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Report ARD 10-16

September 2010
ADINA R & D, Inc.
User Guide
TRANSOR for FEMAP
UTOMATIC
YNAMIC
NCREMENTAL
ONLINEAR
NALYSIS





TRANSOR for FEMAP
User Guide






September 2010












ADINA R & D, Inc.
71 Elton Avenue
Watertown, MA 02472 USA

tel. (617) 926-5199
telefax (617) 926-0238
www.adina.com

































Notices

ADINA R & D, Inc. owns both this software program system and its documentation. Both the program system and
the documentation are copyrighted with all rights reserved by
ADINA R & D, Inc.

The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.

ADINA R & D, Inc. makes no warranty whatsoever, expressed or implied that the Program and its documentation
including any modifications or updates are free from errors or defects. In no event shall ADINA R&D, Inc.
become liable to the User or any party for any loss, including but not limited to, loss of time, money or goodwill,
which may arise from the use of the Program and its documentation including any modifications and updates.

Trademarks

ADINA is a registered trademark of K.J. Bathe / ADINA R & D, Inc.

All other product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice

ADINA R & D, Inc. 2010
September 2010 Printing
Printed in the USA

Table of Contents
TRANSOR for FEMAP User Guide

Table of Contents

1 Introduction................................................................................................................. 4
1.1 Install and uninstall TRANSOR for FEMAP in FEMAP................................... 4
1.2 Explanation of ADINA menu entries of TRANSOR for FEMAP ..................... 5
1.2.1 Model Settings menu .................................................................................. 5
1.2.2 FSI Boundary Conditions menu................................................................ 10
1.2.3 Initial Conditions menu............................................................................. 10
1.2.4 Analysis Settings menu............................................................................. 11
1.2.4.1 Static Analysis Settings......................................................................... 11
1.2.4.2 Dynamic Implicit Analysis Settings ..................................................... 13
1.2.4.3 Dynamic Explicit Analysis Settings ..................................................... 15
1.2.4.4 Frequency/Mode Analysis Settings ...................................................... 17
1.2.4.5 Mode Superposition Analysis Settings ................................................. 19
1.2.5 General Solution Settings menu................................................................ 20
1.2.6 Nonlinear Solution Settings menu ............................................................ 24
1.2.7 Analyze menu ........................................................................................... 27
1.2.8 Load Results menu.................................................................................... 28
1.2.9 User Guide menu ...................................................................................... 28
1.3 Explanation of ADINA CFD menu entries of TRANSOR for FEMAP........... 28
1.3.1 Materials menu.......................................................................................... 29
1.3.2 Boundary Conditions menu ...................................................................... 33
1.3.3 Initial Conditions menu............................................................................. 40
1.3.4 Analysis Settings menu............................................................................. 41
1.3.5 General Solution Settings menu................................................................ 45
1.3.6 CFD Analyze menu................................................................................... 48
1.3.7 FSI Analyze menu..................................................................................... 49
1.3.8 Load Results menu.................................................................................... 50
2 TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA Structures..................................................... 51
2.1 Translation of Coordinate Systems................................................................... 51
2.2 Translation of Finite Element Entities .............................................................. 51
2.2.1 Node.......................................................................................................... 51
2.2.2 Element ..................................................................................................... 51
2.2.2.1 Line Elements ....................................................................................... 51
2.2.2.2 Plane Elements...................................................................................... 52
2.2.2.3 Volume Elements.................................................................................. 53
2.2.2.4 Other Elements...................................................................................... 53
2.2.3 Material ..................................................................................................... 53
2.2.3.1 Isotropic Materials ................................................................................ 53
2.2.3.2 Other Types Materials........................................................................... 54
2.3 Translation of Loads ......................................................................................... 54
ADINA R & D, Inc. 1

Table of Contents
2.3.1 Finite Element Loads ................................................................................ 54
2.3.1.1 Body Loads ........................................................................................... 54
2.3.1.2 Nodal Loads.......................................................................................... 54
2.3.1.3 Elemental Loads.................................................................................... 55
2.3.1.4 Nonlinear Force Loads.......................................................................... 55
2.3.2 Geometric Loads....................................................................................... 55
2.4 Translation of Constraints................................................................................. 56
2.5 Translation of Connections and Regions .......................................................... 56
2.5.1 Translation of Connections....................................................................... 56
2.5.2 Translation of Regions.............................................................................. 56
2.6 Translation of Functions ................................................................................... 57
2.7 Translation of Initial Conditions....................................................................... 57
2.8 Example 1 ......................................................................................................... 57
2.9 Example 2 ......................................................................................................... 69
3 TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA CFD............................................................. 84
3.1 Translation of Coordinate Systems................................................................... 84
3.2 Translation of Finite Element Entities .............................................................. 84
3.2.1 Node.......................................................................................................... 84
3.2.2 Element ..................................................................................................... 84
3.2.2.1 Line Elements ....................................................................................... 84
3.2.2.2 Plane Elements...................................................................................... 84
3.2.2.3 Volume Elements.................................................................................. 85
3.2.2.4 Other Elements...................................................................................... 85
3.2.3 Material ..................................................................................................... 85
3.3 Translation of Loads ......................................................................................... 85
3.4 Translation of Constraints................................................................................. 86
3.5 Translation of Functions ................................................................................... 86
3.6 ADINA CFD Material Models ......................................................................... 86
3.6.1 Constant Material Model .......................................................................... 86
3.6.2 K- Turbulence Model .............................................................................. 87
3.6.3 RNG K- Turbulence Model..................................................................... 88
3.7 ADINA CFD Boundary Conditions.................................................................. 88
3.7.1 Wall Boundary Conditions ....................................................................... 89
3.7.2 FSI Boundary Conditions ......................................................................... 90
3.7.3 Boundary Pressure Boundary Conditions................................................. 91
3.7.4 Fixed Pressure Boundary Conditions........................................................ 91
3.7.5 Inlet Velocity Boundary Conditions ......................................................... 92
3.7.6 Inlet Turbulence Boundary Conditions..................................................... 92
3.8 ADINA CFD Initial Conditions........................................................................ 92
3.9 ADINA CFD Elements..................................................................................... 93
3.9.1 2-D FCBI elements (3- and 4-node) ......................................................... 93
3.9.2 3-D FCBI elements (4-, 5-, 6- and 8-node)............................................... 94
3.9.3 FCBI-C elements ...................................................................................... 96
3.10 Example ........................................................................................................ 97
4 TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA One-Way Fluid-Structure Interaction........ 110
TRANSOR for FEMAP User Guide 2

Table of Contents
4.1 Introduction..................................................................................................... 110
4.2 Running One-way FSI .................................................................................... 110
4.3 Example .......................................................................................................... 111
Appendix-1: List of Figures............................................................................................ 132
Appendix-2: List of Tables ............................................................................................. 133
ADINA R & D, Inc. 3

Chapter 1: Introduction
1 Introduction

TRANSOR for FEMAP is a graphical user interface between FEMAP and ADINA. It
allows users to use FEMAP for all their pre- and post-processing and use ADINA as the
solver. It is targeted to users who are familiar with the FEMAP environment but wish to
benefit from the powerful features of the ADINA solver.

TRANSOR for FEMAP is fully integrated within the FEMAP environment and
communicates with FEMAP using its Application Programming Interface (API). For pre-
processing, TRANSOR for FEMAP is activated inside a FEMAP session and it can
access the FEMAP database directly. For post-processing, TRANSOR for FEMAP can
convert the ADINA results to FEMAP neutral file which can be imported into FEMAP
directly.


1.1 Install and uninstall TRANSOR for FEMAP in FEMAP

TRANSOR for FEMAP installation and uninstallation are activated through Custom
Tools toolbar as shown below.




If Custom Tools toolbar is not visible in the FEMAP main window, please activate it
using the Tools, Toolbars. menu.

For Windows Vista user, please run FEMAP by selecting run application as
Administrator inside Femap.exe before the above installation step.

After installation, two new menus named ADINA and ADINA CFD will be added to the
right of the Help menu in FEMAP with the following content:





TRANSOR for FEMAP User Guide 4

Chapter 1: Introduction
ADINA
Model Parameters
Model Settings
FSI Boundary Conditions
Initial Conditions

Analysis Parameters
Analysis Settings
General Solution Settings
Nonlinear Solution Settings
Analyze
Load Results
User Guide



ADINA CFD
Model Parameters
Materials
Boundary Conditions
Initial Conditions
Analysis Parameters
Analysis Settings
General Solution Settings
CFD Analyze
FSI Analyze


1.2 Explanation of ADINA menu entries of TRANSOR for FEMAP

1.2.1 Model Settings menu

The Model Settings menu is used to input the settings that are part of the model, not the
solution. It includes element settings, material settings, contact settings, etc.

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Chapter 1: Introduction


Master Degrees of Freedom

A degree of freedom not selected by this parameter is deleted from the entire model. The
default is for all degrees of freedom to be active.

Kinematics Settings

Kinematics settings define the kinematic formulation.

Displacements/Rotations
Small: small displacements and rotations are assumed.
Large: large displacements and rotations are assumed.
(Default is Small).

Strains
Small: small strains are assumed.
Large: large strains are assumed.
(Default is Small).

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Chapter 1: Introduction
Note: Large strains are only admissible for element groups of type 2-D solid, 3-D solid
and shell with certain material models.

Large Strain Formulation: specifies the large strain formulation to be used for 2-D
solid, 3-D solid and shell elements.
Default: ULH is used for implicit analysis and ULJ is used for explicit analysis.
ULH: updated Lagrangian Hencky formulation is used.
ULJ: updated Lagrangian Jaumann formulation is used.

Element Settings

Use Incompatible Modes: specifies whether incompatible modes are included in the
formulations of 4-node 2-D and shell elements and 8-node 3-D elements. (Default is
Automatic, which disables Incompatible Modes for explicit analysis, and otherwise
enables Incompatible Modes).

u/p Formulation for Almost Incompressible: indicates use of either displacement or
u/p interpolation formulation. The default selection (unchecked) assumes a u/p
formulation for element groups with material models Ogden, Mooney-Rivlin, and
Arruda-Boyce. For all other material models the default selection (unchecked) assumes a
displacement formulation. (Default is unchecked).

Material Settings

Extrapolate Stress-Strain Curves: automatically extend the stress-strain curves to a
strain value of 100.0 by default. (Default is checked).

Convert from Engineering to True Stress-Strain: converts stress-strain curve input
from engineering stress-strain to true stress-strain. (Default is unchecked).

Mass Matrix Settings

Mass matrix settings select the type of mass matrix to be used in implicit dynamic
analysis. For static analyses, the mass matrix type is used only in evaluating centrifugal
and mass-proportional loads. Note that lumped mass is always used in explicit analysis.
(Default is Consistent).

Consistent: consistent mass matrix.
Lumped: lumped (diagonalized) mass matrix.

Rayleigh Damping Settings

Rayleigh damping settings specify the coefficients which define a consistent damping
matrix C as a linear combination of the system mass matrix M and the system stiffness
matrix K.

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Chapter 1: Introduction
Alpha: Rayleigh damping factor . (Default = 0.0).
Beta: Rayleigh damping factor . (Default = 0.0).

Note: The specification of Rayleigh damping is ignored for both a frequency analysis and
a mode superposition analysis.

Other Settings

Calculate Reactions: indicates whether reaction forces and moments corresponding to
fixed or prescribed degrees of freedom are evaluated and printed into ADINA .out file.
(Default is checked).

Bolt Force Increments: specifies the number of steps to iterate for calculation of bolt
force. (Default is 1).

Rigid Link Displacement: specifies the kinematic formulation for rigid link.
Default: As set by Kinematics Settings.
Small: Small displacement formulation.
Large: Large displacement formulation.

Shell Settings

Shell Thickness Integration Type: specifies the type of numerical integration through
the shell thickness. (Default is Gauss Integration).

Shell Thickness Integration Order: specifies the integration order through the shell
thickness. (Default is 2 for Gauss Integration; 5 for Newton-Cotes and Trapezoidal
Integrations).

Stiffness Factor for Nodes with Zero Drilling Stiffness: assigns drilling stiffness to
rotational degrees of freedom with zero stiffness associated with shell nodes connected to
beams, rigid links, etc. The actual stiffness used is obtained by multiplying this factor by
the rotational stiffness at the shell nodes. (Default is 0.0001).

Use 3D-Shell Element: indicates whether to use 3D-shell elements. (Default is
unchecked).

Include Warping Rotation DOF: indicates whether to include warping rotation degree
of freedom in 3D-shell elements. (Default is unchecked).

Use Tying to Prevent Locking: indicates whether to use tying in 3D-shell elements for
locking prevention. (Default is checked).

Number of u/p DOFs in R-S Plane: specifies the number of pressure degree of freedom
used in the u/p formulation in r-s plane of 3D-shell elements. (Default is Automatic).

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Chapter 1: Introduction
Number of u/p DOFs in T Direction: specifies the number of pressure degree of
freedom used in the u/p formulation in t direction of 3D-shell elements. (Default is
Automatic).

Contact Settings

Default Contact Displacement Formulation: specifies the default displacement
formulation used for contact analysis. (Default is Large).

Allow Tensile Consistent Contact Forces on Quadratic 3D Elements: specifies
whether to allow tensile consistent contact forces (quadratic 3D elements only). (Default
is unchecked).

No. of Iterations to Pairing Contact Node to Target Segment: indicates the number of
iterations for which previous target segments are stored for contactor nodes in order to
suppress oscillation between adjacent segments. Such oscillation can occur when a
contactor node approaches the junction between two adjacent target segments. The
default value is zero, which indicates that no such checking and associated storage are
required. When the number of iterations is larger than zero, it allows such oscillation to
be detected and eliminated.

Notes:
1. The maximum number of iterations is 99.
2. This parameter has no effect if the node-to-node contact algorithm is used.
3. This parameter should be less than the maximum number of equilibrium iterations.

Use Automatic Orientation of Contact Surfaces: indicates whether the contact surface
orientations are determined by ADINA. That is important in contact analysis involving
shells or rigid contact surfaces. In these cases the user had the burden to determine which
is the proper contact side. The automatic determination will be based on individual
contact pairs. (Default is unchecked).

9/27-Node Element Conversion

9/27-Node Element Conversion converts 2-D solid, 3-D solid or shell elements by
changing the number of nodes of the element.

Convert Elements from 8/20 Nodes to 9/27 Nodes: indicates whether to convert 8-node
to 9-node quadrilateral elements and 20-node to 27-node brick elements. (Default is
unchecked).

Element Type to be Converted: selects the type of element to be converted. (Default is
2-D Solid).

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Chapter 1: Introduction
Assign Skew System to Created Nodes: indicates whether skew system is assigned to
newly created nodes if all other nodes on the element face are assigned a skew system.
(Default is unchecked).

Assign Loads and Initial Conditions to Created Nodes: indicates whether existing
nodal-based prescribed loads (e.g., displacement, temperature, velocity) and initial
conditions are applied on the newly created nodes. (Default is unchecked).

Check Nodal Coincidence against All Nodes: indicates whether nodal coincidence is
checked with newly generated nodes or all existing nodes. When a node already exists at
a location, no new node will be created. (Default is unchecked).


1.2.2 FSI Boundary Conditions menu

The FSI Boundary Conditions menu provides the definition of fluid-structure interface
for ADINA Structures. The FSI boundary conditions can be applied to curve/element
edge for 2-D model and surface/element face for 3-D model.



Model Type: indicates the model dimension.

General 3D: 3-D model.
2D in YZ: 2-D model in YZ plane.


1.2.3 Initial Conditions menu

In the Initial Conditions menu all the user defined load sets in FEMAP appear in the
drop-down list. The user can pick one of them to use for initial conditions.

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Chapter 1: Introduction



1.2.4 Analysis Settings menu

The Analysis Settings menu is used to set all analysis specific input required for
ADINA Structures. It includes detailed settings for static, implicit dynamic, explicit
dynamic, frequency, and modal superposition analyses.

1.2.4.1 Static Analysis Settings



Automatic Time Stepping (ATS)

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Chapter 1: Introduction
ATS Scheme: selects a method of automatic incrementation control during analysis, such
as Automatic Time Stepping (ATS), Total Load Application (TLA), and TLA with
Stabilization (TLA-S). (Default is None. When the analysis involves fluid-structure
interaction, the default is Automatic Time Stepping (ATS)).

ATS Settings

Max Subdivisions Allowed: specifies the maximum number of permitted subdivisions of
any given time step. For a time step of magnitude t, the program will not attempt to
subdivide below a time step of magnitude (t divided by this value). (Default is 10).

Max Time Step Factor: a factor that limits the maximum time step that can be attained
during analysis. (Default is 3.0).

Factor for Dividing Time Step: specifies the division factor used to calculate time step
subincrements. (Default is 2.0).

For Next Time Step: indicates whether the original time step, attempted before ATS
subdivision occurred, will be used again for the next time step after convergence.
(Default is Determined by ADINA).

TLA Settings

Number of Time Steps: specifies the number of time steps to use for the solution.
(Default is 50).

Max Number of Iterations: specifies the maximum number of equilibrium iterations
allowed to achieve convergence in any time step (subdivided or accelerated). (Default is
30, and the maximum value is 999).

Max Incremental Displacement Factor: specifies the maximum incremental
displacement factor. The maximum incremental displacement allowed in any iteration is
equal to this factor multiplied by the maximum model dimension. (Default is 0.05).

TLA-S Settings

Stiffness Matrix Stabilization Factor: specifies the stiffness matrix stabilization factor.
(Default is 1.0E-10).

Low-Speed Dynamics Damping Factor: specifies the low-speed dynamics damping
factor. (Default is 1.0E-4).

Low-Speed Dynamics Inertia Factor: specifies the low-speed dynamics inertia factor.
(Default is 1.0).

Contact Damping Factor: specifies the contact damping factor. (Default is 1.0E-3).
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Chapter 1: Introduction

Model Stabilization

Use Low-Speed Dynamics: indicates whether or not the low-speed dynamics option is to
be used. (Default is unchecked).

Low-Speed Dynamics Damping Factor: specifies the low-speed dynamics damping
factor. (Default is 1.0E-4).

Low-Speed Dynamics Inertia Factor: specifies the low-speed dynamics inertia factor.
(Default is 1.0).

Stiffness Matrix Stabilization: sets the option to stabilize the stiffness matrix. (Default
is No).

Stabilization Factor: specifies the stiffness matrix stabilization factor. (Default is 1.0E-
10).

Contact Damping

Apply Contact Damping: indicates whether damping stabilization is applied for contact
analysis. (Default is No).

Normal Contact Damping Coefficient: specifies the normal contact damping
coefficient. (Default is 0.0).

Tangential Contact Damping Coefficient: specifies the tangential contact damping
coefficient. (Default is 0.0).

Note: Refer to the ADINA manuals for more information on these options.

1.2.4.2 Dynamic Implicit Analysis Settings

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Chapter 1: Introduction


Automatic Time Stepping (ATS) Scheme

ATS Scheme: selects a method of automatic incrementation control during analysis.
(Default is None. When the analysis involves fluid-structure interaction, the default is
Automatic Time Stepping (ATS)).

ATS Settings

Max Subdivisions Allowed: specifies the maximum number of permitted subdivisions of
any given time step. (Default is 10).

Max Time Step Factor: a factor that limits the maximum time step that can be attained
during analysis. (Default is 3.0).

Factor for Dividing Time Step: specifies the division factor used to calculate time step
subincrements. (Default is 2.0).

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Chapter 1: Introduction
For Next Time Step: indicates whether the original time step, attempted before ATS
subdivision occurred, will be used again for the next time step after convergence.
(Default is Determined by ADINA).

Time Integration Method

Method: selects the method to be used for direct time integration. (Default is Newmark).

Delta: coefficient for the Newmark method. (Default is 0.5 and Delta 0.5).

Alpha: coefficient for the Newmark method. (Default is 0.25 and Alpha > 0.0).

Gamma: coefficient for the Bathe-Composite method. (Default is 0.5 and 0.0 < Gamma
< 1.0).

Contact Damping

Apply Contact Damping: indicates whether damping stabilization is applied for contact
analysis. (Default is No).

Normal Contact Damping Coefficient: specifies the normal contact damping
coefficient. (Default is 0.0).

Tangential Contact Damping Coefficient: specifies the tangential contact damping
coefficient. (Default is 0.0).

1.2.4.3 Dynamic Explicit Analysis Settings

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Chapter 1: Introduction


Time Step Control

Time Step: indicates the method of time step selection for explicit analysis. (Default is
Automatic (Use Total Time Specified)).

Time Step Magnitude Update Frequency: defines how often the time step magnitude is
updated in explicit analysis. (Default is 1.0).

Time Step Magnitude Scaling Factor: factor used to scale the calculated time step in
explicit analysis. (Default is 0.0).

Global Mass Scaling Factor: specifies the factor to scale the mass (densities) of the
entire model (at the beginning of the analysis) to increase the critical time step size
required for stability when the explicit time integration scheme is used. (Default is 1.0).

Minimum Time Step (Mass Scaling): specifies the minimum time step size used to
determine if mass scaling will be applied to elements (at the beginning of the analysis).
(Default is 0.0).
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Chapter 1: Introduction

Minimum Time Step (Element Removal): specifies the minimum time step size used to
determine if an element will be removed in an explicit time integration analysis. (Default
is 0.0).

1.2.4.4 Frequency/Mode Analysis Settings



Solution Method
Specifies the method of frequency calculation. (Default is Subspace Iteration).

Output Settings

Calculated Modal Stresses: indicates whether or not to calculate modal stresses for post-
processing. (Default is unchecked).

Output Intermediate Solution Information: specifies whether or not the intermediate
solution information is printed. (Default is unchecked).

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Chapter 1: Introduction
Lanczos Settings

Use Shifting Procedure: specifies whether to use automatic shifting procedure for the
Lanczos iteration method. When the number of frequencies to be calculated is large,
using the automatic shifting procedure can reduce the computation time significantly.
(Default is Automatic).

No. of Frequencies per Shift: specifies the number of frequencies to be calculated for
each shift in the Lanczos iteration method. (Default is 50).

Frequency Range

Calculated Frequency in an Interval: specifies whether or not the lowest frequency
calculation by the subspace and the Lanczos iteration methods are confined to a specified
interval. (Default is unchecked).

Lower Bound: indicates the lower bound frequency (radians/time) of the interval in
which the subspace iteration method and the Lanczos iteration method calculate the
lowest frequencies. (Default is 0.0).

Upper Bound: indicates the upper bound frequency (radians/time) of the interval in
which the subspace iteration method and the Lanczos iteration method calculate the
lowest frequencies. (Default is Cutoff Circular Frequency).

Frequencies/Mode Shapes

Number of Frequencies/Mode Shapes: specifies the number of frequencies and
corresponding mode shapes to be calculated. The actual number of frequencies calculated
may be reduced whenever the maximum, specified either by the cutoff circular frequency
or the upper bound on the solution interval (for the subspace iteration method), has been
exceeded. (Default is 1).

Number of Mode Shapes to be Printed: indicates the number of mode shapes to be
printed in the results output file. (Default is 0).

Solution Settings

Allow Rigid Body Mode: specifies whether or not rigid body modes are allowed. Should
be used when the lowest frequency may be zero, or any part of the model may be
insufficiently supported. (Default is unchecked).

Rigid Body Mode Shift: indicates the rigid body mode shift to be applied when Allow
Rigid Body Mode is checked. (Default is 0.0, and this will result in a value being
automatically determined by the analysis program).

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Chapter 1: Introduction
Cutoff Circular Frequency: specifies the cutoff circular frequency (radians/time). The
frequency calculation is stopped if Cutoff Circular Frequency has been exceeded.
(Default is 1.0E8).

Max. Number of Iterations per Eigenpair: specifies the maximum number of iterations
per eigenpair (frequency, mode shape) allowed during solution. (Default is 24).

Subspace Settings

Use Acceleration Scheme: specifies whether or not acceleration schemes (shifting and
overrelaxation) are to be employed during subspace iteration. (Default is unchecked).

No. of Iteration Vectors Used Simultaneously: indicates the number of iteration vectors
to be used simultaneously by the subspace iteration method. (Default equals the min(2 *
Number of Frequencies/Mode Shapes, Number of Frequencies/Mode Shapes + 8) if
Calculated Frequency in an Interval is checked. Default is 16 if Calculated Frequency
in an Interval is unchecked).

Convergence Tolerance: indicates the convergence tolerance used by the subspace and
the Lanczos iteration methods in the iteration for frequency values. (Default is 1.0E-6 if
Calculated Frequency in an Interval is unchecked and Subspace Iteration method is
used. Default is 1.0E-10 if Calculated Frequency in an Interval is checked and
Subspace Iteration method is used. Default is 1.0E-9 if Lanczos Iteration method is
used).

Starting Vectors: specifies the method of generating starting vectors for the subspace
iteration method. (Default is Lanczos).

Standard: standard starting vectors are used.
Lanczos: the Lanczos method is used to generate starting vectors.

Number of User-Provided Starting Vectors: indicates the number of user-provided
starting iteration vectors for the subspace iteration method. (Default is 0).

1.2.4.5 Mode Superposition Analysis Settings

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Chapter 1: Introduction


Frequencies and Normal Modes Data

Calculate Frequencies & Mode Shapes: indicates that ADINA Structures is to first
perform a frequency analysis (in the same run). (Default is checked).

Read from File (<problem filename>.mds): indicates that the frequencies and mode
shapes are assumed available, on file, from a previous analysis. (Default is unchecked).

Number of Modes to Use: specifies the number of modes for a mode superposition
analysis. (Default is 0).

All other explanations for this dialog box are the same as Frequency/Mode Analysis
Settings in section 1.2.4.4.


1.2.5 General Solution Settings menu

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Chapter 1: Introduction
The General Solution Settings menu provides the settings that are part of the solution
process for both linear and nonlinear analysis. It mainly includes time steps, solver, and
restart analysis options.



General

Solution Start Time: specifies the solution start time. For a restart run it must equal a
solution time at which data was saved from a previous run. (Default is 0.0).

Continue Even When Non-Positive Definite Stiffness Matrix Encountered: specifies
the preferred behavior of ADINA Structures when a zero or negative diagonal element is
encountered, i.e. when the system matrix is not positive definite. When checked, ADINA
Structures will always continue execution. If an exact zero pivot is encountered, ADINA
assigns a very large number to the diagonal term, effectively attaching a very stiff spring
to the degree of freedom. When unchecked, ADINA Structures stops if the stiffness
matrix is not positive definite for a linear analysis. For a nonlinear analysis, ADINA
Structures stops if the stiffness matrix is not positive definite unless the automatic time
stepping (ATS) option is used, or a contact analysis is being performed. (Default is
unchecked).

Solver

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Chapter 1: Introduction
Equation Solver: selects the type of solution algorithm used to solve the equilibrium
equation system. (Default is Sparse Solver).

Sparse: a sparse-matrix solver is used.
3D-Iterative: an iterative solver is used for models with relatively large number of 3-D
higher order elements.
Multigrid: a multigrid solver is used.

Solver Settings: defines control data for the iterative solution of the matrix system of
equilibrium equations.

Max Iterations: specifies the maximum number of iterations for the iterative solver to
converge. (Default is 200 for a 3D-Iterative solver; 1000 for a Multigrid solver).

Epsilon a Tolerance: specifies the convergence tolerance for the iterative solver.
(Default is 1.0E-6).

Epsilon b Tolerance: specifies the convergence tolerance for the iterative solver.
(Default is 1.0E-4).

Epsilon i Tolerance: specifies the convergence tolerance for the iterative solver. (Default
is 1.0E-8).

Shift Factor: factor used to make preconditioning more effective within the iterative
solver. Values of Shift Factor greater than 1.0 makes the preconditioning matrix more
diagonally dominant. (Not used for the 3D-Iterative solver. Default is 1.0).

Note 1: For the 3D-Iterative solver, only Epsilon b Tolerance is used in the
convergence checking.

Note 2: Refer to the ADINA manuals for more information on these options.

Solution Diagnostics
Solution diagnostics provides diagnostic information to the user about the progress of
solution, the mesh, the analysis settings or results.

For Overall Solution: diagnostics of solution progress. It outputs a wide range of
information about the progress of solution. Output includes material points switching
from elastic to plastic, contact nodes changing status, loose convergence tolerances, ATS
performance, and matrix ill-conditioning. (Default is None).

None: No diagnostic checking.
Minimal: Only critical information is output.
Detailed: Output all detected issues.

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Chapter 1: Introduction
Related to Contact: diagnostics of contact definitions (at the start of solution). (Default
is None).

None: No diagnostic checking.
Minimal: Only critical information is output.
Detailed: Output all detected issues.

Restart Analysis Options

Restart Previous Analysis: when checked ADINA Structures performs a restart
analysis, reading data from a previous run, verifies the data and executes. (Default is
unchecked).

Number of Steps to Save in the Restart File: specifies the number of solution time
steps to save in the restart file. Assume the value of this parameter is N, then

When N = 1, the number of steps saved in the restart file is dictated by Frequency of
Saving to Restart File (see below).
When N > 1, the number of steps saved in the restart file is limited to N.
(Default is 1).

Frequency of Saving to Restart File: specifies the frequency of saving ADINA
Structures results to the restart file. Assume the value of this parameter is N, then

When N = 0, Frequency of Saving to Restart File is set to the Number of Steps in the
first Time Steps block when explicit time integration is used; set to 1 otherwise.
When N > 0, restart file is overwritten every Nth time steps.
When N < 0, restart file is appended every Nth time steps.
(Default is 0).

Restart Data from

Current <problem filename>.res: uses the current <problem filename>.res as the restart
file. (Default is checked).

File: restart file specified by user. (Default is unchecked).

Time Steps

Defines a time step sequence which controls the time/load-step incrementation during
analysis. The sequence is defined as a number of periods for which a given number of
constant time steps is specified.

Number of Steps: indicates the number of steps to be taken in a time step sequence
period. (Default is 1).

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Chapter 1: Introduction
Time Increment: indicates the constant time step magnitude, in time units, for a time
step sequence period. (Default is 1.0).

Output Interval: controls the output time steps at which results are saved on the FEMAP
neutral file. Assume the value of this parameter is N, then every N-th step will be saved
for output. (Default is 1.0).

1.2.6 Nonlinear Solution Settings menu

The Nonlinear Solution Settings menu provides the settings that are specific to
nonlinear analysis. It mainly includes iteration scheme and convergence tolerance
options.



Nonlinear Iteration Scheme

Maximum Number of Iterations: specifies the maximum number of iterations within a
time step. (Default is 15, 1 Maximum Number of Iterations 999).

ADINA Structures will terminate execution if this maximum number is reached without
achieving convergence, unless the automatic time stepping (ATS) option has been
enabled, whereby the time step is subdivided a given number of times to try to reach
convergence.

Line Search Settings

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Chapter 1: Introduction
Use of Line Search: sets the use of line searches within the iteration scheme. (Default is
No).

Convergence Tolerance: specifies the line search convergence tolerance. (Default is
0.5).

Energy Threshold: specifies the line search energy threshold. This parameter is only
used if line search is activated (e.g., when Use of Line Search is YES). During each
equilibrium iteration, if the unbalanced energy is less than Energy Threshold, no line
search will be performed. (Default is 0.0, Energy Threshold 0.0).

Lower Bound: indicates the lower bound for line search. (Default is 0.001, 0.0 Lower
Bound < 1.0).

Upper Bound: indicates the upper bound for line search. (If there is contact, the default
is 1.0; otherwise, the default is 8.0. Upper Bound 1.0).

Plastic Algorithm Used in Large Strain: sets the algorithm used in plasticity. Type 1
plastic algorithm is the original algorithm and type 2 plastic algorithm is a modified
algorithm. (Default is Type 1).

This parameter is used for implicit time integration (static or dynamic), and 3-D solid
elements or shell elements under the following conditions:

(1) Large displacement, large strain kinematics;
(2) 3-D solid elements: ULH formulation, elasto-plastic and plastic materials;
(3) Shell elements: ULH formulation, elasto-plastic and plastic materials.

For a given load step size, convergence is affected by this parameter. If the iterations do
not converge with type 1 plastic algorithm because the Jacobian determinant in the
elements becomes non-positive, switching to type 2 plastic algorithm can sometimes
obtain convergence. Hence type 2 plastic algorithm allows larger load steps than type 1
plastic algorithm, in general. But if the iterations already converge with type 1 plastic
algorithm, switching to type 2 plastic algorithm slows down convergence.

The converged solution is not affected by the choice of this parameter.

The typical use of type 2 plastic algorithm is in metal forming. In metal forming, the
metal being formed is typically very thin and modeled either with shell elements or with
thin 3-D elements. Type 2 plastic algorithm allows large load steps, and hence fewer load
steps, to obtain the solution.

Max Incremental Displacement/Iteration: specifies the maximum incremental
displacement that is allowed in an iteration. This feature is generally useful for contact
analysis where rigid body motion before the bodies come into contact may result in
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Chapter 1: Introduction
excessive displacements. A zero value means there is no limit on incremental
displacements. (Default is 0.0).

Convergence

Convergence Criteria: selects the convergence criteria to be used, and thereby which of
the other parameters are considered. (Default is Energy).

Energy: energy convergence criterion.
Energy and Force: energy and force (moment) convergence criteria.
Energy and Displacement: energy and displacement (translation, rotation) convergence
criteria.
Force: force (moment) convergence criterion.
Displacement: displacement (translation, rotation) convergence criterion.

Energy Tolerance: specifies the relative energy tolerance. (Default is 0.001).

Contact Force Tolerance: specifies the relative contact force tolerance. (Default is
0.05).

Min Reference Contact Force: specifies the reference contact force. (Default is 0.01).

Displacement Tolerances

Translation/Rotation Tolerance: specifies the relative displacement (translation,
rotation) tolerance. (Default is 0.01).

Reference Translation: specifies the reference translation. Default of 0.0 means the
program will calculate the reference value.

Reference Rotation: specifies the reference rotation. Default of 0.0 means the program
will calculate the reference value.

Force Tolerances

Force/Moment Tolerance: specifies the relative force and moment tolerance. (Default is
0.01).

Reference Force: specifies the reference force. Default of 0.0 means the program will
calculate the reference value.

Reference Moment: specifies the reference moment. Default of 0.0 means the program
will calculate the reference value.

Note: Refer to the ADINA manuals for more information on these options.

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1.2.7 Analyze menu

Under the Analyze menu the user can specify the job name and heading. This menu
also provides the memory, processor and model type settings. The Create .in file button
will generate ADINA Structures .in file (ADINA-IN batch command input). The Create
.dat file button will generate ADINA Structures .dat file (analysis data). The Run
model button will run the job with ADINA Structures analysis.



Job Name: specifies ADINA .in file as the job name. The default is the current models
name. The user can change the default job name or its directory by using the Select a
folder button.

Heading: specifies a title for the problem. (No more than 256 characters are permitted).

System Info...: shows the number of processors on the machine, the total physical
memory (RAM), the available physical memory, and Max. Memory for Solution used
if the toggle Automatic is checked.

Options

Number of Processors: specifies the number of processors. (Default is 1).

Automatic: when this option is selected, the Max. Memory for Solution is set to the
80% of total physical memory. The amount of physical memory (RAM) on the system
can be checked by clicking on the System Info button. (Default is unchecked).

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Chapter 1: Introduction
Max. Memory for Solution: specifies the maximum memory to be used for the solution.
It includes the memory allocated for data storage and the memory used by the sparse
solver. (Default is 0, the program will try to allocate as much memory as required by the
sparse solver for an in-core solution).

Memory for Sparse Solver: specifies the maximum memory to be used for the sparse
solver. (Default is 0, the program will try to allocate as much memory as required by the
sparse solver for an in-core solution).

Memory for Storing Model Data: specifies the amount of memory that the program can
use to store matrix and element information. If the sparse solver is used in the solution,
additional memory will be allocated by the program for the sparse solver on top of this
memory allocation. (Default is 16 MB).

ADINA-AUI Memory: specifies the amount of memory to be allocated for the AUI
program. (Default is 16 MB).

Output ADINA Input File in Interactive Mode: when this option is selected, the user
can use ADINA AUI to read the input file for further interactive processing. (Default is
uncheck).

Model Type: selects the model dimension. (Default is General 3D).


1.2.8 Load Results menu

The Load Results menu loads the analysis results in FEMAP neutral file format.



FEMAP Neutral File: specifies the FEMAP neutral file for post-processing. (Default is
the current models name).

1.2.9 User Guide menu

The User Guide menu loads the user guide of TRANSOR for FEMAP.


1.3 Explanation of ADINA CFD menu entries of TRANSOR for
FEMAP

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Chapter 1: Introduction
1.3.1 Materials menu

The Materials menu defines the material with constant properties and the turbulence K-
Epsilon material for ADINA CFD.

Material with Constant Properties



Density: specifies the density of the fluid. (Default is 0.0).

Viscosity: specifies the coefficient of viscosity. (Default is 0.0).

Specific Heat: specifies the specific heat at constant pressure. (Default is 0.0).

Fluid Bulk Modulus: specifies the fluid bulk modulus. (Default is 1.0E20).

Thermal Conductivity: specifies the coefficient of thermal conductivity. (Default is
0.0).

Reference Temperature: specifies the reference temperature. (Default is 0.0).

Coefficient of Surface Tension: specifies the coefficient of surface tension. (Default is
0.0).

Coefficient of Volume Expansion: specifies the coefficient of volume expansion.
(Default is 0.0).

Specific Heat at Constant Volume: specifies the specific heat at constant volume.
(Default is 0.0).

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Chapter 1: Introduction
Rate of Heat Generated/Unit Volume: specifies the rate of heat generated per unit
volume. (Default is 0.0).

Acceleration due to Gravity: specifies the global system components of acceleration
due to gravity. (Default is X=0.0, Y=0.0, Z=0.0).

Note: This dialog is activated when Laminar flow model is selected under the Flow
Assumptions tab of ADINA CFD Analysis Settings menu.


Turbulent K-Epsilon Material



Basic

Density: specifies the density of the fluid. (Default is 0.0).

Laminar Viscosity: specifies the coefficient of laminar viscosity. (Default is 0.0).

Specific Heat: specifies the specific heat at constant pressure. (Default is 0.0).

Fluid Bulk Modulus: specifies the fluid bulk modulus. (Default is 1.0E20).

Laminar Thermal Conductivity: specifies the coefficient of laminar thermal
conductivity. (Default is 0.0).

Reference Temperature: specifies the reference temperature. (Default is 0.0).

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Coefficient of Surface Tension: specifies the coefficient of surface tension. (Default is
0.0).

Coefficient of Volume Expansion: specifies the coefficient of volume expansion.
(Default is 0.0).

Specific Heat at Constant Volume: specifies the specific heat at constant volume.
(Default is 0.0).

Rate of Heat Generated/Unit Volume: specifies the rate of heat generated per unit
volume. (Default is 0.0).

Type: indicates whether the standard or the renormalization group (RNG) K-Epsilon
model is to be utilized. (Default is Standard).



Advanced

Turbulent Flow Model Constants

C1: specifies the constant C1. (Default is 1.44).

C2: specifies the constant C2. (Default is 1.92).

C3: specifies the constant C3. (Default is 0.8).

Cmu: specifies the constant Cmu. (Default is 0.09).

Sigma K: specifies the constant
k
. (Default is 1.0).
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Chapter 1: Introduction

Sigma T: specifies the constant
t
. (Default is 0.9).

Sigma Epsilon: specifies the constant

. (Default is 1.3).

Von Karman Constant: specifies the Von Karman constant . (Default is 0.4).

Dimensionless Distance from Wall Boundary: specifies the dimensionless distance
from a wall boundary, where the calculations for velocity, temperature and k , are
performed. (Default is 70).

Acceleration due to Gravity: specifies the global system components of acceleration
due to gravity. (Default is X=0.0, Y=0.0, Z=0.0).



Two-Layer Model

Use Two-Layer Zonal Model: selects the type of constants input for the two-layer zonal
model. (Default is OFF).

OFF: deactivates the two-layer zonal model.
with Default Constants: activates the two-layer zonal model with default constants for
internal flows.
with Input Constants: activates the two-layer zonal model with direct input constants for
internal flows.

cl: specifies a constant for internal flows in the two-layer zonal model. (Default is 2.43).

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Am: specifies a constant for internal flows in the two-layer zonal model. (Default is 100).

Ae: specifies a constant for internal flows in the two-layer zonal model. (Default is 100).

Minimum Critical Reynolds Number: specifies the minimum critical turbulent
Reynolds number that defines the range of viscosity-affected near-wall layers. (Default is
50).

Maximum Critical Reynolds Number: specifies the maximum critical turbulent
Reynolds number that defines the range of viscosity-affected near-wall layers. (Default is
400).

Preferred Number of Near-Wall Layers: specifies the preferred number of viscosity-
affected near-wall layers. (Default is 10).

Note 1: This dialog is activated when Turbulent K-Epsilon flow model is selected under
the Flow Assumptions tab of ADINA CFD Analysis Settings menu.

Note 2: Refer to the ADINA manuals for more information on these options.


1.3.2 Boundary Conditions menu

The Boundary Conditions menu is used to define the wall, fluid-structure interaction
(FSI), boundary pressure, fixed pressure, inlet velocity and inlet turbulence boundary
conditions for ADINA CFD analysis. The wall, FSI, and boundary pressure boundary
conditions can be applied to curve or element in 2-D model, and to surface or element in
3-D model. The fixed pressure, inlet velocity and inlet turbulence boundary conditions
can be applied to point, curve, surface or node in both 2-D and 3-D models.

Wall Boundary Condition

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Velocity at Wall Boundary: specifies the type of boundary velocity. (Default is
Conventional).

Conventional: velocity at the boundary is controlled by the Slip Condition parameter.
Tangential: tangential velocity.
Rotational: velocity resulting from a rotating angular velocity.

Tangential / AngularVelocity

Magnitude: specifies the magnitude of the velocity. (Default is 0.0).

Time Function: specifies the time function of the tangential velocity or angular velocity.
(Default is 0).

Normal to Plane formed by Boundary Normal and Tangent: specifies the normal
direction of the plane determined by the boundary normal and tangential directions using
the right-hand rule. Values are specified in the global coordinate system. (Default is
X=1.0, Y=0.0, Z=0.0).

Position of Origin of Rotation: specifies the global coordinates of the origin of the axis
of rotation. (Default is X=0.0, Y=0.0, Z=0.0).

Slip Condition: specifies the slip coefficient. When Slip Condition is No, the slip
coefficient is 0.0 which indicates a "no-slip" condition. When Slip Condition is Yes,
the slip coefficient is 1.0. (Default is No).
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Thermal Condition

Type: specifies the type of thermal condition on the wall. (Default is Local Heat Flux).

Local Heat Flux: the heat flux on the wall that is specified by the Value parameter within
this command.
Local Temperature: the temperature on the wall that is specified by the Value parameter
within this command.
Global: thermal condition is specified at the global level.

Value: specifies the temperature or heat flux on the wall. (Default is 0.0).

Time Function: specifies the time function of the temperature or heat flux on the wall.
(Default is 0).

FSI Boundary Condition



Fluid-Structure Boundary Number: indicates the label number of a "fluid-structure
boundary". This number is defined by FSI Boundary Conditions menu in ADINA
Structures, which specifies that part of the structure that is to interact with the fluid
boundary. (Default is 1).

Note: A fluid-structure boundary with the specified number must be defined in the
ADINA Structures model.
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Chapter 1: Introduction

All other explanations for this dialog box are the same as the Wall Boundary Condition
dialog box.

Boundary Pressure Boundary Condition



Magnitude: specifies the boundary pressure magnitude. (Default is 0.0).

Time Function: specifies the time function of the boundary pressure. (Default is 0).

Fixed Pressure Boundary Condition

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Magnitude: specifies the fixed pressure magnitude. (Default is 0.0).

Time Function: specifies the time function of the fixed pressure. (Default is 0).

Inlet Velocity Boundary Condition

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Inlet Velocity X: prescribes a value for the X-velocity degree of freedom. The special
value Free may be given, indicating that the degree of freedom is not to be prescribed.
(Default is Free).

Inlet Velocity Y: prescribes a value for the Y-velocity degree of freedom. The special
value Free may be given, indicating that the degree of freedom is not to be prescribed.
(Default is Free).

Inlet Velocity Z: prescribes a value for the Z-velocity degree of freedom. The special
value Free may be given, indicating that the degree of freedom is not to be prescribed.
(Default is Free).

Time Function: specifies the time function of the inlet velocity. (Default is 0).

Inlet Turbulence Boundary Condition

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Load Values: indicates whether the turbulence loads, Kinetic-Energy and Energy
Dissipation, are input directly or computed from other (more physical) quantities,
namely, the turbulence intensity, the velocity at the boundary and the dissipation length
scale. (Default is Direct Input).

Direct Input: Kinetic-Energy and Energy Dissipation are input directly.
Computed: Kinetic-Energy and Energy Dissipation are computed.
Compute K only: compute Kinetic-Energy and set Energy Dissipation to Free.
Compute E/w only: compute Energy Dissipation and set Kinetic-Energy to Free.

Time Function: specifies the time function of Load Values. (Default is 0).

Direct Input of Load Values

Prescribed Value for Kinetic-Energy: prescribes a value for the kinetic-energy degree
of freedom. The special value Free may be given, indicating that the degree of freedom is
not to be prescribed. (Default is Free).

Prescribed Value for Rate of Energy Dissipation: prescribes a value for the rate of
energy dissipation degree of freedom. The special value Free may be given, indicating
that the degree of freedom is not to be prescribed. (Default is Free).

Compute Load Values from

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Chapter 1: Introduction
Turbulence Intensity: specifies the turbulence intensity, usually defined as the ratio of
the root mean square velocity to the time-averaged velocity at the boundary. (Default is
0.025, 1.0E-5 Turbulence Intensity 1.0).

Mean Velocity at Boundary: specifies the mean time-averaged velocity at the boundary.
(Default is 0.0, 0.0 Mean Velocity at Boundary 1.0E8).

Dissipation Length Scale: specifies the dissipation length scale such as the hydraulic
diameter in internal flows. (Default is 1.0, 1.0E-8 Dissipation Length Scale 1.0E8).

Note: The Turbulence Intensity, Mean Velocity at Boundary and Dissipation Length
Scale are only active when Load Values is Computed or Compute K only or Compute
E/w only.


1.3.3 Initial Conditions menu

The Initial Conditions menu is used to define the initial velocity, initial pressure, initial
temperature and initial turbulence for ADINA CFD analysis. The initial conditions can be
applied to a surface in a 2-D model, and to a solid or volume in a 3-D model.



Initial Condition Type: defines an initial condition and assigns it to geometry entities.

Velocity: specifies an initial velocity for the X, Y and Z directions. (Default is X-
Velocity = 0.0, Y-Velocity = 0.0, Z-Velocity = 0.0).

Pressure: specifies an initial pressure. (Default is 0.0).

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Temperature: specifies an initial temperature. (Default is 0.0).

Turbulence: specifies initial K-Energy and E-Dissipation. (Defaults are K-Energy = 0.0,
E-Dissipation = 0.0).


1.3.4 Analysis Settings menu

The Analysis Settings menu is used to set all analysis specific input required for
ADINA CFD. It includes detail settings for analysis type, flow assumptions, FSI and
solver.



Analysis Type

Analysis Type: selects the type of analysis to be performed. (Default is Steady-State).

Steady-State: steady-state analysis.
Transient: time dependent analysis.

Transient Analysis:
Defines the time integration parameters for a transient flow analysis.

Integration Method: this option chooses between the first order Euler method or the
second order Runge-Kutta method (ADINA composite scheme). (Default is Euler).

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Chapter 1: Introduction
Euler: Euler method.
Composite: ADINA composite scheme method.

Integration Parameter: specifies the time integration parameter for implicit time
stepping. When the Integration Parameter is 0.5 it corresponds to the trapezoidal rule, and
a value of 1.0 corresponds to the Euler backward integration. (Default is 1.0 for Euler;
2 2 for Composite).

Note: For both the Euler and Composite methods, the user can choose the Integration
Parameter as follows.

0.5 Integration Parameter 1.0 for Euler method.
0.5 < Integration Parameter < 1.0 for Composite method.

Automatic Time Stepping (ATS)

ATS Scheme: enables automatic incrementation control during the analysis. (Default is
None).

Courant Number: specifies the courant number. (Default = 1.0E20).



Flow Assumptions

Flow Dimension: indicates the fluid flow dimension. (Default is General 3D).

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General 3D: 3-D fluid flow.
2D in YZ: 2-D fluid flow in the YZ plane.

Flow Type: indicates the fluid flow type. (Default is Incompressible).

Incompressible: incompressible flow.
Low Speed Compressible: low-speed compressible flow.
Slightly Compressible: slightly compressible flow.

Flow Model: indicates the fluid flow model. (Default is Laminar).

Laminar: no turbulence is involved.
Turbulent K-Epsilon: a k- turbulence model is used.

Includes Heat Transfer: indicates whether the heat transfer analysis is included.
(Default is checked).



FSI

FSI Coupling: specifies the coupling for FSI problems. (Default is No).

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Chapter 1: Introduction


Solver

Equation Solver: selects the type of solution algorithm used to solve the equilibrium
equation system. (Default is Sparse for FCBI elements; default is AMG1 for FCBI-C
elements).

Sparse: a sparse-matrix direct solver is used.
AMG1: an algebraic multi-grid solver of Type 1 is used. This solver uses less memory
with smoother convergence pattern.

Note: The selection between FCBI and FCBI-C elements is under the ADINA CFD
General Solution Settings menu.

Sparse Solver Settings

Max Number of Iterations: specifies the maximum number of iterations within a time
step. ADINA-CFD will terminate execution if this maximum number is reached without
achieving convergence. (Default is 15).

AMG1 Solver Settings (for FCBI-C Elements only)

Relaxation Factors in Outer Iteration: defines the control data for outer iteration
variables.

Velocity: specifies the relaxation factor for velocity. (Default is 0.75).
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Pressure: specifies the relaxation factor for pressure. (Default is 0.3).

Temperature: specifies the relaxation factor for temperature. (Default is 0.99).

Turbulence-K: specifies the relaxation factor for turbulence-K. (Default is 0.97).

Turbulence-Epsilon: specifies the relaxation factor for turbulence-Epsilon. (Default is
0.97).


Reduction Numbers in Inner Iteration: defines the control data for inner iteration
variables.

Velocity: specifies the reduction number for velocity. (Default is 0.01).

Pressure: specifies the reduction number for pressure. (Default is 0.01).

Temperature: specifies the reduction number for temperature. (Default is 0.1).

Turbulence-K: specifies the reduction number for turbulence-K. (Default is 0.1).

Turbulence-Epsilon: specifies the reduction number for turbulence-Epsilon. (Default is
0.1).


1.3.5 General Solution Settings menu

The General Solution Settings menu provides the settings that are part of the solution
process. It mainly includes time steps, non-dimensional analysis settings, and restart
analysis options.

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Chapter 1: Introduction


General

Solution Start Time: specifies the solution start time. For a restart run it must equal a
solution time at which data was saved from a previous run. (Default is 0.0).

Non-Dimensional Analysis Settings
Defines the scaling factors used for the non-dimensional procedure.

Non-Dimensional Analysis: indicates whether the non-dimensional analysis is used.
(Default is No).

Coordinates of the Length Datum: specifies the coordinates of the length datum for the
X, Y and Z directions. (Default is X=0.0, Y=0.0, Z=0.0).

Length Scale: specifies the length scale. (Default is 1.0).

Velocity Scale: specifies the velocity scale. (Default is 1.0).

Density Scale: specifies the density scale. (Default is 1.0).

Specific Heat Scale: specifies the specific heat scale. (Default is 1.0).

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Temperature Scale: specifies the temperature scale. (Default is 1.0).

Temperature Datum: specifies the temperature datum. (Default is 0.0).

Mass-Ratio Scale: specifies the mass-ratio scale. (Default is 1.0).

Analysis in Non-Dimensional Form: indicates whether the analysis is performed in non-
dimensional form. (Default is checked).

Output in Non-Dimensional Form: indicates whether the output is in non-dimensional
form. (Default is unchecked).

Restart Analysis Options

Restart Previous Analysis: when checked ADINA CFD performs a restart analysis,
reading data from a previous run, verifies the data and executes. (Default is unchecked).

Save Restart Info. for Last [ ] Results Save Steps: controls the saving of restart data.
Assume the value of this parameter is N, then the restart data is saved at the last N times
when porthole data is saved. (Default is 1).

For example, if a user requests to save results at every other time step, and the total
number of solution time steps is 11, then the porthole data will be saved at steps 1, 3, 5, 7,
9, and 11. Setting N = 3 will result in restart data saved at steps 7, 9, and 11.

Restart Data from

Current <problem filename>.res: uses the current <problem filename>.res as the restart
file. (Default is checked).

File: restart file specified by user. (Default is unchecked).

Element Formulation

Flow-Condition-Based Interpolation Element: selects the type of FCBI elements.
(Default is Yes).

Yes: FCBI elements are generated.
FCBI-C: Flow-Condition-Based Interpolation Center (FCBI-C) elements are generated.

Time Steps

Defines a time step sequence which controls the time/load-step incrementation during
analysis. The sequence is defined as a number of periods for which a given number of
constant time steps is specified.

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Number of Steps: indicates the number of steps to be taken in a time step sequence
period. (Default is 1).

Time Increment: indicates the constant time step magnitude, in time units, for a time
step sequence period. (Default is 1.0).

Output Interval: controls the output time steps at which results are saved on the FEMAP
neutral file. Assume the value of this parameter is N, then every N-th step will be saved
for output. (Default is 1.0).


1.3.6 CFD Analyze menu

Under the CFD Analyze menu the user can specify the job name and heading. This
menu also provides the memory and processor settings. The Create .in file button will
generate ADINA CFD .in file (ADINA-IN batch command input). The Create .dat file
button will generate ADINA CFD .dat file (analysis data). The Run model button will
run the job with ADINA CFD analysis.



Job Name: specifies ADINA CFD .in file as the job name. The default is the current
models name. The user can change the default job name or its directory by using the
Select a folder button.

Heading: specifies a title for the problem. (No more than 256 characters are permitted).

System Info...: shows the number of processors on the machine, the total physical
memory (RAM), the available physical memory, and Max. Memory for Solution used
if the toggle Automatic is checked.

Options

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All other explanations for this dialog box are the same as ADINA Analyze menu in
section 1.2.7.


1.3.7 FSI Analyze menu

Under the FSI Analyze menu the user can specify the necessary job names. This menu
also provides the memory and processor settings. The Run model button will run the
job with ADINA FSI analysis.

Currently, only one-way FSI is supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP. In one-way FSI the
fluid analysis is run first and the fluid stresses acting on the structure are saved in a file
(with .fsi extension). Next, the structural analysis is run and the program reads the fluid
stresses from the .fsi file as loads on the structure, resulting in the structural deformations
and stresses.



ADINA Input File: specifies an ADINA Structures .dat file (analysis data).

ADINA CFD Input File: specifies an ADINA CFD .dat file (analysis data).

Options

Run: selects whether to run a fluid analysis only or a structural analysis only.

Fluid Only: runs fluid analysis only. When running fluid only, both the fluid and structure
.dat files must be specified.
Structure Only: runs structural analysis only. When running structural analysis only, one
can specify just the structure .dat file.

All other explanations for this dialog box are the same as ADINA Analyze menu in
section 1.2.7.


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1.3.8 Load Results menu

The Load Results menu loads the analysis results in FEMAP neutral file format.



FEMAP Neutral File: specifies the FEMAP neutral file for post-processing. (Default is
the current models name).


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Chapter 2: TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA Structures
2 TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA Structures

The purpose of the ADINA Structures part of TRANSOR for FEMAP program is to
integrate the ADINA Structures capabilities to FEMAP. In this way, FEMAP users can
create, solve and post-process their structural models all inside FEMAP. Many NX
Nastran features are available in FEMAP and also in ADINA Structures. The ADINA
Structures part of TRANSOR for FEMAP complements this by providing additional
capabilities (not available in NX Nastran or FEMAP) that can aid the FEMAP or NX
Nastran user in the solution of their models via ADINA Structures. These capabilities can
be defined using the dialog boxes under the ADINA menu.

This chapter discusses how the FEMAP features relate to the ADINA Structures features
and presents two useful examples.

2.1 Translation of Coordinate Systems

In FEMAP basic rectangular, cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems are always
predefined. The user can also create additional coordinate systems that are needed for the
model.

The basic cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems in FEMAP are translated into
ADINA Structures as local cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems. User defined
coordinate systems in FEMAP are also translated into ADINA Structures as local
coordinate systems. However, if these coordinate systems are used as nodal output
coordinate systems in FEMAP, then they are translated as skew systems in ADINA
Structures.

2.2 Translation of Finite Element Entities

2.2.1 Node

Nodal coordinates are always translated by TRANSOR for FEMAP in the global
rectangular coordinate system, no matter how they are defined in FEMAP. However, if
output coordinate systems are selected, the corresponding skew systems are created
during translation in order to properly specify constraints.

Note that nodal permanent constraint is not supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP.

2.2.2 Element

In FEMAP there are four main element types: line elements, plane elements, volume
elements and other elements.

2.2.2.1 Line Elements

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For line elements, the rod, bar, (linear) beam, DOF spring and gap elements are supported
in TRANSOR for FEMAP.

The rod element is translated into ADINA Structures as a truss element without torsional
stiffness, i.e., only axial force is transmitted by the element. Thus, only the rod element
property of area is translated into ADINA Structures to define a truss cross section. All
other properties are ignored.

The bar element is translated into ADINA Structures as 3-D (Hermitian) beam element.
Its properties of area, moment of inertia I1, moment of inertia I2, torsional constant, Y
shear area and Z shear area are translated into ADINA Structures to define a beam cross
section which can only be used for elastic Hermitian beam. All other properties are
ignored.

The (linear) beam element is translated into ADINA Structures as 3-D (Hermitian) beam
element without support of beam offsets and beam releases. Its properties of area,
moment of inertia I1, moment of inertia I2, torsional constant, Y shear area and Z shear
area are translated into ADINA Structures to define a general type beam cross section
which can only be used for elastic Hermitian beam. All other properties are ignored. In
addition, a tapered beam with different properties at each end of the beam is not
supported.

The DOF spring element is translated into ADINA Structures as spring element. Its
properties of fucntion dependences are not supported.

The gap element is translated into ADINA Structures as a nonlinear spring element where
the axial properties are represented but the transverse properties are ignored. Its
properties of initial gap, compression stiffness, tension stiffness and preload force are
translated into ADINA Structures to define a nonlinear relationship between relative-
displacement and force from which the stiffness and force of a nonlinear spring element
are obtained. All other properties are ignored.

2.2.2.2 Plane Elements

For plane elements, membrane element (linear and parabolic), plate element (linear and
parabolic) and plane strain element (linear and parabolic) are supported in TRANSOR for
FEMAP. The membrane and plate elements are translated into ADINA Structures as shell
element. The plane strain element is translated into ADINA Structures as 2-D solid plane
strain element.

The thickness of the membrane element is translated into ADINA Structures to define the
thinkness of shell element. The nonstructural mass/area of the memebrane element is not
supported.

The thickness (uniform or non-uniform) of the plate element is translated into ADINA
Structures to define the thickness of shell element. All other properties are ignored.
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Please note that when the non-uniform thickness is specified, all the thickness values at
each element corner cannot be zero.

Note that the plane strain element must be defined in the global YZ plane and all of its
properties are ignored during translation.

2.2.2.3 Volume Elements

For volume elements, both axisymmetric element and solid element are supported. They
are translated into ADINA Structures as 2-D solid axisymmetric element and 3-D solid
element, respectively. Note that the axisymmetric element must be defined in the global
YZ plane and all the properties of the solid element are ignored.

2.2.2.4 Other Elements

For other elements, mass, mass matrix and rigid elements are supported. The mass and
mass matrix elements are translated into ADINA Structures as concentrated mass on the
nodes. The rigid element is translated into ADINA Structures as rigid link.

Notes:
1. Inertia components (Ixy, Iyz, Izx), Offset from Node and Heat Transfer Properties
are ignored in mass element.
2. Coordinate system for offset and inertial in mass element is ignored. The inertia
components are assumed to be in the basic rectangular coordinate system.
3. Only the diagonal terms of the mass matrix element are translated.
4. Coordinate system for mass matrix element is ignored. The diagonal inertia
components are assumed to be in the basic rectangular coordinate system.
5. The rigid interpolation element is not supported.

2.2.3 Material

FEMAP possesses eight types of materials: isotropic, 2-D and 3-D orthotropic, 2-D and
3-D anisotropic, hyperelastic, fluid, and other types. Currently, only isotropic material
and four other types of materials (NX Nastran hyperelastic materials) are supported in
TRANSOR for FEMAP.

2.2.3.1 Isotropic Materials

The general isotropic material properties of Youngs modulus, Poissons ratio, mass
density and thermal expansion coefficient are translated into ADINA Structures. All other
properties are ignored. The function references to the isotropic material properties are not
supported.

In FEMAP there are four types of nonlinear properties (linear elastic, nonlinear elastic,
elasto-plastic (bi-linear) and plastic) associated with the isotropic material. A stress-strain
curve for nonlinear elastic or plastic materials can be defined by a vs. Stress function or
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Stress vs. Strain function which are translated into ADINA Structures. Nonlinear
elastic materials can also be temperature dependent, but this is not supported in
TRANSOR for FEMAP. Four yield criteria are available (von Mises, Tresca, Mohr-
Coulomb, and Drucker-Prager) in FEMAP. Only the von Mises yield criterion without
Extended Material Model is supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP, which requires a
nonzero initial yield stress. In addition, the isotropic+kinematic hardening rule for the
plastic material is translated into the isotropic hardening rule.

Creep material properties, electrical/optical material properties, and phase change
material properties are not supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP.

2.2.3.2 Other Types Materials

The NX Nastran hyperelastic materials (Mooney-Rivlin, Hyperfoam, Ogden, Arruda-
Boyce and Sussman-Bathe), NX Nastran Gasket Material and NX Nastran Shape-
Memory Alloy for NX Nastran advanced nonlinear analysis (SOL 601/701) are supported
in TRANSOR for FEMAP.

2.3 Translation of Loads

In FEMAP a load can be created on finite element entities (nodes, elements) or geometry
(point, curve, surface).

Note that if there are several load sets defined, then only the active load set is translated.

2.3.1 Finite Element Loads

Loads that are applied to the nodes, elements or the entire finite element model (body
loads) are translated into ADINA Structures directly.

2.3.1.1 Body Loads

For body loads, the translational acceleration with or without time dependency is
translated into mass proportional load in ADINA Structures. The rotational acceleration
is not supported by TRANSOR for FEMAP. The rotational velocity is translated into
centrifugal load in ADINA Structures without the support of the time dependency. The
default temperature is translated into prescribed reference temperature in ADINA
Structures.

2.3.1.2 Nodal Loads

The nodal loads (forces, moments, displacements, enforced rotations and nodal
temperatures) with or without time dependency are translated into ADINA Structures
directly. Note that nodal heat generation, nodal heat fluxes and all the fluid loads are not
supported by TRANSOR for FEMAP.

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The velocities, rotational velocities, accelerations and rotational accelerations are
translated as initial condition by TRANSOR for FEMAP (see section 2.7).

2.3.1.3 Elemental Loads

The elemental loads (distributed loads on line elements and pressure) with or without
time dependency are translated into ADINA Structures directly.

The distributed loads on line elements in the directions of element Y axis and element Z
axis are translated into the r-s and r-t planes of beam elements in ADINA Structures. All
other directions are ignored.

The pressure loads on the face 1 and face 2 of plate elements are translated into the top
and bottom surfaces of the shell elements in ADINA Structures. All other directions are
ignored. The pressure load is not supported for 2-D solid plane strain and axisymmetric
elements.

Specifying a direction for pressure loads as shown in the following figure is not
supported. If pressure loads are defined in this way, then TRANSOR for FEMAP will
always create pressure loads normal to the selected element face.



Note that the elemental temperature and heat transfer loads (heat generation, heat flux,
convection and radiation) are not supported by TRANSOR for FEMAP.

2.3.1.4 Nonlinear Force Loads

Nonlinear force loads are not supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP.

2.3.2 Geometric Loads

In FEMAP the user can create loads on geometry as an alternative and/or as supplement
to finite element loads. TRANSOR for FEMAP will expand the geometric loads to nodal
and elemental loads upon translation and compress them after translation.

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2.4 Translation of Constraints

In FEMAP a constraint can be created on finite element entities (nodes, constraint
equations) or geometry (point, curve, surface).

The nodal constraints are translated into ADINA Structures directly. Their directions can
be specified by choosing a coordinate system, which is converted into a skew system in
ADINA Structures for the selected nodes. The constraint equations between the specified
nodal degrees of freedom are translated into ADINA Structures as generalized constraint
equations, which are imposed using Lagrange Multipliers.

The geometric constraints are expanded to nodal constraints during translation. If the
nodal constraints for the nodes are also defined on the geometry, TRANSOR for FEMAP
will combine both constraints during translation. There are three available approaches to
defining advanced geometric constraints: Arbitrary in CSys, Surface and Cylinder/Hole.
Currently, only the Arbitrary in Csys approach is supported.

Notes:
1. If there are several constraint sets defined, then only the active constraint set is
translated.
2. The displacement and enforced rotation loads will not override the nodal constraint
that is defined on the same degree of freedom.
3. Permanent constraints defined on the node will not be translated.

2.5 Translation of Connections and Regions

2.5.1 Translation of Connections

Creating contact in FEMAP involves three entity definitions: Connection Property,
Connection Region and Connectors.

The connection properties defined under NX Advanced Nonlinear (SOL 601) and NX
Explicit (SOL 701) for Connect Type: 0..Contact is translated into ADINA Structures
to define contact group in which only shell and 3-D solid elements are supported. The
connection properties defined under NX Advanced Nonlinear (SOL 601) for Contact
Type: 1..Glued is translated into ADINA Structures to define mesh glueing in which
only 3-D solid element is supported. All other properties are ignored.

The connector defines the contact relationship between the two connection regions,
which is translated into ADINA Structures as a contact pair.

2.5.2 Translation of Regions

In FEMAP, Nastran users can create three specialized types of regions, Fluid Regions,
Bolt Regions, and Rotor Regions. Currently, only bolt region is supported in TRANSOR
for FEMAP.
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A Bolt Region is used to create a region of elements where user can apply a bolt
preload. The element defined in a bolt region is translated into ADINA Structures as
beam element with bolt behavior. The bolt preload defined in an active load set is
translated as bolt load in ADINA Structures.


2.6 Translation of Functions

Currently, nineteen types of functions are available in FEMAP. The Type 1 (vs. Time) is
translated into ADINA Structures to define the time fucntion of the loads. The Type 4
(vs. Stress) and Type 13 (Stress vs. Strain) are translated into ADINA Structures to define
the stress-strain curve for the nonlinear properties of an isotropic material. All other types
of functions are ignored.

2.7 Translation of Initial Conditions

Initial conditions (displacements, velocities or accelerations) can be used in dynamic
analysis. Load sets with desired initial conditions can be created in FEMAP. The
resulting load sets can then be selected in the Initial Conditions dialog box under Model
Parameters in the ADINA menu.

Note that the initial conditions created on the geometries are translated only in the global
rectangular coordinate system.

2.8 Example 1

We demonstrate a beam structure subjected to an impact load with restart analysis as
shown below.


1.0 m
0.02 m
0.02 m
300 N






E = 2.0710
11
N/m
2
=7800 Kg/m
3
Step load applied at time 0.0.
The restart analysis will continue the dynamic analysis from t=0.05.


Importing the Geometry
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What
Open a new model file and import the geometry. It will be meshed with beam
elements.
How
Ste
p
UI Command/Display
1.

File, Open
2.

Open dialog box:
Go to the <ADINA installation directory>\Samples\tf directory
example_1.mod
Click Open



Defining the Analysis Settings
What
Define the analysis settings in the ADINA Analysis Settings menu.
How
Step UI Command/Display
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1.

ADINA, Analysis Parameters, Analysis Settings
2.

Analysis Settings dialog box:
Analysis Type: 2..Dynamics-Implict
Click OK


Defining the Material
What
Define the material in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Model, Material
2.

Define Material ISOTROPIC dialog box:
Enter 2.07e11 in Young's Modulus, E field
Enter 7800 in Mass Density field
Click OK
Click Cancel (to end the command)


Defining the Property
What
Define the element property in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Model, Property
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2.

Define Property dialog box:
Click Elem/Property Type
3.

Element/Property Type dialog box:
Line Elements: Beam
Click OK
4.

Define Property dialog box:
Material: 1..ISOTROPIC Material
Click Shape button
5.

Cross Section Definition dialog box:
Shape: Rectangular Bar
Enter 0.02 in Height field
Enter 0.02 in Width field
Click Draw Section Button to check the cross section
Click OK
6.

Define Property dialog box:
Click OK
Click Cancel (to end the command)


Meshing the Model
What
Set the mesh size and mesh the model in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Mesh, Mesh Control, Default Size
2.

Default Mesh Size dialog box:
Size: 0.5
Click OK
3.

Mesh, Geometry, Curve
4.

Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 1
Click OK
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5.

Geometry Mesh Options dialog box:
Property: 1..BEAM Property (Rectangular Bar)
Click OK
6.

Vector Locate dialog box:
Base: 0, 0, 0 (make sure these are the X, Y, Z values for the base)
Tip: 0, 0, 1 (enter these X, Y, Z values for the tip)
Click OK



Defining the Time Step
What
Define the time step in the ADINA General Solution Settings menu.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

ADINA, Analysis Parameters, General Solution Settings
2.

General Solution Settings dialog box:
Enter 20 in Number of Steps field
Enter 0.0025 in Time Increment field
3.

Click OK

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Defining Constraints
What
Create the constraint set in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Model, Constraint, Set
2.

Create or Activate Constraint Set dialog box:
Title: (enter a title)
Click OK

What
Create the constraint to fix the node on the left side of the beam in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Model, Constraint, On Point
2.

Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 1
Click OK
3.

Create Constrains on Geometry dialog box:
Choose Fixed radio button
Click OK
Click Cancel on Entity Selection dialog box (to end
the command)


Defining Loads
What
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Create the load set in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Model, Load, Set
2.

Create or Activate Load Set dialog box:
Title: (enter a title)
Click OK

What
Apply the force load on right side of the beam in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Model, Load, On Point
2.

Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 2
Click OK
3.

Create Loads on Points dialog box:
Force


FY: -300.0
Click OK
Click Cancel on Entity Selection dialog box (to end
the command)


Analyze the Model
What
Define the analyze settings in the ADINA Analyze menu and solve the model.
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How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

ADINA, Analyze
2.

ADINA Analyze dialog box:
Enter Beam structure subjected to impact load in Heading field
3.

Click Create .in file
4.

Click Create .dat file
5.

Click Run model
6.

Click OK


Post-Processing the Results
For this example, we will display the time history response.
What
View the time history response in a FEMAP XY data plot.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1. ADINA, Load Results
2.

TRANSOR for FEMAP Post-Processing dialog box:
FEMAP Neutral File: Go to the working directory
example_1.NEU
Click Open
Click OK
3.

View, Select
Or, press the F5 Key or choose the view select icon from the View
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Toolbar
4.

View Select dialog box:
Choose XY vs Set Value radio button in XY Style section
5.

Click XY Data button
6.

Select XY Curve Data dialog box:
Select "20..Case 20 Time 5.0E-2" from drop down menu located in the
Output Set section
Select "3.. T2 Translation" from drop down menu located in the Output
Vectors section
Enter 3 in Node field of Output Location section
Click OK
7.

View Select dialog box:
Click OK

The time history response result should look like this:

8.

File, Close



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ADINA Structures Restart Analysis
What
We will use the restart analysis feature in ADINA Structures to continue the
dynamic analysis with the same time step size.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

ADINA, Analysis Parameters, General Solution Settings
2.

General Solution Settings dialog box:
Enter 0.05 in Solution Start Time field


CHECK Restart Previous Analysis


Enter 180 in Number of Steps field
3.

Click OK


Analyze the Model
Analyze the model using the ADINA solver.
What
Define the analyze settings in the ADINA Analyze menu and solve the model.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

ADINA, Analyze
2.

ADINA Analyze dialog box:
Enter Restart analysis of beam structure subjected to impact load in
Heading field
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3.

Click Create .in file
4.

Click Create .dat file
5.

Click Run model
6.

Click OK


Post-Processing the Results
For this example, we will display the time history response.
What
View the time history response in a FEMAP XY data plot.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1. ADINA, Load Results
2.

TRANSOR for FEMAP Post-Processing dialog box:
FEMAP Neutral File: Go to the working directory
example_1.NEU
Click Open
Click OKOK
3.

View, Select
Or, press the F5 Key or choose the view select icon from the View
Toolbar
4.

View Select dialog box:
Choose XY vs Set Value radio button in XY Style section
5.

Click XY Data button
6.

Select XY Curve Data dialog box:
Select "180..Case 180 Time 0.5" from drop down menu located in the
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Output Set section
Select "3.. T2 Translation" from drop down menu located in the Output
Vectors section
Enter 3 in Node field of Output Location section
Click OK
7.

View Select dialog box:
Click OK

The time history response of the restart analysis should look like this:


This concludes the beam structure subjected to impact load example. It is recommended
to save the model file.

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2.9 Example 2

In this example we demonstrate a 3-D contact between a block and a cylinder as shown
below.



















Block: E = 1.010
6
N/m
2
, = 0.3

0.05 m
0.1 m
0.1 m
Prescribed
displacment
is 0.02 m

Cylinder: E = 210.010
9
N/m
2
, = 0.3


We will determine the displacements and stesses in the block as it is pushed down 0.02
m.

Importing the Geometry
What
Open a new model file and import the geometry. It will be meshed with 3-D solid
elements.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

File, Open
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2.

Open dialog box:
Go to the <ADINA installation directory>\Samples\tf directory
example_2.mod
Click Open





Defining the Model Settings
What
Define the model settings in the ADINA Model Settings menu.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

ADINA, Model Parameters, Model Settings
2.

Model Settings dialog box:
UNCHECK Z-Translation, X-Rotation, Y-Rotation, Z-Rotation in the
Master Degree of Freedom section
Click OK


Defining the Material
What
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Define the material in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1. Model, Material
2.

Define Material ISOTROPIC dialog box:
Enter cylinder in Title field
Enter 210.0e9 in Young's Modulus, E field
Enter 0.3 in Poisson's Ratio, nu field
Click OK
3.

Define Material ISOTROPIC dialog box:
Enter block in Title field
Enter 1.0e6 in Young's Modulus, E field
Enter 0.3 in Poisson's Ratio, nu field
Click OK
Click Cancel (to end the command)


Defining the Property
What
Define the element property in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Model, Property
2.

Define Property dialog box:
Click Elem/Property Type
3.

Element/Property Type dialog box:
Volume Elements: Solid
Click OK
4.

Define Property dialog box:
Enter cylinder in Title field
Material: 1.. cylinder
Click OK
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5.

Element/Property Type dialog box:
CHECK Parabolic Elements
Click OK
6.

Define Property dialog box:
Enter block in Title field
Material: 2..block
Click OK
Click Cancel (to end the command)


Meshing the Model
What
Set the mesh size and mesh the model in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Mesh, Mesh Control, Default Size
2.

Default Mesh Size dialog box:
Size: 0.01
Click OK
3.

Mesh, Geometry, Volume
4.

Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 1
Click OK
5.

Geometry Mesh Options dialog box:
Property: 1..cylinder
Click OK
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6.

Default Mesh Size dialog box:
Size: 0.02
Click OK
7.

Mesh, Geometry, Volume
8.

Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 2
Click OK
9.

Geometry Mesh Options dialog box:
Property: 2.. block
Click OK


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Defining the Time Step
What
Define the time step in the ADINA General Solution Settings menu.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

ADINA, Analysis Parameters, General Solution Settings
2.

General Solution Settings dialog box:
Enter 10 in Number of Steps field
3.

Click OK


Defining the Time Function
What
Define the time function in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Model, Function
2.

Function Definition dialog box:
Select "1..vs. Time" from Type drop down menu
3.

Choose Single Value radio button
4.

Enter these values into the corresponding fields:
X: 0, Y: 0
Click More button
X: 10, Y: 0.02
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5.

Click OK
Click Cancel (to end the command)


Defining Constraints
What
Create the constraint set in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Model, Constraint, Set
2.

Create or Activate Constraint Set dialog box:
Title: (enter a title)
Click OK


What
Create the constraints to fix the nodes at the base of the cylinder in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Model, Constraint, On Surface
2.

Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 4
Click More button
ID: 5
Click OK
3.

Create Constrains on Geometry dialog box:
Choose Fixed radio button
Click OK
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4.

Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 9
Click OK
5.

Create Constrains on Geometry dialog box:
Choose Arbitrary in Csys radio button
6.

CHECK TX
Click OK
Click Cancel on Entity Selection dialog box (to end
the command)


Defining Loads
What
Create the load set in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Model, Load, Set
2.

Create or Activate Load Set dialog box:
Title: (enter a title)
Click OK


What
Apply the prescribed displacement on top of the block in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Model, Load, On Surface
2.

Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 9
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Click OK
3.

Create Loads on Surfaces dialog box:
Displacement


TY: -1.0


Time/Freq Dependence: 1..vs. Time Function
Click OK
Click Cancel on Entity Selection dialog box (to end
the command)


Defining Connections

In order for surface to surface contact to occur during analysis, several parameters must
be defined. In general, Connection Regions are created, a Connection Property is defined,
and then a Connector ("contact pair") is created to define the contact relationship between
the two Connection Regions.

What
Create the Connection Regions.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Connect, Connection Region
2.

Connection Region dialog box:
Title: cylinder
Type: Deformable
Defined By: Surfaces
Surface: 3
3.

Click Add
Click OK
4.

Connection Region dialog box:
Title: block
Type: Deformable
Defined By: Surfaces
Surface: 11
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5.

Click Add
Click OK
Click Cancel (to end the command)


What
Create the Connection Property.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Connect, Connection Property
2.

Define Connection Property dialog box:
Click the NX Adv Nonlin tab


Surface Extension Factor: 0.01 in the Standard
Contact Algorithm section


Click OK
Click Cancel (to end the command)


What
Create the Connector (contact pair).
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Connect, Connector
2.

Define Contact Connector dialog box:
Property: 1..Untitled
Master (Target): 1..cylinder
Slave (Source): 2..block


Click OK
Click Cancel (to end the command)
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Analyze the Model
Analyze the model using the ADINA solver.
What
Define the analyze settings in the ADINA Analyze menu and solve the model.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

ADINA, Analyze
2.

ADINA Analyze dialog box:
Enter 3-D contact between a block and a cylinder in Heading field
3.

Click Create .in file
4.

Click Create .dat file
5.

Click Run model
6.

Click OK


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Post-Processing the Results
For this example, we will display two types of results: deformation and Von Mises Stress.
What
View the deformation results in a FEMAP deformation plot.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1. ADINA, Load Results
2.

TRANSOR for FEMAP Post-Processing dialog box:
FEMAP Neutral File: Go to the working directory
example_2.NEU
Click Open
Click OK
3.

View, Options or press the F6 Key
4.

View Options dialog box:
Choose Labels, Entities and Color radio button in Category section


Options: Node


UNCHECK Draw Entity
Click Apply


Options: Node - Perm Constraint


UNCHECK Draw Entity
Click OK
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5.

View, Select
Or, press the F5 Key or choose the view select icon from the View
Toolbar
6.

View Select dialog box:
Choose Deform radio button in Deformed Style section
7.

Click Deformed and Contour Data button
8.

Select PostProcessing Data dialog box:
Select "10..Case 10 Time 10.0" from drop down menu located in the
Output Set section
Select " 1.. Total Translation " from Deformation drop down menu
located in the Output Vectors section
Click OK
9.

View Select dialog box:
Click OK
10.

View, Options or press the F6 Key


View Options dialog box:
Choose PostProcessing radio button in Category section


Options: Deformed Style
Note: The options on the right side of the dialog box change


UNCHECK % of Model (Actual)
Click OK
11. Ctrl+A
Ctrl+A will perform the View, Autoscale, Visible command
Note: Use the magnify down icon on the View Toolbar or spin the
wheel of a wheel mouse until the entire deformed image can be seen.

The deformation result should look like this:
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What
View the Von Mises Stress results in a FEMAP contour vector plot.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

View, Select
Or, press the F5 Key or choose the view select icon from the View
Toolbar
2.

View Select dialog box:
Choose Deform radio button in Deformed Style section
Choose Contour radio button in Contour Style section
3.

Click Deformed and Contour Data button
4.

Select PostProcessing Data dialog box:
Select "10..Case 10 Time 10.0" from drop down menu located in the
Output Set section
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Select " 60031.. Solid Von Mises Stress" from Contour drop down menu
located in the Output Vectors section
Click OK
5.

View Select dialog box:
Click OK
6. Ctrl+A
Ctrl+A will perform the View, Autoscale, Visible command
Note: Use the magnify down icon on the View Toolbar or spin the
wheel of a wheel mouse until the entire deformed image can be seen.

The Von Mises Stress result should look like this:

This concludes the 3-D contact between a block and a cylinder example. It is
recommended to save the model file.

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3 TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA CFD

FEMAP possesses only a few features that are applicable to ADINA CFD. Additional
capabilities not supported by FEMAP can be defined using the dialog boxes under the
ADINA CFD menu.

In this chapter the translations of ADINA CFD features supported by FEMAP are
described first. Next, the additional features provided by TRANSOR for FEMAP are
explained in detail and a useful example is provided.

3.1 Translation of Coordinate Systems

In FEMAP basic rectangular, cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems are always
predefined. The user can also create additional coordinate systems that are needed for the
model.

The basic cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems in FEMAP are translated into
ADINA CFD as local cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems. User defined
coordinate systems in FEMAP are also translated into ADINA CFD as local coordinate
systems.

3.2 Translation of Finite Element Entities

3.2.1 Node

Nodal coordinates are always translated by TRANSOR for FEMAP in the global
rectangular coordinate system, no matter how they are defined in FEMAP.

Note that nodal permanent constraint and output coordinate system are not supported in
TRANSOR for FEMAP.

3.2.2 Element

In FEMAP there are four main element types: line elements, plane elements, volume
elements, and other elements.

3.2.2.1 Line Elements

There is no support for line elements of FEMAP.

3.2.2.2 Plane Elements

For plane elements, linear plane strain element (3-node triangle and 4-node quadrilateral)
is supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP. It is translated into ADINA CFD as planar 2-D
fluid element.
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Note that the plane strain element must be defined in the global YZ plane and all of its
properties are ignored during translation.

3.2.2.3 Volume Elements

For volume elements, both axisymmetric element (3-node triangle and 4-node
quadrilateral) and solid element (4-node tetrahedral, 6-node wedge and 8-node brick) are
supported. They are translated into ADINA CFD as axisymmetric 2-D fluid element and
3-D fluid element, respectively.

Note that the axisymmetric element must be defined in the global YZ plane and all the
properties of solid element are ignored during translation.

3.2.2.4 Other Elements

There is no support for other elements of FEMAP.

3.2.3 Material

All the fluid materials are directly defined in the add-on ADINA CFD menu. The
materials defined in FEMAP are not applicable to ADINA CFD and, therefore, are not
translated by TRANSOR for FEMAP. However, at least one material needs to be defined
in FEMAP so that the corresponding property can be created. This material will be
ignored during translation.

3.3 Translation of Loads

TRANSOR for FEMAP translates the thermal loads defined on finite element entities
(nodes, elements) or geometry (point, curve, surface). For details, see Table 3.1.

The default temperature under body loads is translated into the prescribed reference
temperature in ADINA CFD.

The fluid loads and all other loads are not suppoted in TRANSOR for FEMAP.

Note that if there are several load sets defined, then only the active load set is translated.

Table 3.1 Translation of FEMAP thermal loads
Thermal Loads Node Element Point Curve Surface ADINA CFD
Temperature

---

Temperature
Element
Temperature
---

---

---
Heat Flux

---

Concentrated Heat Flow
Element Heat Flux ---

---

Distributed Heat Flux
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Heat Generation

---

---
Element Heat
Generation
---

---

---
Convection ---

---

Heat Transfer Convection
Boundary Condition
Radiation ---

---

Heat Transfer Radiation Boundary
Condition


3.4 Translation of Constraints

There is no support for constraints of FEMAP.

3.5 Translation of Functions

The Type 1 (vs. Time) function is translated into ADINA CFD to define the time function
of the boundary conditions. All other types of functions are ignored.

3.6 ADINA CFD Material Models

The following two material models can be defined under the ADINA CFD menu of
TRANSOR for FEMAP.

Constant material model (when Laminar Flow Model is selected under the
Analysis Settings menu).

K- turbulence model and RNG K- turbulence model (when Turbulent K-Epsilon
Flow Model is selected under the Analysis Settings menu).

3.6.1 Constant Material Model

This is the simplest, yet most frequently used material model in ADINA CFD. It is
applicable to formulations of incompressible, slightly compressible and low-speed
compressible flows (with or without heat transfer). In this material model, all fluid
properties are assumed to be constant. These are

: fluid density
: fluid viscosity
g : gravitational acceleration vector
p
C : specific heat at constant pressure
v
C : specific heat at constant volume
k : thermal conductivity coefficient
B
q : rate of heat generated per unit volume
: coefficient of volume expansion or thermal expansion coefficient
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0
: reference temperature in buoyancy force
: coefficient of surface tension
: bulk modulus of elasticity

The default values for these parameters are all zero except for which has a default
value of 10 . Note that not all these parameters are required for a given problem. The
parameters that must be given depend on the problem to be solved.
20

For incompressible flows, the bulk modulus of elasticity and the specific heat at
constant volume C are not required. In this case
v
is assumed to be infinite and is
forced to be equal to . If heat transfer is not considered, then C , , ,
v
C
p
C
p
k
B
q and
0

can be further ignored.

For slightly compressible flows, is forced to be equal to C and, therefore, can be
ignored in the input. C , , ,
v
C
p
p
k
B
q and
0
can also be omitted if heat transfer is not
included.

For low-speed compressible flows, is not used and is therefore ignored. The density
is determined through the state equation as a function of pressure and temperature and is
not required. All other material data must be given.

3.6.2 K- Turbulence Model

This material model can only be applied in the turbulent K- flow model. It is applicable
to formulations of incompressible, slightly compressible and low-speed compressible
flows (with or without heat transfer). Both the fluid properties and the empirically
determined model constants must be input. The fluid properties are

: fluid density
: fluid viscosity
g : gravitational acceleration vector
p
C : specific heat at constant pressure
v
C : specific heat at constant volume
k : thermal conductivity coefficient
B
q : rate of heat generated per unit volume
: coefficient of volume expansion or thermal expansion coefficient
0
: reference temperature in buoyancy force
: coefficient of surface tension
: bulk modulus of elasticity

Not all these parameters are required in a problem. The parameters that must be given
depend on the problem to be solved.
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For incompressible flows, the bulk modulus of elasticity and the specific heat at
constant volume C are not required. In this case
v
is assumed to be infinite and is
forced to be equal C . If heat transfer is not considered, then , , ,
v
C
p p
C k
B
q and
0
can
be ignored.

For slightly compressible flows, is forced to be equal to C and, therefore, can be
ignored. , , ,
v
C
p
p
C k
B
q and
0
can also be omitted if heat transfer is not included.

For low-speed compressible flows, is not used in the computation. The density is
determined through the state equation and is not required. All other material data must be
input.

Aside from the above fluid properties, the following additional model constants must be
specified, and their default values are:

1
C = 1.44, = 1.92, C = 0.8
2
C
3
Cmu = 0.09, Sigma K = 1.0, Sigma T = 0.9, Sigma Epsilon = 1.3
Von Kaman Constant = 0.4
Dimensionless Distance from Wall Boundary = 70


3.6.3 RNG K- Turbulence Model

This material model can only be applied in the turbulent K- flow model. The data
required in this model is the same as in the K- turbulence material model. The default
values of the empirical constants are the same as for the standard K- model. Another
conventional set of these data are:

C1= 1.42, C2 = 1.68, C3 = 0.8
Cmu = 0.085, Sigma K = 0.7179, Sigma T = 0.9, Sigma Epsilon = 0.7179
Von Kaman Constant = 0.4
Dimensionless Distance from Wall Boundary = 70


3.7 ADINA CFD Boundary Conditions

The following boundary conditions can be defined under the ADINA CFD menu of
TRANSOR for FEMAP.

Wall: applied to rigid solid boundaries. When a turbulence flow model is used, the
wall function is also applied on the walls.

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Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI): applied to fluid boundary where fluid-structure
interaction is modeled.

Boundary Pressure: applied to inlet or outlet as ambient pressure.

Fixed Pressure: used only in enclosure problems, where pressure must be fixed at
some node(s).

Inlet Velocity: prescribed velocity at inlet.

Inlet Turbulence: prescribed turbulence variables at inlet.

3.7.1 Wall Boundary Conditions

At the interface of a fluid and a fixed solid, no-slip or slip conditions are usually applied.
In case of the wall boundary condition, the boundary is fixed. In other words, the
boundary displacement is zero. Wall boundary conditions can only be applied to lines and
surfaces of 2-D and 3-D computational domains, respectively.

No-slip condition on fixed walls

When a no-slip condition on walls is applied, the fluid velocity vector on that wall is
prescribed to be zero, i.e. . This condition is usually applied to wall boundaries in
viscous flows. It is clear that this condition is equivalent to applying a zero velocity or
prescribed zero velocity to all components of the velocity.
0 = v



Figure 3.1 No-slip condition on fixed walls for incompressible, slightly compressible and
low-speed compressible flows

Slip condition on fixed walls

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When a slip wall condition is applied, the normal component of the velocity vector is
prescribed to be zero, i.e. , while the tangential components are free or computed
as unknown variables from the governing equations.
0 = v n

In principle, this condition can be replaced by a prescribed zero normal velocity.
However, in case of irregular boundaries, the procedure of defining the normal directions
is tedious. It is much more convenient to use this slip condition.

This condition is usually applied to symmetric boundaries and to wall boundaries where
viscous effects are negligible. In certain applications such as when boundary layers are
modeled which require a large number of elements and computational power, then a slip
condition may be used.


Figure 3.2 Slip condition on fixed walls for incompressible, slightly compressible and
low-speed compressible flows

3.7.2 FSI Boundary Conditions

A fluid-structure interface is a moving wall for which the interface displacement is the
solution of a solid model. However, fluid-structure interaction means much more than
just specifying an interface.

First, a solid model must have been created to which the fluid is coupled. In this solid
model, fluid-structure interfaces must be specified that correspond to the interfaces
specified in the fluid model, so that the program knows which parts of the fluid and solid
models are interacting.

Second, since the Lagrangian formulation is used along the interface, the displacement as
well as the fluid velocity are determined by the solid solution on the interface. This
condition is called the kinematic condition of the fluid model. On the other hand, the
fluid force must be applied to the solid interface to ensure that the forces are balanced on
the interface. This condition is called the dynamic condition of the solid model.

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Third, the nonlinear-coupled system must be solved to ensure that the kinematic and
dynamic conditions are satisfied. The methods can be either iterative (between the fluid
model and the solid model), or direct (a combined matrix system is solved). Currently,
only iterative coupling is supported in TRANSOR for FEMAP.

This condition can only be applied to boundary lines and surfaces of 2-D and 3-D
computational domains, respectively. The boundary geometries must coincide with their
counterparts that are defined in the solid model.

3.7.3 Boundary Pressure Boundary Conditions

This is one of the most important boundary conditions. It can only be applied to boundary
lines and surfaces of 2-D and 3-D computational domains, respectively.

In this condition, a time-dependent normal stress (called boundary pressure)
( )
nn
t = n n is prescribed. The stress is integrated to an equivalent nodal force
condition:

( ) ( )
v
nn
t h t d =

F S

and then added to the right-hand side of the momentum equations as the concentrated
force load. Here is the virtual quantity of velocity on the boundary.
v
h

Note that the normal stress consists of the pressure and the normal shear stress. Along
open boundaries, the normal shear stress is usually negligible compared with the
pressure. Therefore, a boundary pressure is usually applied to open boundaries where the
pressure is known. In particular, when ( ) 0
nn
t = , the application of the boundary
pressure is trivial because it is equivalent to no boundary pressure.

This condition has no effect on the nodes where a normal velocity condition is
prescribed, since the normal momentum equation has been replaced by the normal
velocity condition.

3.7.4 Fixed Pressure Boundary Conditions

For this condition, a time-dependent pressure is directly prescribed:

( ) p p t =

and applied to boundaries. The continuity equations at the boundary nodes are replaced
by this condition. The fixed pressure boundary condition is usually applied to confined
flow problems to ensure a mathematically well-defined problem. Along open boundaries
where the pressure is known, a boundary condition of boundary pressure is more
appropriate.

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3.7.5 Inlet Velocity Boundary Conditions

For this condition, a time-dependent velocity is directly prescribed:

( )
i i
v v t =

and applied to boundaries. The
i
x -momentum equations at the boundary nodes are then
replaced by this condition. The inlet velocity boundary condition is usually applied to
inlet boundaries where velocities are known. It can also be applied to fixed solid walls.

Note that the inlet velocity can only be applied in the global coordinate system.

3.7.6 Inlet Turbulence Boundary Conditions

This boundary condition can only be applied to a K turbulence model. Time-
dependent turbulence variables are directly prescribed

( ) K K t =
( ) t =

and applied to boundaries. The and K equations at boundary nodes are then replaced
by these equations.

In addition to directly given values, they can also be prescribed indirectly via

( )
2 3
2
K i v =
( )
3
2
0.3 K L =

where, v , L and i are velocity scale, length scale and turbulence intensity,
respectively.

This condition is usually applied to inlet boundaries.


3.8 ADINA CFD Initial Conditions

The following initial conditions can be defined under the ADINA CFD menu of
TRANSOR for FEMAP.

Initial velocity: initial velocity in global Y, Z directions for 2-D models and global X,
Y, Z directions for 3-D models.

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Initial pressure

Initial temperature: only temperatures that differ from the prescribed reference
temperature need to be assigned.

Initial turbulence

The initial conditions are applied to the nodes of the model. The variables of the initial
condition thus refer to the degree-of-freedom system at each node, which is the global
coordinate system.

In transient analysis all solution variables must be specified. The default initial conditions
to all variables are zeros. Although initial conditions are not required in steady-state
analyses, they are used as a guessed solution at the start of the equilibrium iterations. A
good initial condition may accelerate the convergence during equilibrium iterations. In
certain cases, the initial condition may become a key factor in obtaining converged
solutions.


3.9 ADINA CFD Elements

3.9.1 2-D FCBI elements (3- and 4-node)

2-D FCBI elements include 3-node and 4-node elements. They can be used for two-
dimensional planar and axisymmetric flows. The following figures show the definitions
of FCBI 2-D elements.


Figure 3.3 FCBI 2-D elements

All solution variables are defined at corner nodes. Since step functions are used for
weighting functions, FCBI elements are eventually equivalent to their counterparts in
finite volume methods. Each element is thus equally divided into sub-control-volumes
and integrations on both faces and surfaces are performed within elements. A flow-
condition-based interpolation function for velocity on a face, say from the point
1
( , ) , 0
2
r s
|
=

\ .
|
|
to point
1 1
) ,
2 2
r s
|
=

\ .
( , in a 4-node element, is defined as
|
|
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1 2 1 4
2 3
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
v v
T
v v
h h
x x s
h h
(
( =
(


h h h h s

with

1
1
, , ( )
1
k
k
q r k
k k
q
y
e
x q y
y
e

(
= = =
(


v x
h

where and
1 2
2 1 3
, = = x x x x x x
4
v is the average velocity on the face. With these
functions, the upwinding-effect is automatically captured in a natural way.

On the other hand, pressure, temperature and coordinates are interpolated using linear or
bi-linear functions. For a 4-node element, these functions are defined as

( )
( )
0 0 0
1 2 1 2 1
0 0 0
4 3 1 2 2
( , ) ( ), ( ) ( )
( , ) ( ), ( ) ( )
h h h r h r h s
h h h r h r h s
=
=


where .
0 0
1 2
1 , h r h = = r
s

For a 3-node element, they are defined as

1
2
3
0 1 2 3
1 h r
h r
h s
h h h h
=
=
=
=



3.9.2 3-D FCBI elements (4-, 5-, 6- and 8-node)

These elements can be used for three-dimensional flows. The following figures show the
definitions of FCBI 3-D elements.

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Figure 3.4 FCBI 3-D elements

All variables are defined at corner nodes. The interpolation functions for velocity are
similar to those used for FCBI 2-D elements. The interpolation functions for pressure,
temperature and coordinates are linear or bi-linear.

For 8-node and 4-node elements, they are defined respectively as

0 0 0
1 4 1 1
0 0 0
5 8 1 2
0 0 0
2 3 2 1
0 0 0
6 7 2 2
( , ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( , ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( , ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( , ) ( ) ( ) ( )
h h r h s h t
h h r h s h t
h h r h s h t
h h r h s h t
=
=
=
=
h
h
h
h


where h and
0 0 0
1 2
( ) ( ( ) ( )) r h r h r =
0 0
1 2
1 , h r h r = = .

and

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1
2
3
4
0 1 2 3 4
1 h r s
h r
h s
h t
h h h h h
=
=
=
=
=
t
(


For 5-node and 6-node elements, they are defined respectively as

( )
( )
(1 )(1 )
(1 )
1
(1 )
i
r s
r s
t
h rs
r s
t
(
( (

( (

( ( =
( (

(
(



and

| |
1 4
2 5
3 6
1
1
h h r s
h h r t t
h h s
( (
( (
=
( (
( (




3.9.3 FCBI-C elements

These elements consist of 2-D triangle and quadrilateral, and 3-D tetrahedron, pyramid,
prism and brick. All degrees of freedoms are defined at the center of the elements.
Solution variables are assumed to be piecewise constant during computation, while the
final solution is interpolated at corner nodes for post-processing purpose. The following
figures show the definitions of all FCBI-C elements.

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Figure 3.5 FCBI-C elements

FCBI-C elements are used for incompressible, slightly compressible and low-speed
compressible flows.


3.10 Example

In this example, we demonstrate a 3-D fluid flow within a pipe subjected to an inlet
pressure as shown below.


Inlet
pressure
1.0 Pa
Inlet
diameter
0.05m
1.0m






Water: =1.310
-3
N-s/m
2
, =1000.0 kg/m
3


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Step UI Command/Display
1.

File, Open
2.

Open dialog box:
Go to the <ADINA installation directory>\Samples\tf directory
example_3.mod
Click Open


This problem could be solved using a 2-D analysis, but we choose to solve it using a 3-D
analysis as a demonstration.

Importing the Geometry
What
Open a new model file and import the geometry of the cylinder. It will be meshed
with 3-D solid elements.
How


Defining the Analysis Settings
What
Define the analysis settings in the ADINA CFD Analysis Settings menu.
How
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Step UI Command/Display
1.

ADINA CFD, Analysis Parameters, Analysis Settings
2.

Analysis Settings dialog box:
Click the Flow Assumptions tab
3.

UNCHECK Includes Heat Transfer
4.

Click OK


Defining the Material
Define the fluid material with constant properties for 3-D fluid element.
What
Define the fluid material in the ADINA CFD Materials menu.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

ADINA CFD, Model Parameters, Materials
2.

Define Material with Constant Properties dialog box:
Click Add
3.

Enter 1000.0 in Density field
Enter 0.0013 in Viscosity field
4.

Click OK


Defining the Property
What
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Define the 3-D fluid element property in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Model, Property
2.

Define Property dialog box:
Click Elem/Property Type
3.

Element/Property Type dialog box:
Volume Elements: Solid
Click OK
4.

Define Property dialog box:
Click OK
Click Yes (to create material)

Note: The fluid material is defined in the ADINA CFD Materials
menu. However, a dummy material with the same material number needs
to be defined in FEMAP. TRANSOR for FEMAP will replace the
dummy material with the fluid material during the analysis.
5.

Define Material - ISOTROPIC dialog box:
Click OK
6.

Define Property dialog box:
Click OK
Click Cancel (to end the command)


Meshing the Model
What
Set the mesh size and mesh the model in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Mesh, Mesh Control, Size Along Curve
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2.

Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 3
Click OK
3.

Mesh Size Along Curves dialog box:
Number of Elements: 8
Click OK



4.

Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 1
Click OK
5.

Mesh Size Along Curves dialog box:
Number of Elements: 16
Click OK


6

Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 5
Click OK
7.

Mesh Size Along Curves dialog box:
Number of Elements: 6
Click OK
Click Cancel on Entity Selection dialog box (to end the command)
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8.

Mesh, Geometry, Volume


Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 1
Click OK


Property: 1..SOLID Property
Click OK



9.

Tools, Check, Coincident Nodes


Entity Selection dialog box:
Click Select All
Click OK


Check/Merge Coincident dialog box:
CHECK Merge Coincident Entities
Click OK


Defining the Time Step

Chapter 3: TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA CFD
What
Define the time step in the ADINA CFD General Solution Settings menu.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

ADINA CFD, Analysis Parameters, General Solution Settings
2.

General Solution Settings dialog box:
Enter 2 in Number of Steps
3.

Click OK


Defining the Time Function
What
Define the time function in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Model, Function
2.

Function Definition dialog box:
Select "1..vs. Time" from Type drop down menu
3.

Choose Single Value radio button
4.

Enter these values into the corresponding fields:
X: 0, Y: 0
Click More button
X: 2, Y: 1
5.

Click OK
Click Cancel (to end the command)
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Defining the Boundary Conditions
We will apply the no-slip wall boundary condition on the pipe walls and the
boundary pressure boundary condition at the channel inlet.
What
Define the boundary conditions in the ADINA CFD Boundary Conditions
menu.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

ADINA CFD, Model Parameters, Boundary
Conditions
2.

Define Boundary Condition dialog box:
Click Add
3.

Boundary Condition Type: Wall
4.

Apply to: Surface
5.

Click Pick
6.

Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 1
Click OK
7.

Define Boundary Condition dialog box:
Click Add
8.

Boundary Condition Type: Boundary Pressure
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9.

Apply to: Surface
10.

Click Pick
11.

Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 2
Click OK
12.

Define Boundary Condition dialog box:
Enter 1.0 in Magnitude field
13.

Select 1 from Time Function drop down menu
14.

Click OK


Analyze the Model
Analyze the model using the ADINA CFD solver.
What
Define the analyze settings in the ADINA CFD CFD Analyze menu and solve
the model.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

ADINA CFD, CFD Analyze
2.

ADINA CFD Analyze dialog box:
Enter 3-D fluid flow within a pipe subjected to an inlet pressure in
Heading field
3.

Click Create .in file
4.

Click Create .dat file
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5.

Click Run model
6.

Click OK


Post-Processing the Results
For this example, we will display two types of results: velocity and pressure.
What
View the pressure results in a FEMAP contour plot.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1. ADINA CFD, Load Results
2.

TRANSOR for FEMAP Post-Processing dialog box:
FEMAP Neutral File: Go to the working directory
example_3.NEU
Click Open
Click OK
3.

View, Select
Or, press the F5 Key or choose the view select icon from the View
Toolbar
4.

View Select dialog box:
Choose None Model Only radio button in Deformed Style section
Choose Section Cut radio button in Contour Style section
5.

Click Deformed and Contour Data button
6.

Select PostProcessing Data dialog box:
Select "2..Case 2 Time 2.0" (should be Step 2, but may differ based on
machine set-up) from drop down menu located in the Output Set section
Select "31..Pressure" from Contour drop down menu located in the
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Output Vectors section
Click OK
7.

View Select dialog box:
Click OK
8. Ctrl+A
Ctrl+A will perform the View, Autoscale, Visible command
Note: Use the magnify down icon on the View Toolbar or spin the
wheel of a wheel mouse until the entire deformed image can be seen.

The pressure results should look like this:


What
View the velocity results in a FEMAP contour vector plot.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

View, Select
Or, press the F5 Key or choose the view select icon from the View
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Toolbar
2.

View Select dialog box:
Choose None Model Only radio button in Deformed Style section
Choose Vector radio button in Contour Style section
3.

Click Deformed and Contour Data button
4.

Select PostProcessing Data dialog box:
Click Contour Vectors button
5.

Contour Vector Options dialog box:
Select "11..Total Velocity" from drop down menu located in the Vector 1
of Elemental Output Vectors section
Click OK
6.

Select PostProcessing Data dialog box:
Click OK
7.

View Select dialog box:
Click OK
8. Ctrl+A
Ctrl+A will perform the View, Autoscale, Visible command
Note: Use the magnify down icon on the View Toolbar or spin the
wheel of a wheel mouse until the entire deformed image can be seen.

The velocity result should look like this:
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This concludes the 3-D fluid flow within a pipe example. It is recommended to save the
model file.

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Chapter 4: TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA One-Way Fluid-Structure Interaction
4 TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA One-Way Fluid-
Structure Interaction

4.1 Introduction

In certain FSI problems the structural deformations are small and it can be assumed that
the structural deformation does not affect the fluid flow. However, the analyst can be
interested in the stresses on the structure due to the fluid forces acting on it. This class of
problems can be handled most effectively using the one-way FSI coupling feature.

When computing one-way FSI problems, all the control parameters are specified in the
individual fluid and solid solvers. Therefore, there are possible discrepancies between the
fluid and solid solution times. At certain times when the fluid stresses are not available, a
linear interpolation is performed to provide the fluid stress for the solid model (see Fig.
4.1). If the solution time is out of the range of the times for which the fluid stresses were
saved, then a linear extrapolation is applied. In order to have more accurate solutions, the
fluid stresses should be saved more frequently to cover the time steps that may be used
for the solid model.



Figure 4.1 Interpolation of fluid stresses in time when computing one-way FSI models

4.2 Running One-way FSI

In one-way FSI the fluid analysis is run first and the fluid stresses acting on the structure
are saved in a file (with .fsi extension). Next, the structural analysis is run and the
program reads the fluid stresses from the .fsi file as loads on the structure, resulting in the
structural deformations and stresses.

When running fluid analysis only, both the fluid and structure .dat files must be specified.
When running structural analysis only, the user can specify just the structure .dat file
only.

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Chapter 4: TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA One-Way Fluid-Structure Interaction
4.3 Example

In this example we demonstrate a one-way FSI analysis of fluid flow over a flexible
structure inside a 2-D channel as shown below.


40 cm
30 cm
0.05 cm
15 cm
100.0 cm



Boundary
pressure 0.04
dyne/cm
2





Fluid: =1.710
-4
g/cm-s, =0.001 g/cm
3
Structure: E=100.0 dyne/cm
2
, =0.3 (elastic material)

In the solution of this problem we use a fluid model for the fluid in the channel and a
solid model for the flexible structure.


Create ADINA Structures Model

Importing the Geometry
What
Open the FEMAP model file containing the geometry of the flexible structure. It
will be meshed with 2-D solid elements.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

File, Open
2.

Open dialog box:
Go to the <ADINA installation directory>\Samples\tf directory
example_4a.mod
Click Open
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Defining the Model Settings
What
Define the model settings in the ADINA Structures Model Settings menu.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

ADINA, Model Parameters, Model Settings
2.

Model Settings dialog box:
In the Master Degree of Freedom section
UNCHECK X-Translation, X-Rotation, Y-Rotation, Z-Rotation
3.

In the Kinematics Settings section
Displacements/Rotations: Large
4.

Click OK


Defining the Property and Material
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What
Define the 2-D element property and material in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Model, Property
2.

Define Property dialog box:
Click Elem/Property Type
3.

Element/Property Type dialog box:
Plane Elements: Plane Strain
Click OK
4.

Define Property dialog box:
Click OK
Click Yes (to create material)
5.

Define Material - ISOTROPIC dialog box:
Enter 100.0 in Young's Modulus, E field
Enter 0.3 in Poisson's Ratio, nu field


Click OK


Define Property dialog box:
Click OK
Click Cancel (to end the command)


Meshing the Model
What
Set the mesh size and mesh the model in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
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1.

Mesh, Mesh Control, Size Along Curve
2.

Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 4
Click More button
ID: 6
Click OK
3.

Mesh Size Along Curves dialog box:
Number of Elements: 5
Click OK
Click Cancel on Entity Selection dialog box (to end the command)
4.

Mesh, Geometry, Surface
5.

Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 1
Click OK
6.

Automesh Surfaces dialog box:
Property: 1..PLANE STRAIN Property
Click OK


Defining Constraints
What
Create the constraint set in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Model, Constraint, Set
2.

Create or Activate Constraint Set dialog box:
Title: (enter a title)
Click OK

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What
Create the constraint to fix the node on the bottom of the flexible structure in
FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Model, Constraint, On Curve
2.

Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 5
Click OK
3.

Create Constrains on Geometry dialog box:
Choose Fixed radio button
Click OK
Click Cancel on Entity Selection dialog box (to end the
command)


Defining the FSI Boundary Conditions
What
Define the FSI boundary conditions in the ADINA Structures FSI Boundary
Conditions menu.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

ADINA, Model Parameters, FSI Boundary Conditions
2.

Define Fluid-Structure-Interaction Boundary dialog box:
Click Add
3.

Model Type: 2D in YZ
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4.

Apply to: Curve
5.

Click Pick
6.

Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 4
Click More button
ID: 6
Click OK
7.

Define Fluid-Structure-Interaction Boundary dialog box:
Click OK


Generating the ADINA Structures data file
What
Generate the ADINA Structures data file in the ADINA Analyze menu.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

ADINA, Analyze
2

ADINA Analyze dialog box:
Enter Fluid flow over a flexible structure in a 2-D channel, ADINA
Structures input in Heading field
3.

Model Type: 2D in YZ
4.

Click Create .in file
5.

Click Create .dat file
6.

Click OK

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Create ADINA CFD Model

Importing the Geometry
What
Open the FEMAP model file containing the geometry of the 2-D channel. It will
be meshed with 2-D fluid elements.

How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

File, Open
2.

Open dialog box:
Go to the <ADINA installation directory>\Samples\tf directory
example_4f.mod
Click Open



Defining the Analysis Settings
What
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Define the analysis settings in the ADINA CFD Analysis Settings menu.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

ADINA CFD, Analysis Parameters, Analysis Settings
2.

Analysis Settings dialog box:
Click the Flow Assumptions tab
3.

Flow Dimension: 2D in YZ
4.

UNCHECK Includes Heat Transfer
5.

Click the FSI tab:
FSI Coupling Scheme: Iterative Coupling
6.

Click OK


Defining the Material
Define the fluid material with constant properties for 2-D fluid element.
What
Define the fluid material in the ADINA CFD Materials menu.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

ADINA CFD, Model Parameters, Materials
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2.

Define Material with Constant Properties dialog box:
Click Add
3.

Enter 0.001 in Density field
Enter 1.7E-4 in Viscosity field
4.

Click OK


Defining the Property
What
Define the 2-D fluid element property in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Model, Property
2.

Define Property dialog box:
Click Elem/Property Type
3.

Element/Property Type dialog box:
Plane Elements: Plane Strain
Click OK
4.

Define Property dialog box:
Click OK
Click Yes (to create material)

Note: The fluid material is defined in the ADINA CFD Materials
menu. However, a dummy material with the same material number needs
to be defined in FEMAP. TRANSOR for FEMAP will replace the
dummy material with the fluid material during the analysis.
5.

Define Material - ISOTROPIC dialog box:
Click OK
6.

Define Property dialog box:
Click OK
Click Cancel (to end the command)

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Meshing the Model
What
Set the mesh size and mesh the model in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Mesh, Mesh Control, Mapped Divisions on Surface
2.

Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 1
Click OK
3.

Mesh Size on Surface dialog box:
Enter 30 in s field of Number of Elements
Enter 10 in t field of Number of Elements
Enter 0.25 in s field of Bias
Click OK
4.

Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 2
Click OK
5.

Mesh Size on Surface dialog box:
Enter 10 in s field of Number of Elements
Enter 10 in t field of Number of Elements
Click OK
6.

Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 3
Click OK
7.

Mesh Size on Surface dialog box:
Enter 30 in s field of Number of Elements
Enter 6 in t field of Number of Elements
Enter 0.25 in s field of Bias
Click OK
8.

Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 4
Click OK
9.

Mesh Size on Surface dialog box:
Enter 10 in s field of Number of Elements
Enter 6 in t field of Number of Elements
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Click OK
Click Cancel on Entity Selection dialog box (to end the command)
10. Mesh, Geometry, Surface


Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 1
Click More button
ID: 2
Click OK


Automesh Surfaces dialog box:
Property: 1..PLANE STRAIN Property
Click OK
11 Mesh, Geometry, Surface


Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 3
Click OK


Automesh Surfaces dialog box:
Property: 1..PLANE STRAIN Property
Click OK
12 Mesh, Geometry, Surface


Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 4
Click OK


Automesh Surfaces dialog box:
Property: 1..PLANE STRAIN Property
Click OK
13.

Tools, Check, Coincident Nodes


Entity Selection dialog box:
Click Select All
Click OK
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TRANSOR for FEMAP User Guide 122


Check/Merge Coincident dialog box:
Maximum Distance to Merge: 0.001


CHECK Merge Coincident Entities
Click OK




Defining the Time Step
What
Define the time step in the ADINA CFD General Solution Settings menu.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

ADINA CFD, Analysis Parameters, General Solution Settings
2.

General Solution Settings dialog box:
Enter 70 in Number of Steps
3.

Click OK


Defining the Time Function

Chapter 4: TRANSOR for FEMAP with ADINA One-Way Fluid-Structure Interaction
What
Define the time function in FEMAP.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

Model, Function
2.

Function Definition dialog box:
Select "1..vs. Time" from Type drop down menu
3.

Choose Single Value radio button
4.

Enter these values into the corresponding fields:
X: 0, Y: 0.0
Click More button
X: 1, Y: 0.0001
Click More button
X: 2, Y: 0.0003
Click More button
X: 3, Y: 0.0008
Click More button
X: 20, Y: 0.0024
Click More button
X: 30, Y: 0.0044
Click More button
X: 40, Y: 0.01
Click More button
X: 70, Y: 0.04
5.

Click OK
Click Cancel (to end the command)


Defining the Boundary Conditions
We will apply the no-slip wall boundary condition on the pipe walls and the
boundary pressure boundary condition at the channel inlet.
What
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Define the boundary conditions in the ADINA CFD Boundary Conditions
menu.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

ADINA CFD, Model Parameters, Boundary
Conditions
2.

Define Boundary Condition dialog box:
Click Add


Boundary Condition Type: Wall


Apply to: Curve


Click Pick


Entity Selection dialog box:
Select the four curves that make up the top and
bottom of the channel
ID: 5
Click More button
ID: 13
Click More button
ID: 23
Click More button
ID: 31
Click OK
3.

Define Boundary Condition dialog box:
Click Add


Boundary Condition Type: Fluid-Structure
Interaction
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Apply to: Curve


Click Pick,


Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 22
Click More button
ID: 32
Click OK
4.

Define Boundary Condition dialog box:
Click Add


Boundary Condition Type: Boundary Pressure


Apply to: Curve


Click Pick


Entity Selection dialog box:
ID: 14
Click More button
ID: 30
Click OK


Define Boundary Condition dialog box:
Enter 0.001 in Magnitude field


Select 1 from Time Function drop down menu


Click OK


Generating the ADINA CFD data file
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What
Generate the ADINA CFD data file in the ADINA CFD CFD Analyze menu.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

ADINA CFD, CFD Analyze
2.

ADINA CFD Analyze dialog box:
Enter Fluid flow over a flexible structure in a 2-D channel, ADINA
CFD input in Heading field
3.

Click Create .in file
4.

Click Create .dat file
6.

Click OK


Analyze the one-way FSI Model
Analyze the one-way FSI model using the ADINA FSI solver.
What
Define the analyze settings in the ADINA CFD FSI Analyze menu and solve
the model.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

ADINA CFD, FSI Analyze
2.

ADINA FSI Analyze dialog box:
Go to the working directory
example_4a.dat
Click Open
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3.

Run: Fluid Only


Click Run model
4.

Run: Structure Only


Click Run model
5.

Click OK


Post-Processing the Results
For this example, we will display the contour plot of pressures and the contour
vector plot of velocities in the ADINA CFD model and deformations of the
flexible structure in the ADINA Structures model.
What
View the pressures results of ADINA CFD model in a FEMAP contour plot.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1. ADINA CFD, Load Results
2.

TRANSOR for FEMAP Post-Processing dialog box:
FEMAP Neutral File: Go to the working directory
example_4f.NEU
Click Open
Click OK
3.

View, Select
Or, press the F5 Key or choose the view select icon from the View
Toolbar
4.

View Select dialog box:
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Choose None Model Only radio button in Deformed Style section
Choose Contour radio button in Contour Style section
5.

Click Deformed and Contour Data button
6.

Select PostProcessing Data dialog box:
Select "70..Case 70 Time 70.0" (should be Step 70, but may differ based
on machine set-up) from drop down menu located in the Output Set
section
Select "31..Pressure" from Contour drop down menu located in the
Output Vectors section
Click OK
7.

View Select dialog box:
Click OK
8. Ctrl+A
Ctrl+A will perform the View, Autoscale, Visible command
Note: Use the magnify down icon on the View Toolbar or spin the
wheel of a wheel mouse until the entire deformed image can be seen.

The pressure results should look like this:


What
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View the velocity results of the ADINA CFD model in a FEMAP contour vector
plot.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1.

View, Select
Or, press the F5 Key or choose the view select icon from the View
Toolbar
2.

View Select dialog box:
Choose None Model Only radio button in Deformed Style section
Choose Vector radio button in Contour Style section
3.

Click Deformed and Contour Data button
4.

Select PostProcessing Data dialog box:
Click Contour Vectors button
5.

Contour Vector Options dialog box:
Select "11..Total Velocity" from drop down menu located in the Vector 1
of Elemental Output Vectors section
Click OK
6.

Select PostProcessing Data dialog box:
Click OK
7.

View Select dialog box:
Click OK
8. Ctrl+A
Ctrl+A will perform the View, Autoscale, Visible command
Note: Use the magnify down icon on the View Toolbar or spin the
wheel of a wheel mouse until the entire deformed image can be seen.

The velocity results should look like this:
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What
View the deformation results of the ADINA Structures model in a FEMAP
deformation plot.
How
Step UI Command/Display
1. ADINA, Load Results
2.

TRANSOR for FEMAP Post-Processing dialog box:
FEMAP Neutral File: Go to the working directory
example_4a.NEU
Click Open
Click OK
3.

View, Select
Or, press the F5 Key or choose the view select icon from the View
Toolbar
4.

View Select dialog box:
Choose Deform radio button in Deformed Style section
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5.

Click Deformed and Contour Data button
6.

Select PostProcessing Data dialog box:
Select "1..Case 1 Time 1.0" from drop down menu located in the Output
Set section
Select " 1.. Total Translation " from Contour drop down menu located in
the Output Vectors section
Click OK
7.

View Select dialog box:
Click OK
8. Ctrl+A
Ctrl+A will perform the View, Autoscale, Visible command
Note: Use the magnify down icon on the View Toolbar or spin the
wheel of a wheel mouse until the entire deformed image can be seen.

The deformation results should look like this:


This concludes the one-way FSI analysis example. It is recommended to save the model
file.

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Appendix-1: List of Figures
Appendix-1: List of Figures

Figure 3.1 No-slip condition on fixed walls for incompressible, slightly compressible and
low-speed compressible flows .................................................................................. 89
Figure 3.2 Slip condition on fixed walls for incompressible, slightly compressible and
low-speed compressible flows .................................................................................. 90
Figure 3.3 FCBI 2-D elements.......................................................................................... 93
Figure 3.4 FCBI 3-D elements.......................................................................................... 95
Figure 3.5 FCBI-C elements............................................................................................. 97
Figure 4.1 Interpolation of fluid stresses in time when computing one-way FSI models
................................................................................................................................. 110


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Appendix-2: List of Tables
Appendix-2: List of Tables

Table 3.1 Translation of FEMAP thermal loads............................................................... 85
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