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SENA ELECTRICITY, ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS CENTER Telecommunications Guide 2 Name:______________________________________________________ Group______________________

CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
1. Match the elements with their concepts
2. A device with to conducting plates, separated by a nonconductor. A circuit element made up of a coil of wire. a. DERIVATE

3.

b.

ENERGY

4.

A device that operates as a magnet when current flows through it.

c.

CAPACITOR

5.

The capacity for doing work .

d.

DISSIPATE

6.

It is a frequency-dependent and is a property of inductors and capacitors. Maximum percentage variation of given a circuit elements value. An electric charges gives up energy gives up energy when passing through it. Many of them are made of carbon. To use up available energy in the form of heat.

e.

ELECTROMAGNET

7.

f.

REACTANCE

8.

g.

RESISTOR

9.

h.

INDUCTOR

10. The change in value of a quantity devided by the change in the value of one of its variables as the change in the latter gets very small

i.

TOLERANCE

2. Listen to the conversation and fill in the blanks.

Extremely

changes

however heating ship generators

important inductors

properties

realtion-

CIRCUIT ELEMENTS

Engineer: Lets begin by talking about the three types of circuits elements: resistors, capacitors ________________ Student: Are resistors those circuit elements which have very high resistance values? Engineer: Not necessarily. A resistor is a kind of circuit element whose resistance is known limits. They are used in circuits to realize required resistance values.

and 1.

within certain tolerance

Student: But they do have capacitance and inductance values? You said that all substances have these 2._______________ Engineer: Yes, they do have low levels of stray capacitance and inductance. But these are usually negligible in practical applications. Student: A capacitor is a circuit element made up of two metal plates separated by a non-conducting material. An inductor is a circuit element made of a coil of wire. However, for circuit applications their current-voltage relation-ships are more 3.. ____________ Student:Oh. Do capacitors and inductors behave like resistors? Engineer: In a way. Both capacitors and inductors display a resistance- like quality called reactance 4.. ______________ , reactance is frequency dependent. For dc a capacitor has infinite reactance while and inductor has zero reactance. Student: Would you please defined reactance? Engineer: It is the ratio of ac voltage to ac current. Student: This sound exactly like resistance to me. Engineer: Yes, but it is frequency-dependent. Resistance is frequency- independent. At very high frequencies a capacitor has 5. _______________ low reactance, and inductor has extremely high reactance. Student:So they display opposite current-voltage relationships with respect to frequency variations. In dc a capacitor will have a voltage across it but no current through it, while an inductor has no voltage across it but a current flowing through it. Engineer:Thats right. Student: What are the specific current-voltage 6.________________? Engineer: The capacitance of a circuit element is defined as the ratio of current flowing through it to the time derivative of the voltage across it. Inductance is defined as the ratio of the voltage across the inductor to the time derivative of the current flowing through it. Student: Time derivatives. Now I see why reactance 7.______________ as frequency changes. do these elements have any dc applications ?

Engineer: Very large capacitors store very large charges and are used in a number of different applications. Very large inductors are often used as extremely powerful electromagnets. Student: Both capacitors and inductors store electrical energy. Are there any circuit elements which supply other types of energy? Engineer: Of course. We have devices such as batteries which convert chemical energy into dc voltage. Commercial power 8. _____________ supply ac voltage by converting mechanical and nuclear energy into electrical energy. Student: Resistors dont store or supply energy. So I guess they must dissipate it. Engineer: Thats right. The energy dissipated by a resistor gets spent by being 9. .___________ 3.

Fill in the blanks with the proper terms from the list.
Capacitor inductor

Electromagnet

reactance

energy

resistor

1. A ____________ uses up electrical energy in form of heat. 2. ______________ is the ratio of ac voltage to ac current. 3. An ___________ is made up of a coil of wire. 4. A _____________ consist of two metal plates separated by a non-conductor. 5. ______________ measure the ability of a device to do work. 6. An___________ behaves as a magnet when current is flowing.