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Overview

The Asian Development Bank aims for an Asia and Pacific free from poverty. Approximately 1.8 billion people in the region are poor and unable to access essential goods, services, assets and opportunities to which every human is entitled.

A leader in development, watch how ADB improves the quality of life for millions in Asia and the Pacific.

Since its founding in 1966, ADB has been driven by an inspiration and dedication to improving peoples lives in Asia and the Pacific. By targeting our investments wisely, in partnership with our developing member countries and other stakeholders, we can alleviate poverty and help create a world in which everyone can share in the benefits of sustained and inclusive growth. Whether it be through investment in infrastructure, health care services, financial and public administration systems, or helping nations prepare for the impact of climate change or better manage their natural resources, ADB is committed to helping developing member countries evolve into thriving, modern economies that are well integrated with each other and the world. The main devices for assistance are loans, grants, policy dialogue, technical assistance and equity investments. We are at the forefront of development thinking and practice, spreading information through regional forums, a growing online presence and the publication of specialized papers, serials and books.

Economists, sociologists, engineers, gender experts and environmental scientists are amongst the hundreds of professions at the bank working together to reduce poverty, and ensure growth across the Asia and Pacific region is sustainable and inclusive.

Key Facts
President: Haruhiko Kuroda

Members:

67; 48 regional members; 19 nonregional members

Offices:

Headquarters in Manila, Philippines, with 26 country offices and representative offices in Tokyo, Frankfurt, and Washington, DC

Founded:

1966

Budget:

2012 Budget

Financing in 2011:

$21.72 billion

Did you know?

ADB aims for an Asia and Pacific free from poverty. Over half the population remains poor, with one child in 20 dying before the age of 5, over 250,000 women dying annually from childbirth and pregnancy, over five million living with HIV AIDS and 3/5 of global TB cases found in the region.

With $21.72 billion in approved financing in 2011, more than 2,900 employees from 59 countries, ADB in partnership with member governments, independent specialists and other financial institutions is focused on delivering projects that create economic and development impact.

Economists, sociologists, engineers, gender experts and environmental scientists are amongst the hundreds of professions at the bank working together to reduce poverty. Environmental sustainability is a core strategy of ADBs work as it is the poor that are most severely affected. Environmental damage and resource depletion are already impeding the regions development and reducing the quality of life.

ADB is active in creating the framework for the private sector to be involved in investing in new projects that underpin development and improve the lives of the 1.8 billion people in the region who live on less than $2 a day.

Since 2000, the Asian Development Fund has transformed the region with the construction of thousands of schools, bridges, health clinics and roads, providing opportunities for people to lift themselves out of poverty.

Over the past 6 years, ADB, through the Asian Development Fund has:

built or upgraded over 135,000 classrooms; trained over 660,000 teachers; built or upgraded over 44,300 kilometers (km) of roads; installed or rehabilitated over 17,800 km of water supply pipes; upgraded sanitation in over 269,000 households; improved over 1.8 million hectares of land as a result of irrigation, drainage, and flood management initiatives; installed 300 megawatts of new generating capacity, and built or upgraded more than 34,127 kilometers of transmission and distribution lines; and enabled new microfinance accounts and end borrowers to grow to over 2.7 million.

Members

From 31 members at its establishment in 1966, ADB has grown to encompass 67 members - of which 48 are from within Asia and the Pacific and 19 outside. ADB Annual Report 2011: Members, Capital Stock, Voting Power. Regional Members
Members Afghanistan Armenia Australia Year of Membership 1966 2005 1966

Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Darussalam Cambodia China, People's Republic of Cook Islands Fiji Georgia Hong Kong, China India Indonesia Japan Kazakhstan Kiribati Korea, Republic of Kyrgyz Republic Lao PDR Malaysia Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia, Federated States of Mongolia Myanmar Nauru

1999 1973 1982 2006 1966 1986 1976 1970 2007 1969 1966 1966 1966 1994 1974 1966 1994 1966 1966 1978 1990 1990 1991 1973 1991

Nepal New Zealand Pakistan Palau Papua New Guinea Philippines Samoa Singapore Solomon Islands Sri Lanka Taipei,China Tajikistan Thailand Timor-Leste Tonga Turkmenistan Tuvalu Uzbekistan Vanuatu Viet Nam

1966 1966 1966 2003 1971 1966 1966 1966 1973 1966 1966 1998 1966 2002 1972 2000 1993 1995 1981 1966

Nonregional Members
Austria Belgium Canada Denmark 1966 1966 1966 1966

Finland France Germany Ireland Italy Luxembourg The Netherlands Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States

1966 1970 1966 2006 1966 2003 1966 1966 2002 1986 1966 1967 1991 1966 1966

Management

The President is Chairperson of the Board of Directors, and under the Board's direction, conducts the business of ADB. He is responsible for the organization, appointment, and dismissal of the officers and staff in accordance with regulations adopted by the Board of Directors. The President is elected by the Board of Governors for a term of five years, and may be reelected. He is also the legal representative of ADB. The President heads a management team comprising five Vice-Presidents and the Managing Director General, who supervise the work of ADB's operational, administrative, and knowledge departments.

Haruhiko Kuroda President of ADB and the Chairperson of ADB's Board of Directors Xiaoyu Zhao Vice-President Operations 1 South Asia Department; Central and West Asia Department Stephen P. Groff Vice-President Operations 2 East Asia Department; Southeast Asia Department; Pacific Department and Central Operations Services Office Bindu N. Lohani Vice-President Knowledge Management and Sustainable Development Economics and Research Department; Office of Information Systems and Technology; Office of Regional Economic Integration; Regional and Sustainable Development Department Lakshmi Venkatachalam Vice-President Private Sector and Cofinancing Operations; Private Sector Operations Department; Office of Cofinancing Operations Thierry de Longuemar Vice-President for Finance and Administration Office of the Secretary; Office of the General Counsel; Budget, Personnel and Management Systems Department; Office of Administrative Services; Controllers Department; Treasury Department Rajat M. Nag Managing Director General Department of External Relations; Office of Risk Management

Budget, Personnel and Management Systems Department (BPMSD) Provides advice and services in budget, staff position management, human resources, staff development, benefits, and compensation

Careers

Central Operations Services Office (COSO)

Responsible for planning, monitoring, and coordinating project processing and administration work programs, procurement reviews, and consultant recruitment

Business Opportunities Consulting Services Recruitment Notices Consultant Management System Procurement Plans

Controller's Department (CTL) Maintains accounting policy and systems, prepares financial reports, and authorizes loan, technical assistance, grants, disbursements, and other payments

Contact CTL

Central and West Asia Department (CWRD) Covers operations in Afghanistan, Armenia,Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic,Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan Department of External Relations (DER) Provides leadership, resources and strategies for communicating with internal and external audiences

Publications News Releases Media Contacts Disclosure

East Asia Department (EARD) Covers operations in the People's Republic of China; Hong Kong, China; Republic of Korea; Mongolia; and Taipei,China Economics and Research Department (ERD) Conducts rigorous data analysis and strong database development and management

Data and Research

Independent Evaluation Department (IED) Helps ADB continuously improve its development effectiveness and accountability to stakeholders

Independent Evaluation

Office of the Auditor General (OAG) Undertakes financial, administrative, and information systems audits, assistance to external auditors, liaison with international organizations and anticorruption Office of Anticorruption and Integrity (OAI) Is the designated focal point of contact for allegations of fraud or corruption pertaining to ADB-financed activities or staff members

Anticorruption and Integrity

Office of Administrative Services (OAS) Provides administrative support to help management and staff enhance workplace effectiveness

Institutional Procurement

Office of Cofinancing Operations (OCO) Acts as ADB's focal point for planning, promoting, and arranging cofinancing for ADB projects

Official Cofinancing Japan Scholarship Program

Office of the Compliance Review Panel (OCRP)

Provides support to ADB's independent Compliance Review Panel which, upon request by affected persons, investigates ADB's compliance with its operational policies and procedures in the formulation, processing, or implementation of an ADB-financed project.

Compliance Review Panel

Office of the General Counsel (OGC) Handles all legal aspects of operations and activities, including providing legal advice Office of Information Systems and Technology (OIST) Manages ADB's automated information systems and telecommunications services Office of Regional Economic Integration (OREI) Assists ADB's developing member countriesboth individually and collectivelyto harness the full benefits of global financial integration and international capital flows while at the same time minimizing any disruptive effects

Asian Bonds Online Asia Regional Integration Center OREI Brochure

Office of Risk Management (ORM) Responsible for policy, system, and operational risk; credit risk assessment; credit portfolio monitoring; corporate recovery; and market and treasury risk Office of the Secretary (SEC) Provides advice and counsel to the Board of Governors, Board of Directors, and Management

Brochure Annual Meetings Board of Directors

Office of the Special Project Facilitator (OSPF) Responsible for actively responding to the concerns of people affected by ADB-assisted projects through fair, transparent, and consensus-based approaches

Office of the Special Project Facilitator Accountability Mechanism

Pacific Department (PARD) Covers operations in Cook Islands, Republic of Fiji,Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea,Samoa, Solomon Islands, TimorLeste, Tonga,Tuvalu, and Vanuatu Private Sector Operations Department (PSOD) Provides direct assistance to private sector projects with clear development impact

Private Sector (Nonsovereign) Financing

Regional and Sustainable Development Department (RSDD) Operates as an internal support and knowledge center to promote quality, knowledge, and innovation

Knowledge Management Sectors and Themes Communities of Practice RSDD Brochure

South Asia Department (SARD) Covers operations in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India,Maldives, Nepal, and Sri Lanka Southeast Asia Department (SERD) Covers operations in Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia,Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic,Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam

Strategy and Policy Department (SPD) Provides ADB with a strategic planning perspective and direction, ensures policy and operations coordination, and maintains institutional relations with the international development community, especially on matters relating to resource mobilization

Asian Development Fund Development Effectiveness and Results Partnerships Policies and Strategies

Treasury Department (TD) Responsible for mobilizing funds for operations and planning, as well as managing ADB's finances

Investor Information Public Sector (Sovereign) Financing Private Sector (Nonsovereign) Financing

Policies and Strategies

Strategy 2020: The Long-Term Strategic Framework of the Asian Development Bank 20082020 is the paramount ADB-wide strategic framework to guide all its operations to 2020. It reaffirms both ADB's vision of an Asia and Pacific free of poverty and its mission to help developing member countries improve the living conditions and quality of life of their people. Strategy 2020 identifies drivers of change that will be stressed in all its operations developing the private sector, encouraging good governance, supporting gender equity, helping developing countries gain knowledge, and expanding partnerships with other development institutions, the private sector, and with community-based organizations. By 2012, 80% of ADB lending will be in five core operational areas, identified as comparative strengths of ADB:

Infrastructure, including transport and communications, energy, water supply and sanitation and urban development Environment

Regional cooperation and integration Finance sector development Education

ADB will continue to operate in health, agriculture, and disaster and emergency assistance, but on a more selective basis. ADB has developed a corporate results framework to assess its progress in implementing Strategy 2020. Annually, it will monitor implementation through the ADB Development Effectiveness Review. Read more ADB publications on Policies and Strategies.

Annual Meetings of the Board of Governors


What is it about Annual meetings are statutory occasions for Governors of ADB members to provide guidance on ADB administrative, financial, and operational directions. The meetings provide opportunities for member governments to interact with ADB staff, nongovernment organizations (NGOs), media, and representatives of observer countries, international organizations, academe and the private sector. When is it held Annual meetings are held in a member country in late April or early May. Who participates Participants include

finance and economic planning ministers senior government officials representatives of the multilateral development bank community investment bankers representatives of nongovernment organizations members of the media

Invitation to Submit Proposals for Sponsored Seminars for 2013 Annual Meeting in Delhi, India (deadline 16 July 2012)

1962-1972
ADB was originally conceived by some influential Japanese who formulated a "private plan" for a regional development bank in 1962, which was later endorsed by the government. The Japanese felt that its interest in Asia was not served by the World Bank and wanted to establish a bank in which Japan was institutionally advantaged. Once the ADB was founded in 1966, Japan took a prominent position in the bank; it received the presidency and some other crucial "reserve positions" such as the director of the administration department. By the end of 1972, Japan contributed $173.7 million (22.6% of the total) to the ordinary capital resources and $122.6 million (59.6% of the total) to the special funds. In contrast, the United States contributed only $1.25 million for the special fund.[2] The ADB served Japan's economic interests because its loans went largely to Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, South Korea and thePhilippines, the countries with which Japan had crucial trading ties; these nations accounted for 78.48% of the total ADB loans in 1967-72. Moreover, Japan received tangible benefits, 41.67% of the total procurements in 196776. Japan tied its special funds contributions to its preferred sectors and regions and procurements of its goods and services, as reflected in its $100 million donation for the Agricultural Special Fund in April 1968.[2] Takeshi Watanabe served as the first ADB president from 1966 to 1972. [edit]1972-1986 Japan's share of cumulative contributions increased from 30.4 percent in 1972 to 35.5 percent in 1981 and 41.9 percent in 1986. In addition, Japan was a crucial source of ADB borrowing, 29.4 percent (out of $6,729.1 million) in 1973-86, compared to 45.1 percent from Europe and 12.9 percent from the United States. Japanese presidents Inoue Shiro (197276) and Yoshida Taroichi (197681) took the spotlight. Fujioka Masao, the fourth president (198190), adopted an assertive leadership style. He announced an ambitious plan to expand the ADB into a highimpact development agency. His plan and banking philosophy led to increasing friction with the U.S. directors, with open criticism from the Americans at the 1985 annual meeting. [2] During this period there was a strong parallel institutional tie between the ADB and the Japanese Ministry of Finance, particularly the International Finance Bureau (IFB). [edit]Since

1986

Its share of cumulative contributions increased from 41.9 percent in 1986 to 50.0 per- cent in 1993. In addition, Japan has been a crucial lender to the ADB, 30.4 percent of the total in 198793, compared to 39.8 percent from Europe and 11.7 percent from the United States. However,

different from the previous period, Japan has become more assertive since the mid 1980s. Japan's plan was to use the ADB as a conduit for recycling its huge surplus capital and a "catalyst" for attracting private Japanese capital to the region. After the 1985Plaza Accord, Japanese manufacturers were pushed by high yen to move to Southeast Asia. The ADB played a role in channeling Japanese private capital to Asia by improving local infrastructure.[2] The ADB also committed itself to increasing loans for social issues such as education, health and population, urban development and environment, to 40 percent of its total loans from around 30 percent at the time.[2] [edit]Lending The ADB offers "hard" loans from ordinary capital resources (OCR) on commercial terms, and the Asian Development Fund (ADF) affiliated with the ADB extends "soft" loans from special fund resources with concessional conditions. For OCR, members subscribe capital, including paid-in and callable elements, a 50 percent paid-in ratio for the initial subscription, 5 percent for the Third General Capital Increase (GCI) in 1983 and 2 percent for the Fourth General Capital Increase in 1994. The ADB borrows from international capital markets with its capital as guarantee.[2] In 2009, ADB obtained member-contributions for its Fifth General Capital Increase of 200%, in response to a call by G20 leaders to increase resources of multilateral development banks so as to support growth in developing countries amid the global financial crisis. For 2010 and 2011, a 200% GCI allows lending of $12.5-13.0 billion in 2010 and about $11.0 billion in 2011.[6] With this increase, the bank's capital base has tripled from $55 billion to $165 billion