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# RYERSON UNIVERSITY

## Department of Aerospace Engineering

AER Fluid Mechanics
Dr. J. V. Lassaline
Assignment
Due: Sept. th,
Completed assignments can be le in the drop box opposite ENG .
U
h SAE 10W
y
QUis1io 1 SAE 10W oil at 20C occupies the space
between two laige paiallel plates, with the lowei plate xed
and the uppei plate moving at a speed of U = 30
m
/s. Te
distance between the plates is h = 5 mm. Te uid ow is
diiven by the motion of the uppei plate only. What is the
sheai stiess at both plate suifaces: What is the Reynolds
numbei Re if the chaiacteiistic length is taken to be the
distance between the plates: Can we assume the ow is laminai, if the iequiiement foi laminai ow
is Re 1500:
A From Table A- in the textbook (or any reference), the viscosity of SAE 10W oil at 20C is
1.04 10
1
kg
/ms. Note that this is a representative value and that the SAE oil classication allows a
variation of up to 50%. This geometry produces Couette ow(as covered in class) where the uid velocity
distribution is linear with respect to y
u(y) =
U
h
y. (1)
Shear stress at the wall is
=
u
y
=
U
h
= 1.04 10
1
kg
/ms
30
m
/s
0.005 m
= 624
kgm
/s
2

1
m
2
= 624Pa. (i)
As the shear stress in this case is independent of y, the shear stress at both walls is 624Pa.
From A-, the density of SAE 10W oil at 20C is = 870
kg
/m
3
. Using the denition of the Reynolds
number
Re =
Uh

=
870
kg
/m
3
30
m
/s 0.005 m
1.04 10
1
kg
/ms
= 1254 ()
which is less than the limit required for laminar ow. Note
that if the viscosity of the oil was as much as 50% lower, the
Reynolds number could exceed this limit which may aect the applicability of the Couette ow solution.
QUis1ioi Te cuiient deepest, veiiedSCUBAdive iecoidis 318.25 m, completedby N. Gomes
on June 1oth, ioo,. Assuming the specic giavity of seawatei is 1.025, deteimine the absolute pies-
suie at this depth.
A The pressure dierence between the water surface and bottom of this water column is
p = gh = SG
H
2
O,20

C
gh ()
p = 1.025 1000
kg
/m
3
9.81
m
/s
2
318.25 m = 3.2 MPa (,)
Adding in atmospheric pressure yields the absolute pressure at the bottom of this dive as p = 3.3 MPa or
approximately 33 atm!
1
Rvivso Uivivsi1v AER 1o Fall ioo
QUis1io Two chambeis with the same uid at theii base aie sepaiated by a 30cm diametei
piston which weighs 25 N, as shown in Fig. 1. Calculate the gauge piessuie in chambeis A and B.
A The weight of the piston is distributed over the liquid surface at location D, thus the gauge
pressure acting at this location is
p
D
p
atm
=
25 N
0.15
2
m
2
= 353.7 Pa (o)
Note that atmospheric pressure is acting on the piston which would be transferred to the water. At location
C, which is 25 cmbelow location D, the gauge pressure would be
p
C
p
atm
= p
D
p
atm
+
H
2
O
gh
CD
= 353.7 Pa + 1000
kg
/m
3
9.81
m
/s
2
0.25 m = 2806.2 Pa (,)
Location E is 25 cmabove location D, thus the gauge pressure would be
p
E
p
atm
= p
D
p
atm

H
2
O
gh
DE
= 353.7 Pa 1000
kg
/m
3
9.81
m
/s
2
0.25 m = 2098.8 Pa (8)
Note that the above can also be calculated using
p
E
p
atm
= p
C
p
atm

H
2
O
gh
CE
= 2806.2 Pa 1000
kg
/m
3
9.81
m
/s
2
0.5 m = 2098.8 Pa ()
The pressure at location E might also be described as a vacuum pressure of 2098.8 Pa. If you nd the
concepts of absolute, gauge and vacuumpressure confusing consider any pressure p to be measured as an
absolute and any dierence in pressure p to be measured as either a gauge or vacuum.
QUis1io Two watei tanks aie connected to each othei thiough a meicuiy manometei with
inclined tubes, as illustiated in Fig. i. If the piessuie dieience between the two tanks is 20kPa, de-
teimine the value of a and .
A The pressure at any horizontal which is cuts through the same and contiguous uid is con-
stant. Working from water tank A down through the uid column and back up again to tank B yields the
following
p
A
+
H
2
O
ga + SG
Hg

H
2
O
g2a
H
2
O
ga = p
B
(1o)
Rearranging with the knowledge that p
B
p
A
= 20kPa and solving for a yields
2SG
Hg

H
2
O
ga = p
B
p
A
(11)
a =
p
B
p
A
2SG
Hg

H
2
O
g
(1i)
a =
20 10
3
Pa
2(13.55)1000
kg
/m
3
9.81
m
/s
2
= 7.5 cm (1)
Note that only the vertical height of the uid column is important and thus the angle is found by the
described geometry
= sin
1
(
15 cm
26.8 cm
) = 34.0 (1)
QUis1io , A simple expeiiment has long been used to demonstiate a magic tiick. Fill a glass
full oi neaily full with watei. Covei the glass with a sheet of glossy papei oi caid. While holding the
caid in place inveit the glass. Release the caid and the caid should iemain in place with the watei
tiapped in the inveited glass. What is the piessuie at the bottom of this watei column: If the watei
ioo i of
Rvivso Uivivsi1v AER 1o Fall ioo
column is 10cm tall, what is the piessuie at the top of the watei column: Why does the watei not
immediately fall out:
A If the glass is nearly full, adding the card to the top of the glass traps the air above the water
in the glass. When the glass is inverted, the trapped air and water will switch places such that the water is
at the bottom in contact with the card. If the glass is initially full the result will be similar. For the card to
remain in place the net forces on the card must be balanced and sum to zero. The glass and the contents
remain a closed systemso the pressure of the uid within the glass must adjust for the inverted orientation.
Unlike a uid, a solid lling the glass would not be able to adjust pressure to reach static equilibrium.
Consider a free-body diagram of the card, ignoring the weight of the card. The card is thin and exible;
it will deform to neutralize any imbalance in the net force applied perpendicular to the card. This static
conguration requires that the pressure of the water on the top surface of the card must be equal to the
atmospheric pressure acting on the bottomsurface of the card. Prior to you releasing the card the pressure
on both sides of the card has equalized. The pressure at the top surface of the water column (and the
pressure of any air trapped within the glass) must be lower than the pressure at the bottom. The dierence
in pressure can be determined using the hydrostatic relation
p = gh = 1000
kg
/m
3
9.81
m
/s
2
0.10m = 981 Pa (1,)
This trick will evenwork witha withporous sheet providedthe porous surface is supportedduringinversion
and all sloshing of the water is allowed to subside before removing the support. Surface tension allows the
liquid to bridge the gaps in the porous sheet such that it behaves in a similar way as the impermeable card.
But what holds upthewater? Consider a free-body diagramof thewater, assumingfor simplicity it forms
a cylindrical shape. The pressure acting on the sides of the cylinder provides no net force in the horizontal
directions. The net force acting in the vertical direction is due to the weight of the water and the pressure
distributed over the top and bottom surfaces. Due to static equilibrium the net force acting down is
F
v
= mg + (p
atm
gh) A p
atm
A = mg (hA)g = 0
hence the weight of the water above the card is supported by the atmosphere and not the card.
Now what about the small but nite weight of the card? The wetting action of the water lm between
the card and the glass rim provides sucient force to oppose the weight of the card. Thus this trick would
not work if the weight of the card was signicant (eg. we used a heavy and rigid plate), nor would it work if
the total contact region along the rim was very small (i.e. a very narrow tube).
Also note that this experiment is not the same as what occurs in a liquid barometer. When the lled
tube of a liquid barometer is inverted into the liquid bowl, there is nothing stopping some of the liquid
from leaving the tube. The liquid in the tube drops until atmospheric pressure on the free surface of the
liquid in the bowl balances the vapour pressure of the liquid at the top of the closed tube. A bowl that is
too shallow would not work as it would overow.
ioo of
Rvivso Uivivsi1v AER 1o Fall ioo
Water 20C
90 cm
30 cm
Piston
A B
Air
Air
25 cm
25 cm
C
D
E
30 cm 30 cm
Figuie 1: Illustiation foi QUis1io
a
2a
a
Water
Tank A
Water
Tank B
2
6
.
8

c
m

SG
Hg
=13.55
Figuie i: Illustiation foi QUis1io
ioo of