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PHYS 44064 SOLID STATE PHYSICS


BRIEF REPORT OF

MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS

Student name: M.A.A.N Gunawardana Student no: PS/2007/086

MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS Index Introduction..2 Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism and ferromagnetism ..3 Langevins theory of diamagnetism.4 Langevins theory of Paramagnetism.6 Failure of Langevins theory .8 Weiss Modification8 Ferromagnetism.8 Antiferromagnetism and Ferrimagnetism..9 Weiss theory of Ferromagnetism ..9 Applications12 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.12 NMR Spectrometer.13

Introduction According to their magnetic properties ,magnetic materials are divided into 3 groups they are Diamagnetic Paramagnetic Ferromagnetic

The vector quantity M defined as the intensity of magnetization or more often magnetization ,which is used to characterization of substance, it is the vector sum of the magnetic moments of atoms (or molecules) contained in unit volume

Where N=the number of particles in volume V of magnetic material =magnetic moment of I th atom (or molecule) For large number of magnetic materials it is found out that the intensity of magnetization is directly proportional to the magnetic field intensity i.e. Where is known as the magnetic susceptibility of the substance

Diamagnetism In 1846 Michael Faraday discovered that a specimen of bismuth brought near to the pole of strong magnet is repelled. He called such substance diamagnetic. Antimony, bismuth, mercury, gold and copper are some example of diamagnetic substance. For diamagnetic substance and is independent of temperature. Unlike paramagnetic materials, whose atoms or molecules have a net magnetic moment, the atoms or molecules of a diamagnetic material have zero magnetic moment in absence of an external magnetic field. With external magnetic field a net dipole moment, opposing the field is induced in the atoms or molecules. In paramagnetic materials there is also diamagnetic effect but it is much weaker than that of the paramagnetism Paramagnetism Paramagnetic substances are attracted towards the region of stronger magnetic field. Aluminum oxygen and platinum are some examples of paramagnetic materials. Their magnetic susceptibility and depends on temperature according to the Curie Law i.e. Where C is Curie constant Paramagnetism occurs on substances where the individual atoms, ions, or molecules possess a permanent magnetic dipole moment. In the absence of external magnetic field, the atomic dipoles point in random directions. So there is no resultant magnetization of substance as a whole in any direction. This random orientation is the result of thermal agitation within the substance. When external field is applied, the atomic dipoles tend to orient themselves parallel to the field, since this is a state of lower energy than the anti parallel position. This gives net magnetization parallel to field and a positive contribution to susceptibility. At lower temperatures, the thermal agitation, which tends to give a random orientation to the atomic dipoles, is less. Hence bigger proportions of dipoles are able to align themselves parallel to field, and the magnetization is greater for a given field. For ordinary field temperatures . For large fields at low temperatures the magnetization produced is no longer proportional to the applied field, and tends to a constant value. This saturation effect is produced when all atomic dipoles are aligned parallel to the field, so that magnetization reaches to limiting maximum value. Ferromagnetism Ferromagnetic materials are very strongly magnetic. For a given field, magnetization in ferromagnetic substance is about times stronger than dia or Para magnetic substances. Irons, Nickel, cobalt are some examples of ferromagnetic substances. As temperature increases, the value of decreases. Above a certain temperature, Known as the Curie temperature, ferromagnets becomes paramagnets

Langevins theory of Diamagnetism Consider an electron (mass =m, charge = e) rotating about the nucleus (charge=Ze) in a circular orbital of radius r. let be angular velocity of electron. Then

Or

.(1)

The magnetic moment of electron is =current area=

(2)

Let a magnetic field of induction be now applied. is normal to and into the page

r r

Ze

Electron

Ze

Electron

Figure 1 An additional force called Lorentz force acts on the electron ( )

The condition of stable motion is now given by .(3) Or Solving the quadratic equation in ,

( )

Thus the angular frequency is now different from . The result of establishing a field of flux density is to set up a precessional motion of the electronic orbits with angular velocity , this is called the Larmor theorem. Then

Change in frequency of Revolution of electron= The corresponding change in the magnetic momentum of the electron is { ( )}

On summing over all electrons in the atom, the induced moment per atom becomes Let N be the number of atoms per unit volume. Then the magnetization M is given by All the electron orbits are not oriented normal to the magnetic field. Hence in Eq. (6) should be replaced by the average of square of the projection of orbit radii for various electrons in a plane perpendicular to . Hence we should replace in Eq.(6) by therefore Volume susceptibility of material

Eq.(7) shows that is independent of the field strength and temperature. This is in accordance with Curies experimental results. Langevins theory of Paramagnetism Langevin assumes that each atom has a permanent magnetic momentum m. The only force acting on atom is that due to the external field .Let be the angle of inclination of the axis of the atomic dipole with the direction of the applied field . Then magnetic potential energy of the atomic dipole is

Now, on classical statistics, the number of atoms making an angle between is

Where K is Boltzmanns constant and T is the absolute temperature Put

. Then

Hence the total number of atomic magnets in unit volume of paramagnetic material Put then

The component of each dipole moment parallel to B in . The total magnetic moment of all the n atoms contained in unit volume of the gas is the magnetization M. it is given by Put therefore, we get

Evaluating integral and substituting the value of C from (3), we get [ ]

Where

+ is called the langevins function


is shown in figure 2.

The variation of M with

M mn

Initial slope

Figure 2 Case(i):At low temperatures or large applied field,

Hence, the magnetization M in this case will be

So saturation is reached when all the atomic dipoles are parallel to B Case (ii): Under normal conditions is very small. Then,

Where

is called the Curie constant

Failure of langevins theory (i) Langevins theory was unable to explain a more complicated dependence of susceptibility upon temperature exhibited by several paramagnetics such as highly compressed and cooled gasses, very concentrated solutions of salts etc... Langevins theory could not account for the intimate relation between Para-and ferromagnetism.

(ii)

Weiss Modification Langevins theory applies only to gasses, where the molecules are sufficiently far apart for their mutual interactions to be negligible. In liquids and solids such interactions may be large, and many substances obey the modification Curie-Weiss law

is called the curie temperature and is characteristic of the substance. Eq.(10) holds only at | |Eq.(10) is of the same form as Eq.(9), except that the origin of temperatures where temperature is shifted from 0 to Ferromagnetism Ferromagnetic substances are very strongly magnetic, the best known examples of ferromagnets are the transition metals Fe, Co, and Ni. A ferromagnet has a spontaneous magnetic moment a magnetic moment even in zero applied fields. The atoms (or molecules)of ferromagnetic materials have a net intrinsic magnetic dipole moment which is primarily due to the spin of electrons. The interaction between the neighbouring atomic magnetic dipoles is very strong. It is called spin exchange interaction and is present even in the absence of an external magnetic field. It turns out that the energy of two neighbouring atomic magnets due to interaction is the least when their magnetic moments are parallel. The neighbouring magnetic moments are therefore strongly constrained to take parallel orientation (see figure 3,a). This effect of exchange interaction to align the neighbouring magnetic moments parallel to one another spreads over a small finite volume of the bulk a. b. c. Figure 3

This small (1-0.1 mm across) volume of the bulk is called a domain. All magnetic moments within a domain will point in the same direction, resulting in a large magnetic moment. Thus the bulk material consists of many domains. The domains are oriented in different directions. The total magnetic moment of a sample of substance is the vector sum of the magnetic moments of the component domain In unmagnetised piece of ferromagnetic material, the magnetic moments of the domains themselves are not aligned. When an external field is applied, those domains that are aligned with the field increasing size at the expense of the others. In a very strong field all the domains are lined up in the direction of the field and provide the high observed magnetization. Antiferromagnetism and Ferrimagnetism The only type of magnetic order which has been considered thus far is ferromagnetism, in which , in fully magnetized state, all the dipoles are aligned in exactly the same direction (figure 3,a). There are, however, substances which show different types of magnetic order. In antiferromagnetic materials such as Cr and MnO, the dipoles have equal moments, but adjacent dipoles joint in opposite direction (see figure 3, b). Thus the moments balance each other, resulting in a zero net magnetization. In ferrimagnetic materials (also called ferrites) such as , the magnetic moments of adjacent ions are anti parallel and of unequal strength (see figure 3, c) so there is a finite net magnetization. By suitable choice of rare earth ions in the ferrite lattices it is possible to design ferrimagnetic substances with specific magnetizations for use in electronic components. Weiss theory of Ferromagnetism According to Weiss, the atomic magnets of a ferromagnetic substance are grouped into certain regions or domains. When the substance is in the unmagnetised condition, the domains form closed chains with no free poles. When the substance is magnetized, the chains break up and the domains gradually set themselves with their magnetic axes all pointing in he field direction. Thus ferromagnetism is a crystal phenomenon Weiss assumed that a molecular magnetic field exists at the position of every atom or molecule this field arises due to the interaction of all neighbouring molecules. The molecular field is proportional to the magnetization vector

Here

=molecular field coefficient

The effective field strength may be regarded as the vector sum of external applied field strength B and the internal molecular field strength Hence

10

Consider 1 gram mole of the substance. Let

Then ( ) Then ( )

The domains will obey the general theory of paramagnetism by langevin ( Here, )

When external field is zero,

Now,

Here N=Avogadros number

11

Or

Eqs.(3) and (4) simultaneously determine the condition of spontaneous magnetization figure 4 shows a graph drawn between and corresponding to Es. (3) and (4)

curve 1 is langevin curve corresponding to Eq.(3) while straight line 2 is corresponding to Eq.(4) . the two curves meet at 0 and A. the solution true solution A B is not true. Hence is the

C (1) 0.5 (2)

2 Figure 4

It is obvious from the graph that A represents a stable state of spontaneous magnetization. If the molecules in a domain assume sate C, then the local magnetization equilibrium sate A, now the magnetization and the value of will in consequence increase until the state AD is reached . on the other hand , if the molecules in domain assume state B, then the local magnetization is more than the equilibrium value. Now the magnetization and the value of will tend to decrease until the state AD is reached We know that the slope of the tangent at the origin of the langevin curve is since , when is small. Hence the condition for stable spontaneous magnetization is given by

12

But

, the Curie point. Hence T<

Hence below the Curie point , in the absence of the external field, the domains are spontaneously magnetized to a degree depending upon temperature. Approaching the saturation value as the temperature approaches absolute zero. Above the Curie point , spontaneous magnatisation no longer occurs, the ferromagnetic properties disappear and the substance becomes paramagnetic. Therefore, Curie temperature is transition temperature. Above Curie point, the substance obeys Curie-Weiss law Applications Nuclear Magnetic Resonance A nucleus with a nonzero spin acts like a tiny magnet. When placed in a magnetic field, the magnetic moment vector precesses round the field direction. This is called Larmour precession. This precession is quantized. If this precessing nucleus is placed in the path of beam of electromagnetic radiation there will be coherent interaction between the particle and the radiation provided the frequency of the radiation is equal to that of precession. The phenomenon is thus one of resonance. In the case of nuclei, the phenomenon is called nuclear magnetic resonance (N.M.R) Expression for Resonance Frequency If a nucleus of magnetic moment direction. Then its energy is is placed in a uniform magnetic field in the z-

The magnetic moment

is quantized according to the usual rule

Where is the - factor for the nucleus. Hence the energy levels of the nucleus in the magnetic field are

The energy difference between adjacent energy levels is

The corresponding transition frequency is

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NMR spectrometer Figure 4 shows a schematic arrangement for observing the nuclear magnetic resonance, and is based on the energy absorption method
Electromagnet Oscilloscope

Rfgenerator

Amplifier mixer and other circuitry

(Static field)

Rf-coil

Figure-5 The specimen S, about 1 c. c. of the material being investigated, is placed between the poles of an electromagnet. This magnet produces the field . An r-f coil surrounding the specimen is carefully positioned to produce a second field perpendicular to . An r-f generator not only serves to drive the coil but also supplies a signal to auxiliary circuitry which measures the r-f power absorbed by the specimen. To trace out the absorption line, an auxiliary low frequency oscillator supplies power to secondary coils wound on the main magnet core. These coils permit the main field. Such a signal is sketched in figure 6 Power absorbed

Figure 6

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NMR finds a number of practical applications. It can be used for the accurate determination of nuclear moments. In a sensitive form of magnetometer NMR can be used for measuring magnetic fields. In medicine NMR tomography has been developed. In this technique images of tissues are produced by the magnetic resonance. Whole plants, small animals or parts of bigger animals are placed between the pole pieces of suitably designed magnet. Using surface coils of wire radio frequency radiation is directed towards the part under study. Spectra obtained in this way are used for medical diagnosis. This method is supposed to be superior diagnosis by X rays because the potential damage to living tissue by X rays is not present in the case of radio frequency radiation