Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4

Chapter 3 The World between the two World Wars 1. 2 3 4 Who was the author of the Fourteen points?

President Woodrow Wilson of USA. Which peace proposal is known as a dictated peace? The Treaty of Versailles of 1919. When was the Treaty of Versailles signed? 28th June 1919. What is the Treaty of Versailles? The peace treaty which was signed between the Victorious Allied powers and Germany on 28 th June 1919 is known as the treaty of Versailles. Treaty of Versailles is called a dictated peace. Why? 3 marks. The Treaty of Versailles was drafted with the intention of giving no room for Germany to make any negotiations for herself. The Central powers and Germany was not represented at the conference in Versailles and when the Treaty was finalised, Germany was given 5 days time to sign it or face an invasion. She therefore had no choice but to sign what she called a Dictated peace. At the time of signing of the treaty, the German representatives humiliated and treated like criminals. They were forced to accept her war guilt and take responsibility for all the loss and damages suffered in the war. Besides, she had to pay a heavy war indemnity of up to 6,600 million pounds. What is meant by the New deal? After The Great Economic Depression of 1929, a program of reform known as The New Deal was started by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. This large Program of welfare was initiated to alleviate the economic misery of many sections of the population, affected by the Great Depression. What is known as the Dress rehearsal ? The Spanish Civil War is often described as the Dress Rehearsal of The Second World War in which the fascist countries tested their new Weapons on the battlefields of Spain. When did the USA enter the 2nd World War ? On Dec 11th 1941 after the Japanese attack of US navel forces in the Pearl Harbor. Chapter 4 The Second World War. 1. 2 Who were the Axis Power? Germany, Italy and Japan. What is the lend lease system? 2 mks In March 1941, the US Congress passed a law under which the US president was given the right to lend or lease armament to any country whose defense was vital to the defense of the US. This was known as the lend lease system. What was the Atlantic charter? In August 1941, an important declaration was issued by British Prime Minister Churchill and US President, Roosevelt. This was known as the Atlantic Charter. This declaration was based on certain principles, which became a Statement of War aims. When were the two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombed? Hiroshima was bombed on 6th august 1945 and Nagasaki was bombed on 9th August 1945. When did the UN charter become effective? On 24th October, 1945. Mention 2 objectives of the UNO. 1. To maintain International Peace and Security. 2. To develop friendly relations among nations. What does UNESCO and WHO stand for? UNESCO- United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization WHO - World Health Organisation.

3.

4. 5. 6.

7.

. 1. 2. Chapter 5 What is the Third world? The Third World refers to those countries facing developmental problems and backwardness in their Social, economic and political system. What is NATO? North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. It is an alliance against Communism consisting of the USA and most countries of Western Europe. E.g. UK, France, Belgium, etc. What is the Warsaw Pact? In 1955, The Soviet Union and The East European countries ruled by the communist parties formed their own military alliance known as The Warsaw Pact. It was formed as a direct response to the NATO. What was The Peoples Republic of China established? The PRC was established on the 1st October 1949. What was the first major war after the 2nd WW? The Korean War was the first major war after 1945. In which war did the US get directly involved for the 1st time? The Korean War. What is the policy of brinkmanship? The policy of brinkmanship was a theory which was propounded by John Foster Dulles who was the US Secretary of State (1953-1959) during the Cold War. Brinkmanship meant pushing the opponent to the verge of war without getting into it. The US wanted to use this policy against the Soviet Union to force her to grant concessions. What is the doctrine of massive retaliation? The doctrine of massive retaliation was a radical policy propounded by John Foster Dulles, the US Secretary of state (1953-1959).It meant the use of nuclear weapons to humble any opponent of the US. When did the US first test her thermonuclear bomb popularly known as the Hydrogen bomb ? In November 1952. What does the following abbreviation stand for : SWAPO South West Africa Peoples Organisation. SEATO - South East Asia Treaty Organisation. CENTO - Central Treaty Organisation CIA - Central Intelligence Agency. SALT - Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. SDI - Strategic Defence Initiative,popularly known as the star wars programme. NAACP - National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People. NAM - Non Align Movement. CND - Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. EEC - European Economic Community. PLO - Palestine Liberation Organisation ANC - African National Congress. NPT - Non proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. OAU - Organisation of African Unity. What was the Six-day War ? In 1967, a war broke out between Israel on one side and Egypt, Jordon and Syria on the other. This is known as the Six day war. What was the Marshall Plan ? From 1948 to 1952, the US had provided about 12 billion dollars to the countries of Western Europe under the European Recovery Plan, popularly known as the Marshall plan. This plan had helped the European Economies to recover to their pre-war levels within a very short period. Who was known as the father of the atom bomb ? J. Robert Oppenheimer. Who was the most popular leader of the Civil rights movement ? Martin Luther King Who initiated the Second Soviet Revolution ? Mikhail Gorbachev. What was the policy of peaceful co- existance ? The policy of peaceful co-existence means the giving up of the theory of the inevitability of war. When was Germany unified ? On 3rd 1990, Germany became a unified state. What is Conscription ? Compulsory military training is known as Conscription.

3.

4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 9. 10.

11. 12.

13. 14. 16. 17. 18. 19.

20. 21. 22.

Who was the leader of the Palestine Liberation Organisation since 1964 ? Yasser Arafat. Which year was declared as the Africa Year ? Why ? 1960 was declared as the Africa Year because 17 countries of Africa became independent during this period. What is Apartheid ? Which government in the world has been its worst practitioner ? The system of racial segregation is called Apartheid.This most vicious system of racial oppression was practiced mostly in South Africa. Chapter 6 Developments in Science and Technology. What does the term Second Industrial Revolution denote ? For one hundred years after the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century, the world saw many important breakthroughs in Science and Technology. This new breakthrough brought about mass changes in the entire system of industrial production. This period is referred to as the beginning of the Second Industrial Revolution. What are the keywords to describe the Second Industrial Revolution ? Mass production and mass consumption What in your view is the most plausible reason for the faster growth of Science and Technology in recent period than ever before ? Science and Technology developed significantly in the period then ever before because the Industrial Revolution which started in England in the later half of the18th Century brought about a complete shift from home based hand made products to factory based machine made products. The construction of canals, the use of different sources of energy, the conversion of energy, the use of metals and alloys to modify existing tools and machines were important landmarks which hastened the growth of social and economic systems also. What are the various problems of development ? 3marks. The various problems of development are as follows. 1. The colonial rule created vast inequalities between countries and the scientific and technology backwardness of most countries of the world has been a major factor of their underdevelopment. 2. Owing to the unequal distribution of wealth resulting from science based industrial development in a few countries, the world has become divided into developed and developing countries with a growing disparity between the two. 3. Development suffers in many countries because a considerable part of national resource is spent on weapons and war instead of developmental projects.

1.

2. 3.

4.

Chapter 7 Contemporary World Literature 1. 2. 3. 4. What is meant by art nouveau and avant-garde ? Art nouveau means new art and avant garde means vanguard. Both these terms refers to the contemporary art of the 20th century. Who was the first Asian writer to win the nobel prize for literature ? Rabindranath Tagore in 1913. What is meant by Negritude ? Negritude is the awareness, defence and development of African cultural values. Describe the factors that have influenced Asian literature in the 20th century ? 4marks. European colonial domination has played a decisive role in the development of modern Asian literature. It influenced the social and cultural life of Asia through the introduction of modern science and technology and education. A new class of Asians assumed the leading role in the development of modern Asian literature. This led to a new cultural consciousness in Asia. European Orientalist too made their contribution to the Asian Renaissance. The scholars discovered ancient manuscripts and historical remains in Asia, which contributed to the discovery of ancient civilizations. This influenced the Asian literature to a considerable extent. Asian writers did not reject western literature completely but adopted many European literary forms such as narrative prose in the novel and free verse in poetry. The content of Asian literature was however local and later became pre-dominantly nationalist. In spite of heavy Western influence, the Asian countries did not produce their literature in a European language.

Chapter 8 The Art of our Times 1. 2. What is meant by Pop art ? Pop art means popular art and it is Americas significant contribution to the art of our times. What do you mean by Guernica ? The Guernica was a painting of Picasso, the most celebrated painter of this century. It was a painting on the atrocities committed on the city of Guernica by the Nazis and the Fascist against the Republicans during the Spanish Civil war.

Chapter 9 Communication and the mass media. 1. How have the mass media brought the world together ? 4 marks. The new communications and the mass media have had a deep impact on the social and cultural life of the people in every part of the world. They have created new industries, new occupations, new art forms, and new ways of influencing and even controlling people. The mass audience all around the world all recipients of information, is an entirely new phenomena in human history. The developments have brought the world closer in terms of ideas, information and attitude as the development in transport brought the world closer by carrying people and goods from one place to another. For example: The newspaper is the main information medium, with a world wide coverage and it is used to mould public opinion and to satisfy the intellect of the readers. What is communication and Communication Imperialist ? Communication has been defined as the passing of ideas, information, and attitude from person to person. Communication Imperialism means a situation in which a few economically developed countries exercise a position of domination and control over the mass media of all countries. What is meant by mass media ? Mass media is a tool for communicating and reaching out to a very wide audience through different means like TV, radio, cinema, internet etc.

2.

3.