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THE BEGINNING OF THE MIDDLE AGES.

Owner:

School: I.E.S. Carmen Pantión. Level: 2º E.S.O. Author: Jose María Tintore Parra.

CONTENTS:

INTRODUCTION:

1- BYZANTIUM:

2- MUHAMMAD'S LIFE:

3- ISLAM:

4- MUSLIM EMPIRE:

5- AL ANDALUS:

6- THE MUSLIM LEGACY:

7- EXERCISES:

8- GLOSSARY:

INTRODUCTION:

The Middle Ages began when the Roman Empire fell. It begins in 453, when the barbarians killed the last Roman emperor. The Middle Ages finish in the XVth Century.

1- BYZANTIUM:

In A.D. 395 Rome split into two separate empires. The eastern empire took the name of Byzantium. The Byzantine Empire lasted until 1453.

1- BYZANTIUM: In A.D. 395 Rome split into two separate empires. The eastern empire took the

BYZANTIUM

The emperor Justinian (482-565) was a wise ruler. He was a very important man. He conquered a lot of territory. He almost recovered the old Roman Empire! His generals conquered Italy, North Africa and part of Spain. But this empire was very expensive for Byzantium.

1- BYZANTIUM: In A.D. 395 Rome split into two separate empires. The eastern empire took the
1- BYZANTIUM: In A.D. 395 Rome split into two separate empires. The eastern empire took the

Here, a picture of the old Constantinople. (Istanbul)

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1- BYZANTIUM: In A.D. 395 Rome split into two separate empires. The eastern empire took the

Byzantine armies:

Byzantine armies: Byzantine art: MOSAIC CHURCH OF SAINT SOPHIA 4

Byzantine art:

Byzantine armies: Byzantine art: MOSAIC CHURCH OF SAINT SOPHIA 4

MOSAIC

CHURCH OF SAINT SOPHIA

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Byzantine armies: Byzantine art: MOSAIC CHURCH OF SAINT SOPHIA 4

2- MUHAMMAD'S LIFE:

2- MUHAMMAD'S LIFE: The Arabian Peninsula has no forests. There is water in the oasis. Medieval

The Arabian Peninsula has no forests. There is water in the oasis.

Medieval arabs.
Medieval arabs.
Muhammad was born in 570 a.D. in Makkah. He was an orphan. He worked in a
Muhammad was born in 570 a.D. in Makkah. He was an orphan. He
worked in a caravan company.

He married Jadicha, a rich widow.

Later, Angel Gabriel came and gave him a message from God.

2- MUHAMMAD'S LIFE: The Arabian Peninsula has no forests. There is water in the oasis. Medieval

He told people of what the angel said. But people didn't believe him, and they wanted to kill him.

He told people of what the angel said. But people didn't believe him, and they wanted
He told people of what the angel said. But people didn't believe him, and they wanted
He told people of what the angel said. But people didn't believe him, and they wanted

So, Muhammad told his children and his friends to leave Makkah and go to Madina in the year 622.

He told people of what the angel said. But people didn't believe him, and they wanted

Madina.

He told people of what the angel said. But people didn't believe him, and they wanted

Muhammad defeated all his enemies and returned to Makkah. Later, Muslims conquered all Arabia.

3- ISLAM:

The five principles:

Islam means submission to Allah. Allah means “God”.

Five principles:

1- There is no god but Allah; Muhammad is the prophet.

2- Muslims pray five times a day.

3- ISLAM: The five principles: Islam means submission to Allah. Allah means “God”. Five principles: 1-

3- Zakat, or alms.

3- ISLAM: The five principles: Islam means submission to Allah. Allah means “God”. Five principles: 1-

4- Pilgrimage to Makkah once in their lifetime.

PILGRIMAGE
PILGRIMAGE
3- ISLAM: The five principles: Islam means submission to Allah. Allah means “God”. Five principles: 1-

IN MAKKAH

3- ISLAM: The five principles: Islam means submission to Allah. Allah means “God”. Five principles: 1-

TO KA'ABA

ROCK

3- ISLAM: The five principles: Islam means submission to Allah. Allah means “God”. Five principles: 1-

5- Fast during Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islam calendar. Muslims do not eat or drink during daylight hours.

Qur'an

5- Fast during Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islam calendar. Muslims do not eat or
5- Fast during Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islam calendar. Muslims do not eat or

The Qur'an is the Muslim's holy book. It is the word of Allah (God).

5- Fast during Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islam calendar. Muslims do not eat or

The mosque:

The mosque is the Muslim temple, the sacred place.

The mosque: The mosque is the Muslim temple, the sacred place. MIHRAB At the Qibla there

MIHRAB

At the Qibla there is a niche. This niche is the central and sometimes most decorated feature of any mosque, known as the mihrab. Number 3 in the picture.

QIBLA

This wall is looking to Meccah. Number 1 in the picture.

ABLUTION AREA

Area where Muslims wash before prayer. Number 6 in the picture.

MINARET

Tall tower. There, the Muadhin calls people to prayer. Number 4 in the picture.

4- MUSLIM EMPIRE:

By 640 (after the death of Mohammed) the Arabs controlled West Asia.

4- MUSLIM EMPIRE: By 640 (after the death of Mohammed) the Arabs controlled West Asia. Muslims

Muslims conquered Sassanid Empire and a lot of territories of the Byzantine Empire.

4- MUSLIM EMPIRE: By 640 (after the death of Mohammed) the Arabs controlled West Asia. Muslims

DEFEATED

Muslim soldiers

4- MUSLIM EMPIRE: By 640 (after the death of Mohammed) the Arabs controlled West Asia. Muslims
4- MUSLIM EMPIRE: By 640 (after the death of Mohammed) the Arabs controlled West Asia. Muslims
Byzantine Empire
Byzantine
Empire

Persian Empire. This empire dissapeared completely

The reason being: Sassanid Persian and Byzantine Roman empires were exhausted from decades of war.

The reason being: Sassanid Persian and Byzantine Roman empires were exhausted from decades of war. In

In 732, the Arab expansion stopped. They lost the Battle of Tours, and the conquests ended.

The reason being: Sassanid Persian and Byzantine Roman empires were exhausted from decades of war. In
The reason being: Sassanid Persian and Byzantine Roman empires were exhausted from decades of war. In

5- AL ANDALUS

In 711 a Moorish Islamic army from North Africa invaded Visigoth Hispania.

5- AL ANDALUS In 711 a Moorish Islamic army from North Africa invaded Visigoth Hispania. The

The leader was Tariq ibn- Ziyad.

5- AL ANDALUS In 711 a Moorish Islamic army from North Africa invaded Visigoth Hispania. The

They were victorious over the Visigoth army at the Battle of Guadalete on July 19, 711.

5- AL ANDALUS In 711 a Moorish Islamic army from North Africa invaded Visigoth Hispania. The

Now the Iberian Peninsula was Muslim. They named their territories "Al-Andalus". They treated Christians and Jews with tolerance.

This was a very quick conquest. In 715, all the Iberian Peninsula was Muslim. Some rebels resisted in the North, in Asturias.

5- AL ANDALUS In 711 a Moorish Islamic army from North Africa invaded Visigoth Hispania. The

The splendor of Muslim Spain:

In 756, the exiled Umayyad prince Abd-ar-Rahman I came to Spain, and founded and independent muslim kingdom. Al-Andalus became a very rich and prosperous kingdom. The Mosque of Cordoba was a symbol of Al-Andalus.

The splendor of Muslim Spain: In 756, the exiled Umayyad prince Abd-ar-Rahman I came to Spain,

The Caliphate:

The splendor of Muslim Spain: In 756, the exiled Umayyad prince Abd-ar-Rahman I came to Spain,

The period of the Caliphate (929-1031) It was the golden age of al-Andalus. Caliph is a religious and political leader. Abd al Rahman III became the first Caliph in 929.

THIS IS ABD AL RAHMAN III, THE FIRST AND GREATEST CALIPH, IN 929

The splendor of Muslim Spain: In 756, the exiled Umayyad prince Abd-ar-Rahman I came to Spain,

In 1031, with the total decadence, the Caliphate ended Al Andalus was divided into little kingdoms called "Taifas".

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The splendor of Muslim Spain: In 756, the exiled Umayyad prince Abd-ar-Rahman I came to Spain,

and

Cordoba and other cities had a very good agriculture because of irrigation and new oriental crops.

For example, new crops were: cotton, saffron, sugar cane, bananas, pears, lemons crops were wheat, vines and olives.

...

but the main

Cordoba and other cities had a very good agriculture because of irrigation and new oriental crops.
Cordoba and other cities had a very good agriculture because of irrigation and new oriental crops.
Cordoba and other cities had a very good agriculture because of irrigation and new oriental crops.
Cordoba and other cities had a very good agriculture because of irrigation and new oriental crops.
Cordoba and other cities had a very good agriculture because of irrigation and new oriental crops.
Cordoba and other cities had a very good agriculture because of irrigation and new oriental crops.
Cordoba and other cities had a very good agriculture because of irrigation and new oriental crops.
Cordoba and other cities had a very good agriculture because of irrigation and new oriental crops.
Cordoba and other cities had a very good agriculture because of irrigation and new oriental crops.

Córdoba had a population of 500,000, and was the biggest city in Europe. (For example, Paris had 38,000 and was a huge city)

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Cordoba and other cities had a very good agriculture because of irrigation and new oriental crops.

6- THE MUSLIM LEGACY:

Language: We have a lot of Arab words in our language: Almohada, alambique, alcázar, alcalde, Guadalquivir, Guadiana, acequia, jarabe, mazapán, zaguán ...

Art: They gave us great monuments and pieces of art: The Mosque of Cordoba, the Alhambra in

Granada, the Giralda en Sevilla

...

and a lot of poets and writers, for example, Ibn Ammar

...

6- THE MUSLIM LEGACY: Language : We have a lot of Arab words in our language:
6- THE MUSLIM LEGACY: Language : We have a lot of Arab words in our language:

Philosophy: They maintained the classic philosophy, and there were some very good Muslim philosophers. A very important philosopher was Averroes.

6- THE MUSLIM LEGACY: Language : We have a lot of Arab words in our language:

Science: Our numbers are arabic. Córdoba was a important cultural centre. There were philosophers and scientists. For example: Abulcasis and Averroes. Spanish muslims became leaders in maths, science, medicine, astronomy, navigation, etc ...

6- THE MUSLIM LEGACY: Language : We have a lot of Arab words in our language:
6- THE MUSLIM LEGACY: Language : We have a lot of Arab words in our language:

7- EXERCISES:

1- Colour in this map: The Byzantine Empire during Justinian (VIth Century)

7- EXERCISES: 1- Colour in this map: The Byzantine Empire during Justinian (VIth Century) 2- True

2- True or false? Mark with an X

SENTENCE

TRUE

FALSE

The Byzantine Empire survived until 1453

   

Justinian was a fool ruler.

   

Saint Sophia is a famous castle.

   

Mosaics are important in Byzantine art.

   

Justinian conquered France and Germany.

   

Byzantium was the Western part of the Roman Empire.

   

Constantinople is nowadays the capital town of Turkey.

   

Muslims attacked the Byzantine territores.

   

3- Solve this wordsearch:

  • - An important emperor.

  • - The name of a very important Byzantine Church.

  • - Art consisting of small pieces of colored stone or glass. Very important in Byzantium.

  • - Capital of the Byzantine Empire.

  • - Byzantine generals conquered this peninsula.

  • - Byzantium conquered the northern part of this continent.

7- EXERCISES: 1- Colour in this map: The Byzantine Empire during Justinian (VIth Century) 2- True

4- Exercise: In English and Spanish, look for the words:

Ulema. Yihad, Ramadan, Imam, Khalifa.

5- The mosque:

5.a Find pictures of:

Mosque of Samarra Mosque of Kairouan. Mosque of Cordoba.

Send the links to the teacher: tintoreprofe@gmail.com or paste them in your notebook.

5.b In which country are them?

5.c In this picture, point to: Qibla, Mihrab, Minaret and Ablution Area ..

4- Exercise: In English and Spanish, look for the words: Ulema. Yihad, Ramadan, Imam, Khalifa. 5-tintoreprofe@gmail.com or paste them in your notebook. 5.b In which country are them? 5.c In this picture, point to: Qibla, Mihrab, Minaret and Ablution Area .. 6- Mark in this map: Makkah, Madina, Tours. 17 " id="pdf-obj-16-22" src="pdf-obj-16-22.jpg">

6- Mark in this map:

Makkah, Madina, Tours.

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4- Exercise: In English and Spanish, look for the words: Ulema. Yihad, Ramadan, Imam, Khalifa. 5-tintoreprofe@gmail.com or paste them in your notebook. 5.b In which country are them? 5.c In this picture, point to: Qibla, Mihrab, Minaret and Ablution Area .. 6- Mark in this map: Makkah, Madina, Tours. 17 " id="pdf-obj-16-30" src="pdf-obj-16-30.jpg">

7- Link with arrows:

An angel visited Muhammad, he was ...

 

Makkah

The five principles of Islam

Jadicha

Muslims must go once in their life to

Qur'an

Muhammad's wife

Gabriel

The Muslim temple

Submission to Allah

Muhammad worked in a ....

Prayer, alms, fast, pilgrimage and “there is no god but Allah”

The sacred book for Muslims is

Mosque

Muslim means ...

Caravan company

8-Rewrite in the correct order:

 

ORDER

The Archangel Gabriel spoke to Muhammad.

 

Muhammad defeated his enemies and came back to Makkah.

 

Muhammad married a rich woman, Jadicha.

 

Muhammad was born in Makkah, by 570 a.C.

 

Muhammad and his family had to go to Madina.

 

8- Colour the Muslim Empire in green, in 732 (the battle of Tours)

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7- Link with arrows: An angel visited Muhammad, he was ... Makkah The five principles of

9- Write two diferences between Islam and Christianism.

10- Who was Tarik? Look for his biography and write it here. (100 words maximum, 3o minimum)

11- Rewrite in the correct order:

 

CORRECT ORDER.

Tarik disembarked at Gibraltar

 

Battle of Tours.

 

Abd al Rahman III becomes a Caliph

 

Tarik wins the Battle of Guadalete.

 

Abd al Rahman I foundes the great Mosque of Cordoba.

 

12- Muslim Priego:

In the middle of the ninth century, Priego was called Madinat Baguh, and as the capital of a cora or province, it played an important role in the wars fought by the emirs of Córdoba. In 889 AD, the town became the headquarters of Ibn Mastana, one of the greatest revolutionary leaders, who gave himself the title of Lord of Priego and Luque.

When the caliphate of Córdoba disappeared, Priego became part of the Zirita kingdom of Granada

Around 1090, Priego was occupied by the Almoravids, who were replaced by the Almohads in the middle of the twelfth century. Later fell under Nasrid rule. That is, Priego was part of the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada.

After lifting the siege of Jaén in 1225, Fernando III marched on Priego: he took the town after three days, and gave it over to the Christian Order of Calatrava.

Questions:

  • A) How many years was Priego a Muslim town?

  • B) Point in this map to a Muslim building in Priego.

Questions: A) How many years was Priego a Muslim town? B) Point in this map to
  • C) Did you know? Adarve is an Arab word. Look for its meaning.

13- True or false?

SENTENCE

TRUE

FALSE

Tarik and his army killed all the Christians and Jews.

   

Abd Al Rahman was the greatest Caliph. He lived in the Xth Century

   

Muslim army won the Battle of Guadalete.

   

Tariq was a Christian general.

   

In 715, Muslims ruled over the complete Iberian Peninsula.

   

Cordoba was bigger than Paris during the Caliphate period.

   

Muslims didn't use irrigation for agriculture.

   

Al Andalus was the Arab name for Andalusia.

   

The main crops were: Olives, vines and wheat

   

Taifas were little Muslim kingdoms, after the Caliphate.

   

14- Look for five Spanish words with Arab origin. Translate them into English:

Spanish words with Arab origin English word
Spanish words with Arab
origin
English word

15- Look for the words in English in the dictionary, and draw them. You can use the link:

http://www.wordreference.com/ Acequia. Noria. Azafrán.

16- Finally, ask your teachers:

SUBJECT

QUESTION

ANSWERS

Maths

A famous Muslim mathematic

 

Spanish Language

What is a “jarcha”

 

French

A French word with Arabic root.

 

Technology

What is a horseshoe arch.

 

Natural Sciences

A famous Muslim doctor or biologist

 

Music

What is a lute.

 

English

An English word with Arabic root.

 

8- GLOSSARY:

Almost: Casi. Alms: Limosna. Army: Ejército. Battle: Batalla. But: Pero, excepto. Caliph: Califa, líder político y religioso, algo así como una mezcla de rey y papa musulmán. Caliphate: Califato. Es decir, reinado del califa. Cane: Caña. Sugar cane: Caña de azúcar. Cotton: Algodón. Crop: Cultivo. Daylight: La luz del día, mientras haya sol. Decade: Década. During: Durante. Eastern: Oriental, del este. Emperor: Emperador. Empire: Imperio. Exhausted: Exhausto. Exiled: Exiliado. Feature: Característica. Fast: Ayuno. First: Primero. Forest: Bosque. Golden: Dorado. Greatest: El más grande. Holy: Santo. Huge: Enorme. Irrigation: Irrigación, regadío, riego. Jew: Judío. (Hoy día suena un poco ofensivo, se prefiere la expresión “Jewish”) Kingdom: Reino. Known: Conocido. Viene de to know/knew/known: Conocer, saber. Leader: Líder. Lifetime: Vida. Moorish: Moro. Mosaic: Mosaico. Mosque: Mezquita.

Orphan: Huérfano. Philosopher: Filósofo. Pilgrimage: Peregrinación, peregrinaje. Poet: Poeta. Prayer: Oración. Principles: Principios (ideológicos). Prosperous: Próspero. Quick: Rápido. Reason: Razón, motivo. Rebel: Rebelde. Ruler: Regla (de medir), pero también gobernante. Sacred: Sagrado. Saffron: Azafrán. Saint: Santo/a, san. Soldier: Soldado. Temple: Templo. Tower: Torre. Umayyad: Omeya, el nombre de una familia. Vine: Parra. Wall: Muro, pared. West: Oeste. Wheat: Trigo. Widow: Viuda. Wise: Sabio.

To believe: Creer. To call: Llamar. To conquer: Conquistar. To defeat: Derrotar. To dissapear: Desaparecer. To end: Acabar, finalizar. To found: Fundar. No confundir con el pasado y participio de “To find”. To last: Durar. To leave: Dejar, partir de. To lose/lost/lost: Perder. To maintain: Mantener.

Muadhin: Muecín, el que llama a los musulmanes To mean/meant/meant: Querer decir, significar.

a la oración. Muslim: Musulmán. Niche: Nicho. Old: Viejo/a, antiguo/a. Once: Una vez.

To pray:

To split/split/split: Dividir, repartir. To take/took/taken: Coger, tomar. To tell/told/told: Decir. To wash: Lavar, lavarse.