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CLIMATE RESPONSE AND BUILDING DESIGN


STRATEGIES OF CLIMATE CONTROL FOR HOT HUMID CONDITIONS
Humid overheated conditions are most severe along the Gulf Coast, but occur across the entire southeastern U.S. Atmospheric moisture limits radiation exchange, resulting in daily temperature ranges less than 20 degrees F. High insolation gives first priority to shading. Much of the overheated period is only a few degrees above comfort limits, so air movement can cool the body. Ground temperatures are generally too high for the earth to be useful as a heat sink, although slab-ongrade floor mass is useful. The strategies are to resist solar and conductive heat gains and to take best advantage of ventilation.

Minimize Solar Gains


1. Plant trees to shade roof and east and west walls. 2. Shade building to minimize solar load on envelope. 3. Shade all glazing during overheated period. 4. Shade north elevation in subtropical latitudes. 5. Use light-colored surfacing on walls and roof.

Minimize Conductive Gain


1. Insulate envelope components in proportion to sol-air-indoor temperature difference. 2. Use radiant barrier in attic space. 3. Consider thermally massive envelope materials to reduce peak air-conditioning loads. 4. Use slab-on-grade instead of crawl space and insulate only at perimeter.

Promote Ventilation Losses


1. Orient building to benefit from breezes. 2. Use plantings to funnel breezes into building, but be careful not to obstruct vent openings. 3. Use wing walls and overhangs to direct breezes into building. 4. Locate openings and arrange floor plan to promote cross ventilation. 5. Plan interior for effective use of whole-house fan. 6. Ventilate building envelope (attic or roof, walls).

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"Air-change ventilation" brings outdoor temperatures indoors by breezes or whole-house exhaust fans. Whole-house fans yield about 20 air changes per hour (ACH) and are useful only as long as outdoor conditions are within comfort limits (72 degrees -82 degrees F). They may offer 30-50% savings in electricity costs over air conditioning. Whole-house fans do not provide high enough airflow rates for body ventilation. Ceiling (paddle) fans are recommended for air movement and can maintain comfort with indoor temperatures up to 85 degrees F ET*. Air conditioning is necessary above 85 degrees F ET*. The issue of when to ventilate and when to air condition is a function of building type, occupancy hours, heat and moisture capacity of the structure, and climatic subregion. Humidity is a factor, as night air may be cool but excessively humid.

ROOFS AND ATTICS


The attic should be designed to ventilate naturally. Most of the heat gain to the attic floor is by radiation from the underside of the roof. While ventilation is unable to interrupt this transfer, most of it can be stopped by an aluminum foil radiant barrier. Foil facings on rigid insulation and sheathing can be used as radiant barriers when installed facing airspace.

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Roof spray systems can dissipate most of the solar load, leaving the roof temperature near the ambient dry-bulb instead of the sol-air temperature. The theoretical lowest temperature that the roof can be cooled to by evaporation is the wet-bulb, but is not attainable under real daytime conditions. The costeffectiveness of spray systems depends on the roof section, R value, building type, climatic region, and other factors. Spray systems are most advantageous for poorly insulated flat roofs.

WALLS
Radiant barriers enhance the performance of walls by reducing solar gain. They are most effective on east and west walls and are recommended for predominantly overheated regions [<2000 heating degree days (HDD), >2500 cooling degree days (CDD)]. They are not recommended on south walls except where CDD exceed 3500. Radiant barriers must face an airspace and can be located on either side of the wall structure. Outside placement allows the cavity to be vented. This enhances summer wall performance, but admitting cold air degrades it during winter. Venting is recommended for regions having more than 3500 CDD. Discharging the cavity into the attic ensures best vent action. Thermal mass in walls reduces peak air-conditioning loads and delays peak heat gain. By damping off some of the peak load, massive walls help keep indoor temperatures in the range where ceiling (paddle) fans and airflow from cross ventilation provide comfort.

DAYLIGHTING
Windows and skylights should be shaded to prevent undesired heat gain. North- and south-facing glazing is shaded most easily for predictable daylighting. Light-colored reflective sunshades and ground surfaces will bounce the light and minimize direct gain. Cloudy or hazy sky conditions are a source of brightness and glare.

References 1. S. Chandra et al. Cooling with Ventilation, Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, CO, 1982. 2. K. E. Wilkes, Radiant Barrier Fact Sheet, CAREIRS, Silver Spring, MD. 3. P. Fairey, S. Chandra, A. Kerestecioglu, "Ventilative Cooling in Southern Residences: A Parametric Analysis," PF108-86, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, 1986.

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ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SYSTEMS


The term "alternate energy systems" describes uses of climatic resources--sun, wind, precipitation/humidity, and temperature--to provide all or part of the energy requirements of a building. Their development has paralleled the uncertain cost and availability of conventional energy supplies. New design concepts--passive solar and cooling and daylighting designs--have become part of recommended building practice. More advanced technologies have been developed, but their widespread use awaits either more experience with them or more penalizing energy prices. Some can be easily incorporated into a building design, requiring only careful design integration of architectural and heating, cooling, and lighting systems. A number of factors can change the economic constraints upon what is and is not cost-justified: the need for emergency preparedness, the prospect of interruptible or increasingly costly conventional fuel supplies, environmental pollution from fossil fuel combustion, and limited capacity of existing power plants. These concerns suggest that they be given full consideration together with energy conservation/load reduction techniques so that our long-term reliance upon conventional and nonrenewable energy sources can be minimized. The practical approach to alternate energy system design begins with analysis of the energy requirement of the building "end use": the temperature, humidity, air flow, and lighting levels required for human comfort, and the related power demands for productive activity. The various sources for supplying heating, cooling, and lighting, and electric power can then be matched to the end use in terms of "thermodynamic" efficiency, comfort, operational costs, and reliability. High levels of energy conservation and renewable energy use can make life-cycle economic gains possible, such as by downsizing mechanical system sizes or through "off-peak" loading of the building's energy requirement to reduce or eliminate "demand charges," as is possible when a building has a large energy storage system.

The figure, "Site and Building as Energy Collection, Storage, and Distribution System," diagrams the various alternate energy system components. The building itself is shown as an energy collection, Architectural Design 7 | A Passively-Cooled Commercial Hub 4

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storage, and distribution system. Choices include system components that are separate from the building (though presumably nearby) and those that must be integrated with it.

REMOTE ENERGY COLLECTORS (ELECTRICAL)


Three contenders for alternate electric power are windmills, microhydro dams, and photovoltaic panels. Photovoltaic systems use the photons of sunlight to generate electricity across a grid of cells in a solar collector. These can be mounted on the roof of a building or can be "remote," since electricity is easily distributed from its point of collection. Site engineering concerns are major, but building design criteria are minor, limited only to storage battery location and the electric distribution system within the building. The economic viability of these choices is greatly improved by reduction of the electric load requirement achievable by energy-efficient lighting and equipment.

REMOTE ENERGY STORAGE (THERMAL)


Energy storage near a building site has proved to be viable when the site is large enough, made part of seasonal (6-month) storage, and serves groups of buildings (district heating/cooling). These include: Underground thermal storage: Heat generated by solar collectors (either air type or liquid type) can be stored within a large mass of earth, in existing caverns, or in newly dug clay or soil beds. In Kerava Solar Village near Helsinki, Finland, solar collectors mounted on the south-facing roofs of 44 apartments supply solar-heated water to a 400,000 gal water tank which in turn heats 338,500 cu ft of rock surrounding the tank embedded 66 ft in the earth. Acquifier systems: A variation of thermal storage that is "charged" by solar collectors are systems using natural or man-made acquifiers for seasonal storage, thus utilizing groundwater temperature for heating and cooling, generally relying upon a water-to-water heat pump to change the groundwater temperature to the end-use requirement for heating and cooling. Ice storage systems: Ice storage systems use ice-making, either "seasonal" for 6-month storage or "diurnal," at night for next-day use, to provide building cooling. The advantage of making ice in winter is obvious, imposing only the cost of large storage area logically located within the subgrade basement of a building, but which can also be separate. Diurnal systems are cost-effective when there are advantages of "off-peak" utility rates and/or significantly cooler nighttime temperatures. Solar ponds: Solar ponds are salt ponds that exploit the temperature gradient effect of salt water. First documented by Russian scientist von Kaleczinky in 1902, water a few feet below a confined body of salt water reaches temperatures up to 185 degrees F due to the varying salinity of the water: The bottom of the pond is a bed of salt in which heat is efficiently stored because heatedsalt-rich water does not rise, while the surface of relatively fresh water above is clear, allowing solar heat to be transmitted through it and at the same time insulating the denser layers below. In Israel and Australia, such solar ponds have been used as a source of thermal energy and to drive engines for electric generation. While only half as efficient as solar collector, the relatively low cost of solar ponds (reportedly ten times less costly per unit of collector surface) indicates their potential. Architectural Design 7 | A Passively-Cooled Commercial Hub 5

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A building designed to efficiently use climatic resources for heating, cooling, lighting, and electric power generation is properly considered an alternate energy system. Means for doing so are tabulated in the table "Energy-Efficient Architectural Elements" and summarized as a checklist for designers. South wall: The south-facing wall of a building (in the Northern hemisphere) is an efficient energy resource. The low-angled winter sun can bring into a building interior the benefits of winter heat and light. Shading the south facade in summer can be efficiently accomplished with relatively shor overhangs. Because of this, passive solar heating, summer shading, and year-round daylighting can and ought to be made part of the south-wall design. Solar heat can be stored in thermal storage placed in the sun behind glass or ducted/piped to the building interior. Roof: The roof of a building can be used for mounting "active" solar collectors for heating, photovoltaic collectors for generating electricity, or skylights for daylighting. In hot climates, the roof is also an alternate energy resource if used for evaporative or radiant cooling. Atrium: Atria design can be integrated into a "whole building" daylighting system and combined with the mechanical air movement system wherein it can economically replace ducting in ventilative cooling and heat recovery systems. Skylights, enhanced with light and heat reflectors, can be designed to reflect sunlight deep within a building. Below-ground/basement: The below-ground construction of a building can be used for thermal storage, as described above. In single-storied or low-rise buildings, "ground coupling" utilizes the relatively stable temperatures of the surrounding earth to provide an economical heating/cooling flywheel effect.

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ENERGY-CONSERVING DESIGN FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS


Energy-conserving design for commercial buildings is justified by savings in operating costs which result in a lower "life-cycle" investment. For large buildings of all types, the best opportunities are most likely to be found in electricity costs; depending upon the demand charges of the local utility, "peakload" reduction and/or "shifting" (diurnal or seasonal) measures may prove to be cost effective. Concurrently, lower electric use by effective daylighting and by cooling load reduction (window orientation and solar controls) will be cost-effective, since these loads are typically interrelated and use expensive forms of energy. When these loads and costs are reduced, heating cost reduction by solar and energy-conserving techniques also applies to larger buildings. Energy-conserving opportunities are best addressed by a whole-systems team approach of architecture, HVAC, lighting, and controls engineering. For example, high levels of insulation or of thermal mass may be cost justified when these also result in substantially reduced mechanical system sizes and power requirements. The architect should consider "Site Planning and Orientation," "Daylighting," "Energy-Efficient Lighting," "Thermal Construction," "Energy-Efficient Mechanical Systems," and "Smart Building Controls" in designing an energy-efficient nonresidential building, regardless of size and building type.

SITE PLANNING AND ORIENTATION


1. Orient The Longer Walls Of A Building To Face North-South Walls that face the equator (e.g., the noonday sun) are ideal for windows oriented to admit daylighting with minimum cost for shading or sun control (i.e., relatively small horizontal overhangs create effective shading). Walls and windows facing east and west, on the other hand, are sources of undesirable overheating and are difficult to shade effectively. In a cool climate, windows facing the equator can gain useful wintertime heating from the sun. 2. Provide Sun Shading To Suit Climate And Use Variations Buildings can be located in group s to shade one another. Landscaping and sun shading can be used to shade building surfaces, especially windows, during overheated hours. Functions can be located within a building to coincide with solar gain benefit or liability. For example, cafeterias are ideally exposed to noontime winter sun in cool and temperate Architectural Design 7 | A Passively-Cooled Commercial Hub 7

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climates or placed in the midday shade in warm climates; low-use areas (storage areas) can be used as climatic buffers placed on the east or west in hot climates or on the north in cool climates. 3. Create Courtyards And Enclosed Atriums Semi enclosed courtyards (in warm climates) and enclosed atriums (in temperate and cool climates) can be formed by groups of buildings to provide areas for planting, shading, water fountains, and other microclimatic benefits. Atriums can also be used as light courts and ventilating shafts. Indoor or outdoor planted areas provide evaporative cooling for local breezes when located near buildings. 4. Use Earth Berms For Climatic Buffering Earth berms (sloped or terraced, formed simply be grading earth against the wall of a building) help to buffer the building against temperature extremes of both heat and cold. The planting on earth berms also provides evaporative cooling near the building. Earth berms can be construction cost savers because the foundation does not have to be as deep (in single-storied construction); the earth and ground cover is often less costly than other wall finishing materials. Its long-term maintenance can also be lower than conventional materials.

DAYLIGHTING
5. Place Windows High In The Wall Of Each Floor Windows placed high in the wall near the ceiling provide the most daylight for any given window area, permitting daylight to penetrate more deeply into the interior. 6. Use Light Shelves Light shelves are horizontal projections placed on the outside and below a window to reflect sunlight into the interior. Typically placed just above eye level, the light shelf reflects daylight onto the interior ceiling, making it a light-reflecting surface (instead of a dark, shaded surface typical of a conventional interior ceiling). At the same time, the light shelf shades the lower portion of the window, reducing the amount of light near the window, which is typically overlit. The result is more balanced daylighting with less glare and contrast between light levels in the interior. 7. Size Windows According To Use And Orientation Because window glass has little or no resistance to heat flow, it is one of the primary sources of energy waste and discomfort. Window areas should be shaded against direct solar gain during overheated hours. Even when shaded, windows gain undesired heat when the outdoor temperature exceeds the human comfort limit. Window areas should therefore be kept to a reasonable minimum, justified by clearly defined needs for view, visual relief, ventilation, and/or daylighting. Double glazing should be considered for all windows for energy efficiency and comfort in cool and temperate climates. In warm climates, double, tinted, or reflective glass should be considered, depending upon building size and use. Architectural Design 7 | A Passively-Cooled Commercial Hub 8

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8. Use Skylighting For Daylighting, With Proper Solar Controls Skylighting that is properly sized and oriented is an efficient and cost-effective source of lighting. Consider that for most office buildings, sunlight is available for nearly the entire period of occupancy and that the lighting requirement for interior lighting is only about 1% of the amount of light available outside. Electric lighting costs, peak demand charges, and work interruptions during power brownouts can be greatly reduced by using daylighting. Cost-effective, energy-efficient skylights can be small, spaced widely, with "splayed" interior light wells that help reflect and diffuse the light. White-painted ceiling and walls further improve the efficiency of daylighting (by as much as 300% if compared with dark interior finishes). Skylights should include some means to control undesired solar gain by one or more of the following means: (a) Face the skylight to the polar orientation; (b) provide exterior light-reflecting shading; (c) provide movable sunshades on the inside, with a means to vent the heat above the shade.

ENERGY-EFFICIENT LIGHTING
9. Use Task Lighting, With Individual Controls Lamps for task lighting are ideally located near the work surface and are adjustable to eliminate reflective glare. The energy-efficient advantages are that less light output is required (reduced geometrically as a function of its closer distance to the task) and the lamp can be switched off when not needed.
Note: General light levels should be reduced below conventional standards and sources of reflective glare from ceiling lights and windows eliminated in areas where cathode ray tubes (CRTs) are used.

10. Use The Ceiling As A Light-Reflective Surface By using "uplights," either ceiling pendants or lamps mounted on partitions and/or cabinets, the ceiling surface can be used as a light reflector. This has several advantages: (a) fewer fixtures are required for general area ("ambient") lighting; (b) the light is indirect, eliminating the sources of visual discomfort due to glare and reflection, (c) if light shelves are used, the ceiling is the light reflector for both natural and artificial light, an advantage for the occupant's sense of visual order. 11. Employ A Variety Of Light Levels In any given interior, a variety of light levels improves visual comfort. Light levels can be reduced in lowuse areas, storage, circulation, and lounge areas. Daylighting can also be used to provide variety of lighting, thereby reducing monotone interiors. Architectural Design 7 | A Passively-Cooled Commercial Hub 9

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12. Provide Switching Choices, To Accommodate Schedule And Daylight Availability Areas near windows that can be naturally lit should have continuous dimming controls to dim lights that are not needed. Other areas should have separate switching to coincide with different schedules and uses. Consider occupant-sensing light switches in areas of occasional use, such as washrooms, storage, and warehouse areas. 13. Use Energy-Efficient Luminaires Lights And

Use the most efficient light source for the requirement: these might be fluorescent bulbs, high-intensity discharge lamps, or high-voltage/high-frequency lights. Compact fluorescent lights with highefficiency ballasts have advantages of low wattage, low waste heat, long life, and good color rendering. Incandescent lights use less energy when switched on, so these are appropriate for occasional use and shortterm lighting. Luminaires should also be evaluated for how efficiently they diffuse, direct, or reflect the available light.

THERMAL CONSTRUCTION
14. Place Insulation On The Outside Of The Structure Insulation is one of the most cost-effective means of energy conservation. Insulation placed on the outer face of a wall or roof protects the structure from the extremes of the outside temperature (with the added benefit of lengthening the life of the roof waterproofing membrane) and adds the massiveness of the structure to the thermal response of the interior. In localities where "resistance insulation" is not available, the combination of airspaces and high capacitance materials (such as masonry and/or earth berms) should be designed for effective thermal dampening or time lag (the delay and diffusion of outside temperature extremes that are transmitted to the interior). As a n alternative to insulating roof structures in hot climates, a "radiant barrier" consisting of a continuous sheet of reflective foil with a low emissivity coating and an airspace around it serves as an effective shield against undesired heat gain. 15.Utilize Thermal Mass On Building Interior In office buildings, thermally massive construction (such as masonry and concrete which have good heat storage capacity) benefits the energy-efficient operation of heating and cooling equipment as follows:

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(a) Cooling benefits: Thermal mass absorbs the "overheating" that is inevitable in an office space due to the buildup of heat from people, equipment, lighting, rising afternoon temperature, and solar gain. The more thermal mass that is effectively exposed to an interior space (ceiling and walls), the greater is the saving on air conditioning in the afternoon, with the potential to delay the overheating until early evening when electric rates may be lower and/or outdoor air may be low enough to cool the mass by night ventilation. (The "night cooling" option is especially favorable in warm, dry climates due to predictably cooler nighttime temperatures.) (b) Heating benefits: In temperate and cool climates, thermal mass helps absorb and store wintertime passive solar heat. This is especially effective if the thermal mass is on the building interior and directly heated by the sun (made possible by design of various corridor, stairway, and halfheight partition arrangements). 16. Use Light-Constructed Ventilated Roofs In Hot Climates In hot climates, the roof is the primary source of undesired heat gain. Energy-efficient roof designs should be considered. One of the best for hot climates is a ventilated double roof wherein the outside layer is a light-colored and lightweight material which shades the solar heat from the inner roof, which should be well insulated. As described in Strategy 14, a "radiant barrier" can be considered as an alternative to resistance insulation to serve as a shield against thermal transfer through the ceiling portion of the roof structure.

ENERGY-EFFICIENT MECHANICAL SYSTEMS


17. Use Decentralized And Modular Systems Heating and cooling equipment is most efficient when sized to the average load condition, not the "peak" or extreme condition. Use modular unit boilers, chillers, pumps, and fans in series so that the average operating load can be met by a few modules operating at peak efficiency rather than a single unit that is oversized for normal conditions. Zone the distribution systems to meet different loads due to orientation, use, and schedule. Use variable-air-volume (VAV) systems to reduce fan energy requirements and to lower duct sizes and costs (the system can be designed for the predominant load, not the sum of the peak loads). Decentralized air-handling systems have small trunk lines and duct losses. Dispersed air handlers, located close to their end uses, can be reduced in size from conventional Architectural Design 7 | A Passively-Cooled Commercial Hub 11

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system sizes if hot and chilled water is piped to them (a decentralized air-handling system with a centralized plant). 18. Use Economizer/Enthalpy Cycle Cooling Economizer/enthalpy cycle cooling uses outdoor air when it is cool enough for direct ventilation and/or when the outdoor air has a lower heat content than indoor air (so that it can be cooled evaporatively without raising indoor humidity). Although useful in all climates, direct or indirect evaporative cooling systems are especially effective in hot, dry climates. 19. Use Energy-Efficient Equipment The energy efficiency of mechanical equipment varies greatly. Consider heat pumps for cooling and for heating to replace separate chiller and boiler units. Heat pumps can also use local water sources or water storage. Newly developed mechanical heating equipment, such as gas-fired pulse combustion boilers, is achieving very high (up to 85%) annual operating efficiencies. 20. Use Energy Storage For Cooling Chilled water storage has several advantages: it permits water chilling or ice-making at night under more favorable ambient conditions and possible lower electric rates; perhaps more important, it reduces or eliminates peak-hour energy consumption, thereby reducing demand charges. 21. Use Heat Recovery For Heating In cool and temperate climates, heat can be recovered from warm zones of a building and recirculated to underheated areas. Recoverable heat sources include equipment, process heat, and passive solar gain. Heat recovery wheels or coils can be used where indoor air needs to be ventilated, transferring heat into the incoming fresh airstream. In all climates, process heat or active solar heat (e.g., from solar collectors) can be used for domestic hot water or for tempering incoming fresh air.

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22. Use Smart Thermostats "Duty-cycling" temperature controls can be programmed for different time schedules and thermal conditions, the simplest being the day-night setback. Newer controls are "predictive," sensing outdoor temperature trends and then selecting the system operation most appropriate to the condition. 23. Use Occupancy And Daylight-Sensing Lighting Controls Automatic switching of lights according to the building occupant schedule and the daylight condition is recommended, with manual override for nighttime occupancy. Photosensors should be placed in areas that can be predictably lit by natural light. 24. Be Prepared For Rapid Innovation In Building Control Systems Newly developing "smart" building systems include microprocessing for thermal and light control, fire and air-quality precautions, equipment failure, and operations/maintenance requirements (along with new communication and office management systems). These innovations require that electric wiring be easily changed, such as through "doublefloor" construction.

References Burt Hill Kosar Rittelmann Associates: Small Office Building Handbook, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985. Burt Hill Kosar Rittelmann Associates: Commercial Building Design, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1987. McGuiness, Stein, and Reynolds: Mechanical and Electric Equipment for Buildings, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 7th Edition, 1986. Solar Energy Research Institute: Design of Energy-Responsive Commercial Buildings, New York: John Wiley Interscience, 1985. Watson, Donald, editor: Energy Conservation through Building Design, New York:McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1979.

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NATURAL VENTILATION
BASIC PRINCIPLES
The "Natural Ventilation" diagrams presented in this discussion are based on an isolated building. Neighboring buildings and landscaping can substantially affect airflow and should be taken into account when evaluating ventilation strategies. As wind approaches the face of a building the airflow is slowed, creating positive pressure and a cushion of air on the building's windward face. This cushion of air, in turn, diverts the wind toward the building sides. Airflow as it passes along the sidewalls separates from building wall surfaces and, coupled with high-speed airflow, creates suction (negative pressure) along these wall surfaces. On the building leeward side a big slow-moving eddy is created. Suction on the leeward side of the building is less than on the sidewalls (see "Natural Ventilation: Basic Principles," Figure 1).

If windows are placed in both windward and leeward faces, the building would be cross ventilated and eddies will develop against the main airflow direction (see "Natural Ventilation: Basic Principles," Figure 2). Ventilation can be enhanced by placing windows in sidewalls due to the increased suction at this location; also, greater air recirculation within the building will occur due to air inertia (see "Natural Ventilation: Basic Principles," Figure 3). Winds often shift direction, and for oblique winds, ventilation is best for rooms with windows on three adjacent walls (see "Natural Ventilation: Basic Principles," Architectural Design 7 | A Passively-Cooled Commercial Hub 14

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Figure 4) than on two opposite walls (see "Natural Ventilation: Basic Principles," Figure 5). However, if wind is from the one windowless side, then ventilation is poor, since all openings are in suction (see "Natural Ventilation: Basic Principles," Figure 6). If the building configuration only allows for windows in one wall, then negligible ventilation will occur with the use of a single window, because there is not a distinct inlet and outlet. Ventilation can be improved slightly with two widely spaced windows. Airflow can be enhanced in these situations by creating positive and negative pressure zones by use of architectural features such as wing walls (see "Natural Ventilation: Basic Principles," Figure 7). Care must be exercised in developing these features to avoid counteracting the natural airflow, thereby weakening ventilation (see "Natural Ventilation: Basic Principles," Figure 8).

AIR JETS
As airflow passes through a well-ventilated room, it forms an "air jet." If the windows are centered in a room, it forms a free jet (see "Air Jets," Figure 9). If, however, the openings are near the room walls, ceiling, or floor, the airstream attaches itself to the surface, forming a wall jet (see "Air Jets," Figure 10). Since heat removal from building surfaces is enhanced with increased airflow, the formation of wall jets is important in effecting rapid structure cooling. To improve the overall airflow within a room, offsetting the inlet and outlet will promote greater mixing of room air (see "Air Jets," Figure 11).

WINDOW SIZE
Airflow within a given room increases as window size increases, and to maximize airflow, the inlet and outlet opening should be the same size. Reducing the inlet size relative to the outlet increases inlet velocities. Making the outlet smaller than the inlet creates low but more uniform airspeed.

VENTILATION AIR CHANGE RATE


The natural air change rate within a building depends on several factors: speed and direction of winds at building site; the external geometry of building and adjacent surroundings; window type, size, location, and geometry; and the building's internal partition layout. Each of these factors may have an overriding influence on the air change rate of a given building. Natural ventilation can be accomplished by wind-driven methods or by solar chimneys (stack effect). However, the stack effect is weak and works best during hours when air temperatures are highest and ventilation may not be desirable. In many areas ventilation is best accomplished during the night hours Architectural Design 7 | A Passively-Cooled Commercial Hub 15

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when temperatures are lowest. The night average wind speed is generally about 75% of the 24-hr average wind speed reported by weather bureaus. Often wind speeds are insufficient to accomplish effective people cooling; therefore, ventilating for structure cooling rather than people cooling should be the first design goal. As a rule of thumb, an average of 30 air changes per hour should provide adequate structure cooling, maintaining air temperatures most of the time within 1.5 degrees F of outdoor temperatures.

EXTERNAL EFFECTS
The leeward wake of typical residential buildings extends roughly four and one-half times the ground-toeave height. For buildings spaced greater than this distance, the general wind direction will remain unchanged. For design purposes, vegetation should be considered for its effect on wind speed, which can be as great as 30-40% in the vegetation's immediate vicinity. Its effect on wind direction is not well established and should not be relied upon in establishing ventilation strategies.

PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN


Passive solar heating and cooling systems which rely on natural energy flow through and around a building, are divided into three generic categories, including: 1. DIRECT SYSTEMS: Heat is collected directly within the space or, for cooling, lost or dissipated directly from the space. 2. INDIRECT SYSTEMS: Heat gain or loss occurs at the weatherskin. 3. ISOLATED SYSTEMS: Heat gain or loss occurs away from the weatherskin. Cooling, for example, can include induced air precooled from the earth's mass using air to earth heat exchangers ("coolth" tubes) or cooling ponds. Systems can be combined depending on thermal needs.

SPACE HEATING CONCEPTS


As part of any passive system's development, energy conservation elements should be considered. With passive solar heating, minimizing and preventing heat loss is fundamental to ensure that the heating system is most effective. These elements include adequate insulation, building orientation, surface-tovolume ratios, and appropriate materials, texture, and finish choices. The space heating success depends on adequate solar energy collection, storage, distribution, and control, all of which occur by natural, nonchemical means using the three basic heat transfer processes: conduction, convection, and radiation. Efficient passive system operation often involves some user control to alter or override energy flows within a building or at its weatherskin.

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1. Solar collection surfaces generally are transparent or translucent plastics, fiberglass, or glass oriented in a southerly direction. Material degradation can be caused by solar exposure and other weather elements. Insulating these collection areas to control nighttime loss is especially important in extreme climates. 2. Thermal storage materials include concrete, brick, sand, tile, stone, and water or other liquids. Phase change materials such as eutectic salts and paraffins also are feasible. Storage should be placed to receive maximum solar exposure, either directly or indirectly. Adequate thermal storage capacity allows the sun's heat to be absorbed and retained until it is needed, and it helps to reduce internal temperature fluctuations. 3. Heat distribution occurs naturally by conduction, convection, and radiation. Generally, fans and other mechanical energy distribution equipment are avoided; however, sometimes they are required for fine-tuned operations. 4. Control mechanisms such as vents, dampers, movable insulation, and shading devices can assist in balanced heat distribution.

SPACE COOLING CONCEPTS


Passive solar cooling, like passive heating, tempers interior space temperatures using natural thermal phenomena. A structure designed for natural cooling should incorporate features that reduce external heat gains and dissipate internal heat gains, including adequate insulation, overhangs, shading, orientation, surface color and texture, proper ventilation, and similar factors. When possible, external heat gain should be controlled before it reaches or penetrates the weatherskin. When cooling is necessary, heat dissipation is accomplished by cooling interior thermal mass, air, or both with conduction, convection, and radiation. Evaporation in hot arid regions and dehumidification in hot humid regions are primary cooling design concerns. Many passive cooling concepts and methods exist: Site cooling: through vegetative control, water bodies, and adjacent land forms and materials. Earth cooling: by using groundwater or the earth's mass with earth sheltering or "coolth" tubes. Radiative cooling: heat loss to the sky or cooler objects. Ventilative cooling: cross ventilation through spaces, double roofs, attics, or walls, induced or forced ventilation by pressure or temperature differences. 5. Vapor cooling: evaporative cooling to remove sensible heat, dehumidification to remove latent heat. 6. Flywheel cooling: cooling by internal thermal mass or rockbeds. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Architectural Design 7 | A Passively-Cooled Commercial Hub

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[COMPILED DATA ON PASSIVE COOLING TECHNIQUES]

Architectural Design 7 | A Passively-Cooled Commercial Hub

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[COMPILED DATA ON PASSIVE COOLING TECHNIQUES]

Architectural Design 7 | A Passively-Cooled Commercial Hub

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