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A Handbook for Community Trainers

A Handbook for Community Trainers


A Handbook for Community Trainers

A Handbook for Community Trainers

Acknowledgements Preface List of Acronyms Introduction Chapter 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Introduction to training Training Needs Assessment and Analysis Developing training objectives Determining and organizing critical content Selecting training methods Training Aids Selecting trainees and trainers Implementing a training Logistics and Administration of a training 7 9 12 14 17 22 23 25 27 29 30 33 3 4 5 6

10. Components of a training report 11. Evaluation of a training 12. Follow up of trainees Appendices 1. 2. TNA Questionnaire Training Program Evaluation form

34 36

A Handbook for Community Trainers


he AIM Programme wishes to acknowledge the following people and organisations for their support in developing this training handbook.

Wilberforce Mutya Musolo for spearheading the development of this hand book. Emily Katarikawe and Michelle Bordeu from AIMs Partnership Support team for their contribution in developing the materials for this handbook. AIM acknowledges the contribution of Katherine Shields of World Education in Boston for the technical assistance provided. Some sessions were adapted from materials developed by World Education Inc, Communications for Basic Services (UNICEF, Nairobi), Senior Tech Center, International Training Centre of the ILO, and National Training Partnership.

A Handbook for Community Trainers


ne of the first African countries to respond proactively to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, Uganda has become a model for other nations around the world in the fight against HIV/AIDS. In the last decade, marked progress has been made in the development of sustained education, prevention, and care programs; yet these services are not uniformly available throughout the country, leaving many areas still underserved. The AIDS/HIV Integrated Model District Program (AIM) is an effort to address some of the challenges in Uganda. Started in 2001, the AIM Program strives to empower organizations and individuals to participate in district-level decision making, which will result in broader access to quality HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and support services. By providing technical assistance to and building the capacity of local partners including non governmental organizations (NGOs), community-based organizations (CBOs), faith-based organizations (FBOs), and the private sector AIM will establish sustainable initiatives and promote a sense of ownership by district planning groups and clients who utilize services. AIM provides direct grants to the district-based partners to facilitate service delivery at the sub-county and district levels. Working with and through District HIV/AIDS Committees, AIM provides funding to service providers to strengthen service delivery. AIM developed the handbook, Planning and Implementing a Training Program, to improve the quality and appropriateness of activities used in the training of district-based / community trainers. In turn, these district-based / community trainers help district-based partners to become more self-reliant in their provision of basic services. These services include homebased care, targeted HIV prevention for at-risk populations, such as orphans, adolescent services, and counseling. This handbook is intended for district-level managers, trainers and coordinators of CBOs, FBOs, NGOs or government sectors, who may be involved in planning and conducting community-based training programs. Users can employ the knowledge and information provided to oversee planning and implementation of successful training activities. This handbook is appropriate for those who have never planned a training program, and also for those with prior training experience, who may want to strengthen their skills.

A Handbook for Community Trainers

AIM CBO DHAC FBO NGO UNASO AIDS/HIV Integrated Model district Program Community Based Organization District HIV/AIDS Committee Faith Based Organization Non Governmental Organization Uganda Network of AIDS Service Organizations

A Handbook for Community Trainers

he handbook, Planning and Implementing a Training Program, is a training guide for staff of community based organizations responsible for managing the training function in their organization. The goal of this handbook is to improve trainee performance equip CSO staff with knowledge and skills in organizing successful training programs and introducing trainees to the concepts and practices of training. The manual includes procedures and activities to guide trainees in the design and implementation of their own training program. There are a few important steps in the development of a training program or a specific training activity: analysis, design & development, implementation, evaluation, and follow-up. In the analysis step, trainers must determine training/activity needs and goals. In the design & development step, trainers design a means to meet training/activity goals. In the implementation step, trainers carry out their training program or activity. In the evaluation, trainers assess the value of their training program or activity. Finally, in the follow-up step, trainers ensure that the trainees successfully transfer the skills and knowledge, acquired during the training or activity, to practice. Trainers often underestimate the importance of the follow-up step. Following the completion of the training or activity, it is very important for trainers to provide a supportive environment, where new knowledge, skills, and attitudes are encouraged and can be practiced. Without this vital step, it is difficult to ascertain whether the training or activity was effective.

A Handbook for Community Trainers


What is training? Training refers to teaching and learning activities carried out with the intention of helping an individual to acquire and apply knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes needed to affect a desired change. Training may not necessarily be carried out as a formally organized program. Whenever a supervisor instructs a junior staff, gives directions, or discusses procedures, s/he is training. Thus, training may be conscious or unconscious, but all training contributes to improvement of a persons knowledge and skills. Uses of training. Training can reduce or eliminate the gap between actual performance and an organizations needs. It does so by changing the behavior of individuals, by giving them the knowledge, skills, or attitudes that they need to perform to the required standard. Changing behavior then is the function of training Lack of practical skills, lack of experience in the field, inadequate knowledge, or improper attitudes can hinder an organizations operation. Training can solve a variety of problems which may affect the performance of individuals in an organization.

Training can help an individual:

Improve his/her knowledge and skills Improve his/her interpersonal communication skills Develop new skills or knowledge in specific area Improve quality of service delivery Satisfy the community being served, and in return be satisfied by results Meet the desired level of performance

A Handbook for Community Trainers

The Adult Learning Cycle

The Adult Learning Cycle is a four-stage process that encourages trainees to learn from and build upon their own experiences. 1. It begins with a concrete, personal experience followed by 2. Observation of, reflection upon and examination of that experience which lead to 3. The formulation of abstract concepts and generalizations which leads to 4. Application of new knowledge to a new situation, which leads to another experience. The Adult Learning Cycle DO IT (Concrete Experience)

APPLY IT (Active Experimentation)

THINK ABOUT IT (Reflection)

THINK ABOUT HOW TO APPLY IT (Abstract Conceptualization)

This cycle is the organizing principle behind the design of the training program as a whole, as well as the design of individual training sessions. The trainer can apply this Cycle in a six stage process: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. A Find out what trainees already know and do. Build upon what trainees already know and do with new skills and knowledge. Let trainees practice the new skills through a concrete, personal experience. Allow trainees to reflect upon what has been learned. Let trainees think about how to apply newly learned knowledge and skills. Let trainees apply what has been learned to new situations. detailed discussion on this process is given in Chapter 4.

A Handbook for Community Trainers



n preparing for a training program, the first step any trainer needs to take is to determine the training needs. A training need is the gap between current level of knowledge, skill, or ability and the desired level. This gap can prevent staff and the organization from performing at a satisfactory level.

Why determine training needs? 1. To structure the training program around properly identified needs, so that worthwhile services are rendered to the community. 2. For mutual benefit of the individual and organization. Individuals will acquire knowledge and skills, which will enable them to perform to their maximum ability, and as a result, the organization can realize their respective mission. 3. To assess (WHOSE? prospective trainees?) Knowledge, skills and attitudes, so that the shortcomings are addressed during the training program. 4. To avoid/ reduce wasting the resources (money, time and efforts) of the individual or organization. How do trainers identify a training need? Trainers identify a training need by observing the prospective trainees current knowledge and skills and comparing them with the ideal knowledge and skills for that position. Below is a general guideline for identifying training needs: Task Existing knowledge and skills Required knowledge and skills


A Handbook for Community Trainers

What are the techniques used when assessing training needs?

1. Interviews An interview is a verbal interaction between individuals. During the interview prospective trainees are asked about their knowledge and skills. The interview can take place in person or via telephone. 2. Observation An observation allows the trainer to watch the prospective trainee perform a task. From these observations, the trainer assesses the skills and knowledge that need to be strengthened. 3. Questionnaires1 A questionnaire is a written or printed set of questions used to gather information. Questionnaires may be mailed or delivered to the prospective trainee. She/he can answer the questions independently and mail them back, or the trainer can send an interviewer to administer the questionnaire and bring back the answers. 4. Focus Group discussions This technique brings a group of people - usually 6 10 - with similar characteristics e.g. sex, age, occupation together in a social interaction. Its purpose is to collect information from a focused discussion. A moderator uses a topic guide to focus the discussion, and, through observation, he/she can pinpoint unanticipated issues. 5. Key Informants Due to their positions in a community, some people are privy to the needs of the group. These people are referred to as key informants or gatekeepers of information. Village leaders, midwives, nurses and teachers all qualify as potential key informants on certain community issues. Once the key informants have been identified, many of the other techniques described (e.g. interview) can be used to gather the necessary information from them. 6. Performance appraisals Standards of performance are established, and then supervisors assess the subordinates against these standards. Inability to measure to the standard of performance is an indication of a training need. While preparing to conduct a training needs assessment, design a simple form to help you record and remember your observations. A sample form is provided below:
1 A sample questionnaire is appended.


A Handbook for Community Trainers


ASSESSMENT TEAM: Who you will ask What you want to know How you will collect the information Needs assessment tool needed Comments

After the trainer has completed a training needs assessment, s/he needs to critically examine those needs to determine what s/he should address in the training and to list the critical knowledge and skills that s/he wants the trainee to exhibit after the training. This is called training needs analysis.

It is only after a manager/coordinator/trainer has analyzed the information gathered that s/he can then start thinking about: Objectives/goal: What do we hope to achieve? Content: What needs to be covered in the training? Facilitator/Trainer: Who can help conduct the training? Methodology: How should the training be conducted? Timeframe: How long should the training be? Resources: How much will it cost? (in terms of money, time, & materials) Trainees: Who is suitable to receive this training?


A Handbook for Community Trainers



After identifying the training needs, a trainer should find a way to address them. This is done through the development/ design of the training goals and objectives.

Goals are broad and general expressions of aims, purposes or desired outcomes of a training. Objectives are descriptions of the behavior that the training will produce, stated in terms of the trainees ability, leading to the achievement of the goal of the training.

Before arriving at the training objectives, a trainer starts with a detailed analysis of the type of behavior a trainee should exhibit. A trainer should be able to answer the questions; At the end of the training What should the trainee know? [Knowledge] What should the trainee be able to do after the training? [Performance] This analysis will give the trainer an understanding of the specific skills to emphasize in the training. These skills will guide the design of the training objectives. Training objectives are written using action words.

Action words are measurable and observable. List, Write, Describe, Demonstrate, Distinguish, Explain, Discuss, Define are some of the action words that can be used in writing training objectives. Words that are NOT measurable and observable: Understand, Know, Be familiar with.


A Handbook for Community Trainers

Training objectives should be SMART: Specific Measurable Achievable Relevant Time bound

An example of a training objective: By the end of the training program, trainees should be able to explain three ways of preventing HIV transmission.

Using the above objective, the SMART rubric can clearly be seen. Specific performance level - Explain three ways of preventing HIV Measurable and observable behavior Explain Achievable This objective should be realistic for the length of training and level of the participants. Relevant HIV prevention should be a relevant topic that participants can use in their lives. Time bound - by the end of the training program There are other characteristics that a trainer considers when designing training objectives. These include time, performance level and the target population (participants). An objective must be achieved in a defined time frame. Hence it is time bound. An objective should specify the population for which it is designed; these are the people whose training needs were assessed. Lastly, a training objective should specify how well trainees must perform the stated behaviors.


A Handbook for Community Trainers



fter designing the training objectives, a trainer must select the critical content of the training. The critical content is the information that will best help trainees learn the desired knowledge and skills.

How does a trainer determine the critical content?

There is never enough time to completely cover a topic in a training, so the training designers must decide what to include and what to leave out. When determining the content of a training program, a trainer should select those topics that address the training objectives and therefore meet the training needs of the trainees that were assessed earlier. A trainer should identify the topic areas necessary to cover in order to reach the stated training objectives. To identify the necessary topic areas to cover in the training, the trainer must consider the relevance of the topic information to the training objectives. Information can be prioritized as follows:

Need to know - Some content is critical for participants to know in order to achieve the training goals. Participants cannot leave the training without mastering the critical content.

Some content is good to know if time allows, participants should learn this content, because it supports the training goals. Some content is nice to know, but it is not really relevant to the program goals. This content should only be included in the training if the participants completely understand the critical content.


A Handbook for Community Trainers

This graphic represents the three types of content.

Need to Know Good to Know

Nice to Know

Example: Think of a training in which the overall goal is for mothers to use oral rehydration therapy correctly with their children. These are some possible learning objectives: Need to Know: By the end of the session, the mothers will be able to demonstrate the steps in oral rehydration therapy preparation by mixing the ingredients. Good to Know: By the end of the session, the mothers will be able to list the advantages of using oral rehydration therapy. Nice to Know: By the end of the session, the mothers will be able to identify the chemical composition of the oral rehydration therapy.

Organizing content
After selecting the topics to be covered (content of a training program), a trainer should sequence the topics so that they fit together in a logical order and build on one another to form a systematic learning experience. The sequence of topics in the training should follow the Adult Learning Cycle. A trainer should start with topics that require participants to share old experiences before creating new ones, to learn simple tasks before attempting complex ones, and to share concrete ideas before considering abstract ones.


A Handbook for Community Trainers

Each individual training session should also reflect steps in the Adult Learning Cycle. A trainer should organize the training session following these steps: 1. Find out what participants already know and can do: At the beginning of each session, determine the trainees knowledge about and ability in the topic. Some techniques the trainer can use in this step include asking questions; assigning a short exercise or activity; or conducting a brainstorm. Trainers should make note of the trainees responses. 2. Build on what participants know and do: Next, introduce new information to build trainees skills and knowledge. Connect this new material to their previous knowledge. Some techniques the trainer can use in this step include giving a short lecture interspersed by discussion questions; making a demonstration; or conducting a role play. 3. Do it (concrete experience): Trainees will learn material more thoroughly if they have the opportunity to put their new skills into practice. Activities that give trainees handson experience include presenting role plays to the group; completing a group assignment, such as reviewing a case study or answering discussion questions; and teaching new skills to a peer. As trainees practice their skills, the trainer can observe their progress and make note of areas that need more explanation. 4. Think about it (reflection): Reflection is a critical part of the cycle. Trainers need to evaluate what participants have learned. Trainers use this information to select topics for further training, as shown in the Adult Learning Cycle (p. 10). There are several methods of evaluation: asking questions to test the trainees knowledge, asking trainees to demonstrate a new skill, and asking trainees if they think the learning objectives were met. To evaluate learning at the end of a complete training course, a questionnaire or test may be used. (WHY should trainees evaluate their learning? Need to explain how this helps the trainees) 5. Think about how to apply it: Participants can make abstractions from the concrete experiences and practice they have had so far. This step could include an individual writing task, or a group assignment, in which participants draw conclusions about new ideas. 6. Apply it: Participants apply their new knowledge to a new task. This may take place outside the classroom.


A Handbook for Community Trainers



ollowing the training needs assessment, the trainer should have a clear understanding of the potential trainees needs, expressed in terms of what they should know and what they should do differently. Based on the findings, the trainer should brainstorm the types of experiences that the trainees should need to acquire the knowledge and skills that they are lacking. To fill in these gaps, the trainer must select appropriate training methods.

Criteria for selecting appropriate training methods

The selection of an appropriate training method depends on a number of factors: 1. Training objectives: Is the training focused on developing skills, changing attitudes or working to build knowledge? 2. Available resources: Are there qualified trainers, training materials, facilities, time, and money available? 3. Time- What time frame do we have for the training? 4. Number of trainees: How many trainees do we have for the training? I. Training objectives The methods chosen should enable trainees to acquire the knowledge and performance skills targeted in the training objective: Enhancing Knowledge The basic requirements for facilitating knowledge-based learning are that information is clearly presented and that the learner has enough opportunity to ask questions and to seek clarification. Methods used to enhance knowledge include discussions, lecture, film and charts. Building Skills Acquiring the ability to perform a task requires guided practice with feedback. Role plays, demonstrations, apprenticeships, simulations, and fishbowl exercises (role playing in front of a group, incorporating observers feedback)are appropriate methods for skill based learning.

Changing Attitudes Activities that promote skill-based learning can also be used to promote attitude-based learning.


A Handbook for Community Trainers

II. Sizes of the group being trained

Different learning methods accommodate training audiences of different sizes. Training for small groups (2- 25 participants): The participants may be separated into small groups of 4-5 participants for specific exercises. Appropriate learning methods for small groups include discussions, case studies, buzz sessions, and role plays. Training for large audiences (more than 25 participants): In large groups, communication between the trainer and the participants tends to be oneway, and it is highly controlled by the trainer. Lectures and discussions are appropriate methods for groups of this size.


Amount of time available

The amount of time available to a trainer has a direct bearing on the method used to deliver content. In a longer session, it is appropriate to use methods that allow trainees to actively participate. In a shorter session, a lecture-style training method is more effective.

The selection of a training method can also be based on: Facilitators experience and skill the trainer should select those methods s/he can conduct confidently. If the trainer chooses to use a method he is less familiar with, then s/he should ask an experienced trainer to assist. Available resources (time, money and equipment) Trainers should only choose those methods that can be conducted efficiently using existing resources.


A Handbook for Community Trainers

A summary of appropriate training methods according to group size and learning goals: Categories Methods Brainstorming Buzz session Case study Demonstration Discussion Field trip Lecture Panel Role play Skit Adapted from: Community Development Workers Training Series - Planning and Conducting Training in Communication page 42, Communication for Basic Services, UNICEF, Nairobi. When training adults, the method chosen should follow the Adult Learning Cycle. A summary of the training methods that a trainer can use are described below: Brainstorm This is a method in which the group quickly generates all possible ideas around an issue, accepting all ideas as plausible. Criticism and discussion are discouraged while the suggestions are being listed. After the listing is over, a discussion follows in which the group evaluates the ideas and selects the most appropriate idea for implementation or further discussion. Ice breakers and Energizers These are brief activities or exercises to acclimate participants to the learning environment; icebreakers and energizers usually involve physical movement and fun. Icebreakers help to reduce anxiety at the beginning of a training event, and they help participants become acquainted with one another. Energizers provide stimuli or a physical break, release energy, and shift the mood of the training program. X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X For large group For small group Experts needed Change attitudes Build Skills


A Handbook for Community Trainers

Demonstration This is a prepared presentation that demonstrates how to perform an act or how to do a procedure. It is accompanied by appropriate oral and visual explanations, illustrations and questions. The basic process is show, tell and practice, step by step. Small groups This technique involves an open exchange of ideas between members of a relatively small group on a topic of mutual concern. Fishbowl In this technique, some members sit in a smaller inner circle and work on an assigned task, while other members sit on the outer circle and observe. Next, the two groups reverse roles. Following the activity is a discussion or feedback session in which both groups share their experiences and observations. Role plays Members of a group act out a potential life situation before an audience. As there is no script or set dialogue, participants make up their parts as they go along, using a short set of instructions provided by the trainer. Role plays are particularly useful in identifying problems and solutions in a practical and skill-building approach. Role plays should be followed by a group discussion to analyze the problems, skills, and solutions portrayed. Skits/Drama Skits are short, rehearsed dramatic presentations involving two or more people. Participants perform skits using a prepared script and dramatize an incident that illustrates a problem or situation. A skit must be followed by a group discussion. Lecturettes Lecturettes are shorter than the lectures. They last no longer than 15 minutes and can be used before an exercise as an introduction to the group activity, or as a summary of the knowledge and skills obtained during a group activity. Field trip/tour This is a carefully arranged visit to a place of interest to observe and study something firsthand. In order to be effective, field trips must be carefully planned, involve multiple arrangements, and should use a number of techniques such as lecturettes, discussions etc.


A Handbook for Community Trainers

Panel discussion This is a planned discussion and presentation in which one or more speakers (usually experts or specialists in a content area) present their views on a selected topic before an audience. Discussions usually elicit diverse points of view on a subject topic.

Apprenticeship Many organizations supporting young people (orphans and other disadvantaged youths) use the apprenticeship method to equip the participants with vocational skills. Apprenticeship is a form of training whereby a trainee is placed under the guidance of a skilled trades/ craftsman and receives training in the skills required for that particular trade. The purpose of an apprenticeship is that the trainee performs skills in a real work environment while being supervised by experienced personnel.


A Handbook for Community Trainers


What are training aids?
Training or instructional aids are materials that support the instructional methods that a trainer has chosen. These materials can be visual, audio or audiovisual. A visual aid is anything the trainee can see that helps the trainer get his/her message across. Examples of visual aids include: charts, chalkboard, pictures and models. Audio aids help trainees learn by sound. Notable examples are radio and cassettes. Audiovisual aids combine visual and audio aids: they help a trainee learn by sight and sound. Examples include video, TV, and films.

Why do we use training aids in learning?

Training aids enhance learning. People learn better by observing, hearing, feeling and practicing. Using visual aids makes issues more vivid for the learner. Training aids, such as charts and videos, can increase the trainees interest in the topic by presenting information that is visually appealing. Training aids make it easier for the learner to remember or memorize what s/he saw or heard during the learning process. Studies have shown that people only remember about 20 % of what they hear, but they remember 30% of what they see and 50% of what they see and hear.

How do trainers select an appropriate aid for training?

There are a variety of training aids available to trainers, but a trainer should decide which training aid s/he is going to use following these criteria: The trainer should select an aid that S/he is very comfortable using Everyone can see Is compatible with the training method Does not distract trainees Is easily available for use Generates interest and discussion Is not too foreign or abstract for trainees. Is an appropriate cost for the available budget


A Handbook for Community Trainers



arly in the process, training designers should decide who should participate. The target participants and their needs should then guide the entire training design process: what methods are used, what content is important, what schedule is appropriate, what type of vocabulary is used, et al. Many trainers of community programs feel that trainees should not only be from the community, but they should be selected by the community. The argument is that: 1. If everyone takes part in the selection, it is more likely that those selected will later be accepted by the community. 2. Participation in the selection process is a step toward greater responsibility and control over factors that affect community members. 3. A trainee chosen by the community is more likely to feel her/ his responsibility to the community.

Selection of community trainees

For any training in which the trainees will eventually work in and with the community, trainers should select people who: 1. Know and speak the language 2. Know the customs and problems 3. Are likely to stay in the community longer and continue to help. 4. Are able to articulate issues that relate to the lifestyles of community members, and therefore can propose feasible changes in behavior and practices

What is the role of Organizations in the selection process?

Organizations have to work with the community to select people to attend the training. They have to inform the community about the selection criteria for trainees, so that they come up with someone best suited for the training. How do trainers select participants/ trainees? Trainers select participants for a training program using criteria that best describe the person who would benefit most from the organized training. Information derived from the needs assessment exercise (p. 11) may also inform the selection process.


A Handbook for Community Trainers

Selection criteria: What kind of trainee should attend the training? Various development organizations have used the following criteria when selecting prospective trainees from communities. Prospective trainees should: 1. Communicate well 2. Have time to apply the skills learned in the training 3. Demonstrate motivation 4. Be respected in the community 5. Reside in the community 6. Belong to the target group 7. Have previous health training experience or demonstrate basic knowledge about health Note: Finding a person with all the above characteristics may be hard. Guide the community to find someone with as many of these characteristics as possible.

Organizations should seek a trainer who will positively impact the trainees. What are the characteristics of a desirable trainer? This trainer should: 1. Be a qualified professional in the training area. 2. Have taken a basic trainer course and is conversant with the Adult Learning Cycle and teaching methods) 3. Demonstrate strong communication skills 4. Have at least 2 years experience as a trainer. 5. Be familiar with the participant target group 6. Demonstrate strong technical skills and experience in the content of the training. The competency/ability of the trainer is one of the major determinants of the success of the training program. If the trainers are poor, the overall impact of the training will be weak. Therefore, it is important for organization managers to find highly experienced trainers. NOTE: Managers of organizations should always endeavor to collect profiles of at least 3 trainers for comparison, to meet with these trainers, and to discuss the planned training. This gives managers an opportunity to strengthen their assessment and to select the right person


A Handbook for Community Trainers



fter selecting the content and trainees, a trainer needs to manage the learning process by assisting trainees acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to meet the training objectives. The trainer must guide the participants to complete the activities as laid down in the training curriculum and make sure that the trainees communicate effectively as a group and individually.

Trainers must be sure to have participants complete attention before delivering material. Trainers can focus the learners attention by doing the following: Setting the climate for learning The trainer should create a climate that is conducive to learning. Participants should get to know each other, so that they can freely interact as they learn. The trainer should create an environment in which participants feel that their opinions are respected. These conditions will make learning more pleasurable and exciting. Therefore, trainers should prepare Ice breakers that will encourage their trainees to open up and feel free to participate. A conducive learning environment is critical to the trainees learning process. It is important to create a healthy learning climate right from the beginning of the training. Use appropriate methodologies to keep the participants involved and learning. The process of adult learning should be fun. A fun learning environment lends to the achievement of the training objectives. It will also give the trainer an opportunity to ascertain the participants knowledge and abilities and to determine what needs to be corrected, strengthened, or filled in. Such participatory methods are described in Chapter 5: Selecting Training Methods.


A Handbook for Community Trainers

Master content: It is important that the trainer is comfortable and confident with the content to be covered in the training. The trainer should know from the beginning whether the training will involve skill building, knowledge building, or attitude changes and must design the training appropriately. Scheduling session time: Sessions should be scheduled in such a way that they do not go beyond the normal working hours. To avoid spillover, a trainer should avoid scheduling long sessions towards break hours or toward the end of the day. Schedule sessions and activities which require the greatest concentration during times when trainees are focused, and schedule interactive sessions during times when participants energy levels are low. For example, practical or demonstration sessions are better in the afternoon when trainees concentration levels are low. Involve participants in workshop management: It is important that participants are involved in management of the workshop. Selecting participant leaders usually provides good support to the trainers; these leaders are often referred to as helping hands, host teams, or workshop captains. They help the trainer ensure that the room is arranged and that lessons begin on time. In addition, they can conduct energizers and icebreakers, review the previous days work (in workshops that are two days or longer), provide participant feedback to the trainer, and help to make feasible adjustments and responses to participants concerns. Evaluation: Evaluation is critical to ensure that the training remains on course and that it is well received and understood. A trainer should use simple techniques to evaluate the training on a daily basis or after each session (See Appendix 2 for examples of techniques that can be used to evaluate training at the end of the day.


A Handbook for Community Trainers



What are the key things to remember when organizing a training?
Adequate preparation is the key to a successful training activity. Below is a list of topics that a trainer should address while preparing for a training: 1. The training venue If the training venue is outside your organization, it must be booked 3 weeks in advance. It should also be located in quiet environment, where trainees can concentrate. What else should be considered when selecting the training venue? The selected venue should have enough rooms for the participants (if the training is residential), and it should be easily accessible to all participants. There should be adequate space for large and small group discussions. The training venue should have adequate lighting in all rooms and functioning electrical outlets and bulbs. The venue should also have services, such as telephone, fax, photocopying and laundry (if the training is residential). 2. Training materials The trainer should prepare a list of training materials and purchase them before the training starts. The materials required will depend on the resources available and the type of training. Generally the materials required include: a. Writing pads b. Pens/pencils c. Flipcharts/ newsprint and markers d. Masking tape e. File folders f. Photocopying paper g. Stapler and staples If any equipment e.g. overhead projector, TV and deck, films are to be used, buy/borrow and test them before the beginning of the training program. Photocopy handouts before the training.


A Handbook for Community Trainers

Note: Efforts should be made to secure training materials that fit your organizations budget and the technology available. 3. Transport If the training venue is outside your institution, make arrangements to provide transport to the training venue and back. Clearly give instructions to the participants on how to get there, and always have a means of transportation available at the training site in case of emergencies.

4. Trainers Contact the trainers before inviting the participants and plan the training with them. Let them flesh out the topics to be covered during the training. Set the dates of the training, the venue, the session times, and the materials required for the training. It is important that there are at least two trainers for a training.

5. Participants information Send out information to participants 2 weeks prior to the training. Clearly indicate the purpose of the training, the dates, the venue of the training, what facilitation/ per diem will be provided, what materials to bring, and contact information. 6. Coordination, Administration and Management Clearly identify the head coordinator of the training activity and determine whether s/he will have assistants. It is also often helpful to form committees (i.e. steering, welfare, etc) to assist in coordinating the training activity.


A Handbook for Community Trainers



eports are often written at the end of a training program to inform administrators, donors, and others about the training activity that has occurred. Many organizations have their own requirements for such reports. A good training report should include both facts (e.g. the names of participants) and the qualitative information (e.g. recommendations and next steps fir future actions, which were reached during the training).

What is contained in a training report?

The contents of a training report include: The Summary - A wrap up of the entire training report. (1 pages) Introduction - The background information for the training(# pages?) Purpose of the training program Why was the training was held?(# pages?) Training goal and objectives What was the intended output of the training, and how it was to be achieved?(# pages?) Participants How many participants were expected and how many attended? Also, participants names, organizations, and locations. Program content and methodology A description of activities(# pages?) Schedule/ Timetable A reference to amount of time spent on which activities/ topics (could be included as block schedule and / or time schedules in detail in the appendix/ annex) Products A description of products, if applicable. The products are reports, documents, materials, etc produced by the participants during the training. Participants evaluation A summary of the evaluation of the training program. Facilitators evaluation - Findings, conclusions, observations, and lessons learned Recommendations Proposal for future actions based on what transpired during training, as well as the participants and trainers evaluations.Next steps Plans for the future, if applicable or a follow up planFinancial report How much money was spent on the activity (this may not be a trainers responsibility if hired from outside the organization, but the organization should attach their expenditure report to the trainers report.) Appendices Copies of documents, including attendance lists, timetable, copies of evaluation forms, and any other relevant documents.


A Handbook for Community Trainers


What is evaluation?
Evaluation is the process of gathering information and assessing the value of a given program against established goals and objectives. Evaluation includes a range of value judgements about a training, including trainees responses to the programme and the effect that the training effort has had on the individuals and organization performance. Why is it important to evaluate a training? The purpose of evaluation is to determine whether the goals and objectives of a training have been achieved and address the gaps identified during the training needs assessment. What should be evaluated? Evaluation is an integral part of the needs assessment, design, development and implementation phases of a training. Each activity in the management of a training process needs to be evaluated. The evaluation1 of a training program should focus on: 1. The trainers 2. The trainees 3. The training objectives 4. The training/ instructional materials 5. The training methods 6. The timing and sequencing of topics 7. The venue for the training activity 8. The physical facilities and training equipment 9. The administrative arrangements Who needs the results of a training evaluation and why? Evaluating a training is not an individual activity, but instead, it is a joint venture, in which individuals and organizations with different capacities participate in different aspects. Each of these parties can benefit from the results of a training evaluation:


A Handbook for Community Trainers

1. The trainee needs feedback about his achievement. 2. The trainer needs feedback on how well he has achieved the training objectives. 3. The organizations (in this case the CBOs, FBOs, NGOs) are eager to know what their people learned from the training (knowledge and skills), and how much this new knowledge will improve performance. When should a training be evaluated? Evaluation of a training can be done at different times and should be planned long before a training activity starts. Evaluation begins before the start of a training program and ends after the training program is completed. Evaluation before the training program begins: This evaluation enables the trainer to collect information before a program begins, in order to compare the present situation with the situation after the training program, i.e. as a baseline for assessing the impact of the training program. Evaluation conducted during the training program: This evaluation is carried out to check the training programs progress. This evaluation may involve soliciting feedback from trainees at the end of each session. If necessary, during this evaluation, corrective measures can be taken to revise the training program. Evaluation is also carried out at the end of the training: This evaluation is done to determine whether a trainer has reached the goals and objectives of the training program. Evaluation carried out after the training activity: Since training is conducted to bring about changes in trainee behaviour, attitudes or skills, it is best to evaluate the effectiveness of a training following a lapse of time. At this point, trainees should have incorporated their new knowledge and skills into their work. Methods of evaluating a training program Most training organizations evaluate training using a four-level framework. This framework looks at the reaction of participants to the training program, the skills and knowledge they have acquired through the training program, the behaviors they exhibit after attending the program, and the results after the training. Each of these has specific methods for evaluation.


A Handbook for Community Trainers

Suggested Method Reaction How trainees like the program; how they perceive the value of the program; suggestions for improvement Learning Understanding principles, facts and techniques and the ability to apply them Participant evaluation committee Daily feedback forms Final evaluation questionnaire Trainee journals

- Pre-tests and post-tests - Verbal and written tests - Observation guides for trainers to use during practice sessions - Supervision reports - On-the-job observation - Questionnaire about how trainees are using new skills - Supervision reports that include improvements in service delivery - Focus group interviews with clients

Behaviour Change in on-the-job performance

Results Impact of the training program and on the delivery of services

Adapted from: Training for Effective Performance at http://erc.msh.org/fpmh-english/ chp6/tools-4.html


A Handbook for Community Trainers



Why follow up planning after training?
It is important that trainees transfer the knowledge and skills they have learned in training into meaningful actions at their workplace. Towards the end of a training program, a trainer, together with the trainees, designs an action plan listing activities/actions that the trainees will be doing after the training. This action plan is important, because it describes how the trainee will apply the knowledge and skills learned in the training to improve his/her work and /or provide higher quality services. The follow-up plan should always be linked to the desired change in performance and behavior, and fill in the identified gaps that the training was intended to address.

Follow up activities provide continued support and feedback necessary for successful application of new ideas and practices.

How can the learned skills be strengthened?

Once the follow-up plan has been drafted, trainers and trainees can collectively work towards implementing this plan by: 1. Developing a mentoring system where a trainee receives onsite support from someone, who has experience with the skills learned. 2. Organizing peer observation and coaching where trainees observe one another performing a newly acquired skill, then meet to discuss the observations. 3. Holding booster sessions in which trainees are brought together about 2 months after training program to reinforce the knowledge and skills acquired during the training. 4. Organizing study groups in which trainees meet regularly to support one another in the implementation of a new skill. 5. Carry out support supervision in which trainers have the opportunity to observe the trainee perform a skill in a work situation and then give appropriate feedback and support.
Continuous practice is necessary for a trainee to maintain and perfect a skill.


A Handbook for Community Trainers

Appendix 1: Needs Assessment Questionnaire
We would be grateful if you could complete this questionnaire to help us understand the different skills, needs and interests within the workshop group for 12 23 March 2001. First Name: .. Last Name: 1. What is your experience to date in designing training programmes? ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 2. Are you currently involved in designing training programmes? Yes No

In which occupational sector? 3. Is the curriculum design based on the regional / local demand? ... ..................................................... .................................................. 4. What is your motivation for attending this workshop? .................................... ....................... ...................... ..........


A Handbook for Community Trainers

Self assessing your competences

Please provide the information requested below to help us identify the key areas on which participants may wish to focus. This information will be kept confidential. For each statement rank your perceived level of skill/ expertise: 1 2 3 4 representing no skill or expertise some skill or expertise competent denoting excellence that could be shared with other group members during the workshop

1 Designing training programmes Experience in designing training programmes Defining training requirements Analysing training needs information Developing learning objectives/ outcomes Identifying and organising training content Selecting training strategies Defining methods and assessment tools

Thank you for your time and cooperation. We look forward to meeting and working with you in the workshop. Adapted from: International Training Centre of the ILO Competency based Curriculum Design.


A Handbook for Community Trainers

Appendix 2: Training Program Evaluation Form

Training Session Title: Date: Location: . Presenter: Please evaluate each of the following aspects of the training program by circling a number on the scale below.
Excellent Good Fair Unsatisfactory Not Applicable N/A

Achievement of program objectives Achievement of my personal objectives Relevancy of content to my needs and interests Organization of the program Usefulness of exercises and activities Usefulness of visual aids and handouts Trainers knowledge Match between content and my questions Trainers ability to explain content clearly Trainers ability to respond well to questions



4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1



4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1





A Handbook for Community Trainers

2. The length of the training was: Too long Too short Just right

3.The level of material covered was: Too high. I felt Overwhelmed. Just right. I got What I needed Beneath me I needed something more

4. I wish we would have spent more time discussing .................... . 5. Next time, they should include additional topics such as .................... . 6. Please evaluate each of the following aspects of the training session by circling a number on the scale below:





Not Applicable

Accommodations Training room Administrative support with registering for class, etc

4 4 4

3 3 3

2 2 2

1 1 1



A Handbook for Community Trainers

7. If you rated your experience as anything less than excellent, please tell us what we could do to improve our efforts. ................ ................... ..................... .......................... ....................... ....................... ....................... ............................

Thank you very much for your frank contributions. Your feedback will help us improve our efforts in order to serve you better.

Adapted from: Senior Tech Center at http://www.seniortechcenter.org/learning -paths/ training/tips -tools-tem.../evaluation -form.ph

A sample training evaluation form is appended


A Handbook for Community Trainers