Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 20

..

ELECTRICITY
AND EVERYTHING
CONNECTED WITH IT


()
:
140205
-




199-93/01-12

--

2013

www.phoenixbooks.ru


811.111(075.8)
2
ELECTRICITY AND EVERYTHING CONNECTED WITH IT
81.2-92
8032
16
:
. ., ...,
( )
. ., ...,
(
)
.., ...,
( )

16

. .

= Electricity and everything connected with
it : / . . . / :
, 2013. 235 . : . ( ).

ISBN 978-5-222-20230-2

-
(342 ) .
, ,
. .
7 . , , ,
,
, . (
), .
ISBN 978-5-222-20230-2

811.111(075.8)
81.2-92
. ., 2012
: , 2013

www.phoenixbooks.ru

CHAPTER I. Unit 1


,
.

, .
.
,
- .
, , .
,
/
.
, , . , , :
, .
, ,
, ,

www.phoenixbooks.ru

ELECTRICITY AND EVERYTHING CONNECTED WITH IT

(Vocabulary exercises, Grammar exercises, Exercises on


the text).

. . , ,
. .
. ,
. , , .
, , .
,
- .
Extra tasks
,
.
.
,
. - .
.

www.phoenixbooks.ru

CHAPTER I
CHAPTER I. Unit 1

UNIT 1


Read the text, please.

EARLY HISTORY OF ELECTRICITY


History shows that at least 2,500 years ago, or so, the Greeks
were already familiar with the strange force (as it seemed to them),
which is known today as electricity. Generally speaking, three
phenomena made up all of mans knowledge of electrical effects.
The first phenomenon under consideration was the familiar lightning
flash a dangerous power, as it seemed to him, which could both
kill people and burn or destroy their houses. The second
manifestation of electricity he was more or less familiar with was
the following: he sometimes found in the earth a strange yellow
stone, which looked like glass. On being rubbed that strange yellow
stone that is to say amber obtained the ability of attracting light
objects of a small size. The third phenomenon was connected with
the so-called electric fish, which possessed the property of giving
more or less strong electric shocks, which could be obtained by a
person coming into contact with the electric fish.
Nobody knew that the above phenomena were due to electricity.
People could neither understand their observations nor find any
practical applications for them.
As a matter of fact all of mans knowledge in the field of electricity
has been obtained during the last 370 years, or so. Needless to
say, it took a long time before scientists learned how to make use of
electricity. In effect, most of the electrically operated devices, such
as the electric lamp, the refrigerator, the tram, the lift, the radio,
and so on, are less than one hundred years old. In spite of their
having been employed for such a short period of time, they play a

www.phoenixbooks.ru

ELECTRICITY AND EVERYTHING CONNECTED WITH IT

most important part in mans everyday life all over the world. In
fact, people cannot do without them at present.
So far, humans have not named the scientists who contributed
to the scientific research on electricity as centuries passed. However,
famous names are connected with its history and among them we
find that of Phales, the Greek philosopher. As early as about 600
. . (that is before our era) he discovered that when amber was
rubbed, it attracted and held minute light objects. However, he
could not know that amber was charged with electricity owing to
the process of rubbing. Then Gilbert, the English physicist, began
the first systematic scientific research on electrical phenomena.
Rediscovered that various other substances possessed the property
similar to that of amber or, in other words, they generated
electricity when they were rubbed. He gave the name electricity
to the phenomenon he was studying. He got this word from the
Greek electrum meaning amber.
Many learned men of Europe began to use the new word
electricity in their conversation as they were engaged in research of
their own. Scientists of Russia, France and Italy made their
contribution as well as the Englishmen and the Germans. [1, 24-25]

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Read and memorize the following words and word


combinations. Translate sentences given as examples:
1 . to make up
Women make up the greater part of the earths population.
2 . due to ,
She has been absent from work due to illness.
3. to burn
When he arrived one of the vehicles was still burning.

www.phoenixbooks.ru

CHAPTER I. Unit 1

4. to destroy
The English destroyed the monastery and half a century
afterwards rebuilt it.
5. in spite of
In spite of all precautions information was seeping out.
II. Try to memorize the following word-combinations in the
text. Use the dictionary if its necessary:
generally speaking; under consideration; a lightning flash; a
manifestation; to obtain the ability; to attract light objects; a size; to
possess the property; a practical application; to charge with; to
engaged in; to generate electricity.
III. Find in the text some international words and write them
down.
IV. Match the words from the left column with the words from
the right column.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

lightning
light
practical
electric
scientific

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

fish
flash
research
application
objects

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

I. Read and translate the following sentences. Pay your attention


to Participle II and Participle I.
1 . Being rubbed amber obtains the ability of attracting light
objects.

www.phoenixbooks.ru

ELECTRICITY AND EVERYTHING CONNECTED WITH IT


2. `Ancient man was aware of three phenomena, one of them
was the so-called electric fish, which possessed the property
of giving more or less strong electric shocks, which could be
obtained by a person coming into contact with electric fish.

II. Make up and write down all types of questions to these


sentences:
1. Greeks were already familiar with electricity.
2. Many learned men began to use the word electricity in their
conversation.
III. Fill the gaps with neither nor\either or.
1. He ... knows ... cares.
2. People could . .. understand their observations ... find any
practical applications for them.
3. You ... study Physics ... not.
4. She is the person you ... love ... h
ate.
IV. Make up Comparative and Superlative Degrees of these
adjectives and use the proper degrees in the sentences below:
much, good, popular, famous, powerful
1. The . .. we study nature, the ... w
e know it.
2. The electric lamp, the lift, the radio are ... nowadays.
3. Phales was one of ... G
reek philosophers.
4. Lightning storm is one of . .. natural phenomena.

EXERCISES ON THE TEXT

I. Find the English equivalents in the text for the following


word combinations:
, , , , , ,

www.phoenixbooks.ru

CHAPTER I. Unit 1

, , ,
, \ .
II. Fill the blanks with the words given below:
neither nor; due to; ight object; under consideration; needless to
say; in their conversation; practical applications B. C.; lightning
flash; were engaged in
1. Nobody knew that the above phenomena were ... electricity.
2. People could ... understand their observations ... find any ...
for them.
3. ..., it took a long time before scientists learned how to make
use of electricity.
4. As early as about 600 ... Phales discovered that when amber
was rubbed, it attracted and held minute ... .
5. The first phenomenon . .. was the familiar . .. .
6. Many learned men of Europe began to use the new word
electricity ... as they ... research of their own.
III. Read the text again and answer the following questions.
1. What three phenomena of electricity did Man know in ancient
times?
2. What will happen if you rub amber?
3. What contribution in science did Phales make?
4. What did Gilbert rediscover?
IV. Make a short plan of the text.
V. Retell the text according to your plan.

www.phoenixbooks.ru

10

ELECTRICITY AND EVERYTHING CONNECTED WITH IT


UNIT
2

Read the text, please.

EARLY DAYS OF ELECTRICITY


There is electricity everywhere in the world. It is present in the
atom, whose particles are held together by its forces; it reaches
people from the most distant parts of the universe in the form of
electro-magnetic waves. Yet people have no organs that could
recognize it as they see light or hear sound. Humans have to
make it visible, tangible, or audible they have to make it perform
work to become aware of its presence. There is only one natural
phenomenon which demonstrates it unmistakably to peoples senses
of seeing and hearing thunder and lightning; but they recognize
only the effects not the force which causes them.
Living generation cannot blame the ancient Greeks for failing
to recognize that the force which causes a thunderstorm is the same
which they observed when rubbing a piece of amber: it attracted
straw, feathers, and other light materials. Thales of Miletos, the
Greek philosopher who lived about 600 . , was the first who
noticed this. The Greek word for amber is eletron, and therefore
Thales called that mysterious force electric. For a long time it
was thought to be of the same nature as the magnetic power of the
loadstone since the effect of attraction seems similar, and in fact
there are many links between electricity and magnetism.
There is no other evidence that electricity was put to any use at
all in antiquity, except that the Greek women decorated their
spinning-wheels with pieces of amber: as the wollen threads rubbed
against the amber it first attracted and then repelled them
a pretty little spectacle which relieved the boredom of spinning.
More than two thousand years passed after Thaless discovery
without any research work being done in this field. It was Dr.
William Gilbert, Queen Elizabeth the First physician-in-ordinary,

www.phoenixbooks.ru

CHAPTER I. Unit 2

11

who set the ball rolling. He experimented with amber and loadstone
and found the essential difference between electric and magnetic
attraction. For substances which behaved like amber such as
glass, sulphur, sealing-wax he coined the term electrica, and
for the phenomenon as such the word electricity. In his famous
work De magnete, published in 1600, he gave an account of his
studies. Although some sources credit him with the invention of the
first electric machine, this was a later achievement by Otto von
Guericke, inventor of the air pump.
Von Guerickes electric machine consisted of a large disc
spinning between brushes; this made sparks leap across a gap
between two metal balls. In 1700, an Englishman by the name of
Francis Hawksbee produced the first electric light: he exhausted a
glass bulb by means of a vacuum pump and rotated it at high speed
while rubbing it with his hand until it emitted a faint glow of light.
A major advance was the invention of the first electrical
condenser, now called the Ley den jar, by a Dutch scientist, a
water-filled glass bottle coated inside and out with metallic surfaces,
separated by the non-conducting glass; a metal rod with a knob at
the top reached down into the water. When charged by an electric
machine it stored enough electricity to give anyone who touched the
knob a powerful shock.
Benjamin Franklin, born in Boston, was the fifteenth child of
a poor soap-boiler from England. He was well over 30 when he
took up the study of natural phenomena.
We had for some time been of opinion, that the electrical fire
was not created by friction, but collected, being really an element
diffused among, and attracted by other matter, particularly by water
and metals, wrote Franklin in 1747. It dawned on him that
thunderstorms were merely a discharge of electricity between two
objects with different electrical potentials, such as the clouds and
the earth. He saw that the discharging spark, the lightning, tended
to strike high buildings and trees, which gave him the idea of trying
to attract the electrical fluid deliberately to the earth in a way that
the discharge would do no harm.

www.phoenixbooks.ru

12

ELECTRICITY AND EVERYTHING CONNECTED WITH IT

In order to work this idea out he undertook his famous kiteand-key experiment in the summer of 1752. During the approach
of a thunderstorm he sent up a silken kite with an iron ti p; he
rubbed the end of the kite string, which he had soaked in water to
make it a good conductor of electricity, with a large iron key until
sparks sprang from the string which proved his theory. His theory
was that during the thunderstorm a continual radiation of electricity
from the earth through the metal of the lightning-conductor would
take place, thus equalizing the different potentials of the air and
the earth so that the violent discharge of the lightning would be
avoided. The modern theory, however, is that the lightningconductor simply offers to the electric tension a path of low
resistance for quiet neutralization. At any rate even if Franklins
theory was wrong his invention worked.
It was he who introduced the idea of positive and negative
electricity, based on the attraction and repulsion of electrified
objects. A French physicist, Charles Augustin de Coulomb, studied
these forces between charged objects, which are proportional to the
charge and the distance between the objects; he invented the torsion
balance for measuring the force of electric and magnetic attraction.
In his honor, the practical unit of quantity of electricity was named
after him.
What was the phenomenon of action at a distance caused by
electric and magnetic forces? In 1780, one of the greatest scientific
fallacies of all times seemed to provide the answer. Aloisio Galvani,
professor of medicine at Bologna, was lecturing to his students at
his home while his wife was skinning frogs, the professors favourite
dish, for dinner with his scalpel in the adjoining kitchen. As she
listened to the lecture the scalpel fell from her hand on to the frogs
thigh, touching the zinc plate at the same time. The dead frog jerked
violently as though trying to jump off the plate.
The professor, very indignant about this interruption of his
lecture, strode into the kitchen. His wife told him what had

www.phoenixbooks.ru

CHAPTER I. Unit 2

13

happened, and again let the scalpel drop on the frog. Again it
twitched.
No doubt the professor was as much perplexed by this occurrence
as his wife. But there were his students, anxious to know what it
was all about. Galvani could not admit that he was unable to explain
the jerking frog. So, probably on the spur of the moment he
explained: I have made a great discovery animal electricity, the
primary source of life!
Galvani made numerous and unsystematic experiments with frogs
thighs, most of which failed to prove anything at all; in fact, the
professor did not know what to look for except his animal
electricity. These experiments became all the rage in Italian society,
and everybody talked about galvanic electricity and galvanic
currents terms which are still in use although Professor Galvani
certainly did not deserve the honor.
A greater scientist than he, Alessandro Volta of Pavia solved
the mystery and found the right explanation for the jerking frogs.
Far from being the primary source of life, they played the very
modest part of electric conductors while the steel of the scalpel and
the zinc of the plate were, in fact, the important things. Volta
showed that an electric current begins to flow when two different
metals are separated by moisture (the frog had been soaked in salt
water), and the frogs muscles had merely demonstrated the presence
of the current by contracting under its influence.
Professor Volta went one step further a most important
step, because he invented the first electrical battery, the Voltaic
pile. He built it by using discs of different metals separated by
layers of felt which he soaked in acid. A pile of these elements
produced usable electric current, and for many decades this
remained the only practical source of electricity. From 1800, when
Volta announced his invention, electrical research became
widespread among the worlds scientists in innumerable
laboratories. [1, 2124]

www.phoenixbooks.ru

14

ELECTRICITY AND EVERYTHING CONNECTED WITH IT

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Read and memorize the following words and wordcombinations. Find their meanings using your dictionary:
1. a particle
2. thunder
3. lightning
4. a link to link
5. an air pump
6. to emit
7. to rotate
8. repulsion
9. to be perplexed by
10. steel

11. an electrical condenser


12. non-conducting glass
13. a metal rod
14. a knob
15. to soak in water
16. to equalize
17. to jerk
18. to flow
19. acid
20. widespread

II. Read, translate and memorize the words and their derivatives
given below:
1. thunder thunderstorm thundery thunderous
2. to emit emittance emitter
III. Give Russian equivalents to the following word
combinations:
electro-magnetic waves, light materials, to rub a piece of amber,
to put to any use, research work, in this field, a physician-inordinary, an essential difference, to coin the term, to give an
account of, to produce the first electric light, a faint glow of light,
to create by friction, discharging spark, at any rate, the right
explanation for, electric conductors, innumerable laboratories, to
invent the first electrical battery.

www.phoenixbooks.ru

ANSWER KEYS

231

................................................................. 3
CHAPTER I ..................................................................... 5
UNIT 1. EARLY HISTORY OF ELECTRICITY ............................. 5
UNIT 2. EARLY DAYS OF ELECTRICITY ................................ 10
UNIT 3. ENERGY ............................................................ 18
UNIT 4. BALL LIGHTNING ............................................... 23
UNIT 5. SOLAR LIGHT BY NIGHT ...................................... 28
UNIT 6. SOLAR ENERGY .................................................. 31
UNIT 7. ATOMIC ENERGY ................................................. 38
CHAPTER II .................................................................. 42
UNIT 1. ELECTRICITY ..................................................... 42
UNIT 2. FROM THE HISTORY OF ELECTRICITY ...................... 48
UNIT 3. ELECTRIC CURRENT ............................................ 53
UNIT 4. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A. C. AND D. C. ................... 58
UNIT 5. GENERATING AN ELECTRIC CURRENT ..................... 63
UNIT 6. HEATING EFFECT OF AN ELECTRIC CURRENT ............ 68
UNIT 7. MAGNETISM ...................................................... 75
Extra tasks ................................................................... 80

www.phoenixbooks.ru

232 ELECTRICITY AND EVERYTHING CONNECTED WITH IT


CHAPTER III ................................................................. 85
UNIT 1. ELECTRIC CIRCUIT ............................................. 85
UNIT 2. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY ................................. 92
UNIT 3. SEMICONDUCTOR PRINCIPLE ............................... 96
UNIT 4. ELECTRONS AND HOLES ..................................... 100
UNIT 5. SUPERCONDUCTIVITY ....................................... 104
UNIT 6. ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE AND RESISTANCE ............. 109
UNIT 7. POWER TRANSMISSION ..................................... 114
CHAPTER IV ............................................................... 119
UNIT 1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRIC MOTOR .............. 119
Extra tasks ................................................................. 124
Text 1(a). TRANSMISSION LINES ...................... 124
Text 1(b). TRANSMISSION LINE ....................... 125
Text 2. TRANSFORMERS ................................... 127
Text 3. RESISTORS .......................................... 130
Text 4. CELLS AND BATTERIES .......................... 133
Text 5. CAPACITORS ........................................ 135
Text 6. INDUCTANCE ....................................... 138
Text 7. COUPLING .......................................... 140
Text 8. FILTERS .............................................. 141
Text 9. ELECTRON TUBES ................................. 142

www.phoenixbooks.ru

233

Text 10. TUBE APPLICATION ............................ 145


Text 11. RELAY ............................................... 146
Text 12. FUSES ............................................... 148
Text 13. ENGINES ........................................... 149
Text 14. ELECTRIC SHOCK AND EARTHING
SYSTEM ............................................ 151
Text 15. EFFICIENCY OPTIONS FOR ELECTRIC
MOTORS............................................. 153
CHAPTER V ................................................................ 155
UNIT 1. MICHAEL FARADAY ............................................ 155
UNIT 2. JAMES MAXWELL .............................................. 159
UNIT 3. EDISONS LIGHTING SYSTEM .............................. 162
CHAPTER VI ............................................................... 167
UNIT 1. THERMAL POWER-STATION ................................ 167
UNIT 2. HYDROELECTRIC POWER-STATION ....................... 172
UNIT 3. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ................................... 176
UNIT 4. SAVE THE PLANET ............................................ 180
CHAPTER VII. (Problem solving) ................................. 184
GRAMMAR REVISION .................................................. 194
WORD FORMATION () ........................ 194

www.phoenixbooks.ru

234 ELECTRICITY AND EVERYTHING CONNECTED WITH IT


NOUN (.
) ......................... 197
NUMERALS ................................................................. 199
1.
(Cardinal numerals) ................................... 199
2.
(Ordinal numerals) .................................... 201
3. (Decimals) ...................................... 202
TYPES OF QUESTIONS ................................................... 203
ARTICLE ..................................................................... 205
VERB (TENSES (ACTIVE VOICE)) ..................................... 206
EMPHATIC SENTENCES ( ) ..... 210
VERB TENSES (PASSIVE VOICE) ...................................... 211
DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES ........................ 212
PARTICIPLE () ............................................. 215
........................... 216
........................... 216
MODAL VERBS ............................................................. 217
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES ............................................. 220
I ....................... 220
II ...................... 220
III . ................... 221
COMPLEX SUBJECT ( ) ................... 221

www.phoenixbooks.ru

235

COMPLEX OBJECT ......................... 222


TABLE OF COMMONLY USED IRREGULAR VERBS ................. 224
Answer keys ............................................................... 226
....................................... 230

www.phoenixbooks.ru

ELECTRICITY
AND EVERYTHING CONNECTED WITH IT

.
.

18.07.2012 . 25.08.2012 .
84 108 1/32. .
Times.
2 500.


344082, . --,
. , 80

www.phoenixbooks.ru

Оценить