and parabolic) and plane strain element (linear and parabolic) are supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP. The membrane and plate elements are translated into ADINA Structures as shell element. The plane strain element is translated into ADINA Structures as 2D solid plane strain element.
The thickness of the membrane element is translated into ADINA Structures to define the thinkness of shell element. The nonstructural mass/area of the memebrane element is not supported.
The thickness (uniform or nonuniform) of the plate element is translated into ADINA Structures to define the thickness of shell element. All other properties are ignored.
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Please note that when the nonuniform thickness is specified, all the thickness values at each element corner cannot be zero.
Note that the plane strain element must be defined in the global YZ plane and all of its properties are ignored during translation.
2.2.2.3 Volume Elements
For volume elements, both axisymmetric element and solid element are supported. They are translated into ADINA Structures as 2D solid axisymmetric element and 3D solid element, respectively. Note that the axisymmetric element must be defined in the global YZ plane and all the properties of the solid element are ignored.
2.2.2.4 Other Elements
For other elements, mass, mass matrix and rigid elements are supported. The mass and mass matrix elements are translated into ADINA Structures as concentrated mass on the nodes. The rigid element is translated into ADINA Structures as rigid link.
Notes:
1. Inertia components (Ixy, Iyz, Izx), “Offset from Node” and “Heat Transfer Properties”
are ignored in mass element.
2. Coordinate system for offset and inertial in mass element is ignored. The inertia
components are assumed to be in the basic rectangular coordinate system.
3. Only the diagonal terms of the mass matrix element are translated.
4. Coordinate system for mass matrix element is ignored. The diagonal inertia
components are assumed to be in the basic rectangular coordinate system.
5. The rigid interpolation element is not supported.
2.2.3
Material
FEMAP possesses eight types of materials: isotropic, 2D and 3D orthotropic, 2D and 3D anisotropic, hyperelastic, fluid, and other types. Currently, only isotropic material and four other types of materials (NX Nastran hyperelastic materials) are supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP.
2.2.3.1 Isotropic Materials
The general isotropic material properties of Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, mass density and thermal expansion coefficient are translated into ADINA Structures. All other properties are ignored. The function references to the isotropic material properties are not supported.
In FEMAP there are four types of nonlinear properties (linear elastic, nonlinear elastic, elastoplastic (bilinear) and plastic) associated with the isotropic material. A stressstrain curve for nonlinear elastic or plastic materials can be defined by a “vs. Stress” function or
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“Stress vs. Strain” function which are translated into ADINA Structures. Nonlinear elastic materials can also be temperature dependent, but this is not supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP. Four yield criteria are available (von Mises, Tresca, Mohr Coulomb, and DruckerPrager) in FEMAP. Only the von Mises yield criterion without Extended Material Model is supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP, which requires a nonzero initial yield stress. In addition, the isotropic+kinematic hardening rule for the plastic material is translated into the isotropic hardening rule.
Creep material properties, electrical/optical material properties, and phase change material properties are not supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP.
2.2.3.2 Other Types Materials
The NX Nastran hyperelastic materials (MooneyRivlin, Hyperfoam, Ogden, Arruda Boyce and SussmanBathe), NX Nastran Gasket Material and NX Nastran Shape Memory Alloy for NX Nastran advanced nonlinear analysis (SOL 601/701) are supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP.
2.3 Translation of Loads
In FEMAP a load can be created on finite element entities (nodes, elements) or geometry (point, curve, surface).
Note that if there are several load sets defined, then only the active load set is translated.
2.3.1 Finite Element Loads
Loads that are applied to the nodes, elements or the entire finite element model (body loads) are translated into ADINA Structures directly.
2.3.1.1 Body Loads
For body loads, the translational acceleration with or without time dependency is translated into mass proportional load in ADINA Structures. The rotational acceleration is not supported by TRANSOR for FEMAP. The rotational velocity is translated into centrifugal load in ADINA Structures without the support of the time dependency. The default temperature is translated into prescribed reference temperature in ADINA Structures.
2.3.1.2 Nodal Loads
The nodal loads (forces, moments, displacements, enforced rotations and nodal temperatures) with or without time dependency are translated into ADINA Structures directly. Note that nodal heat generation, nodal heat fluxes and all the fluid loads are not supported by TRANSOR for FEMAP.
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The velocities, rotational velocities, accelerations and rotational accelerations are translated as initial condition by TRANSOR for FEMAP (see section 2.7).
2.3.1.3 Elemental Loads
The elemental loads (distributed loads on line elements and pressure) with or without time dependency are translated into ADINA Structures directly.
The distributed loads on line elements in the directions of element Y axis and element Z axis are translated into the rs and rt planes of beam elements in ADINA Structures. All other directions are ignored.
The pressure loads on the face 1 and face 2 of plate elements are translated into the top and bottom surfaces of the shell elements in ADINA Structures. All other directions are ignored. The pressure load is not supported for 2D solid plane strain and axisymmetric elements.
Specifying a direction for pressure loads as shown in the following figure is not supported. If pressure loads are defined in this way, then TRANSOR for FEMAP will always create pressure loads normal to the selected element face.
Note that the elemental temperature and heat transfer loads (heat generation, heat flux, convection and radiation) are not supported by TRANSOR for FEMAP.
2.3.1.4 Nonlinear Force Loads
Nonlinear force loads are not supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP.
2.3.2 Geometric Loads
In FEMAP the user can create loads on geometry as an alternative and/or as supplement to finite element loads. TRANSOR for FEMAP will expand the geometric loads to nodal and elemental loads upon translation and compress them after translation.
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2.4 Translation of Constraints
In FEMAP a constraint can be created on finite element entities (nodes, constraint equations) or geometry (point, curve, surface).
The nodal constraints are translated into ADINA Structures directly. Their directions can be specified by choosing a coordinate system, which is converted into a skew system in ADINA Structures for the selected nodes. The constraint equations between the specified nodal degrees of freedom are translated into ADINA Structures as generalized constraint equations, which are imposed using Lagrange Multipliers.
The geometric constraints are expanded to nodal constraints during translation. If the nodal constraints for the nodes are also defined on the geometry, TRANSOR for FEMAP will combine both constraints during translation. There are three available approaches to defining advanced geometric constraints: Arbitrary in CSys, Surface and Cylinder/Hole. Currently, only the Arbitrary in Csys approach is supported.
Notes:
1. If there are several constraint sets defined, then only the active constraint set is
translated.
2. The displacement and enforced rotation loads will not override the nodal constraint that is defined on the same degree of freedom.
3. Permanent constraints defined on the node will not be translated.
2.5 Translation of Connections and Regions
2.5.1 Translation of Connections
Creating contact in FEMAP involves three entity definitions: Connection Property, Connection Region and Connectors.
The connection properties defined under NX Advanced Nonlinear (SOL 601) and NX
Explicit (SOL 701) for “Connect Type: 0
to define contact group in which only shell and 3D solid elements are supported. The
connection properties defined under NX Advanced Nonlinear (SOL 601) for “Contact
Type: 1
only 3D solid element is supported. All other properties are ignored.
Contact”
is translated into ADINA Structures
Glued”
is translated into ADINA Structures to define mesh glueing in which
The connector defines the contact relationship between the two connection regions, which is translated into ADINA Structures as a contact pair.
2.5.2 Translation of Regions
In FEMAP, Nastran users can create three specialized types of regions, Fluid Regions, Bolt Regions, and Rotor Regions. Currently, only bolt region is supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP.
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A Bolt Region is used to create a region of elements where user can apply a bolt
“preload”. The element defined in a bolt region is translated into ADINA Structures as beam element with bolt behavior. The bolt “preload” defined in an active load set is translated as bolt load in ADINA Structures.
2.6 Translation of Functions
Currently, nineteen types of functions are available in FEMAP. The Type 1 (vs. Time) is
translated into ADINA Structures to define the time fucntion of the loads. The Type 4 (vs. Stress) and Type 13 (Stress vs. Strain) are translated into ADINA Structures to define the stressstrain curve for the nonlinear properties of an isotropic material. All other types
of functions are ignored.
2.7 Translation of Initial Conditions
Initial conditions (displacements, velocities or accelerations) can be used in dynamic analysis. Load sets with desired initial conditions can be created in FEMAP. The resulting load sets can then be selected in the Initial Conditions dialog box under “Model Parameters” in the ADINA menu.
Note that the initial conditions created on the geometries are translated only in the global rectangular coordinate system.
2.8 Example 1
We demonstrate a beam structure subjected to an impact load with restart analysis as shown below.
E = 2.07×10 ^{1}^{1} N/m ^{2}
ρ =7800 Kg/m ^{3} Step load applied at time 0.0. The restart analysis will continue the dynamic analysis from t=0.05.
Importing the Geometry
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What
Open a new model file and import the geometry. It will be meshed with beam elements.
Defining the Analysis Settings
What
Define the analysis settings in the ADINA “Analysis Settings” menu.
How 

Step 
UI 
Command/Display 
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1. 

ADINA, Analysis Parameters, Analysis Settings 


Analysis Settings dialog box: 

2. 
Analysis Type: 2 Click OK 
DynamicsImplict 
Defining the Material
What
Define the material in FEMAP.
How 

Step 
UI 
Command/Display 
1. 

Model, Material 
Define Material – ISOTROPIC dialog box: 


Enter “2.07e11” in Young's Modulus, E field 

2. 
Enter “7800” in Mass Density field Click OK Click Cancel (to end the command) 
Defining the Property
What
Define the element property in FEMAP.
How 

Step 
UI 
Command/Display 
1. 

Model, Property 
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2. 

Define Property dialog box: 

Click Elem/Property Type 


Element/Property Type dialog box: 

3. 
Line Elements: Beam Click OK 


Define Property dialog box: 

4. 
Material: 1 ISOTROPIC Material 

Click “Shape” button 

Cross Section Definition dialog box: 


Shape: Rectangular Bar Enter “0.02” in Height field 

5. 
Enter “0.02” in Width field 

Click “Draw Section” Button Click OK 

to check the cross section 


Define Property dialog box: 

6. 
Click OK Click Cancel (to end the command) 
Meshing the Model
What
Set the mesh size and mesh the model in FEMAP.
How 

Step 
UI 
Command/Display 
1. 

Mesh, Mesh Control, Default Size 

Default Mesh Size dialog box: 

2. 
Size: 0.5 

Click OK 

3. 

Mesh, Geometry, Curve 

Entity Selection dialog box: 

4. 
ID: 1 

Click OK 
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Defining the Time Step
What
Define the time step in the ADINA “General Solution Settings” menu.
How 

Step 
UI 
Command/Display 
1. 

ADINA, Analysis Parameters, General Solution Settings 

General Solution Settings dialog box: 

2. 
Enter “20” in Number of Steps field Enter “0.0025” in Time Increment field 

3. 

Click OK 
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Defining Constraints
What
Create the constraint set in FEMAP.
How
Step 
UI 
Command/Display 
1. 

Model, Constraint, Set 

Create or Activate Constraint Set dialog box: 

2. 
Title: (enter a title) Click OK 
What
Create the constraint to fix the node on the left side of the beam in FEMAP.
How
Step 
UI 
Command/Display 
1. 

Model, Constraint, On Point 

Entity Selection dialog box: 

2. 
ID: 1 

Click OK 

Create Constrains on Geometry dialog box: 


Choose Fixed radio button 

3. 
Click OK Click Cancel on Entity Selection dialog box (to end the command) 
Defining Loads
What
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Create the load set in FEMAP.
How 

Step 
UI 
Command/Display 
1. 

Model, Load, Set 

Create or Activate Load Set dialog box: 

2. 
Title: (enter a title) Click OK 
What
Apply the force load on right side of the beam in FEMAP.
How 

Step 
UI 
Command/Display 
1. 

Model, Load, On Point 

Entity Selection dialog box: 

2. 
ID: 2 

Click OK 


Create Loads on Points dialog box: 

3. 
Force 


FY: 300.0 Click OK Click Cancel on 
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