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CHAPTER

CONTENTS

Contents

Page No.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT………………………………………………………………i

SYNOPSIS…………………………………………………………………………… ii

LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………………iii

1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………

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1.1 Requirements of the leaf spring

1.2 Glass fiber………………………………………………………………

1

………….2

1.3 Epoxy resin………………………………………………………………

………

2

2. LITERATURE SURVEY……………………………………………………………

3

2.1 Need for current study………………………………………………….………

4

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4. OBJECTIVE…………………………………………………………………….……. 6

3. PROBLEM DEFINITION……………………………………………………………

5. METHODOLOGY…………………………………………… …………

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6. SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS………………………………………………………

8

6.1 Specification and material properties of steel leaf spring……………

6.2 Specification of material properties of composite leaf spring……….…………8

……… 8

7. EXPECTED DELIVERABLES…………………

…………………………….…….9

7.1 Software used………………….……………………………………………

…… 9

8. MODELING……………………………………………………………………………10

……11

9. ANALYSIS………………………………………………………………………

9.1 Stress distribution of steel leaf spring

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9.2 Stress distribution of composite leaf spring

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10. CONCLUSION……………………………………………………….……………

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11. BIBLIOGRAPHY…….……………………………………………………………….13

SYNOPSIS

Synopsis

A steel spring used in the rear suspension system of light vehicles is analyzed using ANSYS software. By using the finite element results, stresses and deflections are verified. Using the results of the steel leaf spring, a composite leaf spring made up of fiberglass with epoxy resin is designed and optimized using ANSYS software. The main consideration is given to the geometry optimizitation of the leaf spring geometry. The main objective is to compare the load carrying capacity, stiffness and weight reduction of composite leaf spring with that of steel leaf spring. The results showed that an optimum leaf spring width decreases hyperbolically and the thickness increases linearly from the spring eyes towards the axle seat. Compared to the steel leaf spring, the optimizied composite spring has stresses that are much lower and spring weight without eye unnits nearly 80% lower.

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Introduction

Chapter 1

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Leaf spring is made of steel that is mounted on the front and rear axle of a car. The leaf spring absorbs the load acting on the vehicle. In steel leaf spring the weight is comparatively more. Composite materials are now used extensively in the automotive industry to take place of metal parts. In the present trends the weight reduction has been the main focus of automobile manufacturers. Less fuel consumption, less weight, effective utilization of natural resources is main focus of automobile manufacturers in the present scenario. The above can be achieved by introducing better design concept, better material and effective manufacturing process. Steel leaf springs have many advantages such as good load carrying capacity. In spite of its advantages, it stays back in low strength to weight ratio. It is reported that weight reduction with adequate improvement of mechanical properties has made composites as a viable replacement material for conventional steel. In this work, the steel leaf spring is replaced with the composite leaf spring made of glassfiber epoxy resin. The main consideration was given to the optimization of the leaf spring geometry. The objective was to obtain a spring with minimum weight that is capable of carrying given static external forces by constraints limiting stresses and displacements.

1.1 Requirements of the leaf spring:

It should absorb more load.

It should have good rust resistance.

It should have high strength.

Light in weight.

Easy to manufacture in large quantity.

Low cost.

1

Introduction

Chapter 1

1.2 Glass fiber:

The aim of fiber reinforced plastics is to combine the stiffness and strength of fibrous material. This material has corrosion resistance, low density and mould ability. The majority of reinforced plastics produced today are glass reinforced epoxy or polyester resins, both of which are thermosetting. Glass fibers have also been used with phenolics, silicones, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride. Glass fibers are the obvious choice as reinforcing agents, principally because of the relative ease with which high strengths can be obtained fiber a few microns in diameters.

1.3 Epoxy resin:

Epoxy resins are the most commonly used resins. They are low molecular weight organic liquids containing epoxide groups. Epoxide has three members in its ring, 1oxygen and 2 carbon atoms. The reactions of Epichlorohydrin with phenols or aromatic amines make most epoxies. Hardeners, plasticizers and fillers are also added to produce epoxies with a wide range of properties of viscosity, impact, degradation, etc. Although epoxy is costlier than other polymer matrices, it is the most popular PMC matrix. More than two thirds of the polymer matrices used in aerospace applications is epoxy based. The main reasons for epoxy being the most used polymer matrix materials are

Good compatibility with Glass fiber

High strength

Low viscosity and low flow rates, which allow good wetting of fibers and misalignment of fibers during processing

Low shrink rates which reduce the tendency of gaining large shear stresses of the bond between epoxy and its reinforcement.

Available in more than 20 grades to meet specific property and processing requirements.

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Literature Survey

Chapter 2

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE SURVEY

Mahmood et al [1] discussed about the analysis and optimization of a composite leaf

spring. It is inferred that a steel leaf spring used in the rear suspension of light passenger cars was analyzed by two analytical and finite element methods. The experimental results verified the analytical and the finite element solutions. The results showed that the optimum spring width decreases hyperbolically and the thickness increases linearly from spring eye towards the axle seat. The stresses in the composite leaf spring are much lower than that of the steel spring. Compared to the steel spring, the optimized composite spring has stresses that are much lower, the natural frequency is higher and the spring weight without eye units is nearly 80% lower.

Erol et al [2] discussed about the design and manufacture of a functional composite spring for a solar powered light vehicle is described. It is inferred that the redesign of the solar car’s front suspension leaf springs was successful as it met all design targets and requirements.

Trakakis et al [3] discussed about the multifunctional hybrid composite material that incorporates carbon and glass fibres embedded into an epoxy matrix. It is inferred that a multifunctional composite material consisting of commercial carbon and glass fibre fabrics embedded into an epoxy resin was fabricated by autoclave curing. The geometry of the material was carefully selected in order to simulate the bimetallic strip effect during the thermal activation of the material.

Senthil kumar et al [4] discussed about the static and fatigue analysis of steel leaf spring and composite multi leaf spring made of glass fibre reinforced polymer. It is inferred that composite material had 67.35% lesser stress, 64.95% higher stiffness and 126.98% higher natural frequency and weight reduction of 68.15% was also achieved.

Colombo et al [5] discussed about the fatigue design of a structural component manufactured in composite materials. In this study a bus component was considered. It is inferred that static and fatigue tests were performed on specimens cut out from the

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Literature Survey

Chapter 2

beam component, along the fibre and the matrix direction, showing high data dispersion in the normal direction.

2.1 Need for current study:

Extensive research has been performed in composites materials. Springs are crucial suspension elements on cars, necessary to minimize the vertical vibrations, impacts and bumps due to road irregularities and create a comfortable ride. Also to reduce the weight of the vehicle this contributes fuel consumption. Generally more stresses will be acting on the leaf spring, in order to reduce the stresses acting on the leaf spring stress analysis has to be done. Here, leaf spring made of steel and composite materials are taken into consideration and optimum leaf spring is chosen which reduces the stresses acting on it.

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Problem Definition

Chapter 3

CHAPTER 3

PROBLEM DEFINITION

The major problem in the leaf spring is that, stresses acting in it which causes vibration to vehicle body, bumping due to road irregularities and vehicle will wear-out soon due to vibrations. In order to reduce the vibration in the vehicle body, the stresses acting on the leaf spring has to be reduced. To reduce the stresses acting on the leaf spring, optimum leaf spring has to be chosen. In this study to choose the optimum leaf spring stress analysis has to be carried for steel leaf spring and composite leaf spring made from fibreglass with epoxy resin.

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Objective

Chapter 4

CHAPTER 4

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of the present investigation is to reduce the stress acting in the leaf spring in order to reduce the vibration of vehicle. It can be achieved by choosing suitable composite materials. The main objectives of this work are;

To do Finite Element Modeling of stress acting on the steel leaf spring and composite leaf spring.

To choose the optimum leaf spring which have lower stress.

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Methodology

Chapter 5

CHAPTER 5

METHODOLOGY

In order to obtain the desired objective, the present investigation has been planned in the following sequence:

(i)

Identification of problem in using steel leaf spring.

(ii)

Choosing suitable composite material to overcome the problems in the current material.

(iii)

Developing CAD model for steel leaf spring and for composite leaf spring with the optimal geometry.

(iv)

Import the CAD models in ANSYS software in .IGES format.

(v)

Provide suitable material properties for steel and composite leaf spring.

(vi)

Choose mesh element and meshing is carried out.

(vii)

Applying boundary conditions.

(viii)

Appling load and solve.

(ix)

Finally result correlation between steel and composite leaf spring should be done.

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System Specifications

Chapter 6

CHAPTER 6

SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS

Specifications and material properties of steel and composite leaf springs are collected from various journals and books.

6.1 Specification and material properties of steel leaf spring:

Length

=1245mm

Thickness

= 7mm

Front half

=559mm

Arc Height at axle seat

=120.4mm

Spring rate

=20.76N/mm

Normal static loading

=2500N

Full bump loading

=4660N

Available space for spring width

=50mm

Weight

=9.2kg

Young’s modulus

= 210Gpa

Poisson ratio

= 0.3

6.2 Specification of material properties of composite leaf spring:

Length

=1245mm

Thickness

=10mm

Front half

=559mm

Arc Height at axle seat

=120.4mm

Spring rate

=20.76N/mm

Normal static loading

=2500N

Full bump loading

=4660N

Available space for spring width

=30mm

Weight

=2.3kg

Young’s modulus

= 38.6Gpa

Poisson ratio

= 0.26

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Expected deliverable

Chapter 7

CHAPTER 7

EXPECTED DELIVERABLE

As a result of this work, stress distribution on the leaf spring can be calculated for both steel and composite leaf spring.

Also, optimum spring can choose by using these results.

7.1 Software used:

Pro/E for modeling.

ANSYS for analysis.

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Modeling

Chapter 8

CHAPTER 8

MODELING

Modeling Chapter 8 CHAPTER 8 MODELING Fig. 1 3D model of leaf spring Fig. 2 Finite

Fig. 1 3D model of leaf spring

Modeling Chapter 8 CHAPTER 8 MODELING Fig. 1 3D model of leaf spring Fig. 2 Finite

Fig. 2 Finite Element Mesh of leaf spring

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Analysis

Chapter 9

CHAPTER 9

ANALYSIS

Analysis Chapter 9 CHAPTER 9 ANALYSIS Fig. 3 Stress distribution of steel leaf spring Fig. 4

Fig. 3 Stress distribution of steel leaf spring

CHAPTER 9 ANALYSIS Fig. 3 Stress distribution of steel leaf spring Fig. 4 Stress distribution of

Fig. 4 Stress distribution of composite leaf spring

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Conclusion

Chapter 10

CHAPTER 10

CONCLUSION

A steel leaf spring used in the rear suspension of light passenger cars was analyzed by analytical and finite element methods. The experimental results verified the finite element solutions. The steel leaf spring was replaced with an optimized composite one. Main consideration was given to the optimization of the leaf spring geometry.

The results showed that the optimum spring width decreases hyperbolically and the thickness increases linearly from spring eye towards the axle seat. The stresses in the composite leaf spring are much lower than that of the steel spring. Compared to the steel leaf spring (9.2 kg) the optimized composite leaf spring without eye units weights nearly 80% less than the steel spring.

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Bibliography

Chapter 11

CHAPTER 11

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Mahmood M. Shokrieh, Davood Rezaei, 2003, “Analysis and optimization of a composite leaf spring”, Journal of composite structures, vol. 60, p.317-325.

2. Tsai SW, Hahn HT, 1980 “Introduction to composite materials”, Technomic Publishing.

3. M. Senthil Kumar, S.Vijayarangan, 2006, “Static analysis and fatigue life prediction of steel and composite leaf spring for light passenger vehicles” Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research.

4. K. Kaw, “Mechanics of composite materials”, CRC Publication.

5. www.sciencedirect.com.

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