Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 44

ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK

PPA: BAN 23056

PROJECT PERFORMANCE AUDIT REPORT ON THE BANGLADESH OPEN UNIVERSITY PROJECT (Loan 1173-BAN[SF]) IN BANGLADESH

October 2002

CURRENCY EQUIVALENTS Currency Unit taka (Tk) At Appraisal (December 1991) $0.026 Tk38.725 At Project Completion (March 2000) $0.020 Tk51.00 ABBREVIATIONS ADB BIDE BME BOU BR BRM BTV EIRR FIRR HSC LC MOE NAS OEM PCR PPAR PPTA RRC SSC TC TV Asian Development Bank Bangladesh Institute of Distance Education benefit monitoring and evaluation Bangladesh Open University Bangladesh Radio Bangladesh Resident Mission Bangladesh Television economic internal rate of return financial internal rate of return Higher Secondary Certificate local center Ministry of Education needs assessment survey Operations Evaluation Mission project completion report project performance audit report project preparatory technical assistance regional resource center Secondary School Certificate tutorial center television NOTES (i) (ii) The fiscal year (FY) of the Government ends on 30 June. In this report, $ refers to US dollars. OPERATIONS EVALUATION DEPARTMENT, PE-607 At Operations Evaluation (March 2002) $0.017 Tk57.25

Tk1.00 $1.00

= =

CONTENTS BASIC DATA EXECUTIVE SUMMARY MAP I. BACKGROUND A. B. C. D. E. F. II. Rationale Formulation Purpose and Outputs Cost, Financing, and Executing Arrangements Completion and Self-Evaluation Operations Evaluation Page iii iv vii 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 9 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 15

PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION PERFORMANCE A. B. C. D. E. Formulation and Design Achievement of Outputs Cost and Scheduling Procurement and Construction Organization and Management

III.

ACHIEVEMENT OF PROJECT PURPOSE A. B. C. D. Operational Performance Performance of the Operating Entity Sustainability Economic Reevaluation

IV.

ACHIEVEMENT OF OTHER DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS A. B. C. Socioeconomic Impact Environmental Impact Impact on Institutions and Policy

V.

OVERALL ASSESSMENT A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Relevance Efficacy Efficiency Sustainability Institutional Development and Other Impacts Overall Project Rating Assessment of ADB and Borrower Performance

VI.

ISSUES, LESSONS, AND FOLLOW-UP ACTIONS A. B. Key Issues for the Future Lessons Identified

4 C. APPENDIXES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Education System in Bangladesh Estimated and Actual Project Cost Achievement of Project Targets Distance Education System in Bangladesh Improved Quality and Relevance of Distance Education Programs Sustainability Analysis Economic Analysis Socioeconomic Impact 17 18 19 21 27 30 31 37 Follow-Up Actions 15

BASIC DATA Bangladesh Open University Project (Loan 1173-BAN[SF]) Project Preparation TA No. TA Name 1222 Bangladesh Open University Key Project Data ($ million) Total Project Cost Foreign Exchange Cost Local Currency Cost ADB Loan Amount/Utilization ADB Loan Amount/Cancellation Key Dates Fact-Finding Appraisal Loan Negotiations Board Approval Loan Agreement Loan Effectiveness First Disbursement Project Completion Loan Closing Months (effectiveness to completion) Type PPTA Person-Months 19 Amount1 ($) 250,000 Approval Date 16 Nov 1989 Actual 41.15 19.83 21.32 32.77 1.56 Actual 30 Sep15 Oct 1991 423 Dec 1991 45 Jun 1992 4 Aug 1992 20 Aug 1992 17 Nov 1992 23 Apr 1993 31 Dec 1998 28 Sep 1999 73 PCR PPAR 7 26

As per ADB Loan Documents 43.00 10.52 32.48 34.33 Expected Oct 1991 Dec 1991 Jun 1992 Jul 1992 Aug 1992 19 Nov 1992 30 Jun 1997 31 Dec 1997 55 Appraisal

Key Performance Indicators Internal Rate of Return (%) Economic Internal Rate of Return Weighted Average Private Financial Internal Rate of Return Borrower Executing Agency Mission Data Type of Mission Fact-Finding Appraisal Project Administration Inception Review Project Completion Operations Evaluation2

The Peoples Republic of Bangladesh Bangladesh Open University No. of Missions 1 1 1 14 1 1 No. of Person-Days 64 95 4 198 32 36

ADB = Asian Development Bank, PCR = project completion report, PPAR = project performance audit report, PPTA = project preparatory technical assistance, TA = technical assistance. 1 Approved amount. 2 Comprising S. Hutaserani (mission leader and senior evaluation specialist) and E. Ali (staff consultant and project management and evaluation specialist), who visited Bangladesh during 1027 March 2002.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In response to inadequate access to formal basic education and career-development training in rural Bangladesh, one of the Governments education priorities set out in the Fourth Five-Year Plan (19901995) was to provide education opportunities to out-of-school people through nonformal channels and continuing education. In line with this priority, the Government requested the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to finance the Project and thereby help provide distance education to various disadvantaged groups excluded from the formal education system. A project preparatory technical assistance, granted by ADB in November 1989, was instrumental in designing the Project that was approved in August 1992. The objectives of the Project were to (i) increase access to basic education (mostly at the junior secondary level) and career-development training for disadvantaged groups through distance education; (ii) improve the quality and relevance of distance education programs (through radio and television broadcasting, printed self-study textbooks, audio and video cassettes, and part-time tutorials by contracted teachers from the formal education system); and (iii) increase general knowledge of the rural poor for improving their living conditions. The project scope comprised (i) establishment of the Bangladesh Open Universitys (BOU) main campus, 10 regional resource centers, and 80 local centers; (ii) instructional materials development; (iii) staff development; and (iv) project implementation assistance and benefit monitoring and evaluation. The project cost was estimated at $43.0 million, to be financed by an ADB loan of $34.3 million from its Special Funds resources. The remaining $8.7 million equivalent was to be provided by the Government. The actual project cost of $41.1 million was 4.4% below the appraisal estimate. The cost underrun mainly stemmed from savings on staff development and salaries, consulting services, and instructional materials development, which more than offset the cost overrun in civil works and equipment. The Project was to be implemented over 4 years and 7 months. Actual implementation took 6 years and 1 month. The 18-months delay was attributable to the time spent conducting a needs assessment survey prior to implementation, which was not envisaged at appraisal, and to delays in civil works and staff recruitment. The delays in civil works were caused by litigation for land acquisition, seasonal monsoons, and floods; and in staff recruitment by the lengthy recruitment procedure and the large number of staff to be recruited. The Project has been consistent both with the Governments education priorities, which continue to focus on providing education opportunities to out-of-school people, and with ADBs education strategy at project formulation, which focused on technical/vocational and higher education. The Project is also consistent with ADBs current education strategy, which has shifted the focus to basic education (primary, junior secondary, and nonformal education), as it uses nonformal distance delivery mode to provide secondary education and careerdevelopment training (especially teacher training for primary and secondary schools) to the disadvantaged. At the time of the Operations Evaluation Mission, the Project has achieved or exceeded appraisal targets by (i) establishing BOU's main campus, 12 regional resource centers, and 80 local centers; (ii) developing 17 regular programs and curricula; (iii) developing 19 supplementary programs; (iv) enrolling the current stock of about 210,000 students; (v) enrolling the cumulative flow of about 300,000 students over the past 10 years; and (vi) producing about 90,000 graduates over the past 10 years. Although the Project has low

7 internal efficiency, as indicated by the low economic internal rate of return and the low utilization of BOUs media center, its external efficiency has been sufficient. The quality and relevance of BOUs curricula are perceived to be adequate by the sample BOU graduates, employers, and tutors. Two thirds of graduates are employed and benefit from high private financial internal rates of return. The Project has also achieved long-term financial sustainability as indicated by the stable flow of recurrent budget from the Government and the ability of BOU to increase cost recovery from 30% to 38% after project completion. The Project has also helped improve the living conditions of the rural poor by broadcasting useful knowledge in various practical skills. The Projects objectives have been achieved as planned, including increasing access to basic education (42% of BOUs current enrollment is in the Secondary School Certificate program); improving the quality and relevance of distance education programs; and increasing general knowledge of the rural poor. Thus, the overall goal of providing distance learning opportunities to various disadvantaged groups has been met. The Project is rated successful. Three key issues emerge from the evaluation. First, BOU should try to increase the utilization of its media center by exploring possibilities to broadcast its programs directly from the media center, rather than sharing the existing radio and television channels. Second, BOU should try to improve its management capacity by providing its management staff with relevant training to increase efficiency in the distance education delivery of its programs. Third, although the Ministry of Education has recently granted recognition of BOUs Secondary School Certificate program, BOU still needs to get recognition for its remaining programs. The Project provides the following key lessons for similar interventions in the future: (i) (ii) The project design should not put too much emphasis on the hardware side, without sufficient investments in the software side. If establishment of new institutions is involved, a comprehensive package of institutional capacity building should be part of the project scope to ensure overall management efficiency. If a project is employment oriented, the demand for semiskilled and skilled workers should be estimated for various education programs through needs assessment surveys during project preparation to ensure long-term utilization of graduates. If policy changes are involved, ADB should follow-up closely during review missions with the executing agency and the concerned government agencies in order to maximize project impacts.

(iii)

(iv)

I. A. Rationale

BACKGROUND

1. Because access to formal basic education and career development training was inadequate in rural areas, particularly for women, the educational priorities in the Fourth FiveYear Plan (19901995) of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh focused on (i) providing educational opportunities to out-of-school children, youth, and adults through nonformal channels and continuing education; (ii) reducing the rural-urban gap in educational opportunities; (iii) increasing the participation of women in education; and (iv) strengthening technical and vocational education and skills development by making it more job-oriented. Consistent with these education priorities, in 1989 the Government requested the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to finance the Bangladesh Open University (BOU) Project.3 The Project was consistent with ADBs education strategy at that time, which focused on technical and vocational education and higher education. Appendix 1 shows BOUs programs as part of the Bangladesh educational system. B. Formulation

2. Project preparatory technical assistance (PPTA)4 helped design an open university project to meet Bangladeshs education needs. The Project was formulated to absorb the existing Bangladesh Institute of Distance Education (BIDE), whose functions and capacity, including resources and staff number, and quality, were too limited to serve the Projects purposes. The Project was intended to supplement the formal educational system by providing distance learning opportunities to various disadvantaged groups that were excluded from the formal education system. Based on the PPTAs findings and recommendations, ADB fielded a fact-finding mission in September to October 1991, and an appraisal mission in December 1991. C. Purpose and Outputs

3. The Projects long-term goal was to provide distance-learning opportunities to various disadvantaged groups through radio and television (TV) broadcasting, self-study textbooks, audio and video cassettes, and part-time classroom tutorials by teachers contracted from the formal system. The Projects objectives included (i) increasing access to basic education for disadvantaged groups (mostly at the junior secondary level) and career development training (mostly to prepare teachers for primary and secondary schools); (ii) improving the quality and relevance of distance education programs; and (iii) increasing the rural poors general knowledge to improve their living conditions. The project scope comprised (i) establishment of BOUs main campus, 10 regional resource centers (RRCs), and 80 local centers (LCs); (ii) development of instructional materials; (iii) staff development; and (iv) project implementation assistance and benefit monitoring and evaluation (BME). D. Cost, Financing, and Executing Arrangements

4. At appraisal, the project cost was estimated at $43.0 million, comprising $10.5 million in foreign exchange and $32.5 million equivalent in local currency (Appendix 2). An ADB loan of
3 4

Loan 1173-BAN(SF): Bangladesh Open University Project, for $34.3 million, approved on 4 August 1992. TA 1222-BAN: Bangladesh Open University, for $250,000, approved on 16 November 1989.

9 $34.3 million from its Special Funds resources was approved to finance 79.8% of the total cost, including $10.5 million of foreign exchange cost and $23.8 million equivalent of local currency cost. The Government was to provide the remaining $8.7 million. BOU was the executing agency. E. Completion and Self-Evaluation

5. The Project was completed in December 1998. A project completion report (PCR), prepared by ADBs Agriculture and Social Sectors Department (West), was circulated to the Board in June 2000. The PCR rated the Project as successful, mainly because it had achieved most of the physical targets set at appraisal. These included development of physical infrastructure and facilities for BOUs main campus and 12 RRCs; development of facilities for 80 LCs; development of 16 regular programs5 to enroll many students from disadvantaged groups; development of 19 supplementary programs to disseminate information to the general population, especially the rural poor, for improving their living conditions; and enrollment of more than 100,000 students in 1999. The PCR did not clearly indicate whether the Project would be financially sustainable, but sustainability was implicitly assumed because BOU regularly received sufficient financial support from the Governments recurrent budget, and was collecting tuition fees equivalent to about 30% of its total recurrent budget. The PCR focused on achievement of the Projects physical targets, without sufficient discussion of the project design, achievement of project objectives, internal and external efficiency, and investment efficiency. F. Operations Evaluation

6. This project performance audit report (PPAR) evaluates the Projects design, implementation, outputs, and impact. It focuses on the contributions of the component outputs to achieving each objective, and on the Projects long-term goal, efficiency, and sustainability. Key issues are identified and follow-up actions recommended. Project lessons for future operations are also identified. The PPAR is based mainly on the findings of the three comprehensive field surveys conducted by the Operations Evaluation Mission (OEM): (i) a school survey of 183 BOU staff and 149 part-time tutors,6 (ii) a tracer survey of 579 BOU graduates7 and 45 employers, and (iii) a beneficiary survey of 562 BOU students. The PPAR also uses findings from (i) focus group discussions with BOU staff and part-time tutors, government agencies concerned, and some beneficiaries; (ii) a desk review of project and related documents; and (iii) consultations with the concerned ADB divisions, including the Bangladesh Resident Mission (BRM). Copies of the draft PPAR were submitted for review to BOU and to the ADB divisions concerned. Comments were incorporated into the final PPAR. II. A. PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION PERFORMANCE

Formulation and Design

7. The Project was designed in accordance with the Governments educational priorities in the Fourth Five-Year Plan (19901995). The Project was consistent with ADBs operational strategy in the education sector at appraisal. The project design put more emphasis on
5 6 7

BOUs formal and nonformal programs referred to in the PCR are called regular and supplementary programs here to avoid confusion with the terms formal and nonformal education systems. The sample size of each category is not expressed in a round number because many intended respondents could not respond. For comparison, the OEM also gathered data from a sample of 120 graduates from the formal system in the same programs as those of the sample BOU graduates.

10 hardware, with the combined cost of civil works, equipment, furniture, and vehicles increasing from 23% of the total project cost at appraisal to 36% at the PCR stage, compared to only 5% for staff development. Although the latter was included in the project scope, most of the training focused on improving the staffs technical capacity (e.g., pedagogy, curriculum development, instructional materials design, multimedia production, and student support services), rather than institutional capacity (e.g., management and planning of distance education delivery; and financial, budget, and human resources management). A needs assessment survey (NAS) was not conducted at the PPTA stage or the processing stage. However, it was conducted prior to physical implementation to assess market demand before developing BOU programs. As a result, many programs envisaged at appraisal were replaced by more relevant programs (Appendix 3). Although BME activities were included in one component of the Project, such activities, along with NAS, which should be institutionalized on an annual basis, were discontinued after project completion. B. Achievement of Outputs

8. As indicated in Appendix 3, the Project has achieved or exceeded its targets by (i) establishing BOU's main campus, as well as 12 RCCs and 80 LCs, compared to the appraisal targets of 10 and 80, respectively; (ii) developing 17 regular programs and curricula, including instructional materials, at the OEM stage versus the appraisal target of 14; (iii) developing 19 supplementary programs at the OEM stage (no corresponding target was provided at appraisal); (iv) enrolling a current stock of about 210,000 students at the OEM stage compared to the appraisal target of 138,500; (v) enrolling a cumulative flow of about 300,000 students (without double-counting the same students who enrolled more than 1 year) over the past 10 years from 1992 to 2001 (no corresponding target was provided at appraisal); and (vi) producing a cumulative number of about 90,000 graduates over the past 10 years (no corresponding target was provided at appraisal). Most of the sample graduates, employers, and tutors perceived the quality and relevance of the programs and curricula as adequate. Many sample employers and tutors, however, suggested that BOUs curricula be updated, particularly those developed before 1998, to catch up with curricula of the formal system and to meet changing market needs. C. Cost and Scheduling

9. Implementation of the Project at appraisal was envisaged to be 4 years and 7 months. Actual implementation took 6 years and 1 monthan 18-month delay. Loan closing was extended once to compensate for time spent conducting NAS as well as delays in civil works and staff recruitment. Completion of the civil works construction of some RRCs was delayed by 2 years by litigation for land acquisition, seasonal monsoons, and floods. There was also a long delay in staff recruitment, which was completed by the end of the Project, rather than within the scheduled first 2 years, because the recruitment process was lengthy, and a large number 758of full-time staff had to be recruited. The long delay in staffing resulted in substantial cost savings in staff development and staff salaries (Appendix 2). Furthermore, BOU absorbed 80 staff from BIDE, whose salaries were already covered by the government recurrent budget. The delay also helped save significant costs for consulting services. Only 6 person-months of domestic consultants were used versus the appraisal estimate of 198 person-months, because the planned consultants were replaced by experienced former BIDE staff. The use of local installation services for media equipment, and training provided through the procurement contract, reduced the input of international consultants by half (67 versus 129 person-months). Other cost savings were in instructional material development, because of lower-than-estimated

11 unit cost of tapes, the use of existing BIDE tapes and other materials, and fewer tapes distributed to students due to the late opening of BOUs media center. 10. A high cost overrun, mainly in civil works, resulted from significant changes in the construction design of BOUs media center and main campus buildings. ADB approved about $4.0 million of additional construction costs following the recommendation of the mid-term review mission. The cost overrun in civil works and equipment was more than offset by the combined cost savings in staff development, staff salaries, consulting services, and development of instructional materials. Thus, the actual project cost of $41.1 million was 4.4% lower than the appraisal estimate of $43.0 million. The ADB loan was reduced by 4.4%from $34.3 million to $32.8 millionwhile the Governments share decreased by 3.4%from $8.7 million equivalent to $8.4 million equivalent. D. Procurement and Construction

11. Contracts for civil works were awarded based on local competitive bidding by prequalified contractors. An exception was bidding for the media center where a turnkey contract covering both civil works and equipment was awarded to a consortium. Other equipment, along with vehicles, was procured by international shopping. Furniture was purchased locally, in accordance with government procedures acceptable to ADB. Instructional materials were procured by local competitive bidding and international shopping. The performance of contractors and suppliers was generally satisfactory, despite some delays in delivery of goods and services. BOU engaged 2 international consulting firms and 12 individual international consultants in accordance with ADBs Guidelines on the Use of Consultants. BOU also hired domestic consultants on an individual basis, using government procedures satisfactory to ADB. The consultants technical advice was generally satisfactory. But a long delay in submission of supporting documents for payment by one international consulting firm caused a 1-year delay in disbursement of about $1.0 million. ADB intervention resolved the issue. E. Organization and Management

12. The Government firmly committed itself to the Project before implementation, by approving the BOU Act in 1992 that legally made BOU an autonomous institution. The Government also disbursed the counterpart funds on time, with annual provision of recurrent budget after project completion. The Government has not yet fully complied with the remaining loan covenant by granting recognition of BOUs certificates, diplomas, and degrees as equivalent to those of the formal education system. Until now, the Government has granted only recognition for BOUs Secondary School Certificate (SSC). Except for inadequate coordination with the Ministry of Education (MOE) for such recognition, BOUs general performance was satisfactory, considering that it was a newly established institution with most of its staff appointed during project implementation. BOU coordinated well with other agencies to arrange broadcasting. It also effectively implemented the comprehensive NAS before physical implementation. Some inefficiencies arose during project implementation, because of BOUs highly-centralized decision making. Those inefficiencies delayed staffing and caused failure to institutionalize some important functions such as the conduct of NAS. Although centralized decision making by top management was efficient when the Project beganand BOU was still small in size and operations performance became less efficient as its organization and operations expanded. 13. To strengthen the project design, ADB requested BOU to conduct NAS before implementing the project. ADB closely supervised and guided the Project throughout

12 implementation by fielding 15 supervisory missions totaling 202 person-days plus the PCR mission, including site visits to some RRCs and LCs. ADB also helped resolve a payment dispute between a consulting firm and BOU. ADB generally approved BOUs requests to change implementation arrangements to make the Project more responsive to local needs. BRM provided support and close coordination with ministries and agencies involved in BOUs establishment and initial operations. III. A. ACHIEVEMENT OF PROJECT PURPOSE

Operational Performance 1. Component I: Establishment of BOUs Main Campus, 12 RRCs, and 80 LCs

14. BOU was established by the Governments BOU Act in 1992 as an autonomous education institution to provide various distance education programs through radio and TV broadcasting, self-study textbooks, audio and video cassettes, and part-time tutoring. The outputs of this component consisted of development of (i) physical infrastructure and facilities for BOUs main campus, located on the 14 hectares of land provided by the Government at Gazipur (22 kilometers from central Dhaka), and its 12 RRCs; (ii) facilities for 80 LCs;8 (iii) regular programs to enroll many students from disadvantaged groups; and (iv) supplementary programs9 to disseminate knowledge to the general population, especially the rural poor, to improve their living conditions. BOUs organizational structure (Table A4.1) consists of six schools10 and 10 divisions, one of which is responsible for the 12 RRCs, 80 LCs, and more than 1,000 tutorial centers (TCs). BOUs main campus is responsible for program development and production; RRCs for registration and examination; LCs for face-to-face student support, and for registration and examination in remote areas, to stretch BOUs outreach; and TCs for classroom tutoring. The subdistrict offices in the same locality as LCs provide free office spaces for LCs, whereas the schools and colleges from which their teachers are hired by BOU as part-time tutors provide free classroom spaces for TCs. 15. This components outputs have helped reach two of the three project objectives: increased access to basic education and career-development training for the disadvantaged, and increased knowledge among the rural poor to improve their living conditions. a. Increased Access to Basic Education and Career-Development Training of Disadvantaged Groups

16. Table A4.2 shows that there are 17 regular programs offered by the six BOU schools through radio and TV broadcasting, audio and video cassettes, printed self-instructional materials, and informal tutoring. Basic information for each program, such as year of introduction, minimum entry requirements, program duration, and student fees, are also shown
8 9

The establishment of LCs did not require civil works because LCs are located in the subdistrict offices. Supplementary programs differ from regular programs in that the former do not require any enrollment, but just disseminate useful information to the interested public for improving their practical skills and knowledge about dayto-day lives through radio and TV broadcasting. In contrast, the regular programs enroll students and deliver courses not only through radio and TV broadcasting, but also through self-study textbooks, audio and video cassettes, and informal classroom tutoring using about 2,500 teachers contracted from the formal education system as BOUs part-time tutors. About 1020 tutorial classes (45 minutes per class) are provided per subject, depending on the nature of the subject. The tutorial classes are held at BOUs tutorial centers, which are classroom spaces provided for free by the schools under the formal system in which their teachers are contracted by BOU. 10 Open School; School of Education; School of Business; School of Agriculture and Rural Development; School of Social Science, Humanities, and Languages; and School of Science and Technology.

13 in Table A4.2. Most applicants who meet minimum entry requirements are accepted, as BOU has no physical capacity limitations. At appraisal, the six schools were projected to provide 14 regular programs (Appendix 3). However, based on the results of NAS, 16 regular programs were provided. These programs remained the same until the PCR stage. Since late 2000, BOU has offered an additional programBachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Social Science. The School of Science and Technology will launch a new program on Graduate Diploma in Nursing in 2003. 17. Table A4.3 shows the yearly stock of enrollment in BOUs regular programs of about 210,000 students at the OEM stage (academic year 2001) compared to less than 120,000 at the PCR stage (academic year 1999).11 These figures reflect BOU's big capacity to provide access to basic education and professional training for a large number of disadvantaged students who have been excluded from the formal education system. 18. Table A4.4 shows the annual flow of enrollment, which refers to new students added each year. The figure was about 55,000 students at the OEM stage. No corresponding figures were provided in the PCR or at appraisal. Enrollment of new students increased 10 times since the start of BOUs operations in 1992, with an annual average of about 30,000 students and an annual growth rate of 30%. Since most of the applicants who meet the minimum entry requirements are accepted for enrollment, the annual flow figures of enrollment reflect continued demand for BOUs programs. Since the start of its operations, BOU has provided access to basic education and career-development training to a cumulative flow of about 300,000 students (without double-counting the same students who are enrolled more than 1 year). The breakdown of the cumulative flow of enrollment by program confirms that BOU has been catering more to dropout students from the basic level of education as almost half of its enrollment (48%) has been in the SSC program. Another 18% has been in the Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) program, and 15% in the Bachelor of Education program whose graduates will become teachers in primary or secondary schools. 19. Table A4.5 shows that about 90,000 students have graduated so far, resulting in an average graduation rate of 36% of BOUs cumulative enrollment flow.12 The low graduation rate partly reflects the nature of BOUs nonformal education system, in which almost half of the students are working while taking the programs. It also reflects BOUs low internal efficiency. BOU should try to increase its internal efficiency by increasing the graduation rate to at least 50% of its enrollment flow. BOUs dropout rate is negligible as BOUs students do not need to discontinue working and BOU allows a long enrollment period of 5 years.

11

These data were given by BOUs administration. However, the enrollment data as reported by the PCR was 184,214 students (rather than 116,483) due to confusion in coding the number of students, which resulted in much larger numbers for some programs than actual numbers in the academic year 1999. For example, the actual enrollment in the Certificate in English Language Proficiency program has been about 4,000 students per year and was 3,597 in 1999. But the number reported in the PCR was almost 6 times more (19,977 students). The academic year for the School of Education starts in July, for the School of Business in April, and for the rest in January. 12 This is an average graduation rate of 10 cohorts enrolled during 19922001, with the deduction (in the denominator) of the number of new students enrolled in 2001 in the programs that take more than 1 year to graduate. Graduation rate differs from completion rate in that the former does not double count the same students (in the denominator) who are enrolled more than 1 year, while the latter does.

14 b. Increased General Knowledge of the Rural Poor to Improve Their Living Conditions

20. Besides regular programs, BOU provides 19 supplementary programs via radio and TV broadcasting13 to disseminate useful knowledge and practical skills to the general population, especially the rural poor, on programs such as agriculture, bank loans, environmental protection, health and nutrition, and family planning (Table A4.6). The OEM found that most sample beneficiaries gained practical knowledge to improve their living conditions and appreciated these programs. 2. Component II: Instructional Materials Development

21. The outputs of this component included development of (i) suitable distance education curricula for all regular programs, (ii) self-study textbooks in modular forms for all regular programs, and (iii) audio and video cassettes for broadcasting for all regular and supplementary programs. These outputs helped achieve the project objective of improved quality and relevance of distance education programs. 22. Table A5.1 shows perceptions of BOUs part-time tutorsteachers from the formal educational systemon the appropriateness and quality of BOUs curricula and textbooks. About 26% of the sample tutors considered them of comparable quality to those of the formal system. Many tutors particularly cited the modular form of the textbooks for making teaching and learning easier. About half (54%) considered BOUs curricula and textbooks as sufficient and appropriate, although of slightly lower quality than those of the formal system. The 13% who considered BOUs curricula and textbooks of much lower quality, and the 6% who thought they were not comparable to those of the formal system, cited that BOU had not updated the curricula. BOU should start updating its curricula and textbooks, particularly for the programs that started before 1998, to catch up with those of the formal system. 23. Table A5.2 shows that large proportions of the sample BOU graduates who are currently employed (which account for 67% of the total sample BOU graduates) perceived BOUs curricula as moderately relevant (17%) and highly relevant (20%) to their job requirements. These proportions were not much different from those of the sample employed graduates from the formal system. The quality and relevance of BOUs curricula as perceived by employers are shown in Table A5.3. Although more than half of the sample employers (56%) who hired BOU graduates thought that BOUs curricula were not relevant to their job requirements, 31% thought that they were moderately relevant and 11% thought that they were highly relevant. Those who thought that BOUs curricula were not relevant suggested that BOU update their curricula to catch up with market needs. 24. The job search periods of the sample graduates of BOU and the formal system do not differ much (Table A5.4). Of the sample of 388 currently employed BOU graduates, 41% (161) looked for jobs after graduation, while the remaining 59% (227) were working while taking BOU courses. This implies that distance education is a good alternative education system for those who cannot discontinue working to upgrade skills and knowledge without incurring opportunity costs. Of the sample of employed BOU graduates who searched for jobs after graduating, 18% got jobs in less than 6 months, and 79% got jobs within 6 months to 1 year. Corresponding proportions for the sample of employed graduates from the formal system were similar (23%
13

The combined broadcasting time for BOUs regular and supplementary programs by the Bangladesh Radio is 25 minutes per day, 6 days a week; and by the Bangladesh Television, 25 minutes per day, 5 days a week.

15 and 73%, respectively). Employment rates of graduates are another indicator of the quality and relevance of BOU programs. Table A5.5 shows average employment rates of BOU graduates from the 12 programs that have already produced graduates. The weighted average of these combined programs is about 67%. 25. When the sample employed graduates from BOU are classified by sector and size of employment establishments, Table A5.6 shows that 36% are working in the private sector and 64% in the public sector (including government, semi-government, and non-government organizations); and that 64% are working in the formal type of establishments (defined as establishments with more than 10 workers). As expected, higher proportions of the sample employed graduates from the formal system, compared to those from BOU, are found to work in the private sector (47%), and in the formal type of establishments (90%) that generally provide better job security. 3. Component III: Staff Development

26. During project implementation, BOU recruited 758 new fulltime staff and contracted about 2,500 part-time tutors (teachers from the formal education system across Bangladesh). BOU also absorbed 80 staff from BIDE. The output of this component included upgrading of the quality of BOUs staff, which helped achieve the project objective of improved quality and relevance of distance education programs. 27. The Project provided 191 person-months of fellowships for international training to 183 BOU staff, compared to 414 person-months for 164 staff envisaged at appraisal. In-country training was 442 person-months for 502 staff versus 550 person-months for 510 staff envisaged at appraisal. Training areas included pedagogy, curriculum development, instructional materials design, multimedia production, and student support services. The lower person-months than projected at appraisal, particularly for international training, reflect delayed completion of infrastructure development, which in turn delayed staff recruitment. The PCR found that BOU benefited from high staff retention; 95% of the staff trained abroad returned to work at BOU in the areas for which they were trained. Retention decreased to 80% at the OEM stage. Table A5.7 shows that 26% of these staff have highly utilized the knowledge gained to improve the quality and relevance of distance education programs, and 40% have utilized it moderately. But 34% have utilized the training knowledge poorly or only partly, mainly because the training was mostly through study tours of a few weeks at different locations in single trips, rather than longer training with more relevant contents at specific locations. 4. Component IV: Project Implementation Assistance and BME

28. This components outputs included establishment of a project implementation unit, along with conduct of NAS, research, and BME studies. These outputs helped meet two of the three project objectives: improved quality and relevance of distance education, and increased general knowledge among the rural poor. The conduct of NAS before project implementation assured that BOUs regular and supplementary programs, and their contents, were relevant to demand for distance education by specific target groups, mostly the rural disadvantaged; and that these groups had access to radio and TVthe main delivery modes of distance education. Based on the NAS results, only 4 of the 14 regular programs envisaged at appraisal were relevant, and were actually developed during project implementation. Along with 12 other programs, a total of 16 programs were developed (Appendix 3). Another program was introduced in late 2000. The NAS results also indicated that more than half of the targeted households owned TV sets, and that villagers and the urban poor often watched TV or listened to radio at the owners

16 residences, or at a community center during lunch break or in the evening. The OEMs beneficiary survey found that 95% of the sample students had radio, and 85% had TV sets at home. Those who did not own radio or TV could access them nearby. But the OEM found that BOU had discontinued its NAS, research, and BME studies. These activities should be conducted annually to generate information for updating BOUs curricula. B. Performance of the Operating Entity

29. The allocation of the Governments overall recurrent budget14 to the education sector and the allocation of its total recurrent education budget across the education subsectors are shown in Table A6.1. The share of the Governments recurrent education budget in its overall recurrent budget has been about 1719%, which is comparable to other South Asian countries (e.g., about 18% in Nepal). As the Government has been focusing on basic education since the Fourth Five-Year Plan (19901995), primary education and secondary education (part of which is junior secondary education) have received relatively high shares of the total recurrent education budget (over 40% each), followed by tertiary education with about 7%. BOU has continued to receive regular funds from the Government even after project completion of about Tk120 million per year (about 0.30.4% of the Governments recurrent education budget) to sustain the Project. C. Sustainability

30. The PCR did not analyze the Projects financial sustainability, but calculated that cost recovery through fees levied by BOU contributed about 30% of its total recurrent budget. The OEM found that because BOU had been able to enroll more students and introduce one additional program after the PCR, its cost recovery had increased to about 38% per year, with the remaining 62% contributed by the Government (Table A6.2). The increase reflects BOUs capacity to generate more income, and to become increasingly self-reliant and gradually financially sustainable. As the Governments contribution is only about 0.30.4% of its recurrent education budget, it is not a big burden to the Government to maintain its contribution to BOU. BOU has allocated a budget item for operation and maintenance of facilities, although this accounts for less than 5% of recurrent expenditure. BOU has also achieved institutional sustainability in terms of retention and utilization of staff who were trained abroad. D. Economic Reevaluation

31. No economic analysis was conducted at appraisal or in the PCR. To assess the efficiency of investments, the OEMs survey data were used to estimate the economic internal rate of return (EIRR) on investments in BOU, and the private financial internal rates of return (FIRRs) on investments by individual employed graduates from BOUs 17 programs (Appendix 7).15 About 60% of the sample BOU graduates had been fulltime students, with full opportunity cost incurred, and about 40% were working while taking BOUs courses, with zero opportunity cost incurred. Thus, the base case of private FIRR estimates for each of the 17 programs, and for the weighted average of all programs combined, is based on an average opportunity cost of 60%, adjusted by the corresponding employment rates. Coupled with lower direct cost than in
14

In this case, budget and expenditure are used interchangeably because budget allocated from one source to a recipient will finally become its expenditure. 15 Although BOU has so far produced graduates from 12 out of its 17 programs, the FIRR of individual graduates for each of the 5 remaining programs can be calculated based on the prevailing market wage rate and opportunity cost (wage rate at the preceding education level, if not having taken the program) for graduates of the same program of the formal education system.

17 the formal educational system,16 the private FIRRs of BOUs employed graduates range from 14% in some non-commercial programs to 42% in a commercial program. The weighted average private FIRR is 26% (Table A7.1). BOU should consider dropping some programs with much below-average employment rates (Table A5.5) and accordingly low private FIRRs, such as Certificate in Livestock and Poultry, Certificate in Poultry and Fish Processing, and Diploma in Youth Development. If full opportunity cost is used, assuming that all BOU graduates were fulltime students while taking BOU courses like in the formal system, a lower weighted average private FIRR of 18% results (Table A7.2). But the private FIRRs for employed graduates from SSC and HSC programs remain high (27% and 21%, respectively) because neither the junior nor the higher secondary levels of education require high investment cost to give students the knowledge and skills necessary to become productive workers. 32. The EIRR of investments in the Project is shown in Table A7.3, in which costs are divided into traded and non-traded components. The capital cost was incurred during implementation, while recurrent cost continues after project completion. Economic benefits are measured by expected productivity increases for the economy, calculated as the product of the output of graduates of BOUs 17 programs and their weighted average incremental wage rates, adjusted by the weighted average employment rate and the standard conversion factor. The low EIRR of 7% is due to (i) the low output of graduates assumed in the calculation, which reflects the actual graduation rate of 36% of BOUs enrollment; (ii) the adjustment for employment rate; and (iii) the exclusion of some educational benefits that are intangible. Sensitivity analysis shows that if the graduation rate rose to 50%, the EIRR would increase to 12% (Table A7.4). Thus, BOU should try to increase the graduation rate of their students, which will not only contribute to increasing investment efficiency, but also increasing BOU's internal efficiency. Given the much lower EIRR compared to private FIRRs, BOU should consider raising fees for some commercial programs with very high FIRRs, such as Diploma in Computer Applications and Master of Business Administration. 33. To enhance the efficiency of investments, BOU should also try to increase the use of project facilities, especially its media center and office space in the RRCs. The OEM found that equipment in the media center ran only 2 hours per day against the maximum capacity of 16 hours. Also, many rooms at RRCs remain vacantyet no RRC rooms are designated as libraries, despite the fact that each RRC has a collection of more than 2,000 books. Similarly, no rooms are designated as TV rooms for students, even though each RRC has a TV set. IV. A. ACHIEVEMENT OF OTHER DEVELOPMENT IMPACTS

Socioeconomic Impact

34. The Project has helped improve the beneficiaries socioeconomic status. Almost 90% of the sample of BOU graduates who were employed perceived that their socioeconomic status had improved: 70% claimed moderately improved and 19%, significantly improved (Table A8.1). A slightly higher proportion (93%) of the sample of employed graduates from the formal education system perceived improved socioeconomic status (61% moderately improved and
16

Given the highly subsidized nature of Bangladeshs formal education system, some BOU programs charge higher tuition fees than those of the formal system, particularly commercial programs catering to employed people to upgrade their skills. On balance, however, BOU's tuition fees are about 20% below those of the formal system. BOU also has a lower direct cost than the formal system because its direct cost consists only of tuition fees, expenses for books and stationery, and transportation to attend part-time tutorial classes. The formal system has higher transportation expenses because classes are held full time almost everyday, plus additional expenses on uniforms and boarding or lodging.

18 32%, significantly improved). As expected, the BOU sample earns less than that from the formal system (Table A8.2). A lower proportion of the BOU sample (20% versus 30%) earns a monthly salary of more than $100 equivalent. The weighted average monthly salary of the BOU sample is also less ($94.5 versus $98.4 equivalent). The Project did not aim to directly reduce poverty. If the Bangladesh poverty line of Tk8,328 per person per year17 were applied to the sample of current BOU students, only 3% would be classified as living below the poverty line (Table A8.3).18 However, 27% of the sample students cited poverty as the major reason they lacked access to formal education. Moreover, the Project has benefited rural disadvantaged groups significantly, particularly the dropouts with no access to formal schooling. This is reflected in the high proportion of the sample students from rural areas (60%) as well as the high proportion of BOUs cumulative enrollment flow in the SSC and HSC programs (48% and 18%, respectively) (Table A4.4). 35. Although the Project did not specifically address gender issues, it gave women greater access to education, particularly those who married early and could not attend formal schooling. About 40% of BOUs total enrollment is female. BOU also provides educational opportunities to people of all age groups. Table A8.4 shows that about 43% of the sample students are 25 to 35 years old, 41% younger than 25, and the remaining 16%, older than 35. A local newspaper once reported that two grandmothers and their granddaughters had enrolled in BOU. B. Environmental Impact

36. There was no adverse environmental impact. Civil works of the Project were minor, and were carried out in accordance with government regulations. The construction of BOUs main campus in Gazipur on the outskirts of Dhaka, and of the RRCs, benefited the surrounding areas by bringing in basic infrastructure. The Gazipur area was rapidly developed into residential and commercial communities. The Project helped raise public environmental awareness by disseminating environmental education through BOUs supplementary programs. C. Impact on Institutions and Policy

37. Staff development focused largely on technical areas (e.g., pedagogy, curriculum development, instructional materials design, multimedia production, and student support services), rather than on institutional capacity building (e.g., management and planning of distance education delivery; and financial, budget, and human resources management). Thus, BOUs institutional capacity has remained weak due to inefficient management, especially in terms of inefficient utilization of operational staff. For example, many activities are still done manually, and knowledge is insufficient on the effective delivery of distance education. This resulted in the discontinuation of NAS and delays as long as 9 months in the academic calendar of some programs because of delays in the delivery of course materials to students and tutors, publication of exam results, and issuance of certificates. Such delays have caused frustration among both BOU students and tutors. The Projects policy impact was also weak, as MOE has still not recognized BOUs certificates, diplomas, and degrees as equivalent to those of the formal education system, except for SSC.

17 18

This is the weighted average of the official rural and urban poverty lines of Tk7,824 and Tk9,984, respectively. The low proportion partly reflects the fact that difficulty of access prevented the survey teams from gathering data from students in very remote areas.

19 V. A. Relevance OVERALL ASSESSMENT

38. The Project has been consistent both with the Governments education priorities, which continue to focus on providing education opportunities to out-of-school people, and with ADBs education strategy at the time of the project design, which focused on technical and vocational education and higher education. The Project is also consistent with ADBs current education strategy, which has shifted the focus to basic education (primary, junior secondary, and nonformal education), because it uses nonformal distance delivery mode to provide secondary education and career-development training, especially teacher training for primary and secondary schools, to the disadvantaged who have been excluded from the formal education system. The Project is assessed as highly relevant. B. Efficacy

39. At the time of the OEM, the Project achieved or exceeded its output targets envisaged at appraisal by (i) establishing BOU's main campus, 12 RCCs, and 80 LCs; (ii) developing 17 regular programs and curricula, including instructional materials, with one additional program to be introduced in 2003, in response to greater demand for distance education in certain fields; (iii) developing 19 supplementary programs; (iv) enrolling the current stock of about 210,000 students; (v) enrolling the cumulative flow of about 300,000 students over the past 10 years; and (vi) producing about 90,000 graduates over the past 10 years. The achievement of these outputs helped achieve all of the project objectives as planned, including increasing access to basic education (mostly at the junior secondary level as 48% of BOUs cumulative enrollment flow over the past 10 years was in the SSC program) and career-development training for disadvantaged groups, improving the quality and relevance of distance education programs, and increasing general knowledge of the rural poor for improving their living conditions. Consequently, the Project is assessed as highly efficacious. C. Efficiency

40. The Project has achieved sufficient external efficiency (relevance to market demand), which is indicated by the stable enrollment at BOU, sufficient quality and relevance of its curricula as perceived by their graduates and employers, sufficient employment rates of graduates, and high private FIRRs of employed graduates. The Project, however, has low economic efficiency as indicated by the low EIRR and the low utilization of some facilities. The low EIRR is mainly caused by the low graduation rate of 36%. Such a low graduation rate implies low internal efficiency of BOUs system. The Project is thus assessed as less efficient. D. Sustainability

41. The Projects institutional sustainability remains weak unless BOU acts urgently to get MOEs recognition of the remaining BOUs certificates, diplomas, and degrees (in addition to the recent recognition of BOUs SSC). However, the Project is considered financially sustainable given the regular Governments contribution to BOUs approved annual recurrent budget of more than 60%, and the increased cost recovery of BOUs fees from 30% of its annual recurrent budget at the PCR stage to 38% at the OEM stage. The Project is considered as achieving gradual self-reliance, and its sustainability is assessed as likely.

20 E. Institutional Development and Other Impacts

42. The Project did not have a strong institutional development impact. BOUs weak management capacity has resulted in the discontinuation of NAS and long delays in the academic calendar of some programs (due to delayed delivery of course materials to students and tutors, delayed publications of exam results, and delayed issuance of certificates). As for other impacts, although the Project did not directly address poverty reduction, it has provided some rural disadvantaged groups, especially the dropouts who have been excluded from formal schooling, with good opportunities to continue schooling. Almost all the sample BOU graduates perceive improvement in their socioeconomic status. At about 40%, the proportion of women enrolled has been high. The Project has also generated positive community impact; particularly the construction of BOUs main campus on the outskirts of Dhaka has brought about continued development of the area and its surroundings. The Project has helped improve the living conditions of the rural poor and raise their environmental awareness by broadcasting useful knowledge in various practical learning skills as part of BOUs supplementary programs. On balance, the Projects institutional and other impacts are assessed as moderate. F. Overall Project Rating

43. Given the achievement of the Projects goal of providing learning opportunities to various disadvantaged groups excluded from the formal education system, and in view of its multifaceted impacts, the Project is rated successful. G. Assessment of ADB and Borrower Performance

44. Except for the pending loan covenant on obtaining MOEs recognition of BOUs status, the Government fulfilled its obligations and commitments. It demonstrated strong commitment to sustain the Project by regularly allocating sufficient recurrent funds to BOU even after project completion, and encouraging BOU to increase fee collection by offering more programs. ADB provided intensive supervision and guidance throughout project implementation, as evidenced by the high number of review missions (Basic Data). Overall, the performance of the Borrower and ADB is rated as satisfactory. VI. A. ISSUES, LESSONS, AND FOLLOW-UP ACTIONS

Key Issues for the Future

45. Three key issues have emerged from the evaluation: (i) underutilization of some project facilities; (ii) low management efficiency; and (iii) the need to obtain MOEs recognition of the remaining BOUs certificates, diplomas, and degrees. 1. Underutilization of Project Facilities a. Underutilization of the Media Center

46. With its equipment running only 2 hours per day against the capacity of 16 hours, BOUs media center is underutilized. Renting out some of its facilities to the private Ekushey TV as suggested in the PCR is not feasible since the Ekushey TV has been trying to establish its own facilities. Neither is it desirable as an alternative to full utilization by BOU. The only way for BOU to fully utilize the media center is to create its own radio and/or TV channels to broadcast BOUs programs directly, rather than sharing the existing channels. The media center has, so far, been

21 used mainly for producing audio and video cassettes of BOUs programs to be broadcast by the Bangladesh Radio (BR) and the Bangladesh Television (BTV). The broadcasting time allocated by BR and BTV has recently been reduced by almost one halffrom 40 minutes per day, 7 days a week to 25 minutes per day, 6 days a week for radio; and from 40 minutes per day, 6 days a week to 25 minutes per day, 5 days a week for TV. The reductions have caused frustration among BOUs students. Both BR and BTV maintain that BOU should start paying them for any additional broadcasting time needed. Much more broadcasting time is needed to fully run BOUs programs in order to attract more enrollment and, hence, more income for BOU. 47. The OEM suggested to BOU that it send technical staff to BR and BTV to estimate the cost of establishing its own radio and TV channels for broadcasting directly from its media center through BR and BTV. Such cost might not be too high for radio (about $1.25 million plus some annual fees based on preliminary estimate) since BOU will need only five small transmitters at one kilowatt each in addition to the existing one to be able to hire a frequency from BR for nationwide, unlimited broadcasting directly from its media center. This option is worth pursuing as radio is the widest used media mode, reaching poor people. The OEM also suggested that BOU explore the cost of various alternatives and negotiate for the cheapest deal with the Ministry of Information, BR, and BTV. BOUs media center should also be used in ADBs future education projects. b. Underutilization of RRCs Office Space

48. The OEM found that while many rooms at the RRCs visited had not been in use, no room was designated as a library despite a large collection of library books of more than 2,000 per RRC. Similarly, although each RRC had a TV set, no room was used as a TV room for students to watch BOUs distance education programs. According to RRCs staff, this was due to the lack of trained staff who could run the library and TV room. The OEM suggested to BOU to set up a library and TV room at each RRC by assigning one existing staff of each RRC to do so after providing them with basic training on how to run the library and TV room. 2. Low Management Efficiency

49. The discontinuation of NAS, the low internal efficiency in terms of graduation rate, and the long delays in the academic calendar of some programs reflect BOUs weak management. This in turn reflects inefficient utilization of operational staff due to insufficient use of the electronic system, as many activities are still done manually, and insufficient knowledge in delivering distance education effectively because the Project did not provide capacity building for that. The OEM suggested to BOU that it provide training for increasing management efficiency to relevant professional staff (e.g., training in management and planning of distance education delivery; in financial, budget, and human resources management; and in upgrading of distance education curricula to catch up with market demand); and replace the manual system with the electronic system, while providing training in the use of required software to operational staff concerned. 3. Recognition of BOUs Certificates, Diplomas, and Degrees

50. Although MOE has recently granted recognition of BOUs SSC, the OEM suggested to BOU that it put more efforts in continuing dialogue with MOE to obtain also recognition of its remaining certificates, diplomas, and degrees as equivalent to those of the formal education system. Without such recognition, BOU would run the risk of declining enrollment in the future. The recognition is also needed for compliance with ADB loan covenant.

22

B. 51.

Lessons Identified The Project provides the following lessons for similar interventions in the future: (v) (vi) The project design should not put too much emphasis on the hardware side, without sufficient investments in the software side. If establishment of new institutions is involved, a comprehensive package of institutional capacity building should be part of the project scope to ensure overall management efficiency. The length and contents of international training should be adequate, rather than in the form of few-weeks study tours to different locations in one trip. If establishment of new institutions is involved, efficient organizational structure should be designed during the PPTA stage to avoid highly-centralized decision making and to allow for delegation of authorities for efficient management. If a project is employment oriented, the demand for semiskilled and skilled workers should be estimated for various education programs during the PPTA stage as part of NAS to ensure long-term utilization of graduates. If policy changes are involved, ADB should follow up closely during review missions with the executing and other government agencies concerned in order to maximize project impacts. All agencies concerned should be members of the project steering committee, and stakeholder meetings should be held regularly.

(vii) (viii)

(ix)

(x)

C. 52.

Follow-Up Actions The following actions are recommended to address the issues discussed in section VI. A: (i) By March 2003, BOU should dispatch a team of relevant technical staff to estimate with relevant technical staff at BR and BTV the cost of establishing its own radio and TV channels for broadcasting directly from its media center through BR and BTV, and to find out about the unit cost of renting more time from the existing channels of BR and BTV. By June 2003, BOUs management should negotiate with the Ministry of Information, BR, and BTV for the cheapest deal of each of the two options above, and use the estimated figures as an input to the action plan proposed in (iv) below. By June 2003, BOU should obtain MOEs declaration for recognition of the remaining BOUs certificates, diplomas, and degrees as equivalent to those of the formal education system. By September 2003, BOU should prepare an action plan to address the issues related to its institutional capacity. The investment activities to be prioritized in the action plan (with phased and costed budget requirements) should include a package of capacity building activities for increasing efficiency in management and in the utilization of staff and budget (e.g., providing training in management

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

23 and planning of distance education delivery, in financial and budget management, and in updating of distance education curricula to relevant professional staff; replacing the manual system with the electronic system, while providing training in the use of required software to concerned operational staff; providing basic training to relevant RRCs staff on how to run the library and TV room; conducting NAS on an annual basis; and upgrading the curricula of some BOU programs to catch up with those of the formal education system). The package should also include necessary activities to facilitate management reorganization (with delegation of authorities); and to increase efficiency in the utilization of project facilities (by setting up a library and TV room at each RRC and increasing the broadcasting time of BOUs programs through using the existing radio and TV channels as well as through broadcasting directly from BOUs media center with newly-generated channels for radio and TV). 53. BRM should monitor the implementation of these actions, particularly on MOEs recognition of BOUs status, without which BOU is likely to be faced with declining enrollment demand in the future. If MOE is unwilling to pursue this matter, BRM should conduct a policy dialogue with the Government as part of the country programming exercise.

EDUCATION SYSTEM IN BANGLADESH


Lower Secondary 5 6 7 8 Secondary 9 10 SSC Higher Secondary 11 12 HSC 13 Master's Degree 16 17

Primary 1 2 3 4

Bechelor's Degree 14 15

BOU 's System

15

16

BEd/BELT/GDM

17 15 15 13 13 13 CIM 14 15 DCA 16 DYD BAgEd/BA/BSS MBA

MEd

11 11

12 CEd

HSC

CALP/CELP/CLP/CPFP 9 10 SSC

Appendix 1

BA/BSS = Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Social Science, BAgEd = Bachelor of Agriculture Education, BEd = Bachelor of Education, BELT = Bachelor of English Language Teaching, BOU = Bangladesh Open University, CALP = Certificate in Arabic Language Proficiency, CEd = Certificate in Education, CELP = Certificate in English Language Proficiency, CIM = Certificate in Management, CLP = Certificate in Livestock and Poultry, CPFP = Certificate in Poultry and Fish Processing, DCA = Diploma in Computer Applications, DYD = Diploma in Youth Development, GDM = Graduate Diploma in Management, HSC = Higher Secondary Certificate, MBA = Master of Business Administration, MEd = Master of Education, SSC = Secondary School Certificate. Source: Bangladesh Open University.

17

ESTIMATED AND ACTUAL PROJECT COST ($ '000) % Overrun/ (Underrun) Foreign Local Total

Category

Appraisal Estimate Foreign Local Total

Actual (PCR Stage) Foreign Local Total

Physical Infrastructure Land Acquisition Detailed Engineering & Supervision Civil Works Subtotal Vehicles, Equipment, & Furniture Instructional Materials Development Course and Materials Development Media Development Subtotal Staff Development International Fellowships Local Fellowships Seminars & Symposiums Subtotal Consulting Services International Domestic Subtotal Research & Evaluation Project Implementation & Recurrent Costs PIU Staff Salaries BOU Staff Salaries Operation, Consumables, & Miscellaneous Subtotal Taxes & Duties Service Charge Total

0 0 1,605 1,605 1,578

869 327 4,819 6,015 671

869 327 6,424 7,620 2,249

0 0 2,613 2,613 2,613

769 782 7,839 9,390 0

769 782 10,452 12,003 2,613

62.8 65.6

56.1 (100.0)

57.5 16.2

135 2,580 2,715

9,290 0 9,290

9,425 2,580 12,005

4,504 6,524 11,028

0 0 0

4,504 6,524 11,028

306.2

(100.0)

(8.1)

1,220 0 0 1,220

0 666 246 912

1,220 666 246 2,132

1,725 0 0 1,725

0 29 118 147

1,725 29 118 1,872

41.4

(83.9)

(12.2)

2,421 0 2,421 0

0 1,098 1,098 359

2,421 1,098 3,519 359

1,135 0 1,135 0

0 31 31 151

1,135 31 1,166 151

(53.1) 0

(97.2) (57.9)

(66.9) (57.9)

0 0 0 0 0 984 10,523

585 7,919 2,648 11,152 2,983 0 32,480

585 7,919 2,648 11,152 2,983 984 43,003

0 0 0 0 0 719 19,833

428 3,392 3,117 6,937 4,660 0 21,316

428 3,392 3,117 6,937 4,660 719 41,149

0 0 (26.9) 88.5

(37.8) 56.2 0 (34.4)

(37.8) 56.2 (26.9) (4.3)

BOU = Bangladesh Open University, PCR = project completion report, PIU = project implementation unit. Source: ADB. 2000. Project Completion Report on Bangladesh Open University Project in Bangladesh. Manila.

ACHIEVEMENT OF PROJECT TARGETS Project Component A. Establishment of Bangladesh Open University (BOU)s Main Campus, Regional Resource Centers (RRCs), and Local Centers (LCs) Appraisal Target (as per RRP and Appraisal Report) - Development of physical infrastructure and facilities for BOUs main campus and 10 RRCs - Development of facilities for 80 LCs - Development of 14 regular programsa Actual Achievement (as per PCR and OEM inspection) - Development of physical infrastructure and facilities for BOUs main campus and 12 RRCs - Development of facilities for 80 LCs - Development of 16 regular programs at the PCR stage,b which increased to 17 programs at the OEM stagec - Enrollment of 116,483 students in the regular programs at the PCR stage, which increased to 209,677 students at the OEM stage - Development of 19 supplementary programs - Development of suitable distance education curricula, printed self-study textbooks, and audio and video cassettes for 16 regular programs at the PCR stage, which increased to 17 programs at the OEM stage - Provision of international training to 183 staff (191 person-months) - Provision of in-country training to 502 staff (442 person-months)
Appendix 3

- Enrollment of 138,500 students in the regular programs

- Development of some supplementary programs B. Instructional Materials Development - Development of suitable distance education curricula, printed self-study textbooks, and audio and video cassettes for 14 regular programs

C.

Staff Development

- Provision of international training to 164 staff (414 person-months) - Provision of in-country training to 510 staff (550 person-months)

19

(Appendix 3 continued) 20 Project Component D. Project Implementation Assistance and Benefit Monitoring and Evaluation (BME) Appraisal Target (as per RRP and Appraisal Report) - Establishment of project implementation unit (PIU) - Conduct of needs assessment survey (NAS) prior to physical implementation Actual Achievement (as per PCR and OEM inspection) - Establishment of PIU - Conduct of NAS prior to physical implementation - Adjustment of programs to be offered based on the NASs results - Conduct of research and BME studies during implementation - Conduct of research and BME studies during implementation

Appendix 3

OEM = operations evaluation mission, PCR = project completion report, RRP = report and recommendation of the President. a The 14 programs envisaged at appraisal included Diploma in Computer Applications (DCA), Secondary School Certificate (SSC), Certificate in Education (CEd), Bachelor of Education (BEd), Certificate in Mass Education (CMEd), Diploma in Management (DM), Diploma in Disaster Management (DDM), Certificate in Language Proficiency (CL), Diploma in Bangla Language (DBL), Diploma in English Language (DEL), Diploma in Agriculture Extension (DAgEx), Certificate in Electrical Wiring (CEW), Certificate in Health and Family Planning (CHFP), and Diploma in Nursing (DN). b The 16 programs at PCR included only the first 4 programs envisaged at appraisal (DCA, SSC, CEd, and BEd) plus 12 additional programs recommended by the needs assessment survey, including Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC), Master of Education (MEd), Certificate in Management (CIM), Graduate Diploma in Management (GDM), Master of Business Administration (MBA), Certificate in Livestock and Poultry (CLP), Certificate in Poultry and Fish Processing (CPFP), Diploma in Youth Development (DYD), Bachelor of Agriculture Education (BAgEd), Certificate in Arabic Language Proficiency (CALP), Certificate in English Language Proficiency (CELP), and Bachelor of English Language Teaching (BELT). c The 17 programs at the OEM stage included the 16 programs at the PCR stage plus one additional program on Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Social Science (BA/BSS).

DISTANCE EDUCATION SYSTEM IN BANGLADESH Table A4.1: Organizational Structure of Bangladesh Open University

Chancellor

Vice-Chancellor

Pro-Vice-Chancellor

Treasurer

Schools

Divisions

Dean Open School

Dean School of Education

Dean School of Business

Dean School of Agriculture & Rural Development

Dean School of Social Science, Humanities & Languages

Dean School of Science & Technology

Director Administration

Director Student Support Services

Director Computer

Director Information & Public Relations

Director Production, Printing & Distribution

Director Library & Documentation

Director Planning & Development

Director Examination

Director Media

Director Finance & Account

Regional Resource Center(s) 12

Local Center(s) 80

Tutorial Center(s) over 1,000

Appendix 4

Source: Bangladesh Open University.

21

Table A4.2: Regular Programs Provided by BOU Degree/ Diploma/ Certificate SSC HSC CEd BEd MEd CIM GDM MBA CLP CPFP DYD BAgEd Minimum Entry Requirement (Number of Years Completing Schooling) 8 years SSC SSC 14 years BEd HSC 14 years 14 years SSC SSC 14 years HSC Program Duration (Year) 2.0 2.0 1.5 2.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.5 0.5 0.5 1.0 3.0

22

Program Open School 1. Secondary School Certificate 2. Higher Secondary Certificate School of Education 3. Certificate in Education 4. Bachelor of Education 5. Master of Education School of Business 6. Certificate in Management 7. Graduate Diploma in Management 8. Master of Business Administration School of Agriculture & Rural Development 9. Certificate in Livestock and Poultry 10. Certificate in Poultry and Fish Processing 11. Diploma in Youth Development 12. Bachelor of Agriculture Education School of Social Science, Humanities & Languages 13. Certificate in Arabic Language Proficiency 14. Certificate in English Language Proficiency 15. Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Social Science 16. Bachelor of English Language Teaching School of Science & Technology 17. Diploma in Computer Applications

Year of Introduction 1995 1998 1998 1992 1999 1995 1995 1998 1999 1999 1999 1997

Fees per Student per Program (Tk) 2,000 3,600 2,100 7,300 2,250 2,700 8,000 33,000 2,100 1,800 1,400 12,900

Fees per Student per Year (Tk) 1,000 1,800 1,400 3,650 2,250 2,700 4,000 13,200 4,200 3,600 1,400 4,300

Appendix 4

CALP CELP BA/BSS BELT DCA

1996 1994 2000 1997 1998

SSC SSC HSC 14 years HSC

0.5 0.5 3.0 2.0 1.5

1,500 1,500 10,100 6,900 12,000

3,000 3,000 3,367 3,450 8,000

BA/BSS = Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Social Science, BAgEd = Bachelor of Agriculture Education, BEd = Bachelor of Education, BELT = Bachelor of English Language Teaching, BOU = Bangladesh Open University, CALP = Certificate in Arabic Language Proficiency, CEd = Certificate in Education, CELP = Certificate in English Language Proficiency, CIM = Certificate in Management, CLP = Certificate in Livestock and Poultry, CPFP = Certificate in Poultry and Fish Processing, DCA = Diploma in Computer Applications, DYD = Diploma in Youth Development, GDM = Graduate Diploma in Management, HSC = Higher Secondary Certificate, MBA = Master of Business Administration, MEd = Master of Education, SSC = Secondary School Certificate. Source: Bangladesh Open University

Table A4.3: Stock of Enrollment in BOU's Regular Programs


Year 1997

BOU Program Open School 1. SSC 2. HSC School of Education 3. CEd 4. BEd 5. MEd School of Business 6. CIM 7. GDM 8. MBA School of Agriculture & Rural Development 9. CLP 10. CPFP 11. DYD 12. BAgEd School of Social Science, Humanities & Languages 13. CALP 14. CELP 15. BA/BSS 16. BELT School of Science & Technology 17. DCA Total Annual Average

1992 0 0

1993 0 0

1994

1995

1996

1998

1999 54,612 12,006 3,910 20,317 1,106 1,267 11,307 416

2000 65,738 34,626 5,427 18,439 2,418 1,350 12,018 632

2001 97,801 50,876 5,427 16,873 2,418 1,388 12,349 858

Total 326,842 109,514 16,576 157,297 5,942 6,751 60,373 2,102

% 42.25 14.16 2.14 20.33 0.77 0.87 7.80 0.27

0 16,168 23,667 28,497 40,359 0 0 0 0 12,006 0 17921 0 536 4,893 0 0 1,812 17994 20,767 0 0 856 1,060 8,363 10,068 0 196

0 0 0 0 5,075 11,196 13,758 14,957 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 294 1,375 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1,735

0 0 0 2,814

59 44 150 3,552

103 74 150 5,204

199 253 113 6,793

361 371 413 20,098

0.05 0.05 0.05 2.60

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 2,102 0 0

0 4,682 0 0

546 6,133 0 0

647 6,743 0 1,073

747 5,680 0 1,680

771 3,597 0 2,025

259 2,394 7,339 2,025

113 2,196 7,339 2,025

3,083 33,527 14,678 8,828

0.40 4.33 1.90 1.14

0 0 0 0 0 0 720 5,075 11,196 15,860 37,476 53,696 65,908 97,909

1,344 116,483

2,092 160,288

2,656 209,677

6,812 773,568 77,357

0.88 100.00
Appendix 4

BA/BSS = Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Social Science, BAgEd = Bachelor of Agriculture Education, BEd = Bachelor of Education, BELT = Bachelor of English Language Teaching, BOU = Bangladesh Open University, CALP = Certificate in Arabic Language Proficiency, CEd = Certificate in Education, CELP = Certificate in English Language Proficiency, CIM = Certificate in Management, CLP = Certificate in Livestock and Poultry, CPFP = Certificate in Poultry and Fish Processing, DCA = Diploma in Computer Applications, DYD = Diploma in Youth Development, GDM = Graduate Diploma in Management, HSC = Higher Secondary Certificate, MBA = Master of Business Administration, MEd = Master of Education, SSC = Secondary School Certificate. Source: School survey in April 2002.

23

Table A4.4: Flow of Enrollment in BOU's Regular Programs


24
Year 1997

BOU Program Open School 1. SSC 2. HSC School of Education 3. CEd 4. BEd 5. MEd School of Business 6. CIM 7. GDM 8. MBA School of Agriculture & Rural Development 9. CLP 10. CPFP 11. DYD 12. BAgEd School of Social Science, Humanities & Languages 13. CALP 14. CELP 15. BA/BSS 16. BELT School of Science & Technology 17. DCA Total Annual Average Annual Growth Rate (%)

1992 0 0

1993 0 0

1994

1995

1996

1998

1999

2000

2001 32,063 16,250 0 2,963 0 38 427 226

Total 145,515 53,950 5,949 46,412 2,418 1,388 12,445 858

%
Appendix 4

0 16,168 14,111 15,803 16,427 0 0 0 0 12,006 0 5,575 0 294 1,375 0 0 5443 0 242 3,518 0 0 4761 0 320 3,470 0 1,812 4,804 0 204 1,705 196

25,114 25,829 0 25,694 2,098 3,506 1,106 207 1,239 220 2,039 2,593 1,312 83 711 216

48.47 17.97 1.98 15.46 0.81 0.46 4.15 0.29

0 0 0 5,075 6,121 5,571 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1,735

0 0 0 1,079

59 44 150 738

44 30 0 1,652

234 194 0 1,589

337 268 150 6,793

0.11 0.09 0.05 2.26

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 2,102 0 0 0 0

0 3,007 0 0

546 1,767 0 0

228 922 0 1,073

158 1,117 0 607

98 787 0 345

118 435 7,339 0

0 437 0 0

1,148 10,574 7,339 2,025

0.38 3.52 2.44 0.67

0 0 0 0 0 0 720 5,075 6,121 7,673 26,419 25,627 28,312 40,835 20.61 25.36 244.31 (3.00) 10.48 44.23

624 36,335 (11.02)

748 68,843 89.47

564 54,985

2,656 300,225 30,023 (20.13) 30.31

0.88 100.00

BA/BSS = Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Social Science, BAgEd = Bachelor of Agriculture Education, BEd = Bachelor of Education, BELT = Bachelor of English Language Teaching, BOU = Bangladesh Open University, CALP = Certificate in Arabic Language Proficiency, CEd = Certificate in Education, CELP = Certificate in English Language Proficiency, CIM = Certificate in Management, CLP = Certificate in Livestock and Poultry, CPFP = Certificate in Poultry and Fish Processing, DCA = Diploma in Computer Applications, DYD = Diploma in Youth Development, GDM = Graduate Diploma in Management, HSC = Higher Secondary Certificate, MBA = Master of Business Administration, MEd = Master of Education, SSC = Secondary School Certificate. Source: School survey in April 2002.

Table A4.5: Number of Graduates from BOU's Regular Programs Year 1996 1997 0 0 0 2,479 0 0 0 0 17,585 0 0 4,688 0 0 0 0

BOU Program 1992 Open School 1. SSC 0 2. HSC 0 School of Education 3. CEd 0 4. BEd 0 5. MEd 0 School of Business 6. CIM 0 7. GDM 0 8. MBA 0 School of Agriculture & Rural Development 9. CLP 0 10. CPFP 0 11. DYD 0 12. BAgEd 0 School of Social Science, Humanities & Languages 13. CALP 0 14. CELP 0 15. BA/BSS 0 16. BELT 0 School of Science & Technology 17. DCA 0 Total 0 Annual Average Average Graduation Ratea (%)

1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1994 0 0 0 7,016 0 0 0 0

1995 0 0 0 4,376 0 0 0 0

1998 4,565 0 0 2,031 0 0 0 0

1999 10,861 0 0 2,511 0 0 0 0

2000 12,884 3,074 0 3,111 0 0 31 0

2001 6,419 0 522 3,485 0 0 65 0

Total 52,314 3,074 522 29,697 0 0 96 0

% 58.45 3.43 0.58 33.18 0.00 0.00 0.11 0.00

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

94 66 0 0

44 49 37 371

138 115 37 371

0.15 0.13 0.04 0.41

0 0 0 0

0 937 0 0

0 427 0 0

55 316 0 0

127 312 0 0

58 78 0 0

74 290 0 0

84 187 0 0

45 45 0 0

443 2,592 0 0

0.49 2.90 0.00 0.00

0 0

0 7,953

0 4,803

0 2,850

0 22,712

0 6,732

0 13,736

0 19,531

109 11,191

109 89,508 8,951 36

0.12 100.00
Appendix 4

BA/BSS = Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Social Science, BAgEd = Bachelor of Agriculture Education, BEd = Bachelor of Education, BELT = Bachelor of English Language Teaching, BOU = Bangladesh Open University, CALP = Certificate in Arabic Language Proficiency, CEd = Certificate in Education, CELP = Certificate in English Language Proficiency, CIM = Certificate in Management, CLP = Certificate in Livestock and Poultry, CPFP = Certificate in Poultry and Fish Processing, DCA = Diploma in Computer Applications, DYD = Diploma in Youth Development, GDM = Graduate Diploma in Management, HSC = Higher Secondary Certificate, MBA = Master of Business Administration, MEd = Master of Education, SSC = Secondary School Certificate.
a

See footnote 10. Source: School survey in April 2002.

25

26

Appendix 4

Table A4.6: Supplementary Programs Provided by BOU

Program Open School 1. Basic Science 2. Mathematics Open School/School of Social Science, Humanities & Languages 3. Religion & Ethics School of Education/School of Science & Technology 4. Environmental Protection 5. Maternity & Child Care School of Business 6. Bank Loans 7. Marketing Management School of Business/School of Agriculture & Rural Development 8. Food Preparation & Preservation School of Business/School of Science & Technology 9. Health & Nutrition 10. Family Planning School of Agriculture & Rural Development 11. Aforestation 12. Agriculture 13. Fish Processing 14. Horticulture 15. Livestock 16. Pisciculture 17. Poultry School of Agriculture & Rural Development/School of Social Science, Humanities & Languages 18. Irrigation Management 19. Women in the Workforce
BOU = Bangladesh Open University. Source: Bangladesh Open University.

Year of Introduction 1992 1992

1995 1995 1996 1996 1996

1996 1996 1996 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993

1997 1997

IMPROVED QUALITY AND RELEVANCE OF DISTANCE EDUCATION PROGRAMS

Table A5.1: Tutors' Perceptions about the Quality of BOU's Curricula Compared to those of the Formal System Extent of Relevance Comparable Quality Slightly Lower Quality Much Lower Quality Not Comparable Total
BOU = Bangladesh Open University. Source: School survey in April 2002.

No. 39 81 20 9 149

% 26.2 54.4 13.4 6.0 100.0

Table A5.2: Graduates' Perceptions of the Relevance of Their Curricula to Job Requirements Graduates from BOU No. % 78 20.1 67 17.3 50 12.9 193 49.7 388 100.0 Graduates from Formal System No. % 10 14.1 12 16.9 16 22.5 33 46.5 71 100.0 Total Graduates No. % 88 19.2 79 17.2 66 14.4 226 49.2 459 100.0

Extent of Relevance Highly Relevant Moderately Relevant Partly Relevant Not Relevant Totala
a

BOU = Bangladesh Open University. Out of the 579 sample BOU graduates, 388 (67%) are currently employed. Out of the 120 sample graduates from the formal education system, 71 (59%) are currently employed. Source: Tracer survey in April 2002.

Table A5.3: Employers' Perceptions about the Relevance of BOU's Curricula to Job Requirements Public Sector Employers No. % 1 25.0 1 25.0 1 25.0 1 25.0 4 100.0 Private Sector Employers No. % 4 9.8 13 31.7 0 0.0 24 58.5 41 100.0 Total Employers No. % 5 11.1 14 31.1 1 2.2 25 55.6 45 100.0

Extent of Relevance Highly Relevant Moderately Relevant Partly Relevant Not Relevant Total

BOU = Bangladesh Open University. Source: Tracer survey in April 2002.

Table A5.4: Job Search Period of Currently Employed Graduates Graduates from BOU % No. 29 18.0 127 78.9 5 3.1 161 100.0 Graduates from Formal System % No. 16 22.5 52 73.2 3 4.2 71 100.0

Time Period < 6 Months 6 Months - 1 Year > 1 Year Totala


a

Total Graduates % No. 45 19.4 179 77.2 8 3.4 232 100.0

BOU = Bangladesh Open University. Of the 579 sample BOU graduates, 388 (67%) are currently employed. Out of these currently employed graduates, 161 (41%) took employment after graduating from BOU. Of the 120 sample graduates from the formal education system, 71

(59%) are currently employed.


Source: Tracer survey in April 2002.

Table A5.5: Average Employment Rates of BOU Graduates from 12 Programs Average Employment Rate (%) 65 70 75 75 75 38 38 35 75 80 85 95 67

Program Secondary School Certificate (SSC) Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) Certificate in Education (CEd) Bachelor of Education (BEd) Graduate Diploma in Management (GDM) Certificate in Livestock and Poultry (CLP) Certificate in Poultry and Fish Processing (CPFP) Diploma in Youth Development (DYD) Bachelor of Agriculture Education (BAgEd) Certificate in Arabic Language Proficiency (CALP) Certificate in English Language Proficiency (CELP) Diploma in Computer Applications (DCA) Weighted Average Employment Rate of BOU's Graduates from 12 Programs
BOU = Bangladesh Open University. Source: Tracer survey in April 2002.

Table A5.6: Sector and Size of Employment Establishments of Currently Employed Graduates BOU Graduates <=10 Workersa >10 Workers No. % No. % 0 0 0 52 33 56 141 141 0 0 0 36.9 23.4 39.7 100.0 36.3 50 32 18 65 49 83 20.2 13.0 7.3 26.3 19.8 33.6
0

Sector Government Education Institutions Others Semi-government NGO Private Total by Sector Total by Size

Formal System Graduates Total Total <=10 Workers >10 Workers No. % No. % No. % No. 50 32 18 117 82 139 12.9 8.2 4.6 30.2 21.1 35.8 3 2 1 2 0 2 7 7 42.9 28.6 14.3 28.6 0.0 28.6 100.0 9.9 9 7 2 10 14 31 64 64 14.1 10.9 3.1 15.6 21.9 48.4 100.0 90.1 12 9 3 12 14 33 71 71

Total Graduates <=10 Workers >10 Workers % No. % No. % 16.9 12.7 4.2 16.9 19.7 46.5 3 2 1 54 33 58 2.0 1.4 0.7 36.5 22.3 39.2 59 39 20 75 63 114 19.0 12.5 6.4 24.1 20.3 36.7

Total No. 62 41 21 129 96 172

% 8.9 4.6

13.5

28.1 20.9 37.5

247 100.0 247 63.7

388 100.0 388 100.0

100.0 100.0

148 100.0 148 32.2

311 100.0 311 67.8

459 100.0 459 100.0

BOU = Bangladesh Open University, NGO = nongovernment organization. a Establishments with 10 or less workers are generally classified under the informal sector, and those with more than 10 under the formal sector. Source: Tracer survey in April 2002.

Table A5.7: Perceptions of BOU Staff about the Extent of Utilization of International Training Extent of Utilization Highly Utilized Moderately Utilized Partly Utilized Poorly Utilized Total
BOU = Bangladesh Open University. Source: School survey in April 2002.

Internationally-Trained Staff No % 48 26.2 73 39.9 5 2.7 57 31.1 183 100.0

SUSTAINABILITY ANALYSIS 30
Table A6.1: Long-Term Financial Sustainability of the Project Project Implementation Period FY1995 FY1996 FY1997 1,525.2 1,663.2 1,807.0 105.7 120.8 123.7 6.9 7.3 6.8 Postproject Period FY2002 FY2003 2,711.2 2,912.9 211.5 227.2 7.8 7.8

Appendix 6

Item GDP (at current price, Tk billion) a Overall Recurrent Exp. (Tk billion) b Overall Recurrent Exp./GDP (%) Overall Recurrent Exp. (Tk million) Total Recurrent Education Exp. (Tk million) Primary Secondary TEVT Tertiary BOU Others Total Recurrent Education Exp./Overall Recurrent Exp. (%) Primary Recurrent Exp./Total Recurrent Education Exp. (%) Secondary Recurrent Exp./Total Recurrent Education Exp. (%) TEVT Recurrent Exp./Total Recurrent Education Exp. (%) Tertiary Recurrent Exp./Total Recurrent Education Exp. (%) BOU Recurrent Exp./Total Recurrent Education Exp. (%) Others' Recurrent Exp./Total Recurrent Education Exp. (%)

FY1993 1,253.7 86.4 6.9 86,429.0 16,743.9 7,621.6 6,803.1 377.0 1,330.0 12.0 600.2 19.4 45.5 40.6 2.3 7.9 0.1 3.6

FY1994 1,354.1 92.1 6.8

FY1998 2,001.8 150.1 7.5

FY1999 2,197.0 167.7 7.6

FY2000 2,370.9 184.4 7.8

FY2001 2,532.5 198.3 7.8

FY2004 3,141.8 245.1 7.8

92,124.0 105,676.0 18,057.5 19,703.0 8,478.8 8,502.7 7,422.6 8,364.5 399.9 414.8 1,434.0 1,533.0 27.0 40.0 295.2 848.0 19.6 47.0 41.1 2.2 7.9 0.1 1.6 18.6 43.2 42.5 2.1 7.8 0.2 4.3

120,833.0 123,731.0 150,130.0 167,650.0 21,514.5 22,955.4 26,957.4 29,680.0 9,504.4 9,989.7 11,475.1 11,990.0 9,146.6 9,854.5 12,398.3 14,130.1 448.7 476.3 397.9 402.6 1,713.9 1,817.0 1,961.6 2,072.0 70.0 80.0 85.0 123.0 630.9 737.9 639.5 962.3 17.8 44.2 42.5 2.1 8.0 0.3 2.9 18.6 43.5 42.9 2.1 7.9 0.3 3.2 18.0 42.6 46.0 1.5 7.3 0.3 2.4 17.7 40.4 47.6 1.4 7.0 0.4 3.2

184,400.0 198,300.0 211,477.0 227,205.0 245,063.0 29,569.4 35,808.2 37,669.4 39,634.1 41,614.9 12,949.2 14,028.3 15,227.3 16,426.3 17,415.0 13,058.9 15,364.0 16,497.0 16,974.0 17,221.5 407.4 410.7 418.7 422.7 426.8 2,196.3 2,341.4 2,507.1 2,672.9 2,838.6 120.0 120.0 120.0 120.0 120.0 837.6 3,543.8 2,899.3 3,018.2 3,593.0 16.0 43.8 44.2 1.4 7.4 0.4 2.8 18.1 39.2 42.9 1.1 6.5 0.3 9.9 17.8 40.4 43.8 1.1 6.7 0.3 7.7 17.4 41.4 42.8 1.1 6.7 0.3 7.6 17.0 41.8 41.4 1.0 6.8 0.3 8.6

BOU = Bangladesh Open University, Exp. = Expenditure, FY = fiscal year, GDP = gross domestic product, TEVT = technical education and vocational training. The data on GDP for FY2003 onward were estimated based on its average annual growth rates of the past 5 years. b The data on overall recurrent expenditure for FY2003 onward were estimated based on the average of its past 3-year share of GDP. Source: BOU, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Staff Estimates.
a

Table A6.2: Cost Recovery of BOU's Fees by Program BOU's Annual Recurrent Budget (Tk million) Received from Fees & Income Total Recurrent Government from Other Sources Budget 123 75 198 120 80 200 120 72 192 120 75 195 Contribution from Government (%) 62 60 62 62 Cost Recovery of Fees & Incomes from Other Sources (%) 38 40 38 38

Fiscal Year 1999 2000 2001 2002


BOU = Bangladesh Open University. Source: Bangladesh Open University.

Appendix 7

31

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS A. Estimates of Private Financial Internal Rates of Return

1. The data from the tracer survey conducted by the Operations Evaluation Mission (OEM) are used to estimate a private (individual) financial internal rate of return (FIRR) for employed graduates in each of the 17 programs offered by the Bangladesh Open University (BOU). The same data are also used to estimate a weighted average FIRR for employed graduates based on the weighted average costs and benefits of the 17 programs combined. Since many of the programs take 2 years to complete (as shown by the negative values representing the costs incurred to each individual during years 1-2 in Table A7.1), the earning lifetime of each individual is assumed to be 30 years after graduation (as shown by the positive values representing the benefits accrued to each individual during years 3-32 in the same table). As for the programs that take more or less than 2 years, year 32 is still assumed to be the cut-off year of the earning lifetime so that the cut-off age will be the same for everybody. 2. Private costs and benefits are calculated annually. Private costs incurred to each individual employed graduate include both direct cost (tuition, books and stationery; plus some transportation expenses incurred in coming to enroll, take exams, and attend part-time tutorial classes) and indirect or opportunity cost (prevailing wage rate for those who have completed the preceding education level). Only 60% of the opportunity cost is used in the FIRR estimates because about 60% of the sample BOU graduates were fulltime BOU students while taking BOU courses (with full opportunity cost incurred) and about 40% were working while taking BOU courses (with zero opportunity cost incurred), so the resulting opportunity cost is about 60% on average. The direct cost for distance education is also lower than that for the formal education system due to lower tuition, less expenses on transportation since regular daily classes attendance is not required, and no expenses on uniforms. Private benefits accrued to each individual employed graduate from each of the 17 BOU programs are measured in terms of incremental wage rate, which is the difference between the average wage rate earned by graduates in that particular program and the prevailing market wage rate that they would have earned had they not taken up that program at BOU. Such private benefits are adjusted by the prevailing employment rate of graduates in the corresponding program during the first year of entry into the labor market. Weighted average private costs and benefits are also calculated for the 17 programs combined. The resulting weighted average FIRR is 26% (Table A7.1). With a sensitivity analysis based on the assumption of full opportunity cost, the weighted average FIRR decreases to 18% (Table A7.2). B. Estimates of Economic Internal Rate of Return

3. An economic internal rate of return (EIRR) is also estimated as a rough indicator for efficiency of investments in the Project (Table A7.3). The calculations of the economic cost and benefits of the Project are based on the world price numeraire, using a standard conversion factor of 0.9 to adjust the nontraded component of the economic cost and benefits to the border price level. The economic cost includes the Projects cost, which is divided into traded and nontraded components. Both components are expressed in constant 2001 prices by using a dollar deflator (manufacturing unit value index) applied to the traded component, and a domestic deflator (gross domestic product deflator) to the nontraded component, and converted to domestic currency by using the 2002 exchange rate. The Projects capital cost was incurred during project implementation. To be consistent with the individual FIRR estimates (in which the cut-off year is 32), the cut-off year in the EIRR estimates is 34 (32 years plus 2 years at the beginning, when the Project had just started; individual enrollment started only in year 3, and so

32

Appendix 7

as the benefits). The residual value of the Projects capital cost during the cut-off year is added as part of the net economic benefits during the same year. The Projects recurrent cost is assumed to continue after the project period. 4. The economic benefits include expected productivity increases to the economy, which are the product of the output of graduates from the 17 BOU programs and their corresponding weighted average incremental wage rate adjusted by weighted average employment rate. Future productivity increases after the cut-off year are discounted and added as a residual value to the productivity increases that year. The number of graduates used in the estimates is based on BOUs actual graduation rate of 36%. The resulting EIRR is 7% (Table A7.3). However, a sensitivity analysis shows that if the graduation rate is assumed to increase to 50%, the resulting EIRR will increase to 12% (Table A7.4).

Table A7.1: Private Financial Internal Rates of Return for Graduates from BOU Programs (Base Case with Opportunity Cost of 60% on Average)a
(Tk) Weighted Average of all Programs (22,889) (22,889) 10,100 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 26%

Year SSC HSC CEd BEd MEd 1 (11,580) (19,980) (19,380) (37,875) (45,135) 2 (11,580) (19,980) (9,690) (37,875) 6,720 3 7,800 10,920 8,100 11,700 8,400 4 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 5 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 6 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 7 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 8 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 9 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 10 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 11 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 12 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 13 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 14 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 15 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 16 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 17 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 18 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 19 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 20 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 21 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 22 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 23 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 24 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 25 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 26 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 27 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 28 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 29 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 30 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 31 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 32 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 FIRRs = 39% 31% 29% 18% 18%

Streams of Net Incremental Benefits of Individual Graduates CIM GDM MBA CLP CPFP DYD BAgEd CALP CELP BA/BSS BELT DCA (30,690) (38,400) (52,200) (11,790) (11,340) (34,500) (33,090) (10,890) (10,890) (31,691) (37,575) (38,640) 5,400 (38,400) (52,200) 684 684 2,310 (33,090) 1,920 2,040 (31,691) (37,575) (19,320) 7,200 18,000 (26,100) 1,800 1,800 6,600 (33,090) 2,400 2,400 (31,691) 12,480 30,210 7,200 24,000 51,300 1,800 1,800 6,600 17,100 2,400 2,400 15,960 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 22% 26% 29% 14% 14% 17% 18% 21% 21% 19% 18% 42%

BA/BSS = Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Social Science, BAgEd = Bachelor of Agriculture Education, BEd = Bachelor of Education, BELT = Bachelor of English Language Teaching, BOU = Bangladesh Open University, CALP = Certificate in Arabic Language Proficiency, CEd = Certificate in Education, CELP = Certificate in English Language Proficiency, CIM = Certificate in Management, CLP = Certificate in Livestock and Poultry, CPFP = Certificate in Poultry and Fish Processing, DCA = Diploma in Computer Applications, DYD = Diploma in Youth Development, FIRR = financial internal rate of return, GDM = Graduate Diploma in Management, HSC = Higher Secondary Certificate, MBA = Master of Business Administration, MEd = Master of Education, SSC = Secondary School Certificate. a The justification for using opportunity cost of 60% on average as the base case is based on the proportion of the sample BOU graduates who were fulltime students while taking BOU courses. This implies that (i) full opportunity cost would incur to 60% of BOU students who were fulltime students (not working) while taking BOU courses, (ii) zero opportunity cost would incur to 40% of BOU students who were working while taking BOU courses, and (iii) thus, 60% of opportunity cost would incur to BOU students on average while taking BOU courses. Out of the 579 sample BOU graduates, 388 are currently employed, while 191 are unemployed and were fulltime BOU students before. Out of the 388 employed graduates, 161 were employed after graduation and were fulltime BOU students before, whereas 227 were working while taking BOU courses. This implies that out of the 579 sample BOU graduates, 352 (=191+161) or about 60% were fulltime students (with full opportunity cost incurred), and 227 (about 40%) were working while taking BOU courses (with zero opportunity cost incurred). Source: Staff estimates based on tracer survey conducted in April 2002.

Appendix 7

33

34

Table A7.2: Private Financial Internal Rates of Return for Graduates from BOU Programs (Sensitivity Analysis with Full Opportunity Cost)
(Tk) Weighted Average of all Programs (35,878) (35,878) 10,100 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 14,429 18%

Appendix 7

Year SSC HSC CEd BEd MEd 1 (18,300) (31,500) (30,900) (59,475) (72,975) 2 (18,300) (31,500) (15,450) (59,475) 6,720 3 7,800 10,920 8,100 11,700 8,400 4 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 5 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 6 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 7 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 8 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 9 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 10 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 11 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 12 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 13 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 14 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 15 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 16 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 17 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 18 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 19 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 20 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 21 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 22 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 23 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 24 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 25 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 26 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 27 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 28 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 29 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 30 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 31 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 32 12,000 15,600 10,800 15,600 8,400 27% 21% 20% 12% 11% FIRRs =

Streams of Net Incremental Benefits of Individual Graduates CIM GDM MBA CLP CPFP DYD BAgEd CALP CELP BA/BSS BELT DCA (48,450) (60,000) (73,800) (17,550) (17,100) (56,100) (50,850) (16,650) (16,650) (49,451) (59,175) (56,400) 5,400 (60,000) (73,800) 684 684 2,310 (50,850) 1,920 2,040 (49,451) (59,175) (28,200) 7,200 18,000 (36,900) 1,800 1,800 6,600 (50,850) 2,400 2,400 (49,451) 12,480 30,210 7,200 24,000 51,300 1,800 1,800 6,600 17,100 2,400 2,400 15,960 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 7,200 24,000 54,000 1,800 1,800 6,600 22,800 2,400 2,400 22,800 15,600 31,800 14% 18% 22% 9% 9% 11% 12% 14% 14% 13% 12% 31%

BA/BSS = Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Social Science, BAgEd = Bachelor of Agriculture Education, BEd = Bachelor of Education, BELT = Bachelor of English Language Teaching, BOU = Bangladesh Open University, CALP = Certificate in Arabic Language Proficiency, CEd = Certificate in Education, CELP = Certificate in English Language Proficiency, CIM = Certificate in Management, CLP = Certificate in Livestock and Poultry, CPFP = Certificate in Poultry and Fish Processing, DCA = Diploma in Computer Applications, DYD = Diploma in Youth Development, FIRR = financial internal rate of return, GDM = Graduate Diploma in Management, HSC = Higher Secondary Certificate, MBA = Master of Business Administration, MEd = Master of Education, SSC = Secondary School Certificate. Source: Staff estimates based on tracer survey conducted in April 2002.

Appendix 7

35

Table A7.3: Economic Internal Rate of Return on Investments in BOU (Base Case with Graduation Rate of 36%) (Tk'000) Economic Benefits (Productivity Increases) 0 0 136,354 169,079 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 202,622 1,840,819 Project Cost Capital Cost Recurrent Cost Traded Nontraded Nontraded 29,635 24,373 11,602 66,749 52,906 26,998 88,551 71,117 40,607 186,231 132,217 70,802 292,948 184,804 79,156 252,622 147,743 84,329 51,113 27,044 123,536 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 Net Total Economic Project Benefits Cost 65,611 (65,611) 146,652 (146,652) 200,275 (63,921) 389,250 (220,171) 556,908 (354,286) 484,694 (282,072) 201,694 929 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 82,622 120,000 1,780,377 EIRR = 7%

Year

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

BOU = Bangladesh Open University, EIRR = economic internal rate of return. Source: Staff estimates based on a tracer survey conducted in April 2002.

36

Appendix 7

Table A7.4: Economic Internal Rate of Return on Investments in BOU (Sensitivity Analysis with Graduation Rate of 50%) (Tk'000) Economic Benefits (Productivity Increases) 0 0 136,354 169,079 202,622 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 281,798 2,560,134 Project Cost Capital Cost Recurrent Cost Traded Nontraded Nontraded 29,635 24,373 11,602 66,749 52,906 26,998 88,551 71,117 40,607 186,231 132,217 70,802 292,948 184,804 79,156 252,622 147,743 84,329 51,113 27,044 123,536 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 Net Total Economic Project Benefits Cost 65,611 (65,611) 146,652 (146,652) 200,275 (63,921) 389,250 (220,171) 556,908 (354,286) 484,694 (202,896) 201,694 80,105 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 161,798 120,000 2,499,692 EIRR = 12%

Year

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

BOU = Bangladesh Open University, EIRR = economic internal rate of return. Source: Staff estimates based on a tracer survey conducted in April 2002.

Appendix 8

37

SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACT

Table A8.1: Perceptions of Currently-Employed Graduates about Improvement in Socioeconomic Status Graduates from BOU No. % 74 19.1 271 69.8 43 11.1 388 100.0 Graduates from Formal System No. % 23 32.4 43 60.6 5 7.0 71 100.0 Total No. 97 314 48 459 % 21.1 68.4 10.5 100.0

Extent of Improvement Significantly Improved Moderately Improved No Improvement Total


BOU = Bangladesh Open University. Source: Tracer survey in April 2002.

Table A8.2: Monthly Salary Range of Currently-Employed Graduates ($) Graduates from BOU No. % 77 19.8 151 38.9 116 29.9 44 11.3 388 100.0 Graduates from Formal System No. % 21 29.6 25 35.2 17 23.9 8 11.3 71 100.0 Total No. 98 176 133 52 459 % 21.4 38.3 29.0 11.3 100.0

Salary Range >100 76-100 51-75 <51 Total


BOU = Bangladesh Open University. Source: Tracer survey in April 2002.

Table A8.3: Socioeconomic Status of BOU's Students

Socioeconomic Status Family Income Per Head below Poverty Line Poverty Perceived as the Major Cause of Lacking Access to Formal Schooling Rural Location
BOU = Bangladesh Open University. Source: Beneficiary Survey in April 2002.

Responses No. Total % Total 17 562 3.0 100.0 152 562 27.0 100.0 338 562 60.1 100.0

Table A8.4: Age Group of BOU's Students Age Group >35 Years 25-35 Years <25 Years Total No. 87 244 231 562 % 15.5 43.4 41.1 100.0

BOU = Bangladesh Open University. Source: Beneficiary Survey in April 2002.

Оценить