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Eight Grade Math Rational and Irrational Numbers :- Numbers appear like dancing letters to many students as they are not able to distinguish between different categories of numbers and get confused in understanding their concepts. Number family has numerous of siblings and one of them is irrational and Rational Numbers. You can define rational number as a nameable number, as we can name it in the whole numbers, fractions and mixed numbers. On the other side irrational number is one that cant be expressed in simple fraction form. With the help of real life examples you can easily distinguish between different Types of Numbers. Rational Expressions :- Rational numbers can form expressions when we join Rational Numbers with various mathematical operators namely addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Rational Numbers are the numbers which are written in form of p/q, where p and q are integers, and q 0. In this, p is the numerator and q is the denominator.

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Always remember all natural, whole numbers, integers including zero(0) are all the members of the family of rational numbers because they all have 1 as the denominator, which is not 0. Two rational numbers can be added like the addition procedure of simple Fractions and follow the laws of addition of integers. Let us take an example in order to understand the concept, Add 2 + 4/7 + (-3/2), Here, we find that the denominators are 1, 7 and 2. So we take the L.C.M. of the three numbers that is 14. Real World Problems with Rational Numbers :- Rational numbers are also the Real Numbers but the only necessary condition is that they need to be represented in the form of x/y. All the operations which can be performed on real numbers like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division can also be performed on Rational Numbers. Now let's discuss the importance and application of the rational numbers. I would like to tell you one thing that utilization and involvement of the rational numbers is not limited. They are used in almost all mathematical calculations. Every equation and expression involves the rational numbers and their calculations. Real world problems on rational numbers are those problems which represent a real life situation and we need to solve them. It basically involves some equations and expressions involving rational numbers. Now to solve these problems we have to apply different operations and properties of the rational numbers and then we need to further simplify our solution to obtain the required answer.

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Logarithms :- The logarithm of a number is the exponent by which another fixed value, the base, has to be raised to produce that number. For example, the logarithm of 1000 to base 10 is 3, because 1000 is 10 to the power 3: 1000 = 10 1010 = 103. More generally, if x = by, then y is the logarithm of x to base b, and is written y = logb(x), so log10(1000) = 3. Logarithms were introduced by John Napier in the early 17th century as a means to simplify calculations. They were rapidly adopted by navigators, scientists, engineers, and others to perform computations more easily, using slide rules and logarithm tables. Tedious multi-digit multiplication steps can be replaced by table look-ups and simpler addition because of the factimportant in its own rightthat the logarithm of a product is the sum of the logarithms of the factors: The present-day notion of logarithms comes from Leonhard Euler, who connected them to the exponential function in the 18th century. The logarithm to base b = 10 is called the common logarithm and has many applications in science and engineering. The natural logarithm has the constant e ( 2.718) as its base; its use is widespread in pure mathematics, especially calculus. The binary logarithm uses base b = 2 and is prominent in computer science.

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