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Nrada Thera TO MY VENERABLE TEACHER PELENE SIRI VAJIRA A MHA NYAKA THERA

PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION


The word Pi means "the Text", though it has now come to be the name of a language. Mgadhi was the original name for Pi. It was the language current in the land of Magadha during the time of the Buddha (6th century B.C.). Suddha Mgadh, the pure form of the provincial dialect, was what the Buddha used as His medium of instruction. The elements of Pi can be mastered in a few months, Pi opens one's ears to the Dhamma and the music of the Buddha's speech. It is also a lingua franca in Buddhist countries, and therefore worth acquiring. This slender volume is intended to serve as an elementary guide for beginners. With its aid one may be able to get an introduction to the Pi language within a short period. I have to express my deep indebtedness to my Venerable Teacher, Pelene Siri Vajira na Mah Nyaka Therapda, who introduced me to this sacred language. Words cannot indicate how much I owe to his unfailing care and sympathy. My thanks are due to the Venerable Nynatiloka Thera, for his valued assistance.

NRADA October, 1952.

If you have problems in your Pli lessons then join our E-mail Pli classes at [ibric@sri.lanka.net] Computerised by Bhikkhu Saghasobhana. This work is provided as Public domain under terms of GNU

Abbreviations
Adj. Ind., Indec.Ind. p.p. f. m. n. p.p. Pre. Pres. p. Pres. Pro. Adjective Indeclinables indeclinable Past Participles Feminine Masculine Neuter Past Participles Prefix Present Participles Present Pronoun

CONTENTS

A. Decl. of Nouns ending in " a " - Nom. & Acc. Cases B. Conj. of Verbs - Pres. Tense. Act. Voice, 3rd person A. Decl. of Nouns ending in " a " - Instr. & Dat. Cases B. Conj. of Verbs- Pres. Tense. Act. Voice, 2nd person A. Decl. of Nouns ending in " a " - Abl. &. Gen. Cases B. Conj. of Verbs- Pres. Tense. Act. Voice, 1st person A. Decl. of Nouns ending in " a " - Loc. & Voc. Cases B. Full Conj. of Verbs- Pres. Tense Act. Voice Full Decl. of Nouns ending in " a " A. Nouns ending in " " B. Infinitive Aorist (Ajjatan) Act. Voice Possessive Pronouns A. Nouns ending in " i " B. Indeclinable Past Participles A. Feminine Nouns ending in " i " B. Future Tense (Bhavissanti) A. Nouns ending in " " B. The Formation of Feminines A. Decl. of Nouns ending in " u " & " " B. Verbs- Imperative & Benedictive Mood (Pacam) A. Personal Pronouns B. Conditional Mood (Sattam) Relative Pronouns The Interrogative Pronoun Participles A. Demonstrative Pronouns B. Adjectives Numerals Ordinals A. Some Irregular Nouns ending in " a " B. Conjugations A. Declension of " Satthu " B. Causal Forms (Krita) A. Decl. of " go " B. Perfect Tense (Hyattan)v Compounds (Samsa) Indeclinables (Avyaya) Taddhita- Nominal Derivatives Kitaka- Verbal Derivatives Rules of Sandhi (Combinations) Uses of the Cases Passive Voice

AN ELEMENTARY PI COURSE

INTRODUCTION
Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Samm-Sam-Buddhassa ! Pi was the language spoken by the Buddha and employed by Him to expound His Doctrine of Deliverance. Mgadh is its real name, it being the dialect of the people of Magadha -a district in Central India. Pi, lit. "line" or "text", is, strictly speaking, the name for the Buddhist Canon. Nowadays the term Pi is often applied to the language in which the Buddhist texts or scriptures were written. The Pi language must have had characters of its own, but at present they are extinct.

ALPHABET
The Pi Alphabet consists of forty-one letters, -eight vowels and thirty-three consonants. 8 Vowels (Sara) a, , i, , u, , e, o. 33 Consonants (Vyajana) Gutturals k, kh, g, gh, . Palatals c, ch, j, jh, . Cerebrals , h, , h, . Dentals t, th, d, dh, n. Labials p, ph, b, bh, m. *Palatal y. *Cerebral r. *Dental l. *Dental and Labial v. Dental (sibilant) s. Aspirate h. Cerebral . Niggahita . *Semi-vowels ka group ca group a group ta group pa group

PRONUNCIATION OF LETTERS
Pi is a phonetic language. As such each letter has its own characteristic sound. a i u e o k g c j p b m y r l v s h is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like is pronounced like u a i i u u e a o o k g ng ch j gn t d n p b m y r l v s h l ng in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in but art pin machine put rule ten fate hot note key get ring rich jug signor not hid hint lip rib him yard rat sell vile sit hut felt sing

The vowels " e " and " o " are always long, except when followed by a double consonant; e.g., ettha, oha. The fifth consonant of each group is called a "nasal". There is no difference between the pronunciation of " " and " ". The former never stands at the end, but is always followed by a consonant of its group. The dentals " t " and " d " are pronounced with the tip of the tongue Placed against the front upper teeth. The aspirates " kh ", " gh ", " h ", " h ", " th ", " dh ", " ph ", " bh ", are pronounced with " h " sound immediately following; e.g., in blockhead, pighead, cat-head, log-head, etc., where the " h " in each is combined with the preceding consonant in pronunciation.

Lesson I

A. Declension of Nouns ending in " a "


Nara*, m**. man SINGULAR Nominative Accusative PLURAL naro*** nar a man, or the man men, or the men nara nare a man, or the man men, or the men Terminations SINGULAR Nominative Accusative o PLURAL e

* In Pi nouns are declined according to the terminated endings a, , i, , u, , and o. There are no nouns ending in " e ". All nouns ending in " a " are either in the masculine or in the neuter gender. ** There are three, genders in Pi. As a rule males and those things possessing male characteristics are in the masculine gender, e.g., nara, man; suriya, sun; gma, village. Females and those things possessing female characteristics are in the feminine gender, e.g., itthi, woman; gang, river. Neutral nouns and most inanimate things are in the neuter gender, e.g., phala, fruit; citta, mind. It is not so easy to distinguish the gender in Pi as in English. *** Nara + o = naro. Nara + = nar. When two vowels come together either the preceding or the following vowel is dropped. In this case the preceding vowel is dropped. Masculine Substantives :

Buddha Draka Dhamma Gma Ghaa Janaka Odana Putta Sda Ycaka

The Enlightened One child Doctrine, Truth, Law village pot, jar father rice, cooked rice son cook beggar

B. Conjugation of Verbs
PRESENT TENSE - ACTIVE VOICE

3rd person terminations SING ti PLU anti paca = to cook

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SING. PLU.

So pacati* S pacati Te pacanti,

he cooks, he is cooking she cooks, she is cooking they cook, they are cooking

* The verbs are often used alone without the corresponding pronouns since the pronoun is implied by the termination. Verbs :

Dhvati* (dhva) runs Dhovati (dhova) washes Vadati (vada) speaks, declares Vandati (vanda) salutes Rakkhati (rakkha) protects
* As there are seven conjugations in Pi which differ according to the conjugational signs, the present tense third person singulars of verbs are given. The roots are given in brackets. Illustrations*:

1. Sdo The cook 2. Sd The cooks 3. Sdo The cook 4. Sd The cooks odana rice ghae pots

pacati is cooking pacanti are cooking pacati is cooking dhovati are washing

* In Pi sentences, in plain language, the subject is placed first, the verb last, and the object before the verb. Exercise i A TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Buddho vadati. Dhammo rakkhati. S dhovati. Ycako dhvati. Sd pacanti. Janak vadanti. Te vandanti. Nar rakkhanti. Putt dhvanti. Drako vandati. Buddho dhamma rakkhati. Drak Buddha vandanti. Sdo ghae dhovati. Nar gma. rakkhanti. S odana pacati. Buddh dhamma vadanti. Putt janake vandanti. Ycak. ghae dhovanti. Te gme rakkhanti. Janako Buddha vandati.

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B TRANSLATE INTO PALI 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. He protects. The man salutes. The child is washing. The son speaks. The beggar is cooking. They are running. The children are speaking. The fathers are protecting. The sons are saluting. The cooks are washing. The men are saluting the Buddha. Fathers protect men. The cook is washing rice. The truth protects men. She is saluting the father. The Enlightened One is declaring the Doctrine. The boys are washing the pots. The men are protecting the villages. The beggars are cooking rice. The cook is washing the pot.

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Lesson II A. Declension of Nouns ending in " a "


(contd.)

Nara SINGULAR Instrumental Dative narena by or with a man narya,* narassa to or for a man Terminations SINGULAR Instrumental Dative ena** ya, ssa PLURAL ebhi,** ehi** na*** PLURAL narebhi, narehi by or with men narna to or for men

* This form is not frequently used. ** The Instrumental case is also used to express the Auxiliary case (Tatiy). *** The vowel preceding " na " is always long. Masculine Substantives :

dara hra Daa Dsa Gilna Hattha Osadha Ratha Samaa Sunakha Vejja

esteem, care, affection food stick slave, servant sick person hand medicine cart, chariot holy man, ascetic dog Doctor, physician

B. Conjugation of Verbs
PRESENT TENSE - ACTIVE VOICE (contd.) 2nd person terminations

SINGULAR si

PLURAL tha

2nd person SING. Tva pacasi, you cook, you are cooking* 2nd person PLU. Tumhe pacatha, you cook, you are cooking * "Thou cookest, or thou art cooking." In translation, unless specially used for archaic or poetic reasons, it is more usual to use the plural forms of modern English.

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Verbs :

Deseti Deti Harati harati Nharati Paharati Gacchati gacchati Labhati Peseti

(disa) preaches (d) gives (hara) carries (hara with *) brings (hara with n*) removes (hara with pa*) strikes (gamu) goes (gamu with ) comes (labha) gest, receives (pesa) sends

* , n, pa, etc. are Prefixes (upasagga) which when attached to nouns and verbs, modify their original sense. Illustrations:

1. Dsena (instr. s.) with the slave

gacchati he goes

2. Vejjebhi (instr pl.) labhasi by means of doctors you obtain 3. Sunakhassa (dat. s.) desi to the dog you give 4. Samana (dat. pl.) to the ascetics pesetha you send
Exercise ii A 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. Tva rathena gacchasi. Tva darena Dhamma desesi. Tva gilnassa osadha desi. Tva. daena sunakha paharasi. Tva vejjna rathe pesesi. Tumhe darena gilnna hra detha. Tumhe dsehi gma* gacchatha. Tumhe samanna dhamma desetha. Tumhe hattehi osadha labhatha. Tumhe sunakhassa hra hratha. Drak sunakhehi gma gacchanti. Sd hatthehi ghae dhovanti. Tumhe gilne vejjassa pesetha. Dso janakassa hra harati. Sama darena dhamma desenti. Tumhe daehi sunakhe paharatha. Vejjo rathena gma gacchati. Drak darena ycakna hra denti. Tva samaehi Buddha vandasi. Tumhe hatthehi osadha nharatha.

* Verbs implying motion take the Accusative.

B 21. 22. 23. 24. You You You You are are are are coming with the dog. giving medicine to the ascetic. sending a chariot to the sick person. striking the dogs with sticks.

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25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36.

You are preaching the Doctrine to the ascetics. You give food to the servants with care. You are going to the village with the ascetics. You are bringing a chariot for the doctor. The sick are going with the servants. The dogs are running with the children. The Enlightened One is preaching the Doctrine to the sick. The servants are giving food to the beggars. The father is going with the children to the village. You are going in a chariot with the servants. You are carrying medicine for the father. You get medicine through* the doctor.

* Use the Instrumental case.

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Lesson III A. Declension of Nouns ending in " a "


(contd)

nara SINGULAR Ablative Genitive PLURAL nar, naramh, narasm narebhi, narehi from a man from men narassa of a man Terminations SINGULAR Ablative Genitive , mh, sm ssa PLURAL ebhi, ehi na narna of men

Masculine Substantives :

cariya Amba paa rma Assa Mtula Ovda Pabbata Pakra Rukkha Sissa Taka

teacher mango shop, market temple, garden, park horse uncle advice, exhortation rock, mountain reward, gift tree pupil pond, pool, lake

B. Conjugation of Verbs
PRESENT TENSE - ACTIVE VOICE (contd.)

1st person terminations SINGULAR mi* SING. PLU. Aha pacmi Maya pacma PLURAL ma* I cook, I am cooking. We cook, we are cooking.

* The vowel preceding " mi " and " ma " is always lengthened.

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Verbs :

Gahti* (gaha) Sagahti (gaha with sa) Uggahti (gaha with u) Kiti (ki) Vikkiti (ki with vi) Nikkhamati (kamu with ni) Patati (pata) Ruhati (ruha) ruhati (ruha with ) Oruhati (ruha with ava**) Sunti (su)

takes, receives, seizes Treats, compiles learns buys sells departs, goes away falls grows ascends, climbs descends hears

* Plural - gahanti. So are sagahanti, uggahanti, kianti and suanti. ** " Ava " is often changed into " o " Illustrations :

1. amb rukkhasm (abl. s.) patanti mangoes from the tree fall 2. rukkhehi (abl. pl.) from trees 3. paehi (abl. pl.) from the markets 4. pa (abl. s.) from market patma we fall kimi I buy paa (acc. s.) to market

5. mtulassa (gen. s.) rmo Uncle's garden 6. cariyna (gen. pl.) of the teachers siss pupils
Exercise iii A 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. Aha cariyasm Dhamma sumi. Aha mtulasm pakra gahmi. Aha assasm patmi. Aha mtulassa rmasm nikkhammi. Aha paasm ambe kimi. Maya pabbatasm oruhma. Maya cariyehi uggahma. Mayam cariyassa ovda labhma. Maya cariyna putte saganhma. Mayam assna hra paehi kima. Siss samana rmehi nikkhamanti. cariyo mtulassa assa ruhati. Maya rathehi gm gma gacchma. Tumhe cariyehi pakre gahtha. Nar sissna dsna ambe vikkianti. Maya samana ovda suma. Rukkh pabbatasm patanti. Aha suakhehi taka oruhmi. Maya rmasm rma gacchma. Putt darena janakna ovda gahanti.

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B 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. I receive a gift from the teacher. I depart from the shop. I treat the uncle's teacher. I take the advice of the teachers. I am descending from the mountain. We buy mangoes from the markets. We hear the doctrine of the Buddha from the teacher. We are coming out of the pond. We are mounting the uncle's horse. We fall from the mountain. We treat the father's pupil with affection. Pupils get gifts from the teachers. You are selling a horse to the father's physician. We go from mountain to mountain with the horses. Teachers give advice to the fathers of the pupils. We are learning from the ascetics.

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Lesson IV A. Declension of Nouns ending in " a "


(contd.)

nara SINGULAR Locative Vocative nare, naramhi, narasmi in or upon a man nara, nar O man ! Terminations SINGULAR Locative Vocative e, mhi, smi a, PLURAL esu PLURAL naresu in or upon men nar O men !

Masculine Substantives :

ksa Maca Canda Sakua Kassaka Samudda Maccha Suriya Magga Vija Maggika Loka

sky bed moon bird farmer sea, ocean fish sun way, road merchant traveller world, mankind

B. Conjugation of Verbs
PRESENT TENSE - ACTIVE VOICE

paca, SING. pacati pacasi pacmi su, SING. suti susi sumi

to cook PLU. pacanti pacatha pacma to hear PLU. suanti sutha suma

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disa, SING. deseti desesi desemi


Verbs :

to preach PLU. desenti desetha desema

Kati Uppajjati Passati* Vasati Supati Vicarati

(ka) (pada with u) (disa) sees (vasa) (supa) (cara with vi)

plays is born dwells sleeps wanders, goes about

* " Passa " is a substitute for " disa " Some Indeclinables :

Ajja ma Api Ca Idni Idha Kad Kasm Kuhi Kuto Na Puna Sabbad Sad Saddhi*

to-day yes also, too also, and now here when why where whence no, not again every day always with

* " Saddhi " is used with the "Instrumental" and is placed after the noun; as Narena saddhi - with a man. Illustrations :

1. Mace (loc. s.) on the bed 2. Nar Men

supati he sleeps gmesu (loc. pl) in the villages vasanti live

3. Draka (voc. s.) kuhi tva gacchasi? child, where are you going? 4. Janaka, father, I aha na gacchmi. am not going.
Exercise iv A 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. Saku rukkesu vasanti. Kassako mace supati. Maya magge na kma. Nar loke uppajjanti. Maggika, kuhi tva gacchasi?

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66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80.

ma sad te na uggahanti. Macch take kanti. Kuto tva gacchasi? Janaka aha idni rmasm gacchmi. Kassak sabbad gmesu na vasanti. Kasm tumhe macesu na supatha? Maya samaehi saddhi rme vasma. Macch takesu ca samuddesu ca uppajjanti. Aha kse suriya passmi, na ca canda. Ajja vijo pae vasati. Kasm tumhe drakehi saddhi magge katha? ma, idni so* 'pi gacchati, aham** 'pi gacchmi. Maggik maggesu vicaranti. Kassk, kad tumhe puna idha gacchatha? cariya, sabbad maya Buddha vandma. Vij maggikehi saddhi rathehi gmesu vicaranti.

* So + api = so 'pi. ** The vowel following a Niggahita is often dropped, and the Niggahita is changed into the nasal of the group consonant that immediately follows; e.g., Aha + api = aham 'pi.

B 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. He is playing on the road. The farmers live in the villages. I do not see birds in the sky. The Buddhas are not born in the world everyday. Travellers, from where are you coming now? We see fishes in the ponds. O farmers, when do you come here again? The travellers are wondering in the world, We do not see the sun and the moon in the sky now. Why do not ascetics live always in the mountains? Yes, father, we are not playing in the garden today. Why do not the sick sleep on beds? O merchants, where are you always wandering? Children, you are always playing with the dogs in the tank. Teachers and pupils are living in the monastery now. Yes, they are also going.

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Lesson V Full Declension of Nouns ending in " a "


Nara, m. man SINGULAR Nom. Voc. Acc. Instr. Abl. Dat. Gen. Loc. naro a man nara, nar O man ! nara a man narena by or with a man PLURAL nar men nar O men ! nare men narebhi, narehi by or with men

nar, naramh, narasm narebhi, narehi from a man from men narya, narassa to or for a man narassa of a man nare, naramhi, narasmi in or upon a man
Neuter Gender

narna to or for men narna of men naresu in or upon men

Phala, fruit SINGULAR Nom. Voc. Acc. phala phala, phal phala PLURAL phal, phalni phal, phalni phale, phalni

(The rest like the masculine) THE CASES IN PI

Paham lapana Dutiy Tatiy Karaa Catutthi Pacam Chahi Sattam

(1st) (2nd) (3rd) (4th) (5th) (6th) (7th)

Nominative Vocative Accusative Auxiliary* Instrumental* Dative Ablative Genitive Locative

* As Tatiy (Auxiliary) and Karaa (Instrumental) have the same terminations, only the Instrumental case is given in the declensions.

Terminations

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SINGULAR Nom. Voc. Acc. Aux. Instr. Dat. Abl. Gen. Loc. m. o n.

PLURAL m. e n. , ni , ni e, ni ebhi, ehi ebhi, ehi na ebhi, ehi na esu

--, ena ena ya, ssa , mh, sm ssa e, mhi, smi

The vowels preceding- ni, bhi, hi, na and su are always long. Neuter Substantives :

Bja Bhada Ghara Khetta Lekhana Mitta Mukha Nagara Pda Pha Potthaka Puppha Udaka Vattha
Verbs :

seed, germ goods, article home, house field letter (m. n.) friend face, mouth city (m.n.) foot chair, bench book flower water cloth, raiment

Bhujati Khdati Likhati Nisdati Pjeti Vapati

(bhuja) eats, partakes (khda) eats, chews (likha) writes (sada with ni) sits (pja) offers (vapa) sows
Exercise v A

81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95.

Saku phalni khdanti. Maya phesu nisdma, macesu supma. Nar paehi bhadni kianti Phalni rukkhehi patanti. Kassak khettesu bjni vapanti. Sabbad maya udakena pde ca mukha* ca dhovma. Siss cariyna lekhanni likhanti. Idni aha mittehi saddhi ghare vasmi. Dso takasmi vatthni dhovati. So pupphehi Buddha pjeti. Kasm tva hra na bhujasi? Ajja siss cariyehi potthakni uggahanti. Maggik mittehi saddhi nagar nagara vicaranti. Aha sabbad rmasm pupphni harmi. Maya nagare gharni passma.

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96. 97. 98. 99. 100.

Kassak nagare takasm udaka haranti. Drak janakassa phasmi na nisdanti. Mitta cariyassa potthaka pjeti. Tumhe narna vatthni ca bhadni ca vikkitha. cariyassa rme sama darena narna Buddhassa Dhamma desenti.

* Mukha + ca = mukha ca

B 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. I am writing a letter to (my) friend. We eat fruits. We offer flowers to the Buddha everyday. He is not going home now. You are sowing seeds in the field to-day. The sons are washing the father's feet with water. They are partaking food with the friends in the house. Children's friends are sitting on the benches. Are you writing letters to the teachers to-day? I am sending books home through the servant. I see fruits on the trees in the garden. The birds eat the seeds in the field. Friends are not going away from the city to-day. We are coming from home on foot*. From where do you buy goods now? Men in the city are giving clothes and medicine to the sick.

* Use the Instrumental.

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Lesson VI A. Nouns ending in " "


Ka, f. maiden, virgin SINGULAR Nom. Voc. Acc. Instr., Abl. Dat., Gen. Loc. PLURAL Ka, Ka, Kayo Kae Ka, Kayo Kaa Ka, Kayo Kaya Kabhi, Khi Kaya Kana Kaya, Kaya Kasu

Terminations SINGULAR Nom. Voc. Acc. Instr., Abl Dat., Gen. Loc. -e a ya ya ya, ya PLURAL --, yo --, yo --, yo bhi, hi su na

All nouns ending in " " are in the feminine with the exception of " s ", m. dog. Feminine Substantives :

Bhariy Bhs Drik Dhammasl Gang Nv Osadhasl Pibhs Pa Phasl Saddh Sal Gilnasl Visikh

wife language girl preaching-hall Ganges, river ship, boat dispensary Pi language wisdom school faith, devotion, confidence hall hospital street

B. Infinitive
The Infinitives are formed by adding the suffix " tu " to the root. If the ending of the root is " a ", it is often changed into " i ". Examples : -

paca rakkha d

+ tu + tu

= pacitu to cook = rakkhitu to protect + tu = dtu to give

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Generally the above suffix is added to the forms the roots assume before the third person plural termination of the present tense* Examples : -

desenti kianti bhujanti suanti pesenti

desetu kiitu bhujitu suitu, sotu pesetu

* This same principle applies to the Indeclinable Past Participles and Present Participles which will be treated later. TABLE Root disa disa gaha gamu gamu with h isu kara lapa with sa (jna) nah p ruha with h Meaning to preach to see to take to go to come to to to to to be wish do converse know 3rd per. pres. pl. desenti passanti gahanti gacchanti gacchanti honti icchanti karonti sallapanti jnanti nahyanti pibanti, pivanti ruhanti tihanti Infinitive desetu passitu gahitu gantu gantu hotu icchitu ktu sallapitu tu, jnitu nahyitu ptu, pibitu ruhitu htu Ind. Past Part.* desetv disv, passitv gahitv, gahetv gantv gantv, gamma hutv icchitv katv sallapitv atv, jnitv nahyitv,nah tv ptv, pibitv ruhitv, ruyha hatv

to bathe to drink to ascend to stand

* These Indeclinable Past Participles will be treated in lesson VIII. Illustrations :

1. Bhariy The wife 2. Drikyo The girls 3. Te They

drikna dtu to the girls to give uggahitu to learn gagya in the river

odana rice

pacati. cooks.

phasla to school go. kitu to play bhujitu to eat


Exercise vi A

gacchanti.

icchanti. wish. slya in the hall nisdanti. sit.

4. Kayo hra The maidens food

101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107.

Kayo gagya nahyitu gacchanti. Aha phasla gantu icchmi. Maya Dhamma sotu slya nisdma. Kuhi tva bhariyya saddhi gacchasi? Drikyo saddhya Buddha vandanti. Siss idni Pibhsya lekhanni likhitu jnanti. Nar paa labhitu bhsyo uggahanti.

26

108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120.

Kae, kuhi tva pupphni haritu icchasi? Kayo drikhi saddhi gilne phalehi sagahitu vejjasla gacchanti. Ass udaka pibitu gaga oruhanti. S cariyassa bhariy hoti. Gilne saganhitu visikhya osadhasl na hoti. Nar bhariyna dtu paehi vatthni kianti. Drik ghara gantu magga na jnti. Drak ca drikyo ca phaslya phesu nisditu na icchanti. Giln gharni gantu osadhaslya nikkhamanti. Maya cariyehi saddhi pibhsya sallapma. Bhariye, kuhi tva gantu icchasi? Maya gagya nvyo passitu gacchma. Paa ca saddha ca labhitu maya Dhamma suma.

B 85. O maidens, do you wish to go to the temple to-day? 86. I am coming to take medicine from the dispensary. 87. There are no dispensaries in the street here 88. Father, I know to speak in Pi now. 89. We see no ships on the river. 90. She wishes to go with the maidens to see the school. 91. With faith the girl goes to offer flowers to the Buddha. 92. You are sitting in the preaching hall to hear the Doctrine. 93. Boys and girls wish to bathe in rivers. 94. There are no patients in the hospital. 95. We study languages to obtain wisdom. 96. I do not wish to go in ships. 97. With faith they sit in the hall to learn the Doctrine. 98. I do not know the language of the letter. 99. O girls, do you know the way to go home? 100.He is bringing a book to give to the wife.

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Lesson VII Aorist (Ajjatan) - Active voice


Terminations SINGULAR 3rd 2nd 1st o i
paca, to cook

PLURAL u ttha mha

SINGULAR 3rd 2nd 1st apac, apaci, apaco, pac paci paco apaci, he cooked you cooked paci I cooked

PLURAL 3rd 2nd 1st apacu, pacu apacisu, pacisu they cooked apacittha pacittha you cooked apacimh, pacimh we cooked gamu, to go SING. 3rd 2nd 1st PLU. agam, gam agamu, gamu agami, gami agamisu, gamisu agamo, gamo agamittha, gamittha agami, gami agamimh, gamimh su, to hear SING. 3rd 2nd 1st asu, su asui, sui asuo, suo asui, sui PLU. asuisu suisu asuittha, suittha asuimh, suimh

In the past tense the augment " a " is optionally used before the root*. The third person " " is sometimes shortened, and the third person plural " u " is often changed into " isu ". The vowel preceding " ttha " and " mh " is changed into " i ". The second person " o " is mostly changed into " i ". Whenever the root or stem ends in a vowel e or the s Aorist is used i.e., s is added before the suffix. Examples : -

SINGULAR

PLURAL

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si si si d, to give SING. PLU. d + s + i = adsi d + su = adasu h, to stand SING. PLU. h + s + i = ahsi + su = ahasu

su, su sittha simh disa, to preach disa + s + i = desesi desisu

* This " a " should not be mistaken for the negative prefix " a ". Possessive Pronouns

3rd

m. n. tassa, his f. tass, her

m. n. tesa, their f. tsa, their

2nd m. f. n. tumhka, your 1st m. f. n.

tava, tuyha your or thine m. f. n. mama, mayha, my m. f. n. amhka, our

These are the Genitive cases of the Personal Pronouns. Words : -

Aparaha m. Cira indec. Eva affirmative) Hyo indec. Pto indec. Ptarsa Pubbaha m. Purato indec. Syamsa Viya indec.

afternoon long, for a long time indec. just, quite, even, only (used as an emphatic yesterday early in the morning m. morning meal forenoon in the presence of m. evening meal, dinner like
Exercise vii A

121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133. 134. 135. 136.

Buddho loke uppajji. Hyo samao dhamma desesi. Drako pto'va* tassa phasla agam. Acariy tesa sissna pubbahe ovda adasu. Cira te amhka ghara na agamisu. Drik tsa janakassa purato ahasu. Tva tass hatthe mayha pottaka passo. Tva gagya nahyitu pto'va agamo. Tva ajja ptarsa na bhujo. Kuhi tumhe tumhka mittehi saddhi aparahe agamittha? Kasm tumhe'yeva** mama cariyassa lekhanni na likhittha? Tumhe cira mayha putte na passittha. Aha tuyha pakre hyo na alabhi. Aham'eva*** gilnna ajja osadha adsi. Aha asse passitu visikhya asi. Maya tuyha cariyassa siss ahosimh.

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137. 138.

Maya ajja pubbahe na uggahimh. Sama viya mayam'pi **** saddhya dhamma suimh.

* Pto + eva = pto'va. Here the following vowel is dropped. ** Tumhe + eva = Tumhe yeva. Sometimes " y " is augmented between vowels. *** Aha + eva = aham'eva. When a niggahita is followed by a vowel it is sometimes changed into "m". **** Maya + api = mayam'pi. Here the following vowel is dropped and niggahita is changed into "m"

B 101.I slept on my bed. 102.I stood in their garden in the evening. 103.I sat on a bench in the hall to write a letter to his friend. 104.We bathed in the river in the early morning.* 105.We ourselves** treated the sick yesterday. 106.For a long time we lived in our uncle's house in the city. 107.Child, why did you stand in front of your teacher? 108.Wife, you cooked rice in the morning. 109.Son, where did you go yesterday? 110.You obtained wisdom through your teachers. 111.Why did you not hear the Doctrine like your father? 112.Where did you take your dinner yesterday? 113.She was standing in her garden for a long time. 114.He himself*** washed the feet of his father. 115.For a long time my friend did not buy goods from his shop. 116.The doctors did not come to the hospital in the afternoon. 117.The boys and girls did not bring their books to school yesterday. 118.I myself gave medicine to the sick last**** morning. * Use Pto'va. ** Use mayam'eva *** Use so eva **** Use hyo.

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Lesson VIII A. Nouns ending in " "


Muni, m. sage SINGULAR Nom., Voc. Acc. Instr. Abl. Dat., Gen. Loc. PLURAL muni mun, munayo muni mun, munayo munin munbhi, munhi munin, munimh, munbhi, munhi munism munino, munissa munna munimhi, munismi munsu Terminations SINGULAR Nom., Voc. Acc. Instr. Abl. Dat., Gen. Loc. - n n, mh, sm no, ssa mhi, smi PLURAL , ayo bhi, hi su , ayo bhi, hi na

Ahi, n. bone SINGULAR Nom., Voc. Acc. ahi ahi Terminations SINGULAR Nom., Voc. Acc. -PLURAL , ni , ni PLURAL ah, ani ah, ani

The rest like masculine, with the exception of the Loc. plural which has two forms - ahisu, ahsu. Words :

Adhipati Aggi Asi Atithi Gahapati Kapi Kavi Mai Narapati ti Pati Vhi

m. m. m. m. m. m. m. m. m. m. m. m.

chief, master fire sword guest house-holder monkey poet jewel King relative husband, lord paddy

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Indeclinable Past Participles* These are generally formed by adding the suffix " tva " to the root. If the ending of the root is " a ", it is often changed into " i ". Sometimes " tvna " and " tna " are also added to the roots. Examples :-

paca khipa su kara**

+ + + +

tv tv tv tv

= = = =

pacitv, khipitv, sutv, katv,

having having having having

cooked thrown heard; also sutvna, sotna done; also katvna, ktna

* See note and the table in lesson VII - B ** In this case the final " ra " is dropped. Illustrations :

1. nisditv having sat 2. Buddha the Buddha went

bhuji he ate,

or he sat and ate agam to hear he

vanditv dhamma sotu having saluted the Doctrine

or- He saluted the Buddha and went to hear the Doctrine.

3. He stood So hatv

and

spoke vadi

4. After playing he went to bathe So kitv nahyitu agami


Exercise viii A 139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151. 152. 153. Muni narapati Dhammena sagahitv agami. Kapayo rukkha ruhitv phalni khdisu. Kad tumhe kavimh potthakni alabhittha? Aha tesa rme adhipati ahosi. Maya gahapathi saddhi gagya udaka haritv aggimhi khipimh. Narapati hatthena asi gahetv assa ruhi. Tva tuyha pati darena sagaho. Gahapatayo narapatino purato hatv vadisu. Atith amhka ghara gantv hra bhujisu. Saku khettesu vhi disv khdisu. Narapati gahapatimh mai labhitv kavino adsi. Adhipati atithhi saddhi hra bhujitv muni passitu agmi. Aha mayha tino ghare cira vasi. Sunakh ahhi gahetv magge dhvisu. Dhamma sutv gahapatna Buddhe saddha uppajji.

B 119.The father of the sage was a king. 120.O house-holders, why did you not advise your children to go to school? 121.We saw the king and came. 122.I went and spoke to the poet. 123.The chief of the temple sat on a chair and preached the Doctrine to the householders. 124.Only yesterday I wrote a letter and sent to my master. 125.The poet compiled a book and gave to the king. 126.Our relatives lived in the guest's house for a long time and left only (this) morning. 127.The householders bought paddy from the farmers and sowed in their fields.

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128.We sat on the benches and listened to the advice of the sage. 129.The king built a temple and offered to the sage. 130.After partaking* my morning meal with the guests I went to see my relatives. 131.I bought fruits from the market and gave to the monkey. 132.Why did you stand in front of the fire and play with the monkey? 133.Faith arose in the king after hearing the Doctrine from the sage. *Use "bhujitv"

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Lesson IX A. Feminine Nouns ending in " i "


Bhmi f. ground SINGULAR Nom., Voc. Acc. Instr. Abl. Dat., Gen. Loc. PLURAL bhmi bhm, bhmiyo bhmi bhm, bhmiyo bhmiy bhmbhi, bhmhi bhmiy bhmna bhmiy, bhmiya bhmsu Terminations SINGULAR Nom., Voc. Acc. Instr. Abl. Dat., Gen. Loc.
Words :

PLURAL , iyo na su , iyo bhi, hi

--

y y y, ya

Agui f. Aavi f. Bhaya n. Mutti f. Pti Rati f. Khanti f. Ratti f. Kuddla m.,n. Soka m. Kpa m. Suve, Sve

finger forest fear deliverance f. joy attachment patience night spade grief well adv. tomorrow

B. FUTURE TENSE (Bhavissanti) - ACTIVE VOICE


Terminations* SINGULAR 3rd 2nd 1st ssati ssasi ssmi paca, to cook SINGULAR 3rd pacissati he will cook PLURAL pacissanti they will cook PLURAL ssanti ssatha ssma

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2nd 1st

pacissasi you will cook pacissmi I will cook

pacissatha you will cook pacissma we will cook

In the future tense the vowel preceding the terminations is changed into " i ". * Note that, the future tense terminations are formed by adding "ssa" to the present tense terminations. Verbs :

Bhavati Khaati Jyati Pputi Pavisati Tarati

(bh) becomes (be) (khaa) digs (jana) arises, is born (apa with pa) arrives (visa with pa) enters (tara) crosses
Exercise ix A

154. Gahapati kuddlena bhmiya kpa khaissati. 155. Khantiy pti uppajjissati. 156. Narapati sve aavi pavisitv muni passissati. 157. Gahapatayo bhmiya nisditv dhamma suissanti. 158. Rattiya te aavsu na vasissanti. 159. Narapatino putt aaviya nagara karissanti. 160. Narapati, tva mutti labhitv Buddho bhavissasi. 161. Kad tva aaviy nikkhamitv nagara ppuissasi? 162. Kuhi tva sve gamissasi? 163. Tumhe rattiya visikhsu na vicarissatha. 164. Rattiya tumhe canda passissatha. 165. Aha assamh bhmiya na patissmi. 166. Aha mayha agulhi mani gahissmi. 167. Maya gaga taritv sve aavi ppuissma. 168. Sve maya dhammasla gantv bhmiya nisditv mutti labhitu ptiy dhamma sunissma. 169. " Ratiy jyati soko - ratiy jyati bhaya. "

B 134.The monkey will eat fruits with his fingers. 135.He will cross the forest tomorrow. 136.Sorrow will arise through attachment. 137.Child, you will fall on the ground. 138.You will see the moon in the sky at night. 139.O sages, when you obtain deliverance and preach the Doctrine to the world? 140.O farmers, where will you dig a well to obtain water for your fields? 141.Why will you not bring a spade to dig the ground? 142.I will go to live in a forest after receiving* instructions from the sage. 143.I will be a poet. 144.I will not stand in the presence of the king. 145.Through patience we will obtain deliverance. 146.Why shall we wander in the forests with fear? 147.We ourselves shall treat the sick with joy. * Use gahetv

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36

Lesson X A. Declension of Nouns ending in " "


Sm m. lord, husband SINGULAR Nom. Voc. Acc. Instr. Abl. Dat., Gen. Loc. PLURAL sm sm, smino sm sm, smino smi sm, smino smin smbhi, smhi smin smbhi, smhi smimh, smism smino, smissa smna smini, smimhi smsu smismi

The Loc. sing. has an additional " ni "

Terminations SINGULAR Nom. Voc. Acc. -i PLURAL --, no --, no --, no

The rest like " i " terminations

Da, n. one who has a stick Terminations SINGULAR Nom., Voc. ,ni Acc. dai dai
The rest like the masculine

PLURAL

SING. PLU. i, , ni

da, daini ,, ,,

Nr, f. woman SINGULAR Nom. Voc. Acc. Instr., Abl. Dat., Gen. Loc. nr nri nri PLURAL nr, nriyo nr, nriyo nr, nriyo nrbhi, nrhi nrna nrsu

nriy nriy nriy, nriya Terminations SINGULAR

PLURAL --, iyo --, iyo --, iyo

Nom. Voc. Acc.

-i

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The rest like " i " terminations. Words :

Appamda Bhagin Brahmacr Dhammacr Dhana Duggati Have Iva Janan Mahes Medhv ppa Ppakr Pua Puakr Seha Sugati

f. m. m. n. f. indec. indec. f. f. m. n. n. adj. f.

m. earnestness, heedfulness sister celibate he who acts righteously wealth evil state indeed, certainly like mother queen wise man evil m. evil-doer merit, good m. well-doer excellent, chief good or happy state

B. The Formation of Feminines


Some feminines are formed by adding " " and " " to the masculines ending in " a ". Examples :-

Aja Assa Upsaka Draka Deva Dsa Nara

goat Aj she-goat horse Ass mare male devotee Upsik female devotee boy Darik girl god servant man Dev Ds Nr goddess maid-servant woman

(If the noun ends in " ka ", the preceding vowel is often changed into " i ".)

Some are formed by adding " ni " or " ini " to the masculines ending in " a ", " i " " ", and " u ". Examples :-

Rja Hatthi Medhv Bhikkhu

king elephant wise man monk

Rjin Hatthin Medhvin Bhikkhun

queen she-elephant wise woman nun

But : Mtula, uncle becomes mtuln, aunt and Gahapati, male house-holder - gahapatn, female house-holder. Exercise x A 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. 175. " Dhammo have rakkhati Dhammacr. " " Na duggati gacchati dhammacr. " Nar ca nriyo ca pua katv sugatsu uppajjissanti. Bhagin tassa smin saddi janani passitu sve gamissati. Ppakr, tumhe ppa katv duggatsu uppajjissatha. Idni maya brahmacrino homa.

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176. Mahesiyo nrna pua ktu dhana denti. 177. Hatthino ca hatthiniyo ca aavsu ca pabbatesu ca vasanti. 178. Mayha smino janan bhikkhunna* ca upsikna ca sagahi. 179. Mahesi narapatin saddhi sve nagara ppuissati. 180. Medhvino ca medhviniyo ca appamdena Dhamma uggahitv mutti labhissanti. 181. Puakrino brahmacrhi saddhi vasitu icchanti. 182. Nriyo mahesi passitu nagara agamisu. 183. Bhikkhuniyo gahapatnna ovda adasu. 184. "Appamda ca medhvi - dhana seha'va** rakkhati." * Niggahita () when followed by a group consonant is changed into the nasal of that particular group, e.g., sa sa aha aha ta + + + + + gaho hna pi ca dhana = = = = = sagaho sahna aham'pi aha ca tandhana

** Seha + iva.

B 148.Those who act righteously will not do evil and be born in evil states. 149.The well-doers will obtain their deliverance. 150.My husband mounted the elephant and fell on the ground. 151.She went to school with her sister. 152.The queen's mother is certainly a wise lady. 153.Boys and girls are studying with diligence to get presents from their mothers and fathers. 154.Men and women go with flowers in their hands to the temple everyday. 155.My sister is protecting her mother as an excellent treasure. 156.Mother, I shall go to see my uncle and aunt tomorrow. 157.Amongst celebates* there are wise men. 158.Having seen the elephant, the she-goats ran away through fear. 159.The king, accompanied by** the queen, arrived in the city yesterday. * Use the Locative. ** Use "Saddhi"

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Lesson XI A. Declension of Nouns ending in " u " and " "


Bhikkhu, m. mendicant SINGULAR Nom. Voc. Acc. Instr. Abl. Dat., Gen. Loc. PLURAL bhikkhu bhikkh, bhikkhavo bhikkhu bhikkh, bhikkhavo, bhikkhave bhikkhu bhikkh, bhikkhavo bhikkhun bhikkhbhi, bhikkhhi bhikkhun bhikkhbhi, bhikkhhi bhikkhumh, bhikkhusm bhikkhuno, bhikkhussa bhikkhna bhikkhumhi, bhikkhsu bhikkhusmi yu, n. age. SING. Nom., Voc. Acc. yu yu PLU. y, yuni y, yuni

The rest like the masculine

Terminations SINGULAR Nom. Voc. Acc. m. -- n. -- PLURAL m. , avo , avo, ave , avo n. , ni , ni , ni

The rest like the " i " terminations

Dhenu, f. cow SINGULAR Nom., Voc Acc. Instr., Abl. Dat., Gen. Loc. PLURAL dhenu, dhen, dhenuyo dhenu dhen, dhenuyo dhenuy dhenbhi, dhenhi dhenuy dhenna dhenuy, dhenuya dhensu Terminations SINGULAR Nom., Voc Acc. - PLURAL , yo , yo

The rest like " i " terminations

Abhibh, m. conqueror

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SINGULAR Nom., Voc Acc. abhibh abhibhu

PLURAL abhibh, abhibhuvo abhibh, abhibhuvo

The rest like bhikkhu

Sabba, m. All-knowing One SINGULAR Nom., Voc Acc. sabba sabbau PLURAL sabba, sabbauno sabba, sabbauno

The rest like bhikkhu

Gotrabh, n. The Sanctified One SINGULAR Nom., Voc gotrabh


The rest like bhikkhu

PLURAL gotrabh, gotrabhni

Vadh, f. young wife SINGULAR Nom., Voc


The rest like dhenu Words :

PLURAL vadh, vadhuyo

vadh

vuso Bhante Cakkhu Dru Dpa Kata Khra Kujara Maccu Madhu Paha Sdhuka Sen Tia Ygu Yva Tva

indec. indec. n. n. n. m. n. m. m. m. m.

friend, brother Lord, Rev. Sir eye wood, fire-wood light, lamp grateful person milk elephant death honey question indec. well f. army n. grass m. rice-gruel indec. till* indec. until*

*Correlatives as long as-so long

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B Verbs : Imperative and Benedictive Mood (Pacam)


Terminations SINGULAR 3rd 2nd 1st tu hi mi paca, to cook SINGULAR 3rd pacatu cook 2nd paca, pachi may you cook 1st pacmi cook may he cook may you cook may I cook PLURAL pacantu may they PLURAL antu tha ma

pacatha pacma may we

This mood is used to express a command or wish, and it corresponds to the Imperative and Benedictive moods. The vowel preceding " hi ", " mi ", and " ma " is always lengthened. In the second person there is an additional termination " a ". Illustrations :

COMMAND Idha gaccha, come here. Tva gharasm nikkhamhi, you go away from the house. Tumhe idha tihatha, you stand here. WISH Aha Buddho bhavmi, Buddho dhamma desetu, may I become a Buddha. let the Buddha preach the Doctrine.

The prohibitive particle " m " is sometimes used with this mood,* e.g.,

m gaccha m agamsi, m ahsi, m bhuji,


Verbs :

do not go. do not go. do not stand. do not eat.

* This particle is mostly used with the Aorist 3rd person; e.g.,

Bujjhati Dhunti Kujjhati Jvati Pucchati

(budha) (dhu) (kudha) (jva) (puccha)

understands destroys gets angry lives asks

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Exercise xi A 185. Sabba bhikkhna dhamma desetu! 186. Dhenu tia khdatu! 187. vuso, aaviy dru haritv aggi karohi. 188. Gahapatayo, bhikkhsu m kujjhatha. 189. Bhikkhave, aha dhamma desessmi, sdhuka sutha. 190. " Dhuntha maccuno sena - nagra'va kujaro. " 191. Yv'ha gacchmi tva idha tihatha. 192. Bhikkh paha sdhuka bujjhantu! 193. Siss, sad kata hotha. 194. Katauno, tumhe yu labhitv cira jvatha! 195. "Dhamma pibatha, bhikkhavo. " 196. Mayha cakkhhi ppa na passmi, Bhante. 197. Dhenuy khra gahetv madhun saddhi pibma. 198. vuso, bhikkna purato m tihatha. 199. Bhante, bhikkhumh maya paha pucchma. 200. Nar ca nriyo ca bhikkhhi dhamma sdhuka sutv pua katv sugatsu uppajjantu!

B 160.Let him salute the mendicants! 161.May you live long, O All-knowing One! 162.Do not give grass to the cows in the afternoon. 163.Friend, do not go till I come. 164.Rev. Sirs, may you see no evil with your eyes! 165.Let us sit on the ground and listen to the advice of the Bhikkhus. 166.May you be grateful persons! 167.Let them stay here till we bring firewood from the forest. 168.O young wives, do not get angry with your husbands. 169.May I destroy the army of death! 170.May I drink rice-gruel with honey! 171.May we know your age, O bhikkhu! 172.Do not stand in front of the elephant. 173.O house-holders, treat your mothers and fathers well. 174.Friends, do not offer rice-gruel to the Bhikkhus till we come. 175.Do not drink honey, child.

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Lesson XII A. Personal Pronouns


Amha, I SINGULAR Nom. Acc. Instr. Abl. Dat., Gen Loc. PLURAL aha maya, amhe, (no) ma, mama amhka, amhe, (no) may (me) amhebhi, amhehi, (no) may amhebhi, amhehi mama, mayha, amhka, amhe, (no) amha, mama, (me) mayi amhesu Tumha, you SINGULAR Nom. Acc. Instr. Abl. Dat., Gen (vo) Loc. tva, tuva ta, tava, tva, tuva tvay, tay, (te) tvay, tay tava, tuyha, tumha, (te) tvayi, tayi PLURAL tumhe , (vo) tumhka, tumhe, (vo) tumhebhi, tumhehi, (vo) tumhebhi, tumhehi tumha, tumhka, tumhesu

" te ", "me ", " vo ", and " no ", are not used in the beginning of a sentence.

B. Conditional Mood (sattam)


Terminations SINGULAR 3rd 2nd 1st eyya eyysi eyymi paca, to cook SINGULAR 3rd PLURAL pace, paceyya he should cook paceyyu they should cook 2nd paceyysi you should cook paceyytha you should cook 1st paceyymi I should cook paceyyma we should cook
The third person singular " eyya " is sometimes changed into " e ". This mood is also used to express wish, command, prayer, etc. When it is used in a conditional sense, the sentence often begins with " sace ", " ce " or " yadi " -if.

PLURAL eyyu eyytha eyyma

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Words: -

Alikavd roceti Asdhu Bhajati Bhaati Dna Eva Jinti Kadariya Kodha Khippa Paita Ppaka Sdhu Vyamati Vaa Sacca Yad Tad
* Correlatives

m. he who speaks lies (ruca with ) informs, tells, announces m. bad man; adj. bad, wicked (bhaja) associates (bhaa) speaks, recites n. alms, giving, gift indec. thus (ji) conquers m. miser, avaricious person m. anger indec. quickly, immediately m. wise man adj. evil m. good man; adj. good (yamu with vi and a) strives, tries m. appearance, colour, praise, quality n. truth indec. when* indec. then*

Exercise xii A 201. " Gma no gaccheyyma." 202. " Buddho'pi Buddhassa bhaeyya vaa. " 203. " Na bhaje ppake mitte. " 204. " Sacca bhae, na kujjheyya. " 205. " Dhamma vo desessmi. " 206. Sace aha saccni bujjheyymi te roceyymi. 207. Yadi tva vymeyysi khippa paito bhaveyysi. 208. Yva tumhe ma passeyytha tva idha tiheyytha. 209. Sace bhikkh dhamma deseyyu maya sdhuka sueyyma. 210. Sdhu bhante, eva no kareyyma. 211. Yadi tva may saddhi gantu iccheyysi tava janani rocetv gaccheyysi. 212. Amhesu ca tumhesu ca gahapatayo na khujjheyyu. 213. Sace dhamma sutv mayi saddh tava uppajjeyya aha tva adhipati kareyymi. 214. Yva tumhe mutti labheyytha tva appamdena vyameyytha. 215. " Akkodhena jine kodha - asdhu sdhun jine Jine kadariya dnena - saccena alikavdina ". 216. " Khippa vyama; paito bhava. "

B 176.You should not go with him. 177.Children, you should always speak the truth. 178.Rev. Sir. I should like to ask a question from you. 179.Well, you should not be angry with me thus. 180.I shall not go to see your friend until I receive a letter from you. 181.You should endeavour to overcome your anger by patience. 182.If you would listen to my advice, I would certainly go with you. 183.You should tell me if he were to send a book to you. 184.We should like to hear the doctrine from you, Rev. Sir. 185.By giving we should conquer the misers. 186.We should not be born in evil state until we should understand the truths.

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187.Would you go immediately and bring the letter to me? 188.If a good person were to associate with a wicked person, he may also become a wicked person. 189.Should wicked persons associate with the wise, they would soon become good men. 190.If you should hear me well, faith should arise in you.

46

Lesson XIII Relative Pronouns


Ya, who, which, that SINGULAR m. Nom. Acc. Instr. Abl. Dat., Gen Loc. yo n. ya ya yena yamh, yasm yassa yamhi, yasmi PLURAL m. Nom. Acc Instr., Abl Dat., Gen Loc. ye n. f. ye, yni y, yyo ye ye, yni y, yyo yebhi, yehi ybhi, yhi yesa, yesna ysa, ysna yesu ysu Ta, who, he SINGULAR m. Nom. Acc. Instr. Abl. Dat., Gen Loc. so n. na, ta na, ta nena, tena namh, tamh nasm, tasm nassa, tassa namhi, tamhi nasmi, tasmi PLURAL m. Nom. Acc. Instr., Abl tbhi, thi Dat., Gen tsna Loc. ne, te ne, te n. ne,te, nni, tni ne,te, nni, tni nebhi, nehi, tebhi, tehi f. n, nyo, t, tyo n, nyo, t, tyo nbhi, nhi, f. s na, ta nya, tya nya, tya tissya, tiss tass, tya tissa, tassa, tya f. y ya yya yya yassa, yya yassa, yya

nesa, nesna, tesa, tesna tsa, nesu, tesu tsu

The forms beginning with " t " are more commonly used. The pronouns " ya " and " ta " are frequently used together. They are treated as Correlatives.

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Examples :-

" Yo Dhamma passati so Buddha passati " He who sees the Dhamma sees the Buddha " Ya hoti ta hotu " -be it as it may ya icchasi ta vadehi -Say what you wish " Yo gilna upahti so ma upahti " He who serves the sick serves me Eta, that (yonder) SINGULAR m. Nom. etyo Acc. etyo eso eta n. eta eta f. es eta PLURAL m. ete ete n. ete, etni ete, etni f. et, et,

The rest like " ta ", with the exception of forms beginning with " n ". The Interrogative Pronoun :

Ka, who, which? SINGULAR m. Nom. Acc. Instr. Abl. Dat., Gen Loc. ko ka, n. ka, ki ka, ki kena, kamh, kasm kassa, kissa kamhi, kasmi kimhi, kismi f. k k kya,

kya kya, kass kya, kya

The rest like " ya " " ci " is suffixed to all the cases of " ka " in all the genders to form Indefinite Pronouns ; e.g., koci, kci, any, etc. The following adjectives are declined like "ya " :-

Aa Aatara Apara Dhakkhia Eka Itara Katara Katama Pacchima Para Pubba Puratthima Sabba Uttara

another certain other, subsequent, Western South one, certain, some different, the remaining what? which? (generally of the two) what? which? (generally of many) West other, different first, foremost, Eastern, earlier East all higher, superior, Northern

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Aa, aatara, itara, eka are sometimes declined in the Dative and Genitive feminine singular as: aiss, aatariss, itariss and ekiss respectively; in the Locative feminine singular as: aissa, aatarissa, itarissa and ekissa respectively. Pubba, para, apara are sometimes declined in the Ablative masculine singular, as: pubb, par, and apar respectively; in the locative masculine singular, as: pubbe, pare, and apare respectively. Words :

dya indec. p. p. (d with ) having taken. Dis f. quarter, direction. Ki indec. Why? what? pray Nma n. name; mind indec. by name, indeed, (Sometimes used without a meaning.) Nu lndec. pray, I wonder! (Sometimes used in asking a question.) Payojana indec. use, need V indec. either, or
Exercise xiii A 217. Ko nma tva? 218. Ko nma eso? 219. Ko nma te cariyo? 220. Idni eso ki karissati? 221. Ki tva eta pucchasi? 222. Es nr te ki hoti? 223. Sve kim'ete karissanti? 224. Kassa bhikkhussa ta potthaka pesessma? 225. Tesa dhanena me ki payojana? 226. Ko jnti 'ki'eso karissat'ti?' 227. Kissa phala nma eta? 228. Kya disya tass janan idni vasati? 229. Kassa dhamma sotu ete icchanti? 230. " Yo Dhamma passati so Buddham passati, yo Buddha passati so Dhamma pasati ". 231. Ya tva icchasi ta etassa arocehi. 232. Ya te karonti tam* eva gahetv para loka gacchanti. 233. Yassa disya so vasati tassa disya ete'pi vasitu icchanti. 234. Eso naro eka vadati, es nr aa vadati. 235. Paresa bhani maya na gahma. 236. Etni phalni m tassa sakuassa detha. 237. Idni sbbe'pi te Bhikkh uttarya disya aatarasmi rme vasanti. 238. Etasmi nagare sabbe nar apara nagara agamisu. 239. Kici'pi ktu so na jnti. 240. Katama disa tumhe gantu iccheyytha -puratthima v dakkhia v pacchima v uttara v? 241. Katarya disya tva suriya passasi -pubya v aparya v? * When a niggahita () is followed by a vowel, it is sometimes changed into " m ". See note in Exercise 10 - A

B 191.Who is she? 192.What is his name? 193.In which direction did he go? 194.Is he a relative of yours?

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195.What is the name of that fruit? 196.From whom did you buy those books? 197.With whom shall we go to-day? 198.In whose garden are those boys and girls playing? 199.In which direction do you see the sun in the morning? 200.Of what use is that to him or to her? 201.To whom did he give those presents? 202.What is the use of your wealth, millionaire? You are not going to take all that with you to the other world. Therefore* eat well. Have no attachment to your wealth. Grief results thereby.** Do merit with that wealth of yours. Erect hospitals for the sick schools for children, temples for monks and nuns. It is those good actions you take with you when you go to the other world. 203.Those who do good deeds are sure to be born in good states. 204.Let him say what he likes. 205.We did not write all those letters. 206.You should not tell others all that you see with your eyes. 207.We like to live in cities in which wise men live. * Use " tasm ". ** Use " tena ".

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Lesson XIV Participles


In P there are six kinds of Participles -viz : (i) Present Active participles, (ii) Present Passive Participles, (iii) Past Indeclinable Participles,* (iv) Past Active Participles, (v) Past Passive Participles, and (vi) Potential Participles
* These have been already dealt with in lesson VIII - B. See Table in lesson VI - B i. The Present Active Participles are formed by adding " anta " and " mna " to the root; e.g:,

paca paca

+ anta + mna

= pacanta; = pacamna,

cooking.

ii. The Present Passive Participles are formed by adding the Passive suffix "ya " between the root and the suffix " mna ". If the ending of the root is " a " or " ", it is changed into " i " , e.g.,

paca s

+ ya + ya

+ mna + mna

= pacyamna, = syamna,

being cooked; being heard.

Generally these suffixes are added to the forms the roots assume before the third person plural terminations of the present tense. These participles are inflectional and agree with the noun or pronoun they qualify, in gender, number and case. They are also used when contemporaneity of action is to be indicated. The sense of the English words 'as, since, while, whilst' may be expressed by them. Declension of pacanta in the masculine

SINGULAR Nom. Voc. Acc. Instr. Abl. Dat., Gen Loc.

PLURAL

paca, pacanto pacanto, pacant paca, paca, pac pacanto, pacant pacanta pacante pacat, pacantena pacantebhi, pacantehi pacat, pacantamh pacantebhi, pacantehi pacantasm pacato, pacantassa pacata, pacantna pacati, pacante, pacantesu pacantamhi, pacantasmi
Feminine

The feminine is formed by adding the suffix " ", as pacanta + = pacant, and is declined like feminine nouns ending in " " (See lesson X.) Neuter

SINGULAR

PLURAL

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Nom., Voc Acc.

paca, pacanta

pacant, pacantni pacante, pacantni

The rest like the masculine. The Present Participles ending in " mna " are declined like " nara ", " ka " and " phala "; as pacamno (m.) pacamn (f.) and pacamna (n.) Illustrations :

gacchanto puriso, going man, or the man who is going. gacchantassa purisassa, to the man who is going. paccant (or) pacamn itth, the woman who is cooking. so vadamno gacchati, he goes speaking. patamna phala, the falling fruit. rakkhyamna nagara, the city that is being protected. Aha magge gacchanto ta purisa passi, I saw that man while I was going on the way.
(iv), (v) The Past Active and Passive participles are formed by adding the suffix " ta ", or " na " after " d " etc. to the root or stem. If the ending of the root is " a ", it is often changed into " i ". Examples :-

su paca rakkha chidi bhidi

+ ta + ta + ta + ta +na + na

= = = = = =

ta, suta, pacita, rakkhita, chinna, bhinna,

known heard cooked protected cut broken

These are also inflectional and agree with the noun or pronoun they qualify in gender, number and case. They are frequently used to supply the place of verbs, sometimes in conjunction with the auxiliaries " asa " and " hu " to be. Illustrations :

So gato, he went or he is gone. (Here hoti is understood.) hito naro, the man who stood. hitassa narassa, to the man who stood or to the man standing. hitya nriy, to the woman who stood. Buddhena desito dhammo, the Doctrine preached by the Buddha. Sissehi pucchitassa pahassa, to the question asked by the pupils.
(vi) The Potential Participles are formed by adding the suffix " tabba " to the root or stem with or without. If the ending of the root is " a ", it is often changed into " i ". Examples :-

D given. paca

+ tabba + tabba + tabba

= dtabba, should or must be = tabba, should be known. = pacitabba, should be cooked.

These participles too agree with the noun or pronoun they qualify in gender, number and case. The agent is put in the Instrumental.

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Illustrations :

Janako vanditabbo, Janan rakkhitabb, Citta rakkhitabba, Tay gantabba, Svakehi dhammo sotabbo, disciples.
Examples :Root d disa* bhuja gamu gaha kara p su present Act. Participle

the father should be saluted. the mother should be protected. the mind should be guarded. you should go. the Doctrine should be heard by the

denta desenta, desamna passanta, passamna bhujanta, bhu jamna gacchanta, gacchamna gahanta, gahamna karonta, kurumna pibanta, pivanta pibamna, pivamna suanta, suamna

Present Pass. Part. dyamana desyamna passiyamna bhujyamna gacchyamna gayhamna kayiramna, kar yamna pyamna syamna

Past Part. dinna desita diha bhutta gata gahita kata pta suta

Potential Part. dtabba desetabba passitabba bhujitabba gantabba gahetabba kattabba, ktabba ptabba sotabba, suitabba

* disa, (i) to preach; (ii) to see. Desenta, preaching; Passanta, seeing Words :

Atthi v. is, there is Avihehayanta p. part. a + vi + heha, not hurting Bhta n. being Carati v. (cara) wanders Khaggavisakappa m. like a rhinoceros Nidhya ind. p. p. ni + dh, having left aside Pema m. attachment, love Sahya m. friend Tah f. craving Upasakamati v. (kamu with upa + sa) approaches
Exercise xiv A 242. " Eva me suta. " 243. Mayi gate* so gato. 244. Ki tena kata? 245. So tassa vaa bhaamno ma upasakami. 246. Aha magge gacchanto tasmi rukkhe nisinna sakua passi. 247. Bhikkhhi lokassa dhammo desetabbo. 248. Pua kattabba, ppa na ktabba. 249. Ajja etena maggena may gantabba. 250. Sabb itthiyo dhamma sunantiyo etya slya nisdisu. 251. Pait ya ya desa bhajanti tattha tatth'eva pjit honti. 252. Buddhena bujjhitni saccni may'pi bujjhitabbni. 253. Para loka gacchante tay kata pua v ppa v tay saddhi gacchati. 254. hito v nisinno v gacchanto v sayanto (or sayno) v aha sabbesu sattesu metta karomi. 255. Vejjaslya vasantna gilnna pure osadha dtabba, pacch aparesa dtabba. 256. Ki nu kattabban'ti ajnant te mama purato ahasu.

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257.

" Pemato** jyati soko - pemato jyati bhaya; Pemato vippamuttassa - n'atthi soko kuto bhaya. " 258. " Tahya jyati soko - tahya jyati bhaya; Tahya vippamuttassa - n'atthi soko kuto bhaya. " 259. Ekasmi samaye aataro devo rattiya Buddha upasakamitv saddhya vanditv bhmiya ahsi. hito so devo Buddha eka paha pucchi. Pucchantassa devassa Buddho eva dhamma desesi. 260. Te gagya nahyante maya passimh. 261. " Sabbesu bhtesu nidhya daa Avihehaya aataram'pi tesa Na puttam'iccheyya kuto sahya Eko care Khaggavisakappo. " * This is the Locative absolute. ** " To " is another suffix for forming the ablative.

B 208.This wad done by you. 209.The branch was cut by him. 210.I saw a man going in the street. 211.She stood saluting the sage. 212.I came home when he had gone to school. 213.The monkeys ate the fallen fruits. 214.They saw her sitting in the hall. 215.You should not bathe in the river. 216.Let him do what should be done. 217.Thus should it be understood by you. 218.The books written by me should not be given to them. 219.My friends saw the jewel that was thrown into the fire. 220.I sat on the ground listening to the doctrine preached by the monks. 221.The virtuous should do much merit. 222.The people saw the sick persons drinking medicine given by the physician.

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Lesson XV A. Demonstrative Pronouns


Ima, this SINGULAR m. Nom. Acc. Instr. Abl. Dat., Gen. Loc. aya ima n. ida, ima ida, ima imin, anena imamh, imasm asm imassa, assa imamhi, imasmi asmi PLURAL m. Nom., Acc Instr., Abl Dat., Gen. Loc. ime n. ime, imni imebhi, imehi, ebhi, ehi imesa, imesna, esa, esna imesu, esu f. im, imyo imbhi, imhi imsa, imsna imsu f. aya ima

imya imya imiss, imya, ass, assya imissa, imya, assa

Amu, this, that, such SINGULAR m. Nom. Acc. Instr. Abl. Dat., Gen. Loc. n. f. asu, amuko adu asu, amu amu adu amu amun amuy amumh, amusm amuy amuno, amussa, amuss, amuy amumhi, amusmi amussa, amuya, PLURAL m. Nom., Acc Instr., Abl Dat., Gen. Loc. am n. f. am, amni amuyo ambhi, amhi amsa, amsna amsu

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B. Adjectives
In Pi Adjectives are inflectional and they agree with the substantives they qualify in gender number and case. Generally they are placed before the noun. Adjectives ending in " a " are declined in the masculine feminine, and neuter like nara, phala, and ka respectively. Sometimes in the feminine they are declined like nr. Some adjectives may be formed by adding " vantu " to nouns ending in " a ", " " and " mantu " to nouns ending in " i " and " u ". Examples : -

bala bandhu dhiti gua

+ + + +

vantu mantu mantu vantu

= = = =

balavantu, powerful bandhumantu, having relatives dhitimantu, courageous guavantu, virtuous

These adjectives are declined like " pacanta " with the exception of the Nominative singular; e.g., :-

SING. bandhum dhitim guav


words:

PLU. bandhumanto, bandhumant dhitimanto, dhitimant guavanto, guavant

Antima, adj, last sana, n. seat Arahanta, p.p. araha (used as noun & adjective) exalted, worthy, sanctified Bhagavantu, adj. blessed -(used as an epithet of the Buddha, the Blessed One.) Dgha, adj. long Kaha, adj. black Khuddaka, adj. small Majjhima, adj. middle Mahanta, adj. big Namo, indec. honour, homage, praise, salutation Nca, adj. mean, low Nla, adj. blue Paipad, f. course, path, practice, conduct Pta, adj. yellow Ratta, adj. red Samm-sambuddha, m. Fully Enlightened One Seta, adj. white Sta, adj. cold, cool Sukhita, adj. happy, healthy Tarua, adj. young Ucca, adj. high Uha, adj. hot

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Exercise xv A 262. 263. 264. 265. 266. 267. 268. 269. 270. 271. 272. 273. 274. 275. 276. 277. 278. 279. 280. 281. 282. 283. 284. 285. 286. Kim'ida? Kassa imni? Imin te ki payojana? Ida mayha hotu. Ko nma aya puriso? Aya me mtuln hoti. Ida may kattabba. Sabba ida asukena kata. Aya smi cao na hoti. Aya me antim jti. Aya seto asso khippa na dhvati. Guavantehi ime giln sagahitabb. " Yath ida tath eta - yath eta tath ida. " " Ida vo tna hotu - sukhit hontu tayo! " " Tva etasmi pabbate vasa, aha imasmi pabbate vasissmi. " " Namo tassa Bhagavato, arahato smm-sambuddhassa. " Asmi loke ca paramhi ca guavant sukhena vasanti. Asukya nma visikhya asukasmi ghare aya taruo vejjo vasati. Imehi pupphehi Buddha pjetha. Maya imasmi rme mahantni rukkhni passma. Imassa gilnassa uha udaka dtabba. Janako ucce sane nisdi, putto nce sane nisdi. Imesu pupphesu setni ca rattni ca ptni ca pupphni gahetv gacchhi. Imni khuddakni phalni maya na kima. Imin dghena maggena ete gamissanti.

B 223.Who is this boy? 224.This is my book. 225.Who are these men? 226.He is living in this house. 227.This was done by me. 228.There is such a young doctor in this street. 229.Cold water should not be drunk by the sick. 230.He is the last boy in the school. 231.Did you see him sitting on this high seat? 232.Take these long sticks and throw into the fire. 233.May all these beings be happy! 234.I like to mount this white horse. 235.Bring those small books and give to these boys. 236.You should wash your face with this hot water. 237.These Exalted Ones understood the middle Path of the Buddha. 238.This Doctrine was preached by the Blessed One. 239.We shall go by this long way. 240.There are tall, big trees in this forest. 241.I shall take these white flowers; you may take those red flowers. 242.These are small ships. 243.Young men and women should always associate with the virtuous. 244.This city is protected by a powerful king. 245.The courageous do not run away through fear. 246.Little children are playing with these little dogs. 247.May the Blessed One preach the Doctrine to these monks and nuns!

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Lesson XVI Numerals


1. eka 2. dvi 3. ti 4. catu 5. paca 6. cha 7. satta 8. aha 9. nava 10. dasa 11. ekdasa 12. dvdasa, brasa 13. terasa, teasa 14. cuddasa, catuddasa 15. pacadasa, paarasa 16. soasa, sorasa 17. sattadasa, sattrasa 18. ahadasa, ahrasa 19. ek'na-vsati (lit. one less twenty) 20. vsati, vsa 21. eka-vsati 22. dve-vsati, dv-vsati 23. te-vsati 24. catu-vsati 25. paca-vsati 26. chabbsati 27. satta-vsati 28. aha-vsati 29. ek'na-tisati 30. tisati, tis 31. ekatisati, ekatis 32. dvattisati, dvattis 33. tettisati, tettis 34. catuttisati, catuttis 35. paca-tisati, paca-tis 36. chattisati, chattis 37. satta-tisati, satta-tis 38. aha-tisati, aha-tis 39. ek'na cattsati 40. cattsati, cattsa, catts 49. ek'na pasa 50. pasa, pas 60. sahi 70. sattati 79. ek'nsti 80. asti 90. navuti 99. ek'na-sata 100. sata

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200. dvi sata 1,000. sahassa 10,000. dasa-sahassa, nahuta 100,000. sata-sahassa, lakkha 10,000,000. koi 100,000,000. dasa-koi 1,000,000,000. sata-koi
" Eka ", " ti " and " catu " are declinable in the three genders. When " eka " is used in the sense of 'some, certain, incomparable', it is declinable in the three genders and in both numbers. Otherwise it is declined only in the singular. Numerals from " dvi " to "ahrasa " are declined only in the plural. With the exception of " ti " and " catu " all the other numerals are common to all genders. These numerals agree with the noun they qualify in number and case. Eka, ti, and catu agree in gender also. Generally they are placed before the noun. Declension of " dvi " Nom., Acc Instr., Abl Dat., Gen. dve, duve dvbhi, dvhi dvinna

Loc.

dvsu " ti " m. n. tni tianna f. tisso tissanna

Nom., Acc Instr., Abl Dat., Gen. Loc.

tayo tbhi, thi tia tsu

" catu " m. Nom., Acc Instr., Abl Dat., Gen. Loc. n. f. cattro, caturo cattri catasso catbhi, cathi catunna catussanna catusu, catsu " paca " Nom., Acc Instr., Abl Dat., Gen. Loc. paca pacabhi, pacahi pacanna pacasu

Numerals from " ek'navsati " to " aha-navuti " and " koi "are treated as feminines and are declined only in the singular like feminine " i " (see bhmi). Tis , catts, and pas are declined like feminine " " (see ka). Numerals from " ek'nasata " to " lakkha " are declined only in the singular like the neuter " a " (see phala). When, however, numerals from " vsati " and upwards are used collectively they take the plural; e.g.,

dve vsatiyo, ti satni,

two twenties three hundreds

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Ordinals

1. pahama (first) 2. Dutiya (second) 3. Tatiya (third) 4. Catuttha (fourth) 5. Pacama (fifth) 6. Chaha (sixth)
The rest are formed by suffixing " ma ", as sattama (seventh), ahama (eighth), etc. The ordinals also agree with the noun they qualify in gender, number and case. In the masculine and neuter they are declined like " nara " and " phala " respectively. In the feminine " pahama ", " dutiya ", and " tatiya " are declined like " ka ". The ordinals from " catuttha " to " dasama " assume the feminine suffix " " and are declined like " nr "; e.g., catuttha + = catutth, sattama + i = sattam, etc. The feminines of other ordinals are formed by adding " " directly to the numerals, as ekdasa + " " = ekdas. Words:

Divasa m., n. day Ito indec. hence, ago, from now, from here Msa m., n. month Pana indec. but, however, further (sometimes used without a meaning) Pariccheda m. limit, extent, chapter Saraa n. refuge Sla n. morality, precept, virtue Vassa m., n. year, rain
Exercise xvi A 287. Cattr'imni, bhikkhave, saccni. 288. " Eka nma ki? " 289. Tsu lokesu satt uppajjanti. 290. Ekasmi hatthe paca aguliyo honti. 291. Ito sattame divase aha gamissmi. 292. Maya ti vassni imasmi gme vasimh. 293. Aya pana imasmi potthake soasamo paricchedo hoti. 294. " Buddha saraa gacchmi. Dutiyam'pi Buddha saraa gacchmi. Tatiyam'pi Buddha saraa gacchmi' " 295. So tassa tia puttna cattri cattri katv dvdasa phalni adsi. 296. Etasmi ghare catasso itthiyo vasanti. 297. Yo pahama gaccheyya so pakra labheyya. 298. Imasmi ghare aya tatiy bhmi. 299. Antimena paricchedena gahapathi paca slni rakkhitabbni. 300. Guavanto sad paca slni ca ahamiya ctuddasiya pacadasiya ca aha slni rakkhanti. 301. Bhikkh pan'eva dvisata sttavsati sikkhpadni rakkhanti. 302. Tassa sehino catupasakoi dhana atthi. 303. Ekasmi mse tisa divas honti. Ekasm vasse pana tisata pacasahi divas honti. 304. Imya phaslya pacasatni siss uggahanti.

B 248.I gave him four books.

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249.He lived three days in our house. 250.We have two eyes, but only one mouth. 251.There are thirty days in one month, and twelve months in one year. 252.They are now studying the twelfth chapter of the book. 253.Which of these two presents would you take? 254.The child bought three mangoes, ate one and took two home. 255.He will come on the 28th day of this month. 256.They took the Three Refuges and the five precepts to-day. 257.There were two hundred patients in the hospital yesterday. 258.Seven days hence my father will come to see me. 259.Some householders observe the ten precepts on the fifteenth day. 260.If you do evil, you will be born in the four evil states. 261.If you do good, you will be born in the seven states of happiness. 262.He gave five hundred and received thousand. 263.She brought three presents for her three little sisters. 264.My age is eighteen years. 265.In his 29th year he left home, and endeavouring for six years he understood the Four Truths and became a fully Enlightened One in his thirty-fifth year. After becoming a Buddha He preached the Doctrine for forty-five years.

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Lesson XVII A. Some Irregular Nouns ending in " a "


Atta*, m. soul, self SINGULAR Nom. Voc. Acc. Instr. Abl. Dat., Gen. Loc. PLURAL att attno atta, att attno attna, atta attno attena, attan attanebhi, attanehi attan, attamh, attasm attanebhi, attanehi attano attna attani attanesu

* This noun is sometimes used in the sense of a reflexive pronoun.

Rja, m. king SINGULAR Nom. Voc. Acc. Instr. Abl. Dat., Gen. Loc. rj rja, rj rjna, rja ra, rjena ra, rjamh, rjasm rao, rjino rae, rjini rjamhi, rjasmi PLURAL rjno rjno rjno rjbhi, rjhi rjebhi, rjehi rjbhi, rjhi rjebhi, rjehi raa, rjna, rjna rjusu, rjsu, rjesu

B. Conjugations
In Pi there are seven conjugations. They differ according to their respective conjugational signs (Vikaraa) which are added on to the roots before the terminations. There is no definite rule to indicate to which class of conjugation the roots belong. The conjugations are as follows :-

Class Conj. sign 1st paca -to cook a bhavati 2nd rudhi -to hinder ......a

Pres. 3rd pac + a + ti = pacati bh + a + ti = bhav + a + ti =

(In this conjugation too the conjugational sign is " a ", but " " is argumented before the final consonant of the root and is afterwards changed into the nasal of the groupconsonant that follows. This rule applies only to the active voice.)

bhuja -to eat

ru--dh + a + ti = rundhati bhu--ja + a + ti = bhujati

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3rd divu -to shine h -to abandon 4th su -to hear

ya

div + ya + ti = divyati = dibyati = dibbati h + ya + ti = hyati su + + ti = suti also - su + u + ti = suoti pa + apa + u + ti = pputi ji + n + ti =jinti tanu + o + ti = tanoti kara + o + ti = karoti + yira + ti = kayirati cura + e + ti = coreti cura + aya + ti = corayati

u, , u

pa + apa -to arrive 5th ji -to conquer 6th tanu -to spread n* o, yira

7th cura -to steal

e, aya

* In the conjugation of the root ki, to buy, which belongs to this class n is changed into ; e.g. ki + + ti = kiti. The initial vowel in this class, not followed by a double consonant, undergoes vuddhi substitute, i.e., a, i and u become , e, o respectively. Words:

Amacca m. Attha m. Hi indec. Ntha m. Psda m. Raha n. Sakiissati Siy Ti indec. Vihaati Visujjhati

minister matter, good, welfare, meaning indeed lord, refuge palace country, kingdom, realm (kilisa with sa) is defiled 3rd pers. singular subjunctive of asa, to be thus. This particle is used in quoting the words of others, at the end of sentences, etc. (hana with vi) perishes (sudha with vi) is purified
Exercise xvii A

305. " Aya me attano attho. " 306. " Na me so att. " 307. " Bhagavato eta* attha roceyyma. " 308. " Dhamma cara rja!. " 309. " Att hi attano ntho - Ko hi ntho paro siy. " 310. " Attna rakkhanto para rakkhati. Para rakkhanto attna rakkhati. " 311. Atte pana amhka rahe guav rj ahosi. 312. Ra likhita* ida lekhana amacc passantu! 313. Ppakehi amaccehi rao ko attho? 314. Amhka rjna passitu puratthimya disya dve rjno gat. 315. Rj attano mahesiy saddhi psde vasati. 316. Cathi dishi cattro rjno gantv Bhagavanta vanditv etam'attha pucchisu. 317. " Putt m'atthi dhana m'atthi - Iti blo vihaati Att hi attano n'atthi - Kuto putt kuto dhana. " 318. " Attan'va kata ppa - attan sakilissati Attan akata ppa - attan'va visujjhati. "

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* is changed into m.

B 266.l am my own master. 267.He advised himself. 268.These presents were sent by the king. 269.Good or evil is done by oneself. 270.The ministers taking their own sons went to the palace to see the king. 271.It is not good for kings to get angry with the people. 272.Virtuous kings are always respected by all. 273.He does not know his own good. 274.Righteous kings do not wish to associate with wicked kings. 275.By wisdom is one purified. 276.Ministers obtain wealth by means of kings. 277.He for his own good associates with kings and ministers. 278.Some kings perish on account of their greediness towards the countries of others. 279.The ministers told that matter to the king. 280.He does not shine like a king.

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Lesson XVIII A. Declension of Satthu, m. Teacher


SINGULAR Nom. Voc. Acc. Instr., Abl. Dat., Gen. Loc. bhattu, dtu, jetu, kattu, nattu, tu, netu, sotu, vattu, satth sattha, satth satthra satthr satthu, satthuno satthussa satthari husband giver conqueror doer nephew knower leader hearer talker PLURAL satthro satthro satthro, satthre satthrebhi, satthrehi satthrna, satthna satthresu, satthusu

etc. are declined like " satthu ".

Pitu, m. father SINGULAR Nom. Voc. Acc. Instr., Abl Dat., Gen Loc. pit pita, pit pitara pitar, pitun pitu, pituno pitussa pitari PLURAL pitaro pitaro pitaro, pitare pitbhi, pithi pitarebhi, pitarehi pitarna, pitna pitunna, pitna pitaresu, pitusu

bhtu, brother is declined like " pitu ". mtu, mother is also declined like " pitu " with the exception of the following:

SINGULAR

Inst., Abl. mtar, mtuy Dat., Gen. mtu, mtuy

Dhtu, duhitu - daughter, are declined like " mtu ".

B. Causal Forms (Krita)


Causals are formed by adding " e ", " aya " to roots ending in " u " and " ", " pe ", " paya " to roots ending in " " and all the four or two to the other roots. The terminations are added afterwards. All tenses, moods and participles have their own causal forms. The initial vowel, not followed by a double consonant, often undergoes vuddhi substitute. Sometimes the vuddhi substitutes " e " and " o " are changed into " aya " and " ava " respectively.

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Examples:-

paca paca paca paca

+ + + +

e + ti aya + ti pe paya +

= pceti - causes to cook = pcayati + ti = pcpeti ti = pcpayati

pcesi, pcay, pcpesi, pcpay, he caused to cook pcessati, pcayissati, pcpessati, pcpayissati, he will cause to cook d d chidi chidi ni gamu su bh + + e + pe pe e + e + e + pe = dpeti -causes to give paya = dpayati -causes to give ti = chindeti -causes to cut + ti = chindpeti -causes to cut + ti = naypeti -causes to lead ti = gameti -causes to go ti = sveti -causes to hear ti = bhveti -develops -lit. causes to become

+ + + + + +

Intransitive verbs become transitive, and ordinary transitive verbs take two objects when they assume causal forms. Examples :-

Rukkho patati. So rukkha pteti. Dso odana pacati. So dsa odana pceti.

The tree falls. He makes the tree fall. The servant is cooking rice. He makes the servant cook rice.

Sometimes the agent of the causal verb or, in other words the indirect object is put in the Instrumental case e.g.,

So dsena odana pceti.


In some cases the causal forms modify the original meaning of the verb; e.g.,

vaca -to speak, vceti -reads bh -to be, bhveti -develops, cultivates
Exercise xviii A 319. " Nam'atthu* satthuno ". 320. " Tay suta dhamma amhe'pi svehi ". 321. Satth svake dhamma despeti (or svakehi). 322. Pit putta gma gameti. 323. Mt attano dhtara nahpetv phasla pesesi. 324. Bhatt attano bhariyya atithayo sagahpesi. 325. Dhtaro, dsehi drni harpetv aggi dpetha. 326. Dhthi mtaro ca pitaro ca rakkhitabb, mthi ca pithi ca dhtaro rakkhitabb. 327. Mt dhtare satthra vandpeti. 328. Aha mtuy ca pitar ca saddhi rma gantv te dhamma svessmi. 329. Mtula, maya pana tava nattro homa. Tasm no sdhuka uggahpehi. 330. Satth sotre saccni bodhento gm gma nagar nagara vicarati. 331. Tesa rahe dhitimante netre na passma. 332. Mtari ca pitari ca darena mayha bhatt attano dhanena mahanta ghara krpetv te tattha vaspesi. * Namo + atthu = nam'atthu atthu -Benedictive mood 3rd person singular of asa -to be.

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B 281.Talkers are not always doers. 282.The leaders are not always conquerors. 283.My father taught my brother well and made him a leader of the country. 284.I made my mother give alms to the disciples of the Teacher. 285.My nephew is reading the letter sent by his father. 286.Virtuous daughters cause their husbands to treat their mothers and fathers well. 287.Daily my father and mother cultivate good-will towards all beings and advise us also to do likewise. 288.Of my two brothers one is a talker and the other is a doer. 289.I do not cause my servants to give food to my husband. 290.Let the Teacher cause the monks to preach the Doctrine. There will be knowers. They will understand the Truth and make others realise their Deliverance. 291.Our father made our brothers cut the trees in the garden. 292.The conquerors caused the people to erect a large hall in the kingdom. 293.Daughters, you should not do evil, nor cause others to do evil. 294.The monks should neither dig the ground nor cause others to dig the ground.

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Lesson XIX A. Declension of " go "


go, m. bull SINGULAR Nom. Voc. Acc. Instr. Abl. Dat., Gen. Loc. PLURAL go gvo, gavo gvu, gava, gva gvo, gavo gvena, gavena gobhi, gohi gv, gav, gvamh, gobhi, gohi gavamh, gvasm, gavasm gvassa, gavassa gava, gunna, gona gve, gave, gvamhi, gosu gavamhi, gvasmi, gavasmi mana, n. mind SINGULAR Nom. Voc. Acc. Instr. Abl. Dat., Gen. Loc. PLURAL mana man, manni mana, man manni mana mane, manni mans, manena manebhi, manehi manas, man, manebhi, manehi manamh, manasm manaso, manassa manna manasi, mane, manesu manamhi, manasmi

The following nouns are declined like " mana ":

aha, aya, ceta, chanda, oja, pya, raja, sara, sira, tama, tapa, teja, ura, vaca, vaya, yasa,

day iron mind wish, consent, metre essence water, milk dust lake head darkness asceticism, control majesty shoulder word age glory

B. Perfect Tense (Hyattan)


Terminations

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SINGULAR 3rd 2nd 1st o a paca SINGULAR 3rd 2nd 1st apac apaco apaca, apaca

PLURAL ttha mh

PLURAL apac apacattha apacamh

In this tense, as in the first past tense (ajjatan), " a " is prefixed to the root. Sometimes an additional " " is found in the 1st person. As a rule the Ajjatan is more commonly used than the Hyattan to express the past. It will be safer for the students to adopt the former.* * See lesson VII Exercise xix A 333. 334. 335. 336. 337. 338. 339. 340. 341. 342. 343. 344. 345. 346. 347. " Etad* avoca satth. " " Bhagav etam'ha. " " Idam'avoca Bhagav ". " cariy evam'ha." " Attha hi ntho saraa avoca. " " Satth ta itthi ha -'etiss tava putta deh'ti. " Eko go tamasi khetta agam. Vayas aha paca vsati vassni. " Manas savaro sdhu. " " Ta sdhuka suhi, manasi karohi. " Amhka sattuno pde maya siras avandamh. Tava vacas v manas v m ki ci ppaka kamma karohi. Aya nv ayas kat. Satta ahni maya kici'pi hra na abhujamh. Mayha bht gona tia ad

* Eta + avoca = Etad avoca.

B 295.There is no dust in this street. 296.The consent of the sick monks should be taken. 297.Fathers carry their sons on their shoulders. 298.My father is 45 years of age. 299.The World was in darkness for four, days. 300.We should purify our own mind. 301.A fruit from the tree fell on my head. 302.The farmers caused their sons to give grass to the cattle and went to the city. 303.People reverence him on account of his asceticism. 304.In glory may you shine like the moon. 305.The king by his majesty conquered all the people. 306.They have no anger in their minds. 307.The cattle do not, drink the water of this lake. 308.There is no essence in this milk.

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Lesson XX Compounds (samsa)


A Samsa is a compound which is composed of two or more simple words. As a rule only the final member of the compound takes the case terminations. The preceding members, with a few exceptions, drop their case endings and assume their bases. The component parts of the compound are combined, wherever necessary, according to the rules of Sandhi.

In Pali there are five classes of compounds, viz:1. Adjectival Compounds (Kammadhraya), 2. Case Compounds (Tappurissa), 3. Copulative Compounds (Dvanda), 4. Attributive Compounds(Bahubbhi) and 5. Adverbial Compounds (Avyaybhva).
1. An Adjectival Compound (Kammadhraya) is that which is formed by combining a substantive with an adjective, or a noun in apposition, or an indeclinable used in an adjectival sense, as its prior member. In some instances the qualifying adjective follows the noun. Examples : -

Taruo-puriso taruapuriso (m) young man Taru-ka taruaka (f) young maiden Tarua-phala taruaphala (n) young fruit Sumedho-paito sumedhapaito Sumedha the wise or wise Sumedha Mukham'eva cando mukhacando moon-face Slam'eva dhana sladhana wealth of virtue Su-jano sujano good man Na-kusala akusala immoral or non-moral Na-asso anasso non-horse (mule) Na-manusso amanuusso non-man (a spirit)
"Na" followed by a consonant is changed into "a", and into "an" when followed by a vowel. Those Adjectival Compounds that have a numeral as their first member are in Pi known as Digu Samsa (Numerical Compounds). They generally take the neuter singular when they imply an aggregate. Examples : -

Dve-aguliyo dvagula Tayo-lok tiloka Catasso-dis catuddisa Cattri-saccni catusacca Satta-ahni sattha
Examples :-

two-finger three-fold world four-fold direction four-fold truth week

They do not take the neuter singular when they do not imply an aggregate.

Eko-putto Tayo-bhav Cattasso-dis

ekaputto tibhav catuddis

one son three existences four directions

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2. A Case Compound* (Tappurisa) is that which is formed by combining a substantive with another substantive belonging to anyone of the oblique cases, by dropping its case endings. In some exceptional cases the preceding members retain their case endings. These compounds take the gender of the final member and are declined accordingly. With the exception of the Nominative and Vocative cases all the other oblique cases go to form these compounds. * According to Saskrit grammarians this class of compounds is known as Determinative Compound. Examples :-

1. Dutiy-Acc. village.

gma-gato = gmagato,

he who has gone to the

siva-karo = sivakaro,* blessings-bestower. 2. Tatiy-Abl. of Agent. Buddhena-desito = Buddhadesito, preached by the Buddha. 3. Karaa-Instr. Asin-kalaho = asikalaho, sword-fight. 4. Catutth-Dat. Lokassa-hito = lokahito, beneficial to the world. 5. Pacam-Abl. Corasm-bhaya = corabhaya fear from thief. 6. Chah- Gen. Buddhassa-dhammo = Buddhadhammo, Buddha's Doctrine. 7. Sattam-Loc. Vane-vso = vanavso,residence in the forest. Ante-vsiko = antevsiko,* pupil (lit. he who lives near).
* The case endings are retained in these instances. 3. A Copulative Compound (Dvanda) is that which is formed by combining two or more substantives which, if not compounded, would be connected by the particle "ca". (a) These compounds generally take the plural and the gender of the final member when the component members are viewed separately. (b) If they collectively imply an aggregate, they take the neuter singular. Examples :-

a. Cando ca suriyo ca nar ca nriyo ca women.

= candasuriy,* = naranriyo,

moon and sun. men and

b. Nma ca rpaca = nmarpa, mind and matter. Sukha ca dukkha ca = sukhadukkha, happiness and pain. Hatthi ca gavo ca ass ca = hatthigavssa, elephants, cattle, and horses.
*. Words with fewer syllables are often placed first. 4. An Attributive Compound* (Bahubbhi) is that in which the component members collectively denote something else than what is originally expressed by them. These compounds assume the gender of the implied object and are declined accordingly. * Words with fewer syllables are often placed first. Examples :-

Pta means yellow. ambara, garment; but ptambaro means he who has a yellow garment,

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gata, come; samaa, ascetics; gatasamao, the place to which ascetics have come, i.e., a monastery. Diho, seen; dhammo, Truth; dihadhammo, by whom the Truth has been seen, i.e., a Saint. Ni, free from; tah craving; nittaho, he who is free from craving, i.e., an Arahant.
5. An Adverbial Compound (Avyaybhva) is that which has as its first member a prefix (upasagga) or an indeclinable (nipta), not used in an adjectival sense,* but used in determining the sense of the final member. The Adverbial Compounds generally take the neuter gender and are indeclinable. They are treated like the nominative singular of neuter substantives. If the final member of these compounds ends in " a " of " ", the neuter termination " " is affixed; otherwise the final vowel is retained except in cases of long vowels which are shortened. * See Adjectival Compounds. Examples :Prefixes :-

Anu-pubba Adhi-itth Upa-gag Upa-naggra


Indeclinables :-

= = = =

anupubba, adhitthi, upagaga, upanagara,

in due course, in regular succession. in a woman or relating to a woman. near a river (riverside place). near a city, i.e., a suburb.

Yath-bala Yath-kama Yath-vuddha Yath-satti Yva-attha required. Yva-jva Pacch-bhatta

= = = = =

ythbala, yathkkama, yathvuddha, yathsatti, yvadattha,

according to strength. according to order. according to seniority. according to one's ability. as one wishes, as much as till life lasts. after meal, i.e., after-noon.

= yvajva, = pacchbhatta,

Mixed Compounds When a compound is further compounded with another single word or compound it is treated as a mixed compound. Examples :-

Seta-vattha = setavattha, white cloth-adj. comp. Pituno-setavattha = pitusetavattha, father's white cloth-case comp. Putt ca dhtaro ca= puttadhtaro, sons and daughters-copulative comp. Mahantani gharni = mahgharni, big houses-adj. comp. Puttadhtarna mahgharni = puttadhtumahgharni, the big houses of sons and daughters-case comp.
Exercise xx A 348. 349. 350. " Sabbadna dhammadna jinti. " " Aha te saddhi puttadhthi ds bhavissmi. " " Tisaraena saddhi pacasla detha me bhante. "

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351. " Iti'pi so Bhagav araha, samm-sambuddho,.....satth devamanussna....." 352. " Mtpit dis pubb, cariy dakkhi dis. " 353. Paraloka gacchanta puttadhtaro v bhtaro v hatthigavssa v na anugacchanti (follow). 354. Eho taruavejjo vejjakamma karonto gmanagaresu vicarati. 355. Drakadrikyo tesa mtpitunna ovde hatv kici'pi ppakamma na karonti. 356. Stodaka v uhodaka v hara. 357. Amhka Buddho pana pubbe Sumedhapaito nma ahosi. 358. Sattasu dhanesu saddhdhana pana pahama; sladhana dutiya, pa dhana sattama. 359. Dvipadesu v catuppadesu v sad mettacittena vasitabba. 360. Aha khsave v na dihapubbo, satthudhamma v na sutapubbo. 361. Itthipuris sukhadukkha bhujamn tibhave vicaranti. 362. Amaccaputt rjabhayena mahpsdato nikkhamisu. 363. Mayha antevsikesu dve brahmacrino saddhcetas Buddhadesita dhamma sutv samaadhamma katv dihadhamm ahesu.

B 309.The boys and girls are studying diligently. 310.The monks and nuns heard the Teacher's Doctrine and gained their Deliverance. 311.Sons and daughters should respect their parents. 312.Little children wash their hands and feet with hot water. 313.O young men! You should not associate with evil friends. 314.Sun and Moon shine in the sky 315.My brother's son is a pupil teacher in a village-school. 316.Great beings are born amongst men for the good of the world. 317.In this vessel is well-water and in that is sea-water. 318.The lion is the king of quadrupeds. 319.His pupils gave the three Refuges and the eight precepts to the male and female devotees. 320.These chairs and beds were washed by the servants and maid-servants to-day. 321.May I understand the four-fold Truth Preached by the Buddha and be a Desireless One! 322.There is no fear of death to the Saints. 323.Never before have I seen white elephants or blue horses. 324.By this gift of Truth may I be an all-knowing Buddha!

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Lesson XXI Indeclinables (Avyaya)


An Avyaya is that whose form remains the same in all genders, numbers, and cases, without undergoing any change. There are two kinds of Avyayas, viz :-Upasagga and Nipta. An Upasagga (prefix) is an indeclinable word which possesses an independent meaning and which, when prefixed to substantives and verbs, usually modifies their original sense. These Upasaggas correspond to prefixes in Latin and sometimes to prepositions in English. A Nipta is an indeclinable word which may stand either before or after another word. These Niptas comprise particles, adverbs, conjunctions and interjections in English. Prefixes There are twenty Upasaggas or prefixes in Pi. 1. " "-up to, until, as far as, around, reversing to; pabbata, gacchati, harati, as far as the rock; comes, gacchati, goes; brings, harati, carries.

2. " Abhi "-to, unto, forward, towards, high, great, special, over; Abhigacchati, Abhikkhamati, Abhidhamma, Abhi, Abhijnti, Abhibhavati, Abhimukha, Abhimagala, goes near to, goes forward; goes forward; higher Doctrine; higher knowledge, special knowledge; perceives, jnati, knows; overcomes, bhavati, is; facing towards; special or high festival.

3. " Adhi "-in, upon, above, over, great, excessive; Adhivasati, Adhisessati, Adhitihati, Adhibh, Adhibhta, Adhisla, Adhista, Adhigacchati, dwells in; will lie upon; stands on, stands above; lord, master, bh, to be; overcome, mastered; higher morality; very cold; enters upon, attains, acquires.

4. " Anu " -after, like, behind, along, under, sub, according to; Anugacchati, Anunyaka, Anurj, Anulomato, goes after, follows; sub-chief; following king, successor; in accordance with.

5. " Apa " -away, from, away from; Apa slya, Apagacchati, Apavda, from the hall; goes away; blame, abuse, vda, speech.

6. " Api "-sometimes contracted to " pi ", over, near to;

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Apidhna, pidhna, pidahana, lid, cover. 7. " Ati " -very, over, beyond, excessive; Atisundara, Atikkamati, Atigacchati, very beautiful; goes beyond, transgresses; overcomes.

8. " Ava "-often contracted to " o ", down, away, off, around; Avakkamati, okkamati, Avaharati, Avajnti, Avamaati, Avabodha, Avacarati, 9. " Du " -bad, difficult; Duggati, Duddama, Duranubodha, evil state; difficult to tame; difficult of comprehension. steps down, descends; takes away, removes; despises, jnti, knows; looks down upon; full knowledge; goes through, traverses.

10. " Ni "-away, in, into, down, free from, down wards, without, great; Niggacchati, Nikkhamati, Nidahati, Nirhra, Nicaya, Nigama, Nikhaati, Nivattati, goes away; goes away, departs; lays aside; without food; great collection, accumulation; market town; digs into, bury; ceases, turns back.

11. " N "-away, without, outwards, out of; Nharati, Nroga, Nrasa, takes away, draws out; healthy, without disease; sapless, tasteless.

12. " Pa "-forward, forth, in, chief; Pabala Payti, Pakkhipati, Pakkamati, very strong; goes forth; throws in, puts in; sets out, goes away.

13. " Par " -away, aside, back, opposed to; Parbhava, Parjaya Parakkamati, decline, ruin (lit. away from being); defeat (lit. away from, or opposed to, victory); puts forth one's strength, strives.

14. " Pari " -around, about, complete; Paridahati, Paridhvati, Parikkhipati, Parisuddha, puts on; runs about; throws around, surround; complete purity.

15. " Pati " (frequently changed into " pai ") -again, against, towards, back; Paikkamati, Paideti, Paivadati, Pailoma, Paisota, Patirpa, Patirja, Patilekhana, steps backwards retreats; gives in return; answers (lit. speaks in return); backwards; against the stream; counterfeit, suitable; hostile king; letter in reply.

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16. " Sa " -with, together, self; Sambuddha, Samgacchati, Sameti, Saharati, Sakhipati, Sagaha, Sammukha, self enlightened; comes together, assembles; meets together; collects, folds up; condenses, (lit. throws together); collection; face to face with.

17. " Su " -good, well, thoroughly, excellent; Sugati, Sujana, Sudesita, Subhvita, Sudubbala, Sukara, 18. " U " -up, above, away; Uggacchati, Ukkhipati, Ucchindati, Uttarati, Udaya, rises; throws upwards; cuts off; comes up, ascends; rise, beginning. happy state; good man; well-preached; thoroughly practised; very weak; easy to do.

19. " Upa " -near, towards, next, by the side of, sub, below, less, strong; Upagacchati, Upaskh, Upadhvati, Uparj, Upakaa, Upakahati, Updna, goes near; minor branch; runs up to; viceroy; into the ear; drags down; attachment, clinging (lit. strong or firm hold).

20. " Vi " -apart, separate, not, free from, special, around, clear, different, opposed to; Vimala, Vibhava, Vigata, Vicarati, Visoka, Vikkhipati, Vipassati, Visama, Vicchindati, Vimutti, Viloma, Vimukha, Vykaroti, stainless; power or free from existence; separated, disappeared; wanders about; free from sorrow; scatters; sees clearly; not equal, uneven; cuts, off; perfect release; reverse; averted (lit. face away); expounds.

Of the above prefixes abhi, anu, pati, and pari are sometimes used after the words. Frequently the consonant following du, ni, and u, and sometimes vi, is duplicated. If the consonant is aspirated, the first duplicated one is changed into the same unaspirated consonant. Before a vowel " r " is augmented in the case of " du " and " ni ", " d " in the case of " u ", and " y " in the case of " vi ". Exercise xxi A 364. " M nivatta abhikkama. "

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365. Puttadhthi mtpitaro yathsatti sagahetabb. 366. Idh'gacchatha, bhikkhavo, yathbuha vandatha. 367. Sace'pi dujjan yvajva sujane bhajeyyu tesa koci'pi attho na bhaveyya. 368. Sudesita Buddhadhamma uggahmi yathbala. 369. Sabbe devamanuss manussaloke v devaloke v yathkamma uppajjanti. 370. *Tv'ha Pibhsa uggahmi. Api ca kho pana** tassa bhsya pailekhana likhitu vyammi. 371. Tass'antevsik gmanigamesu vicaritv suriyodaye nagara samppuisu. 372. Senpatiputto anupubbena tassa rahe senpati ahosi. 373. " Iti h'eta vijnhi pahamo so parbhavo. " 374. Duranubodha abhidhamma ythbala padit-sotna desetu vaati***. 375. Uparj pairjna abhibhavitu upanagara gato. 376. Sattasattha so nirhro'va vane vasi. 377. Mahsehino corabhayena yathsukha na supisu. 378. " Att hi kira duddamo. " * Tva, Still ** Api ca kho pana, nevertheless. *** vaati, it is fit.

B 325.The viceroy became the king in due course. 326.You should sit according to seniority. 327.Just when the sun had set they in due course arrived in the suburb. 328.Husbands should treat their wives and children according to their might. 329.Good men and bad men do not always come together. 330.I shall try to be a celibate as long as I live. 331.It is not right to sleep after meals as one wishes. 332.He is yet studying the Higher Doctrine. Nevertheless he will try to teach it according to his strength. 333.Boys, I shall question you now. You must give answers according to order. 334.Pupils follow their teachers according to their ability. 335.Take as much as you require and go away from this home. 336.It is not right for good men to look down upon bad men and women. 337.The mind is indeed difficult to tame. The wise nevertheless overcome it by degrees. 338.When the moon arises darkness disappears. 339.Healthy people do not eat and sleep as much as they like.

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Lesson XXII Taddhita - Nominal Derivatives


Words formed by adding suffixes to the bases of substantives, primary or derived from roots, adjectives, etc. are called Taddhita. Some of these derivatives are treated as nouns and adjectives and are declined accordingly. A few others are treated as indeclinables. There are many such suffixes which are used in various senses. The following are the principal ones of these :1. " A " is used to signify possession, pedigree, etc. In this case the initial vowel, not followed by a double consonant, undergoes Vuddhi substitute. Examples :Pa +a = paa (m. Nom. Sing. pao), he who has wisdom, or wise. Saddh +a = saddha (m. Nom. Sing. saddho), he who has faith, or faithful; devotional. Vasih +a = Vsiha -vsiho, son of Vasiha; vsih, daughter of Vasiha; vsiha, Vasiha clan. 2. " Ika "* is used to signify 'pertaining to', 'mixed with', 'crossing', 'versed in', 'engaged in', etc. In this case too the initial vowel, not followed by a double consonant, undergoes Vuddhi substitute. Examples :Dhamma + ika Ky + ika Nagara + ika Loka + ika Loa + ika Nv + ika Magga + ika Vinaya + ika Bhagra = = = = = = = = + dhammika, righteous. kyika, bodily ngarika, pertaining to the city, i.e., urban. lokika, worldly loika, mixed with salt nvika, navigator, he who crosses in a ship maggika, traveller venayika, he who studies vinaya ika = bhagrika, treasurer

* English-ish and ic, as in hellish or heroic. 3. " Ima " and " iya " are also used to signify 'pertaining to '. Examples :Anta Majjha Loka + ima + ima + iya = antima, = majjhima, = lokiya, last middle, central worldly

4. " I ", " ika ", " ima ", " mantu ", " vantu ", and " v " are used to signify possession. Examples :Daa Chatta Putta Daa Putta Dhiti Bandhu Gua Medh + + + + + + + + + ika ika ima mantu mantu vantu v = = = = = = = = = da, chatt, puttika, daika, puttima, dhitimantu, bandhumantu, guavantu, medhv, he who has a stick he who has an umbrella he who has sons he who has a stick he who has sons courageous he who has relatives virtuous he who has wisdom

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5. "Maya " is used in the sense of 'made of'. Examples :Aya Dru Mana Rajata Suvaa + + + + + maya maya maya maya maya = = = = = ayomaya, made of iron drumaya, wooden manomaya,* mental rajatamaya, made of silver suvaamaya, or sovaamaya, golden

* Mana and other words similarly declined, when combined with another word or with the suffix maya, change their final vowel " a " into " o ". See lesson XIX. 6. " T " is used ta signify collection, state, or quality. The derivatives thus formed are always in the feminine. Examples :Gma Jana Bla Dhamma Manussa + + + + + t t t t t = = = = = gmat, janat, blat, dhammat, manussat, collection of villages multitude ignorance, childhood state of things, nature manhood

7. " Tta* " and " ya " are also used to signify state or quality.** The derivatives thus formed are in the neuter. In the case of " ya " the initial vowel, not followed by a double consonant, undergoes Vuddhi substitute. Examples :Aroga Bla Manussa Nla Paita + + + + + + ya ya tta tta tta ya = = = = = = rogya, health, freedom from disease blya, ignorance, childhood blatta, ignorance manussatta; manhood nlatta, blueness Pitya, and Paicca, wisdom

* Saskrt, tvam; English "dom", Kingdom. ** Sometimes the word " bhva ", which means nature or state, is combined with other words to express state or quality, e.g., purisabhva, manhood; itthibhva, womanhood, etc. 8. " Tara " and " iya " are used to express the comparative degree, and " tama " and " iha ", the superlative degree. Examples :-

POSITIVE

COMPARATIVE
blatara dhammiya guiya medhiya patatara ppatara, ppiya appatara kaniya, younger seyya, better jeyya

SUPERLATIVE
balatama dhammiha guiha medhiha patatama ppatama, ppiha appatama kaniha, youngest seha, best jeha

Bla, young, ignorant Dhamma, religious, righteous Gua, virtuous Medha, wise Pata, noble Ppa, evil Appa, little, few Appa Pasattha, good Vuddha, old

9. " Ka " is, affixed to numerals to denote a group. Examples :Eka Dvi Catu + ka + ka + ka = ekaka, one-group; unit; groups of singles = dvika, two-group; dyad ; twofold group = catukka, four-group; tetrad ; threefold group

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These derivatives take either the masculine or the neuter. 10. " Kkhattu " is affixed to numerals to denote the number of times. Examples :Eka Dvi + kkhattu + kkhattu = ekakkhattu, = dvikkhattu, once twice

11. " Dh " is affixed to numerals, " so " and " th " to others, to form distributive adverbs. Examples :Eka Paca Bahu Attha Sabba Aa Sabba + + + + + + + dh dh dh so so th th = = = = = = = ekadh, pacadh, bahudh, atthaso, sabbaso, aath, sabbath, in one way in five ways, fivefold in many ways, manifold according to the meaning in every way in another way, differently in every way

These last two classes of derivatives are treated as declinables. It should be understood that some comparatives and superlatives are formed by prefixing ati, and atva or ativiya to the positive respectively. Exercise xxii A 379. " Rj bhavatu dhammiko. " 380. " Socati puttehi puttim. " 381. Tava paiccena mama ki payojana? 382. Aha mama mtpitare sad dvikkhattu vandmi. 383. Manussattam'pi labhitv kasm tumhe pua na karotha? 384. Eso saddho dyako sabbad sla samm rakkhati. 385. Sabbesu devamanussesu samm-sambuddho pana seho hoti. 386. lmesa dvinna svkna aya pana jeyyo seyyo ca hoti. 387. Tasmi pae vnijo, drumayabhani na vikkiti. 388. Yo saddho v pao v ya ya desa gacchati so tatth'eva pjito hoti. 389. Mahrao kanihaputto imasmi rahe seharjabhagriko hoti. 390. Amhka antevsikna kaiyo pana venayiko, kaniho pana bhidhammiko. 391. Lokiyajan puappa katv sugatiduggatsu uppajjitv bahudh kyikasukhadukkha bhujanti. 392. " Tesa saccena slena - khantimettabalenaca Te pi tva anurakkhantu - rogyena sukhena ca. "

B 340.What is the good of your manhood if you do no good to others? 341.Every bodily deed is mind-made. 342.His eldest brother is the most virtuous boy in the school. 343.The great multitude sat in the hall in different ways. 344.Health is the best wealth. 345.It is a Buddha who understands the nature of a Buddha in every way. 346.I went to see the treasurer several times. 347.All ships are not made of iron. 348.What is the use of worldly goods to monks and nuns? 349.He advised me in every way to strive to attain Buddhahood. 350.Twice I wrote to him, but he did not send a reply even once. 351.My youngest brother is the wisest of all. 352.The righteous and wise men are very few. 353.Wooden beds are better than iron* beds. * Use the Ablative case.

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Lesson XXIII Kitaka - Verbal Derivatives


Words formed by adding suffixes to verbal roots are called kitaka. There are several such suffixes which are used in various senses. A few of the important ones are given below: 1. " A " is affixed to roots to form masculine abstract nouns, to denote agent, instrument, etc. The initial vowel undergoes vuddhi substitute. Examples :Bh Budha Dusa Ji Kh Lubha Muha Pata Pada Ruja +a + + + + + + + + + a a a a a a a a a = = = = = = = = = = = bhava, bhava, bodha, dosa, jaya, khaya, lobha, moha, pta, pda, roga, becoming, existence nature, condition understanding anger, hatred victory destruction covetousness, greed, lust ignorance, delusion fall foot (by which one walks) disease

2. " A " is also affixed to roots when the words forming their objects are prefixed to them. The verbal derivative thus formed is afterwards compounded with the preceding word. The initial vowel of the root sometimes undergoes vuddhi substitute. Examples :Anna Bala Dhamma Dina Kumbha Ratha Ml + + + + + + + d d dhara kara kara kara kara + + + + + + + a a a a a a a = annada, giver of food = balada, strength-giver = dhammadhara, one versed in the Doctrine = dinakara, maker of the day, (sun) = kumbhakra, potter = rathakra, coach-builder = mlkra, garland-maker

3. " A " is also added to roots when words other than their objects are prefixed to them. Sometimes the final syllable is dropped. Examples :Pdena foot). Bhujena Kammato Vane Vrimhi + p + + + + gamu jana cara jana +a + + + + a a a a = pdapa, = bhujaga, = kammaja, = vanacara, = vrija, tree (lit. drinking with the snake (lit. going zigzag). action-born forest-wanderer water-born, aquatic

4. In the case of " aka " the initial vowel of the root frequently undergoes vuddhi substitute, and monosyllabic roots ending in " a " take an augment " y ", and those ending in " i ", and " u " change into aya and ava respectively before the suffix. " Aka " and " tu " are affixed to roots to denote the agent of the action. In the case of " tu " the initial vowel of monosyllabic roots undergoes viuddhi substitute and the final syllable of others are sometimes changed into " t ". Examples :D Ni + aka + aka = dyaka, = nyaka, giver, supporter leader

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Sa Bhuji Gamu Jana Kara D Ni Su Bhara Gamu Kara Vc

+ + + + + + + + + + + + +

aka aka aka aka aka tu tu tu tu tu tu tu tu

= = = = = = = = = = = = =

svaka, bhojaka, gamaka, Janaka, kraka, dtu, netu, sotu, tu, bhattu, gantu,* kattu, vattu,

hearer, disciple eater goer father (producer) doer giver leader hearer knower husband (supporter) goer doer speaker

* Here " m " is changed into " n ". 5. " Ana " and " ti " are affixed to roots to form neuter and feminine abstract nouns respectively. Examples :D + ana N + ana Su + ana Gamu + ana Kara + aa Mara (to die)+ ana = = = = = = dna, nayana, savana, gamana, karaa, maraana, giving, alms leading hearing going doing death, dying

Before " ti " sometimes the final syllable of the root is dropped, and at times it is changed into " t ". Gamu G (to soing) Muca P Ramu (to sport) Sara (to remember) Su h Thu (to praise) + ti + ti + + + + + + + ti ti ti ti ti ti ti = = = = = = = = gati, gait, condition of birth = gti, song mutti, release pti, drinking rati, sport, attachment sati, recollection, memory suti, hearing hiti, state thuti, praise

6. " Anya " and " ya " are affixed to roots in the sense of ought to be, fit to be, fit for, worthy of. If the root ends in " a " and " ", the suffix " ya " is changed into " eyya ". Examples :Kara + anya P + anya Pja + anya Su + anya D + ya + eyya Gha + ya +ya + eyya be understood P + ya + eyya = = = = karaya,* ought to be done pnya, fit to be drunk, (water) pjanya, worthy of offering savanya, fit to be heard = deyya, fit to be given = (gahya, becomes) gayha, fit to be taken = eyya, ought to be known, should = peyya, ought to be drunk, drinkable

* After " r " the dental " n " is changed into cerebral " ". Some irregular forms:Bhuji Mada Khda Garaha Vada Yuja + + + + + + ya ya ya ya ya ya = = = = = = bhojja, majja, khajja, grayha, vajja, yogga, fit to be eaten, edible fit for intoxication, intoxicating edible blamable fit to be said, (fault) suitable

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7. " I " and " ana " are affixed to roots in the sense of disposed to, in the habit of. The initial vowel undergoes vuddhi substitute. Examples :Brahma cara + (celibate). Dhamma vada + Doctrine. Sacca vada + truth, truthful. Sdhu sla Ppa kara + evil Kudha + ana Bhsa + ana Ghusa + ana Kampa + ana = brahmacr, one who is in the habit of leading a noble life = dhammavd, one who is in the habit of expounding the = saccavd, + = sdhusl, = ppakr, = = = = kodhana, bhsana, ghosana, kampana, one who is disposed o speak the good-natured one evil-doer, one who is disposed to disposed to anger, angry garrulous sounding, noisy shaky

8. The infinitives, which are also treated as verbal derivatives formed by adding " tu " to the roots, are compounded with " kama " in the sense of 'desirous of ', 'wishing' by dropping their niggahita. The Desideratives thus formed are declined like compound words. Examples :Bhujitu kma Gantu kma Pacitu kma Ktu kma = bhujitukma, bhujitukmena, bhujitukmassa, = gantukma, = pacitukma. = kattukma, wishing to eat by one who wishes to eat to one who wishes to eat desirous of going, wishing to go wishing to cook wishing to do

It should be understood that infinitives and all kinds of participles which have already been dealt with, are also treated as kitakas. Exercise xxiii A 393. " Ki dado balado hoti - ki dado hoti vaado. Ki dado sukhado hoti - ki dado hoti cakkhudo? " 394. " Annado balado hoti - vatthado hoti vaado Ynado sukhado hoti - dpado hoti cakkhudo. " 395. Maggo atthi maggiko n'atthi, gamana atthi gamako n'atthi, kamma atthi krako na'tthi. 396. " Dhammapti sukha seti. " 397. " Dhammacr sukha seti - asmi loke paramhi ca. " 398. " Sabbappassa akaraa " 399. " Ppna akaraa sukha ". 400. Sabbadna dhammadna jinti Sabba rasa dhammarasa jinti, Sabba rati dhammarati jinti, Tahakkhayo sabbadukkha janti. " 401. Yo svako kyena v vcya v cetas v kici'pi ppa kamma na karoti so hoti Dhammadharo, Dhammavd. 402. Tava thutiy me payojana n'atthi. 403. Saccavdino sad pjany honti. 404. Sampattivipattsu akampanacitto hohi. 405. Sdhusl svak dhammasavanatthya gantukm nagarato nikkhamisu. 406. Bhsanadrak paitehi grayh honti.

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B 354.By the destruction of lust, hatred and ignorance one obtains deliverance. 355.This potter is making iron vessels. 356.Evil-doers and well-doers should be known by their actions. 357.The expounders of the Doctrine should be reverenced by all. 358.Of what use is his praise to the disciples? 359.I do not know his going or coming. 360.There is medicine for bodily diseases but not for mental diseases. 361.The coach-builder wishing to make a chariot felled* the tallest tree in his garden. 362.Who knows that our death will come tomorrow. 363.By his gait I know that he is a good-natured person. 364.The speech of truthful persons should be heard. 365.This garland-maker is not an evil-doer. 366.No evil action should be done in thought, word, or deed by expounders of Truth. 367.The supporters wishing to go to hear the Doctrine approached the disciples who were reverenced by them. * Use the causal of 'pata', to fall (ptesi).

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Lesson XXIV RULES OF SANDHI (Combinations)


By Sandhi* is meant the combination of two letters that come in immediate contact with each other. This combination may take place by elision, substitution, augment, etc. * Formed of " sa ", together, with " dh " to join. In Pi there are three classes of Sandhi, viz :1. Sara sandhi -Vowel Combinations, 2. Vyajana sandhi -Consonant Combinations, and 3. Niggahita () sandhi -Niggahita Combinations. 1. Sara sandhi -Vowel Combinations 1. When two vowels come together, the preceding vowel is often dropped. e.g., Loka - agga Pa - indriya Tni - imni Sabbo - eva = = = = Lok'agga, pa'indriya, tn'imni, sabb'eva, chief of the world faculty of wisdom these three verily all

2. Sometimes the following vowel is dropped, if it is preceded by a dissimilar vowel. e.g., Chy - iva Iti - api Pto - eva = chy'va, = iti'pi, = pto'va, like a shadow such indeed early morning

3. When the preceding dissimilar vowel is dropped, the following " i " and" u " short or long, are substituted by " e " and " o " respectively. e.g., Upa - eto Suriya - udaya = Up'eto = suriy'udayu, constituted suriyodaya, sunrise

4. When the preceding vowel is dropped, the following vowel is sometimes lengthened. e.g., Buddha - anussati Gacchmi - iti Bahu - upakro Sace - aya Idni - aha = = = = = Buddh'nussati, gacchm'ti, bahpakro, sacya, idn'ha, reflection on the Buddha that I go very helpful if this now I

5. Sometimes the preceding vowel is lengthened when the following vowel is dropped. e.g., Lokassa - iti Vi - atikkama Sdhu - iti Jvitahetu - api = = = = lokass'ti, v'tikkama, sdh'ti, jvitahet'pi, thus to the world transgression thus good even for the sake of life

6. When te, me, ye are followed by a vowel, " y " is sometimes substituted for their final " e ". e.g., Me - aya Te - aha Ye - assa = myaya, myya, = tyaha, tyha, = yyassa, yyssa, this by me I to thee those to him

7. When " i ", " " and " u ", " o " are followed by a dissimilar vowel* " y " and " v "are sometimes substituted for them respectively. e.g.,

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Vi - kato Su - gata Anu - eti Ko - attho So - aya

= = = = =

vykato, proclaimed svgata, welcome anveti, follows kvattho, what good svaya, svya, he this

* For instance a and are similar vowels, a and i are dissimilar vowels. 8. " Ti " of ati, iti, and pati, when followed by a vowel, is sometimes changed into " cc ". e.g., Ati - anta Ati - eti Ati - odto Iti - eta Pati - harati = = = = = accanta, acceti, accodto, icceta, paccharati, exceedingly surpasses very white thus that brings back

9. Abhi, followed by a vowel is sometimes changed into " abbha ". e.g., Abhi - uggato = ubbhuggato, arose

10. " Adhi ", followed by a vowel, is sometimes changed into " ajjha ". e.g., Adhi - gama = ajjhgama, attained

11. Sometimes " t, d, n, m, y, r, , v " are inserted before a vowel. e.g., Ajja - agge Atta - attha Ito - yati Idha - hu So - eva Ni - antara Cha - abhi Ti - agika = = = = = = = = ajjatagge, attadattha, itonyati, idhamhu, soyeva, nirantara, chaabhi, tivagika, from to-day self-good comes from here here they say he himself without an interval, intermittent six kinds of higher knowledge three factors

2. Vyajana Sandhi - Consonant Combinations 1. The vowel preceding a consonant is sometimes lengthened. e.g., Te - assa Municare Su - akkhto Jyati soko = = = = tyssa, muncare, svkkhto, jyatsoko, those to him the sage would wander well-expounded grief arises

2. Sometimes the vowel preceding a consonant is shortened. e.g., Yadi v svake Tah - khayo = yadivasvake, = tahakkhayo, or if towards the disciples destruction (of) craving

3. Before a consonant the final " o " of the pronominal stems " eta " and " ta " is changed into " a ". e.g., Eso dhammo So muni = esa dhammo, = sa muni, that nature he (is) a sage

4. The consonant following a vowel is sometimes duplicated. e.g., A - pamdo Vi - a = appamdo, = via, diligence conciousness

5. When an aspirated consonant is duplicated the preceding one is changed into the unaspirated form of the same consonant. e.g., Ni - bhaya sa - dhammo = nibbhaya, = saddhammo, fearless noble Doctrine

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3. Niggahita () Sandhi - Niggahita Combinations 1. The Niggahita preceding a group consonant is changed into the nasal of that particular group; e.g., Ta khaa Sa jta Ta a Ta hna Aha te Sa nipto Sa bodhi Sa mna = = = = = = = = takhaa, sajta, taa, tahna, ahante, sannipto, sambodhi, sammna, that instant born that knowledge that place I to thee union enlightenment honour

2. The Niggahita preceding " e " and " h " is changed into " ". Before " e " the substituted " " is duplicated. e.g., Ta - eva Ta - hi = taeva, = tahi, itself it indeed

3. The Niggahita preceding " y " is sometimes changed into " "', " y " is afterwards dropped, and the substituted " " is duplicated. e.g., Sa - yamo = saamo, restraint

4. The Niggahita, followed by a vowel, is sometimes changed into " m ", and into " d " if it is affixed to " ta " and " eta ". e.g., Ta - aha Eta - avoca = tamaha, = etadavoca, that I this he said

5. Sometimes the Niggahita preceding a vowel is dropped. The initial vowel of the following word not followed by a double consonant, is lengthened, and the final vowel of the preceding word is dropped. e.g., Adsi aha, Eva aha, adsi - aha, eva - aha, ad's - aha, ev'aha, ads'ha, ev'ha, I gave thus I

6. Sometimes the Niggahita preceding a consonant is also dropped. e.g., Buddhna - ssana = Buddhnassana, message of the Buddhas

7. Sometimes a Niggahita is inserted before a vowel or a consonant. e.g., Cakkhu udapdi Ava - siro = cakkhu udapdi, = avasiro, the eye arose head downwards

8. Sometimes the vowel following a Niggahita is dropped, and the Niggahita is afterwards nasalised. e.g., Ida api Ki iti Cakka iva = idam'pi, = kin'ti, = cakka'va, this too what is like a wheel

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Lesson XXV Uses of the Cases


The Nominative Case (Paham) 1. The Nominative case, when used by itself, expresses the crude form of a word; e.g., naro, nr, phala, man, woman, fruit.

2. The subject of a verb, whether active or passive, is expressed by the Nominative; e.g., . Purisio gacchati, man goes. Buddhena Dhammo desiyate, the Doctrine is preached by the Buddha. 3. The complement of intransitive verbs is also expressed by the Nominative; e.g., So rj ahosi, Eso drako hoti, he became a king; he is a boy. The Vocative case (lapana) The Vocative Case is used to express the Nominative of Address; e.g., Putta, idh'gaccha! Bho Gotama, son, come here. O venerable Gotama! The Accusative Case (Dutiy) 1. The Accusative denotes the object; e.g., Aha lekhana likhmi, I am writing a letter.

2. Duration of time and extent of space are expressed by the Accusative. e.g., Idha so temsa vasi, Dv'ha atikkanta, Yojana dgho pabbato, here he lived for three months. two days are passed. the mountain is one league long.

3. Verbs of motion take the Accusative; e.g., So gma gacchati, he goes to the village.

4. The prefixes " anu ", " pati ", " pari " also govern the Accusative; e.g., Rukkha anu, rukkha pati, rukkha parivijjotate cando the moon shines by every tree. Yad'ettha ma anu siy, whatever there be here for me. Sdhu Devdatto mtara anu, Devadatta is kind to his mother. Anu Sriputta paav bhikkhu, monk inferior to Sariputta in wisdom. Saccakiriya anu pavassi, it rained according to (his) act of truth. Nadi Nerajara pati, near Neranjar river. 5. The Accusative is sometimes used adverbially; e.g., Rj sukha vasati, Sukha supati, Dukkha seti, the king lives happily. sleeps happily. lives painfully.

6. Sometimes the Accusative is used in the sense of the (a) Ablative of agent, (b) Dative, (c) Genitive, and (d) Locative; e.g., a. Vin* Dhamma, Sace ma n'lapissati, without the Doctrine. if he will not speak with me.

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b. Upam ma paibhti, c. Ta kho pana Bhagavanta,

a simile occurs to me. (of) that Blessed One.

d. Eka samaya Bhagav.........., on one occasion the Blessed One. * Sometimes " Vin " governs the Nominative, Instrumental and the Ablative. 7. The root " vasa " preceded by , adhi, anu and upa governs the Accusative; e.g., Gma vasati, anuvasati, upavasati, Vihra adhivasati, lives in the village. lives in the monastery.

The Auxiliary Case (Tatiy) When the construction is passive the agent is expressed by this case; e.g., cariyena potthaka dyate, Tena kata kamma, a book is being given by the teacher. the action done by him.

The Instrumental Case (Karaa) 1. The means or the instrument by which an action is done is expressed by the Instrumental Case; e.g:, Hatthena kamma karoti, Cakkhun passma, ena sukha labhati, he does the work with his hand. we see with our eye. one obtains happiness by means of wisdom.

2. The Instrumental is also used to express(a) Cause and reason; e.g., Vijjya vasati, Kamman vasalo hoti, (b) Bodily defects; e.g., Akkhin ko, blind in one eye. through knowledge he lives. by action one becomes an outcast.

(c) A characteristic attribute; e.g., Vaena abhirpo, Gottena Gotamo, Sippena naakro, beautiful in appearance. Gotama by clan. a basket-maker by profession.

(d) The length of time and space within which an action is accomplished; e.g., Ekamsena gacchmi, Yojanena gacchati, I shall go in a month. goes by a league.

(e) The price at which a thing is bought or sold; e.g., Satena kta, bought for a hundred.

(f) The idea of resemblance, equality, rejoicing, deficiency, proficiency, need, use, etc.; e.g., Pitar sadiso, Mtar samo, Kahpaena no, Dhanena hno, Vcya nipuo, Main attho. like the father. equal to the mother. deficit of a farthing, less by a farthing. destitute of wealth. proficient in speech. in need of a jewel.

(g) The conveyance or the part of the body on which a thing is carried; e.g., Ssena bhra vahati, carries the burden on his head.

3. The indeclinables saha, saddhi - with, accompanied by; ala - enough, what use; ki what, also governs the Instrumental ; e.g.,

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" Nisdi Bhagav saddhi of Bhikkhus. Bhtar saha, Ala te idha vsena, Ki me dhanena,

bhikkhusaghena ", the Blessed One sat with the multitude together with his brother. what is the use of your staying here? of what use is wealth to me?

4. Sometimes the Instrumental is used adverbially; e.g., Sukhena vasati, lives happily.

5. The Instrumental is sometimes used in the sense of (a) Accusative, (b) Ablative, and (c) Locative, e.g., Tilehi khette vapati, a. Attan'va attna, sammannati, he sows gingili in the field. he chooses himself.

b. Sumutt maya tena mahsamaena, we are wholly released from that great ascetic. c. Tena samayena, at that time. The Dative Case (Catutth ) 1. The Dative Case is used to express the person or thing to whom or to which something is given; e.g., Ycakna dna deti, Kyassa bala deti, he gives alms to the beggars. he gives strength to the body.

2. The roots ruca, to please, and dhara, to bear or hold, govern the dative of the person pleased, or held; e.g., Samaassa rucate sacca, Devadattassa suvaacchatta dhrayate, Devadatta. the truth is pleasing to the ascetic. he holds a golden parasol for

3. Verbs implying anger, jealousy, praise, blame, curse, and others having the same sense govern the dative of the person against whom such a feeling is directed; e.g., Tassa kujjha, mahvra, be angry with him, O great hero! Dev'pi tesa pihayanti, even the Devas hold them dear. Dujjan guavantna usyanti, the evil are jealous of the virtuous. Buddhassa silghate, he praises the Buddha. Nindanti bahubhnina, they blame the garrulous. Mayh sapate, he curses me. 4. The indirect object of verbs such as telling, proclaiming, teaching, preaching, sending, writing, etc. is put in the Dative Case; e.g., Te vejjassa kathayisu, they told it to the doctor. Arocaymi vo Bhikkhave, I declare to you, O Bhikkhus Satth Bhikkhna Dhamma deseti, the Teacher is preaching the Doctrine to the Bhikkhus. So tassa lekhana pahii, he sent a letter to him. 5. The purpose for which anything is done, the result to which anything leads, and the reason for which anything exists, are also expressed by the Dative; e.g., Yuddhya gacchti, he goes to war. Nibbnya savattati, is conducive to Nibbana. Caratha bhikkhave crika bahu-janahitya, bahu-janasukhya, go ye forth, O Bhikkhus, for the good and happiness of the many. Atthya me bhavissati, it will be for my good. 6. The words hita, good, attha, good, need, payojana, use, and indeclinables like ala, ki, namo, svgata, govern the Dative; e.g.,

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lokassa hita, Dhanena me attho, ena te ki payojana, Ala mallo mallassa, Namo sammsambuddhassa, Svgata te mahrja, Svatthi hotu sabbasattna, Sotthi te hotu sabbad,

good for the world. I am in need of wealth. of what use is wisdom to you? a warrior is fit for a warrior. praise be to the Fully Enlightened One. welcome to you, O king! blessing to all beings. may happiness ever be to you!

7. Sometimes the place to which the motion is directed is put in the Dative; e.g., Appo saggya gacchati, few go to heaven. The Ablative Case (Pacam.) 1. The Ablative Case is principally used to denote the place or object from which motion or separation takes place; e.g., Nagar niggato rj, Rukkhasm phalni patanti, Assasm patmi, the king departed from the city. fruits fall from the tree. I fall from the horse.

2. The Ablative is used to express the person or thing from whom or from which something is originated, produced, caused, learnt, received, released, etc.; e.g., Pabbatehi nadiyo pabhavanti, rivers originate from mountains. Urasm jto putto, the son born from the breast. Ubhato sujto, well-born from both sides. Kmato jyati soko, grief arises from passion. Corasm bhaya uppajjati, fear arises from thieves. cariyamh ugguhma, we learn from the teacher. Siss cariyehi pakra labhanti, pupils receive gifts from their teachers. Dukkh pamucantu, may they be freed from pain! Mutto mrabandhan, released from the bondage of the Evil One. 3. That which one desires to Protect and whose sight one desires to avoid, are also put in the Ablative Case; e.g., Kke rakkhanti taul, lit. they guard crows from rice. Ppa citta nivraye, one should protect the mind from evil. Mt pithi antaradhyati putto, the son disappears from the parents. 4. The place or time from which another place or time is measured is expressed by the Ablative. The distance in space is put in the Locative or in the Nominative, and that in time is put in the Locative; e.g., Nagarasm catusu yojanesu araa, the forest is four leagues from the city. Gmasm rmo yojana, the monastery is one league from the village. Imamh msasm pacamse atikkhante, when five months have elapsed from this. Ito kappasahasse, thousand Kappas hence. 5. Some prefixes and indeclinables also govern the Ablative; e.g.,

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" ", as far as - pabbat khetta, as far as the rock is the field. " Apa ", away from - apa slya yanti, they come from the hall. " Pati", like, in exchange for - Buddhasm pati Sriputto, like the Buddha is Sriputta. Ghatam'asssa telasm patidadti, he gives him ghee in exchange for oil. " Pari ", away from, without - Paripabbat devo vassati, it rains except on the mountain. " adho ", below - adhar adho, below the hip. " Nn ", different - te Bhikkh nn-kul, those monks from different families. " Rite ", without - rite saddhamm kuto sukha, where is happiness without the noble Doctrine? " Vin ", without - vin dhamm, without the Doctrine. " Uddha ", above - uddha pdatal, upward from the sole of the feet. " Upari ", above - Upari gagya, above the river. " Yva", as far as - yva brahmalok, as far as the Brahma realm. 6. The Ablative is also used to denote comparison; e.g., Dnato slam'eva vara, Slam'eva sut seyyo, morality is indeed higher than liberality. morality is nobler than learning.

7. The Ablative is sometimes used in the sense of the (a) instrumental and (b) Locative; e.g., (a). " Slato na pasasanti, " they Praise him on account of morality. Bhava-paccay jti, birth is conditioned by action. Sakhranirodh avijj nirodho, the cessation of ignorance results from the cessation of activities. (b) Puratthimato, from the east.

8. Sometimes the (a) Accusative and the (b) Genitive are used in the sense of the Ablative; e.g., (a) Ki krana, (b) Ta kissa hetu, by what reason? by what cause?

9. Sometimes the Ablative is used after abstract nouns formed from past participles in the sense of 'because of'; 'on account of'; e.g., Kammassa kaatt, Ussannatt, by reason of having done the action. on account of having arisen. The Genitive Case (Chahi) 1. The Genitive Case is generally used to denote the possessor; e.g., Buddhassa dhammo, Rukkhassa chy, Buddha's Doctrine. the shadow of the tree.

2. The Genitive is also used to denote the relationship between two objects; e.g., Pupphna rsi, Bhikkhna samho, Meghassa saddo, Suvaassa vao, Pdassa ukkhepana, Lokassa hito, heap of flowers. multitude of monks. sound of thunder. colour of gold. raising of the foot. the good of the world.

3. Persons or things over which kingship, lordship, teachership, superiority, etc. are expressed are also put in the Genitive Case; e.g., Narna indo, king of men. Manussna adhipati, chief of men. Satth deva-manussna, teacher of gods and men.

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4. When a person or thing is distinguished from a group the word implying the group is put in the Genitive or Locative; e.g., Buddho seho manussna, the Buddha is the chief of men. Imesa draknan, or (imesu drakesu) eso pahamo, he is the first of these boys. Etesa phalna eka gaha, take one of those fruits. 5. Words implying skill, Proficiency, likeness, similarity, distance, nearness, under, above, etc. govern the Genitive; e.g., Dhamm'Dhammassa kovido, skill in knowing the right and wrong. Kusal naccagtassa, skilled in dancing and singing. Gmassa (v gmato) avidure, not far from the village. Nibbnassa santike, in the presence of Nibbna. Nagarassa sampe, near the city. Tassa Purato, in his presence. Heh chyya, under the shade. Heh, macassa, under the bed. Tass'opari, above it; jnumaalna upari, above the knees. Pitussa tulyo, similar to the father. Mtu-sadiso, like the mother. 6. The Genitive is also used with superlatives and words having the same sense; e.g., Dhammna caturo pad seh, highest. Sabbesa sattna Buddho uttamo, Danto seho manussna, of things the four Truths are the the Buddha is the highest of all men. a self-controlled person is the best of men.

7. Sometimes the Genitive is used in the sense of the (a) Accusative, (b) Auxiliary, (c) Instrumental, (d) Ablative, (e) Locative; e.g., (a) Amatassa dt, Ppna akaraa sukha, (b) Rao pjito, (c) Patta odanassa pretv, (d) Sabbe bhyanti maccuno, Bhto catunna sivisna, (e) Divasassa tikkhattau, Bhagavato pasann, giver of immortality. it is happy not to do evil. reverenced by the king. filling the bowl with food. all are afraid of death. frightened of the four snakes. thrice a day. pleased with the Blessed One.

The Locative Case (Sattam) 1. The Locative Case denotes the place or time where anything is or happens; e.g., Manuss gharesu vasanti, Thliya odana pacati, Khresu jala, men live in houses. he cooks rice in a pot. there is water in milk.

2. The Locative denotes also the time when an action takes place; e.g., Tasmi samaye, at that time. Syahasamaye gato, he came in the afternoon. Phussamsamh tsu msesu veskhamso, three months from Phussa month is the month of Veskha. Ito satasahassamhi kappe, one hundred thousand aeons hence. 3. The reason is sometimes expressed by the Locative; e.g. , Dpi cammesu haate, the tigers are killed on account of their skin. Musvde pcittiya, one commits a pcittiya offence, there is a pcittiya with regard to a lie or through falsehood. 4. The group or class from which a person or thing is distinguished or separated is put in the Locative; e.g.,

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Manussesu khattiyo sratamo, the warrior is the bravest of men. Addhikesu dhvato sghatamo, the runner is the fastest of travellers. yasm nando arahantesu aataro, Venerable nanda is one of the Arahants. 5. The Locative or the Genitive is used with the words " adhipati ", lord; " dyda ", heir; " issara ", lord; " kusala ",skill; " patibh ",bail; " pasuta ", born of; " sakkhi ", witness; and " smi ", master; e.g., Lokasmi or (lokassa) adhipati, lord of the world. Kammasmi or (kammassa) dydo, heir of action. Pahaviya or (pahaviy) issaro, lord of the earth. Gtasmi or (gtassa) kusalo, skill in singing. Dassanasmi or (dassanassa) paibh, surety for appearance. Gosu or (gava) pasuto, born of cows. Adhikaraasmi or (adhikaraassa) sakkhi, witness in a case. Dhammasmi or (Dhammassa) smi, master of Truth. 6. The Locative is used with the words " sdhu ", good, kind; " nipua ", proficient, skilful; and words having the sense of "being pleased with, angry with, contented with, being addicted to"; etc., and with prefixes " adhi " and " upa ", in the sense of exceeding, or master of; e.g., Paya sdhu, Mtari sdhu, Vinaye nipuo, Bhagre niyutto, Dhamme gravo, Buddhe pasanno, Appakasmi tuho, Ksirae na kuppmi, Adhi devesu Buddho, Upanikkhe kahpaa, good in wisdom. kind towards the mother. proficient in discipline. attached to the treasury. reverence towards the Dhamma. being pleased with the Buddha. being contented with little. I am not angry with the Ksi king. the Buddha is superior to the gods. a Kahpaa is greater than Nikkha.

7. Sometimes the Locative is used in the sense of the (a) Nominative, (b) Accusative, (c) Instrumental (d) Dative, and (e) Ablative; e.g., (a) Idam'pi'ssa hoti slasmi, (b) Bhsu gahetv, Bhikkhsu abhivadanti, (c) Sama pattesu piya caranti, (d) Sanghe, Gotami, dehi, (e) Kadalsu gaje rakkhanti, plantain trees. this also is his virtue taking the hands. salute the monks. the ascetics go for alms with their bowls.

O Gotami, give to the Sangha. lit. they protect the elephants from the

The Genitive and the Locative Absolutes The Nominative Absolute in English and the Ablative Absolute in Latin are expressed by the Genitive and Locative Absolutes in Pi. . (a) When the subject of a participle is different from the subject of the verb it is put in the Locative Absolute and the participle is made to agree with it in gender, number and case. (b) If the subject of the participle is the same as that of the finite verb this construction is not used. (c) Mayi gate so gato, he came when I had gone. Bhikkhusaghesu bhojiyamnesu gato, he went when the multitude of monks were being fed. Sabbe magg vivajjenti gacchante lokanyake, when the leader of the world goes, all turn away from the path. This construction corresponds to the Nominative Absolute in English and Ablative Absolute in Latin. (d) Aha gacchanto tena saddhi na sallapi, as I was going I did not speak with him.

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When disregard is to be shown the Genitive Absolute is often used. Sometimes the Locative Absolute is also used. Mtpitunna rudantna pabbaji or mtpitsu rudantesu pabbaji, he renounced disregarding his weeping parents, i.e., he renounced in spite of or not withstanding the weeping of his parents. (though his parents were weeping, he went forth into homelessness.) The same construction may be used in the sense of as soon as; no sooner than, by compounding " eva " with the participle; e.g., Tayi gate y'eva so gato, he went as soon as you came, or he went just as you had come.

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Lesson XXVI Passive Voice


There are different endings, for the Passive Voice. Sometimes the endings of the Active Voice are also used in the sense of the Passive. In forming the Passive Voice " ya " is added between the root and the endings. If the roots end in " a " and " ", they are often changed into " ". Examples :-

Rakkha D N Su Paca

- ya - ya - ya - ya

te ya te te te

= rakkhyate - te = dyate = nyate = syate = pacayate = paccate

Present Tense (Vattamn)

SING. 3. te 2. se 1. e
Aorist (Ajjatan)

PLU. ante vhe mhe paccate paccase pacce paccante paccavhe paccamhe

SING. 3. 2. se 1. a paccimhe

PLU. vha mhe apacc, pacc apaccise, paccise apacca, pacca apacc, pacc apaccivha, paccivha apaccimhe,

Perfect Tense (Hyattan )

SING. 3. ttha 2. se 1 I

PLU. tthu vha mhase apaccattha apaccase apacci apaccatthu apaccavha apaccamhase

Benedictive (Pacam)

SING. 3. ta 2. ssu 1. e

PLU. anta vho mase paccata paccassu pacce paccanta paccavho paccmase

Subjunctive or Conditional (Sattam)

SING. 3. etha 2. etho 1. eyya

PLU. era eyyavho eyymhe paccetha paccetho pacceyya paccera pacceyyavho pacceyymhe

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Future Tense (Bhavissanti)

SING. 3. ssate 2. ssase 1. ssa

PLU. ssante ssavhe ssmhe paccissate paccissase paccissa paccissante paccissasvhe paccissmhe

(Parokkh and Kltipatti are not treated in this book.) Conjugation of " h ", to be Present Tense

SING. 3. hoti 2. hosi 1. homi


Aorist (Ajjatan)

PLU. honti hotha homa

SING.

PLU.

3. ahosi, ah ahesu 2. ahosi ahosittha 1. ahosi,ahu ahosimh, ahumh


Future Tense (Bhavissani)

SING.

PLU.

3. hessati, hehi hessanti 2. hessasi hessatha 1. hessmi hessma


Imperative (Pacam)

SING. 3. hotu 2. hohi 1. homi

PLU. hontu hotha homa

Conditional (Sattam)

SING. 3. heyya 2. heyysi 1. heyymi

PLU. heyya heyytha heyyma, heyya

Future Tense (Bhavissanti)

SING.

PLU.

3. hessati, hehiti hessanti, hehinti 2. hessasi, hehisi hessatha, hehitha 1. hessmi, hehmi hessma, hehma

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Perfect (Hyattani)

SING. 3. ahuv 2. ahuvo 1. ahuva

PLU. ahuv, ahuvu ahuvattha. ahuvamha


Conjugation of " asa ", to be

Present

SING. 3. atthi 2. asi 1. asmi, amhi


Aorist

PLU. santi attha asma, amha

SING. 3. si 2. si 1. si
Imperative

PLU. sisu, su sittha simha

SING. 3. atthu 2. hi 1. asmi


Conditional

PLU. santu attha asma

SING. 3. siy, assa 2. assa 1. assa

PLU. siyu, assu assatha assma

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SELECTIONS FOR TRANSLATION


I

BUDDHENIY VATTHU
Story of Buddheni Jambudpe kira pubbe paliputtanagare sattsti-koi-nihita-dhana eka sehikula ahosi. Tassa pana sehino ek y'eva dht ahosi -nmena Buddhen nma. Tassa satta-vassika-kle mt-pitaro klamakasu. Tasmi kule sabba spateyya tass y'eva ahosi. S kira abhirp psdik paramya vaapokkharatya samanngat devacchar-paibhg piy ca ahosi manp saddh pasann ratanattayammik paivasati. Tasmi pana nagare sehisenpati - uparjdayo ta attano pdaparikatta kmayamn manusse pesesu pakrehi saddhi. S ta sutv cintesi :- mayha mtpitaro sabba vibhava pahya mat. May'pi tath gantabba. Ki me patikulena. Kevala citta-vinsya bhavati. May pan'ima dhana Buddha-ssane y'eva nidahitu vaat'ti cintesi. Cintetv ca pana tesa mayha patikulena'ttho'ti paikkhipi. S tato pahya mahdna pavattent samaa-brhmae santappesi. Ath'parabhge eko assa-vijako assa-vijjya pubbant'paranta gacchanto gamma imasmi gehe nivsa gahi. Atha so vijo ta disv dhtu-sineha patihpetv gandha-ml - vatth - 'lakrdhi tass upakrako hutv gamanakle - "Amma etesu assesu tava ruccanaka assa gahh" ti ha. S'pi asse oloketv eka sindhavapotaka disv "eta me deh' " ti ha. Vijo - "Amma eso sindhavapotako. Appamatt hutv paijaggh' " ti vatv ta paipdetv agamsi. S'pi ta paijaggamn ksa - gm - bhva atv sammpaijaggant eva cintesi -puakaraassa me sahyo laddho'ti agatapubb ca me Bhagavato sakala mrabala vidhmetv Buddhabhtassa Jaya-mah Bodhi-bhmi. Yannnha tattha gantv Bhagavato Jayamah-bodhi vandeyyan'ti cintetv bah rajata-suvaamldayo krpetv ekadivasa assam' abhiruyha ksena gantv bodhi-mlake hatv - gacchantu ayya suvaaml pjetun'ti ugghosesi - ten'ettha: Yato pahya'ha Buddha - ssane suddha-mnas Pasunn tena saccena - mamanuggaha-buddhiy gacchantu namassantu - bodhi pjentu sdhuka Soamlhi Sambuddha - putt ariyasvak Sutv ta vacana ayy - bah Slavsino gamma nabhas tattha - vandisu ca mahisu ca. Tato-ppabhuti s kumrik Buddha-ssane at'va pasann niccameva assamabhiruyha gantv ariyehi saddhi Mahbodhi suvaamlbhi pjetv gacchati. Atha Paliputta-nagar'opavane vanacar tassa abhiha gacchantiy ca gacchantiy ca rpasampatti disv rao kathesu. "Mahrja, evarp kumrik assam'abhiruyha gantv nibandha vanditv gacchati. Devassnura aggamahesi bhavitun' " ti. Rj ta sutv "Tena hi bhane gahatha na kumri Mama aggamahesi karom" ti, purise payojesi. Tena payutt puris Bodhi-pja katv gacchanti gahm'ti tattha niln gahaa-sajj ahasu. Tad s kumrik assam'abhiruyha Mah-Bodhimaa gantv vtargehi saddhi pupphapja katv vanditv nivatti. Atha tesu eko

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Dhammarakkhitatthero nma tass eva'mha: "Bhagini, tva antarmagge cor gahitukm hit. Asukhahna patv appamatt sgha gacch" ti. S pi gacchant ta hna patv corehi anubandhit assassa pahiy saa datv pakkami. Cor pacchato pacchato anubandhisu. Asso vega janetv ksa'mullanghi. Kumrik vega sandhretu asakkont assassa pihito parigilitv patant -may katpakra sara puttti ha. So patanti disv vegena gantv pihiya nisdpetv ksato netv sakahne y'eva patihpesi. Tasm Tiracchnagat p'eva - sarant upakraka Na jahant'ti mantvna - kata hontu pnino. Tato s kumrik sattstikoi - dhana Buddhassane y'eva vapitv yvajva sla rakkhitv tato cut suttappabuddho viya devaloke nibbatti. Atitaruavay bho mtugm'pi eva Vividhakusalakamma katv sagga vajanti Kusalaphalamahanta maamn bhavant Bhavatha katha'mupekk dnamndikamme.

II

PNYADINNASSA VATTHU
Story of the Giver of Water Jambudpe aatarasmi janapade kir'eko manusso rahato raha janapadato janapada vicaranto anukkamena Candabhg-nadtra patv nva abhiruhitv paratra gacchati. Ath'para gabbhinitth tya eva'nvya gacchati. Atha nv gag-majjh-patta-kle tassa kammaja vt calisu. Tato s vijyitu'masakkont k lant pnya me detha pipsit'mh' ti manusse yci. Te tass vacana asuant viya pnya n'dasu. Atha so jnapadiko tassa karuyanto pnya gahetv mukhe sici. Tasmi khae s laddhsss sukhena draka vijyi. Atha te tra patv katipaya-divasena attano attano hna ppuisu. Ath'parabhge so jnapadiko aatara-kicca paicca tass itthiy vasana-ghara patv tattha tattha hianto nivsanana alabhitv nagaradvre sla gantv tattha nipajji. Tasmi y'eva divase cor nagara pavisitv rjagehe sandhi chinditv dhanasra gahetv gacchant rjapurisehi anubaddh gantv t y'eva slya chaetv palyisu. Atha rjapuris gantv ta jnapadika disv -aya coro'ti gahetv pacchbha gha bandhitv puna-divase rao dassesu. Ra "Kasm bhae, corakamma'ks" ti pucchito "N'ha, deva, coro, gantuko'mhi" ti vutte, rj core pariyesitv alabhanto ayam'eva coro ima mreth'ti npesi. Rjapurisehi ta gha bandhitv ghtahna nette s itth ta tatha n yamna disv sajnitv kampamna haday muhuttena rao santika gantv vanditv, "deva eso na coro gantuko, muccath'eta, dev'ti" 'ha. Rj tss katha asaddhahanto yajjeta mocetum'icchasi tassagghanaka dhana datv mucpeh'ti. S "smi mama gehe dhana n'atthi. Api ca me satta-puttehi saddhi ma dsi karohi. Eta muca dev" ti ha.

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III

DUGGATASSA DNA
A Pauper's Charity Ahosi duggato pubbe - Brasi-puruttame Dna denti nar tattha - nimantetvna bhikkhavo Jvanto bhatiy so'ha - dna dente mahjane Tuhahahe pamudite - eva cintes'aha tad Samuppaa-vatthlakr - dna dent ime jan Parattha'pi pahah'va - sampattim'anubhonti te Buddhu'ppdo aya dni - dhammo loke pavattati Susl'dni vattanti - dakkhieyy jinoras Avahito'va sasro - apy khalu prit Kalya-vimukh satt - kma gacchanti duggati Idni dukkhito hutv - jvmi kasiren'aha Daiddo kapao dno - appabhogo aniyo Idni bja ropemi - sukhette sdhu-sammate App'eva nma ten'ha - parattha sukhito siy Iti cintiya bhikkhitv - bhati katvna 'nekadh Maapa tattha kretv - nimantetvna bhikkhavo ysena ads 'aha - pysa amat yaso Tena kammavipkena - devaloke manorame Jto'mhi dibbakmehi - modamno anekadh Dghyuko vaavanto - tejas'ca ahos'aha.

IV

SUMANDEVIY VATTHU
Story of Suman Devi Svatthiya hi devasika Anthapiikassa gehe dve Bhikkhu-sahassni bhujanti; tath Viskhya mahupsikya. Svatthiya ca yo yo dna dtukmo hoti so so tesa ubhina oksa labhitv'va karonti. Ki kra? Tumhka dnagga Anthapiiko v Viskh v gat'ti pucchitv n'gat'ti vutte satasahassa vissajjetv katadnam'pi ki dna nm'etanti garahanti. Ubho'pi te Bhikkhusaghassa ruci ca anucchavikakiccni ca ativiya jnanti. Tesu vicrentesu bhikkh cittarpa bhujanti. Tasm sabbe dna dtukm te gahetv'va gacchanti. Iti te attano ghare bhikkh parivisitu na labhanti. Tato Viskh "ko nu kho mama hne hatv bhikkhusagha parivisissat" ti upadhrent puttassa dhtara disv ta attano hne hapesi. S tass nivesane bhikkhusagha parivisati. Anthapiiko'pi Mahsubhadda nma jehadhtara hapesi. S bhikkhna veyyvacca karont dhamma suant sotpann hutv patikula agamsi. Tato Cullasubhadda hapesi. S'pi tatth'eva karont sotpann hutv patikula gat. Atha Sumandevi nma kaihadhtara hapesi. S pana Sakadgmiphala patv kumrik'va hutv tathrpena aphsukhena tur hrupaccheda katv pitara dahukm hutv pakkospesi. So ekasmi dnagge tassa ssana sutv'va gantv - "Ki amma Sumane'?"ti ha. S'pi na ha- "Ki tta kiihabhtik"ti. "Vippalapasi, amma?" "Na vippalapmi, kaihabhtik" ti.

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"Bhyasi, amm"ti. "Na bhymi, kaihabhtik" ti. Ettaka vatv y'eva pana s klamaksi. So Sotpanno'pi samno sehidhtari uppannasoka adhivsetu asakkonto Dhtu sarrakicca kretv rodanto Satthusantika gantv "Ki gahapati dukkh dummano assumukho rudamno upagato's"ti? vutte "Dht me bhante Sumandevi klakat" ti ha. "Atha kasm socasi? Nanu sabbesa ekasika maraanti." "Jnm'eta bhante. Evarp pana me hirottappasampann dht s maraakle sati paccupahpetu asakkont vippalamn mat'ti me anappaka domanassa uppajjati" ti. "Ki pana tay kathita mahsehi?" "Aha ta bhante 'Amma Sumane' ' ti mantesi. Atha na ha 'Ki tta kaihabhtik'ti. Tato 'vippalpasi amm' ' ti? 'Na vippalapm'ti kaihabhtik' ' ti. 'Bhyasi amm' ' ti? 'Na bhym'ti kaiabhtik' ' ti. Ettaka vatv klamkas" ti. Atha na Bhagav ha. "Na te mahsehi dht vippalap" ti. "Atha kasm evam'h?" ti Kaihatt y'eva. Dht hi te gahapati maggaphalehi tay mahallik. Tva hi Sotpanno. Dht pana te Sakadgmini. S maggaphalehi mahallikatt evam'h" ti. "Eva bhante!" "Evan gahapati!" "Idni kuhi nibbatt, bhante?" Tusitabhavane gahapat'ti vutte bhante mama dht idh takna antare nandamn, vicaritv ito gantv'pi nandanahne y'eva nibbatt." Atha na satth "ma gahapati appamatt nma gahah v pabbajit v idha loke ca paraloke ca nandanti y'ev"ti vatv ima gtham'ha. Idha nandati pecca nandati - katapuo ubhayattha nandati Pua me katan ti nandati - bhyyo nandati suggati gato.

SELECTIONS FROM DHAMMAPADA


Na hi verena verni - sammant'dha kudcana Averena ca sammanti - esa dhammo sanantano. Yath agra ducchanna - vuhi samativijjhati Eeva abhvita citta - rgo samativijjhati. Yath'gra succhanna - vuhi na samativijjhati Eva subhvita citta - rgo na samativijjhati. Idha socati pecca socati - ppakr ubhayattha socati So socati so vihaati - disv kamma-kiliha'mattano. Idha modati pecca modati - katapuo ubhayattha modati So modati so pamodati - disv kamma-visuddhi'mattano. Idha tappati pecca tappati - ppakr ubhayattha tappati Ppa me katan'ti tappati - bhyo tappati duggati gato. Idha nandati pecca nandati - katapuo ubhayattha nandati Pua me katan'ti nandati - bhyo nandati suggati gato.

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Appamdo amatapada - pamdo maccuno pada Appamatt na myanti - ye pamatt yath mat. Appamdena maghav - devna sehata gato Appamda pasasanti - pamdo garahito sad. Acira vata'ya kyo - pahavi adhisessati Chuddho apeta-vio - nirattha'va kaigara. Yath'pi bhamaro puppha - vaagandha ahehaya Paeti rasa'mdya - eva gme mun care. Na paresa vilomni - na paresa kat'kata Attano'va avekkheyya - katni akatni ca. Yath'pi puppharsimh - kayir mlgue bah Eva jtena maccena - kattabba kusala bahu. Madh'va maat blo - yva ppa na paccati Yad ca paccati ppa - atha blo dukkha nigacchati. Selo yath ekaghano - vtena na samrati Eva nind-pasassu - na samijanti pait. Na attahetu na parassa hetu - na putta'micche na dhana na raha Na iccheyya adhammena samiddhi'mattano - sa slav paav dhammiko siy. Yo sahassa sahassena - sagme mnuse jine Eka ca jeyya attna - save sagmaj'uttamo. Sabbe tasanti daassa - sabbe bhyanti maccuno Attna upama katv - na haeyya na ghtaye. Sabbe tasanti daassa - sabbesa jvita piya Attna upama katv na haeyya na ghtaye. Dhamma care sucarita - na ta duccarita care Dhammacr sukha seti - asmi loke paramhi ca. Kiccho manussa pailbho - kiccha macchna jvita Kiccha saddhammasavaa - kiccho buddhna uppdo. Sabbappassa akaraa - kusalassa upasampad Sacitta pariyodapana - eta Buddhna ssana. Yo ca Buddha ca dhamma ca - sagha ca saraa gato Cattri ariya-saccni - samma'ppaya passati. Dukkha dukkhasamuppda - dukkhassa ca atikkama Ariyacahagika magga - dukkhpasamagmina. Eta kho saraa khema - eta saraa'muttama Eta saraa'mgamma - sabbadukkh pamuccati. Na c'hu na ca bhavissati - na cetarahi vijjati Ekanta nindito poso - ekanta v pasasito. Na tena paito hoti - yvat bahu bhsati Khem avero abhayo - paito'ti pavuccati. Na tvat dhammadharo - yvat bahu bhsati Yo ca appam'pi sutvna - dhamma kyena passati Save dhammadharo hoti - yo dhamma na'ppamajjati. Akata dukkata seyyo - pacch tapati dukkata Kata ca sukata seyyo - ya katv nnutappati. Sukha yva jar sla - sukh saddh patihit Sukho paya pailbho - ppna akaraa sukha. Sabbadna dhammadna jinti - sabba rasa dhammarasa jinti Sabba rati dhammarati jinti - tahakkhayo sabba dukkha jinti. Cakkhun savaro sdhu - sdhu sotena savaro Ghena savaro sdhu - sdhu jivhya savaro.

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Kyena savaro sdhu - sdhu vcya savaro Manas savaro sdhu - sdhu sabbattha savaro Sabbattha savuto bhikkhu - sabbadukkh pamuccati. Dhammrmo dhammarato - dhamma anuvicintaya Dhamma anussara bhikkhu - saddhamm na parihyati. Yassa kyena vcya - manas n'atthi dukkata Savuta thi hnehi - tam'aha brmi brhmaa.

VI Mano pubbagam dhamm - mano seh manomay Manas ce paduhena - bhsati v karoti v Tato na dukkham'anveti - cakka'va vahato pada. Mano pubbagam dhamm - manoseh manomay Manas ce pasannena - bhsati v karoti v Tato na sukham'anveti - chy'va anapyin. In prose form :Dhamm mano pubbagam (honti), mano seh (honti), manomay (honti), (Yo) ce paduhena manas bhsati v karoti v, tato dukkha na anveti cakka vahato pada iva. Dhamm mano pubbagam (honti), mano seh (honti), manomay (honti), (Yo) ce psannena manas bhsati v karoti v, tato sukha na anveti anapyin chy iva. Dhamm-dhara, to hold or support. suffix mma. states or conditions. Pubbagam - pubba + + gam = going before. Manoseh - mana + seha. -When words of the mano group are compounded with another word, the final vowel is changed into 'o'. Manomay - This is a Nominal Derivative (Taddihita) formed from mana and suffix 'maya' which means-made of. Paduhena - pa + dusa, to defile, pollute. This is the Perfect Participle of 'padusa'. Here the suffix 'ta' is changed into 'ha'. Comp. diha from disa, to see; naha from nasa, to perish; daha from dasa, to sting; iha from isu, to wish. Bhsati - Present tense of bhsa, to speak. Karoti - Present tense of kara, to do. Anveti - anu + eti The present tense of 'i'', to go. Here 'u' is changed into. 'v'. Cakka'va Cakka + iva, This is a Sandhi formed by dropping the following vowel. Vahato - The Genitive case of 'vahanta', from 'vaha', to carry. Pasannena - The Perfect Participle of 'pa', + 'sada', to be Pleased. Here the suffix 'ta' is changed into 'nna'. Comp. 'bhinna', from bhidi, to break; chinna from chidi, to cut; channa from chada, to cover. Anapyin - Na + apyin. Here na is changed into 'an'. Apyin is formed from apa + aya, to go.

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NOTES
I Kira - An Indeclinable used in reference to a report by hearing. It seems, 'is said. Nihita - pp. of ni + dh, bear. Deposited, laid aside, set apart Klamakasu - Kla + akasu - died. Sing. Klamaksi Spateyya - property, wealth, provisions. Vaa-pokkharatya - beauty of complexion. Devacchar - celestial nymph. Ratana + ttaya + mmik - devoted to the Triple Gem. Pdaparikatta - state of wife. Vibhava - wealth. Pati + kulena - husband's clan. Kevala - only. Tato pahya - from that time, thence forth. Nivsa gahi - took shelter. Potaka - colt. Paijagghi - nourish, tend, look after. Pua + karaassa - Dat. to one who is doing merit. Vidhametv - having vanquished, having defeated. Yannnha - How, if I. Mlake - in the enclosure, yard. Ugghosesi - shouted. Ma + anuggaha - have compassion on me. Soa + mlhi - with garlands of gold. Nabhas - through the sky. Mahisu - revered. Tato + ppabhuti - from that time. Nagara + upavane - in the wood near the city. Nibandha - frequently. Devassa + anurpa - suitable to the Deva (King). Bhane - a term of address used by superiors to subordinates. Niln - hidden. Gahana + sajj - ready to seize. Nivatti - stopped. Pahiy - with the heel. Saa + datv - giving a sign. Vega janetv - accelerating the speed. ksa ullaghi - rose to the sky. Sandhretu - to bear. Parigalitv - having glided off, slipped. Tiracchnagat - animals. Mantvna - considering, thinking. Sutta-ppabuddho - risen from sleep. Mtugm - women.

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II Janapada - country Nad + tra - river bank. Gabbhin + itth - pregnant woman. Kammaja-vt - pains of childbirth. Vijyitu-asakkont - unable to give birth. Pipsit + amhi - I am thirsty. Karuyanto - pitying. Laddh + asss - having obtained consolation. Katipaya - few Paicca - on account of. hianto - wandering. Sandhi chinditv - making a break - broke into the house. Pacchbha - hands on the back. Gha bandhitv - binding tightly. gantuko - guest, foreigner, visitor. npesi - ordered. ghtahna - place of execution. Sajnitv - recognising. Hadaya - heart. Muhuttena - in a moment. Asaddhahanto - not believing. Tassa-agghaaka - its value.

III Duggato - poor man. Bhatiy - by wages. Tuha-hahe - pleased and delighted. Pamudite - rejoiced Dakkhieyy - worthy of gifts. Jinoras - the Sons of the Buddha. vahito - settled. Sasro - Existence. Khalu - indeclinable, indeed. Kalya-vimukka - opposed to good. Kasirena - with difficulty. Kapao - poor. Dno - miserable. Anhiyo - destitute. Sdhu + sammate - regarded as good. Maapa - hall. ysena - with trouble. Pysa - milk porridge.

IV Devasika - adv. daily. Dnagga - alms-hall. Vutte - loc. of vutta, from vada, to speak. When said, on being said. Garahanti - from 'garaha' to condemn, despise.

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Ruci - taste, desire, likes. Anucchavkha-kiccni - anu + chavi - ka = according to one's skin, i.e., befitting, proper, suitable. Kiccni, deeds, actions, duties. Ativiya - adj. thoroughly. Jnanti - know, from , to know, Jna is substituted for . Tesu vicrentesu - loc. absolute. When they inquire. Cittarpa - lit. according to the mind, i.e., as they liked or according to one's heart's content. Parivisitu. - from pari + visa - to feed. Upadhrenti - nom. feminine singular present participle of upa + dhara, to hold, take up. Reflecting. hapesi - Aorist causal of h, to stand. Placed. Veyyvacca karonti - perform duties, render service. Sotpann - sota, stream; panna, entered. Stream - Winner, the first stage of Sainthood. Patikula - husband's family. Sakadgmiphala - Fruit of Ones - Returner, the second stage of Sainthood. Tathrpena aphsukhena - some such illness. tura - ill. hrpaccheda - lit. food - cutting, i.e., starving. Pakkospesi - Aorist causal of pa + kusa = caused to be called; summoned. Vippalapasi - from vi + pa + lapa, to speak. Speak confusedly, babble. Klamaksi - lit. did the time i.e., died. Uppannasoka - arisen grief. Uppanna is the p.p. of u + pada, to go. Adhivsetu - inf. of adhi + vasa = to bear. Asakkonto - pres. participle of sakha, to bear. Being unable. Sarrakicca - lit. bodily duties, i.e. funeral ceremonies, obsequies. Kretv - Causal past participle of karu, to do. Rodanto - pres. part. of ruda, to lament, wail. Assumukho - assu, tears; mukha, face = tearful face. Klakat - lit. time done i.e., dead. Ekasika - adv. certain. Hirottappasampann - hiri = shame, modesty; ottappa = fear; sampann = endowed with. Paccupahpetu - inf. of pati + upa + h, to gather up. Mat - p.p. of mara, to die. Kathita - p.p. of katha, to speak; said, uttered, spoken. Mahallikatt - abstract noun. Being old. Nibbatt - p.p. .of ni + vatu born. Pecca - Ind. p.p. of pa + i, to go. Having gone. Katapuo - the doer of good. Gat - p.p. of gamu = gone.

V Verena - by anger. Sammanti - are pacified - samu. Sanantano - ancient law - Sana + suffix tana. Agra - house. Du + channa - ill - thatched. Vuhi - rain.

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Samativijjhati - penetrates through - sa + ati + vijjha. Pecca - hereafter. Kamma - kiliha - defiled actions. Modati - rejoices - muda. Visuddhi - purity. Tappati - is tormented - tapa. Myanti - die - m. Maghav - a name given to Sakka, the king of the devas. Pasasanti - praise - pasasa. Garahito - is denounced, blamed - garaha + ta. Adhisessati - will lie - adhi + si. Chuddho - thrown away. Apeta - vio - bereft of consciousness. Ni + attha - useless. Kaingara - charred log. Bhamaro - bee. Ahehaya - without injuring. Paleti - flies - pala. Vilomni - defects. Avekkheyya - should reflect - ava + ikkha Kayir - would make - kara. Mlgue - different garlands. Maccena - by man. Maati - thinks - mana. Selo - rock. Eka - ghano - one - solid. Vtena - by wind. Samrati - is shaken - sa + ira. Samiddhi - prosperity. Sa - so, he. Sagme - in the battle field. Jeyya - would conquer - j. Tasanti - tremble - tasa. Haeyya - should kill - haa. Ghtaye - should cause to kill - haa.

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VOCABULARY: Pali-English

A Abhibhavati - (Abhi + bh) overcomes. Abhibh - m. conqueror. Abhidhamma - m. Higher Doctrine. Abhigacchati - (abhi + gamu) goes near to. Abhijnti - (abhi + ) perceives. Abhikkamati - (abhi + kamu) goes forward. Abhimagala - n. great festival. Abhimukha - facing towards. Abhi - f. higher knowledge. cariya - m. teacher. dara - m. affection, esteem, care. dya - p.p. having taken. Adhibhta - p.p. mastered. Adhigacchati - (adhi + gamu) attains, acquires. Adhipati - m. chief, master. Adhisessati - (adhi + si) will lie upon. Adhisla - a higher morality. Adhista - adj. very cold. Adhitihati - (adhi + h) stands upon. Adhivasati - (adhi + vasa) dwells in. Ag - (gamu) went. gacchati - ( + gamu) comes. gatasamao - m. monastery. Aggi - m. fire. Aha - n. day. Aha - pro. I. hra - m. food. harati - ( + hara) brings. Aja - m. goat. Aj - f. she-goat. Ajja - ind. to-day. ksa - m. sky. Alikavd - m. liar. ma - ind. yes. Amacca - m. minister. Amba - n. mango. Ambara - n. garment. Amhka - pro. our. Amu - Pro. this, that, such. Aguli - f. finger. Aa - adj. another Annada - giver of food. Aatara - adj. certain.

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Antevsiko - m. pupil. Antima - adj. last. Anu - pre. like, after, along, under. Anugacchati - (anu + gamu) follows. Anulomato - in accordance with. Anunyaka - m. sub-chief. Anupubba - in due course. Anurja - m. successor. Apa - pre. from, away from. pabbata - n. as far as the rock. Apagacchati - (apa + gamu) goes away. pana - n. shop, market. Apara - adj. other, western, subsequent. Aparaha - m. afternoon. Apaslya - from the hall. Apavda - m. abuse, blame. Api - ind. over, near to. Apidhna - n. cover, lid. Appa - adj. little, few. Appamda - m. earnestness. Arahanta - m. Arahat. rma - m. temple, garden. roceti - ( + ruca) informs, tells, announces. rogya - n. health. Asdhu - m. bad man. sana - n. seat. Asi - m. sword. Asikaaho - m. swordfight. Asti - eighty. Assa - m. horse. Ass - f. mare. Aavi - f. forest. Ativiya - adj. very. Atigacchati - (ati + gamu) overcomes. Atikkamati - (ati + kamu) transgresses. Atisundara - very beautiful. Atithi - m. guest. Atta - m. soul, self. Attha - m. matter, meaning, good. Aha - eight. Ahdasa - eighteen. Ahama - eighth. Ahi - n. bone. Avabhodha - m. understanding. Avacarati - (ava + cara) traverses. Avaharati - (ava + hara) takes away. Avajnti - (ava + ) despises. Avakkamati - (ava + kamu) descends. Avamaati - (ava + mana) looks down upon. vuso - ind. friend, brother. Aya - n. iron.

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Ayomaya - made of iron. yu - n. age.

B Bahudh - in many ways. Bla - m. young. Blat - f. childhood. Blatta- n. ignorance. Balavantu - m. powerful. Bandhumantu - m. he who has relations. Bhagavantu - m. The Blessed One. Bhagin - f. sister. Bhajati - (bhaja) associates. Bhaati - (bhaa) speaks, recites. Bhaa - n. goods, article. Bhagrika - m. treasurer Bhante - ind. Lord, Reverend Sir. Bhariy - f. wife. Bhs - f. language. Bhsana. - n. speech. Bhattu - m. husband. Bhtu - m. brother. Bhava - n. existence. Bhavati - (bh) becomes. Bhveti - (bh) cultivates, develops. Bhaya - n. fear. Bhikkhu - m, mendicant, monk. Bhikkhun - f. nun. Bhinna - p.p. broken. Bh - to be. Bhujaga - m. snake. Bhujitukma - wishing to eat. Bhmi - f. ground. Bhujati - (bhuji) eats, partakes. Bhta - n. being. Bja - n. seed, germ. Brahmacr - m. celibate. Buddha - m. The Enlightened One. Buddhadesita - preached by Buddha. Bujjhati - (budha) understands.

C Cakkhu - n. eye. Canda - m. moon. Carati - (cara) wanders. Catuttha - fourth. Cattsati - forty. Catu - four. Catuddasa - fourteen.

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Ceta - n. mind. Cha - six. Chatta - n. umbrella. Chaha - sixth. Cira - indec. for a long time. Corabhaya - n. fear from thief. Corayati - (cura) steals. Coreti - (cura) steals. Cuddasa - fourteen.

D Dakkhia - south. Dna - n. alms, giving, gift. Daa - n. stick. Da - he who has a stick. Draka - m. child. Drik - f. girl. Dru - n. wood, fire-wood. Drumaya - wooden. Dasa - ten. Dsa - m. servant. Dsi - f. servant-maid. Dtu - m. giver. Dyaka - m. supporter. Deseti - (disa) preaches. Deti - (d) gives. Deva - m. god. Devi - f. goddess. Deyya - that which should be given. Dhamma - m. Law, Truth, Doctrine. Dhammacri - m. righteous one. Dhammadhara - m. versed in the Dhamma. Dhammasl - f, preaching hall. Dhammat - f. nature. Dhammavd - m. speaker of the Truth. Dhammika - righteous. Dhana - n. wealth. Dhvati - (dhva) runs. Dhenu - f. cow. Dhtu - f. daughter. Dhitimantu - m. courageous one. Dhovati - (dhova) washes. Dhunti - (dhu) destroys. Dibbati - (diva) enjoys. Dgha - adj. long. Dinakara - m. Sun. Dpa - n. light, lamp. Dis - f. quarter, direction. Dihadhammo - m. Saint. Divasa - m., n. day.

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Dosa - m. hatred. Du - pre. bad, difficult. Duddama - difficult to tame. Duggati - f. evil state. Duhitu - f. daughter. Duranubodha - difficult of comprehension. Dutiya - second. Dvdasa - twelve. Dvi - two. Dvikkhattu - twice.

E Eka - one, certain, some. Ekdasa - eleven. Eaka - m. goat. Eva - ind. just, quite, even, only. Eva - ind. thus.

G Gacchati - (gamu) goes. Gahapati - m. householder. Gma - m. village. Gmato - gone to the village. Gamaka - m. goer. Gamana - n. going. Gmat - f. collection of villages. Gag - f. river. Gantukma - wishing to go. Grayha - blamable. Gati - f. state. Ghara - n. home, house. Ghaa -m. pot, jar. Ghosana - noisy. Gilna - m. sick person. Gti - f. song. Go - m. bull. Gotrabh - n. Sanctified one. Guavantu - m. virtuous one.

H Harati - (hara) carries. Hattha - m. hand. Hatthi - m. elephant. Hatthin - f. she-elephant. Have - ind. indeed, certainly. Hi - indec. indeed. Hyo - ind. yesterday.

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I Icchati - (isu) wishes, desires. Idni - ind. now. Idha - ind. here. Ima - this. Itara - adj. different, the remaining. Ito - ind. hence. ago, from here. Iva - ind. like. Isi - m. sage.

J Janaka - m. father. Janan - f. mother. Janat - f. multitude. Jaya - m. victory. Jyati - (jana) arises, is born. Jeha - eldest. Jetu - m. conqueror. Jeyya - elder. Jinti - (ji) conquers. Jvati - (jva) lives.

K Ka - pro. who, which? Kadariya - m. miser. Kammaja - born of kamma. Kampati - (kampa) shakes, wavers. Kaha - black. Kaniha - adj . youngest. Kaniya - adj. younger. Ka - f. maiden, virgin. Kapi - m. monkey. Kraka - m. doer. Karaa - n. doing. Karanya - that which should be done. Kassaka - m. farmer. Katama - pro. what, which? Kata - m. grateful person. Katara - pro. what, which? Kattu - m. doer. Kattukma - wishing to do. Kavi - m. poet. Kyika - bodily. Khdati - (khda) eats, chews. Khaggavisakappa - m. like a rhinoceros. Khajja - eatable. Khaati - (khaa) digs. Khanti - f. patience. Khetta - n. field.

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Khippa - ind. quickly. Khra - n. milk. Khuddaka - adj . small. Ki - ind. why? what? pray. Kati - plays. Kodha - m. anger. Kodhana - irritable. Koi - f. hundred lakhs. Kuddla - m., n. spade. Kujjhati - (kudha) gets angry. Kumbhakra - m. potter. Kujara - m. elephant. Kpa - m. well.

L Labhati - (labha) receives. Lakkha - lakh. Lekhana - n. letter. Likhati = (likha) writes. Lobha - m. greed. Loka - m. world. Lokahita - beneficial to the world. Lokika - worldly. Loika - mixed with salt.

M Maccha - m. fish. Maccu - m. death. Madhu - m. honey. Magga - m. road. Maggika - m. traveller. Mahanta - adj. big. Mahes - f. queen. Majja - n. intoxicant. Majjhima - adj . middle. Mlkra - m. garland-maker. Mama - pro. my, mine. Mana - mind. Mna - n. pride. Maca - m. bed. Mai - m. jewel. Manomaya - mental. Manusatta - n. manhood. Maraa - n. death. Msa - m., n. month. Mtula - m. uncle. Mtuln - f. aunt. Mayha - pro. .my, mine. Medha - adj . wise.

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Medhv - m. wise man. Medhvin - f. wise woman. Mitta - m., n. friend. Mukha - n. face, mouth. Muni - m. sage. Mutti - f. deliverance.

N Nagara - m. city. Ngarika - urban. Nma - n. name, mind. Namo - ind. honour. Narapati - m. king. Nr - f. woman. Nara - m. man. Ntha - m. lord, refuge. ti - m. relative. Nattu - m. nephew. tu - m. knower. Nv - f. ship, boat. Nvika - m. navigator. Nava - nine. Navama - ninth. Navuti - ninety. Netu - m. leader. Nirhra - without food. Nca - mean, low. Nicaya - n. accumulation. Nidahati - (ni + daha) lays aside. Nidhya - ind. p.p. having left aside. Nigacchati - (ni + gamu) goes away. Nigama - m. town, market Nharati - (n + hara) takes away, removes. Nikkhamati - (ni + kamu) departs. Nikkhaati - (ni +khaa) buries. Nla - adj. blue. Nrasa - sapless, tasteless. Nroga - healthy. Nisdati - (ni + sada) sits. Nittaho - arahant (Desireless One). Nivattati - (ni + vatu) ceases.

O Odana - m. rice, cooked rice. Oj - f. essence. Osadha - m. medicine. Osadhasl - f. dispensary. Ovda - m. advice.

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P Pabala - very strong. Pabbata - m., n. rock. Pacati - (paca) cooks. Pacchbhatta - after meal. Pacchima - west. Pda - m,. n. foot Paharati - (pa + hara) strikes. Pakkamati - (pa + kamu) sets out, goes away. Pakkhipati - (pa + khipa) throws in, puts in. Pibhs - f. pi-language. Pana - ind, but, however, further. Paca - five. Pacadasa - fifteen. Pacadh - fivefold. Pacama - fifth. Paita - m. wise man. Paha - m. question Pata - noble. Pacama - fifth. Paarasa - fifteen. Pa - f. wisdom. Pakra - m. present. Pasa - fifty. Ppa - n. evil. Ppaka - adj . evil. Ppakr - m. evil-doer. Pputi - (pa + apa) arrives. Para - adj. other, different. Par - ind. away, aside, back, opposed to. Parbhava - m. decline, ruin. Parjaya - defeat. Parakkamati - (para + kamu) strives. Pari - pre. around, about, complete. Pariccheda - m. limit, extent, chapter. Paridahati - (pari + daha) puts on. Paridhvati. - (pari + dhva) runs about. Parikkhipati - (pari + khipa) throws around. Parisuddha - complete purity. Pasattha - good. Ptarsa - m. morning meal. Patati - (pata) falls. Pahama - first. Phasl - f. school. Pati - m. husband, lord. Pati - pre. again, against, back, towards. Patideti - (pati + d) gives in return. Paikkamati - (pai + kamu) retreats. Pailekhana - n. letter in reply. Pailoma - backwards. Paipad - f. course, conduct, practice.

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Patirja - hostile king. Patirpa - counterfeit, suitable. Paisota - against the stream. Paivadati - (pai + vada) answers. Pto - ind. early in the morning. Pavisati - (pa + visa) enters. Pya - n. water, milk. Payti - (pa + y) goes forward. Payojana - n. use, need. Pema - m. attachment, love. Pta - adj. yellow. Pha - n. chair, bench. Pti - f. joy. Pitu - m. father. Potthaka - n. book. Pubba - adj. first, foremost, eastern. Pubbaha - m. forenoon. Pucchati - asks. Pjeti - offers. Pua - n. merit, good. Puakr - m . good-doer. Puppha - n. flower. Purato - ind. in the presence of. Puratthima - east. Putta - m. son. Puttika - he who has sons.

R Rja - m. king. Raja - n. dust. Rajatamaya - made of silver. Rjin - f. queen. Rakkhati - protects. Ratha - m. cart. chariot. Rathakra - charioteer. Rati - f. attachment. Ratta - adj. red. Raha - n. country, kingdom, realm. Ratti - f. night. Roga - m. disease. Rukkha - m. tree. Rundhati - (rudhi) obstructs.

S S - she. Sabba - all. Sobbad - ind. everyday. Sabba - m. All Knowing One. Sabbaso - in every way.

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Sabbath - in every way. Sacca - a truth. Sad - ind. always. Saddh - f. faith, devotion, confidence. Sdhu - m. good man. Sdhu - adj. good. Sdhuka - ind. well. Sahya - m. friend. Sl - f. hall. Samgacchati - (sa + + gamu) assembles. Samaa - m. holy man, ascetic. Sambuddha - self-enlightened. Sameti - meets together. Sm - m. husband, lord. Samm-Sammbuddha - m. Fully Enlightened One. Sammukha - face to face with. Sa - pre. with, together, self. Sagha - m. collection, The Order. Saharati - (sa + hara) collects. Sakhipati - (sa + khipa) condenses. Sakilissati - (sa + kilisa) is defiled. Sara - n. lake. Saraa - n. refuge. Satta - seven. Sahassa - thousand. Sata - hundred. Sattadasa - seventeen. Sattama - seventh. Sahi - sixty. Sattati - seventy. Satthu - m. teacher. Syamsa - m. evening meal, dinner. Sen - f. army. Seta - adj . white. Seha - adj. excellent, chief. Sla - n. morality, precept, virtue. Sladhana - wealth of virtue. Sira - n. head. Sta - adj . cold, cool. Siy - would be. So - pro. he. Soka - m. grief. Soasa - sixteen. Sotu - m. hearer. Sovaamaya - golden. Su - pre. good, well, thoroughly, excess. Subhvita - p.p. thoroughly practised. Sda - m. cook. Sudubbala - very weak. Sudesita - well preached. Sugati - f. good or happy state.

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Sujana - m. good man. Sukara - easy to do. Sukhita - adj. happy, healthy. Sunakha - m. dog. Suti - (su) hears. Suve - ind. tomorrow.

T Tad - ind. then. Taka - n. pond pool. Tama - n. darkness. Tah - f. craving. Tapa - n. asceticism, control. Tarati - (tara) crosses. Tarua - adj . young. Tsa - f. their. Tassa - m., n., pro. his. Tass - f. pro. her. Tatiya - third. Tava - m., f., n., pro. your. Teja - n. majesty. Terasa - thirteen. Tesa - m., n., pro. their. Ti - three. Tia - n. grass. Tisati - thirty. Tumhka - m., f., n., pro. Plu. your. Tuyha - m., f., n. pro. Sing. your.

U Ucca - adj . high. Ucchindati - (u + chidi) cuts off. Udaka - n. water. Udaya - m. rise, beginning. Uggacchati - (u + gamu) rises. Ukkhipati - (u + khipa) throws upwards. Uha - adj. hot. Upa - pre. near, towards, next. Updna - attachment, clinging. Upadhvati - (upa + dhva) runs up to. Upagacchati - (upa + gamu) goes near. Upagaga - near a river. Upakahati - (upa + kaha) drags down. Upakaa- into the ear. Upanagara - near a city, suburb. Uparja - m. viceroy. Upsaka - m. devotee (male). Upaskh - minor branch. Upasakamati - (upa + sa + kamu) approaches.

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Upsik - f. devotee. (female). Ura - n. shoulder. Uttara - adj. higher, superior, northern. Uttarati - (u + tara) ascends.

V V - ind. either, or. Vc - f. word. Vceti - (vaca) reads, recites. Vadati - (vada) speaks. Vadh - f. young wife. Vanavsa - residence in the forest. Vandati - (vanda) salutes. Vaa - m. appearance, colour, praise. Vapati - sows. Vassa - m., n. year, rain. Vattha - n. cloth, raiment. Vattu - m. talker. Vaya - n. age. Vyamati - strives, tries. Vejja - m. doctor, physician. Vibhava - m. power, free from existence. Vicarati - (vi + cara) wanders about. Vicchindati - (vi + chidi) cuts off. Vigata - separated. Vihaati - perishes. Vhi - m. paddy. Vikkhipati - scatters. Viloma - reverse. Vimala - stainless. Vimukha - averted. Vimutti - f. perfect release. Vipassati - (vi + passa) sees clearly. Vsa - twenty. Visama - uneven. Vsati - twenty. Visikh - f. street. Visoka - sorrowless. Visujjhati - (vi + sudha) is purified. Viya - ind. like. Vuddha - adj . old. Vykaroti - (vi + + kara) expounds.

Y Y - pro. who, which, that. Ycaka - m. beggar. Yad - ind. when. Ygu - m. rice-gruel. Yasa - n. glory.

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Yathbala - according to strength. Yathkamma - to order. Yathsatti - according to one's ability. Yathvuddha - according to seniority. Yva - ind. till, so long. Yvadattha - as one wishes. Yvajva - till life lasts. Yogga - suitable.

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VOCABULARY: English-Pali

A Abandons - jahati. About - matta. Above - upari. Abuse - upavda. m. Accumulation - nicaya. Acquires - adhigacchati. Action - kamma. n. Advice - ovda. m. Affection - dara. m. After - pacch. ind. Afternoon - aparaha. m. Again - puna. ind. Against - pati. ind. Age - yu. n. Ago - ito. ind. All - sabba. adj. All-Knowing One - sabba. m. Alms. - dna. Also - api, ca. ind. Always - nicca. ind. And - ca. ind. Anger - kodha. m. Angry (gets) - kujjhati. Announces - roceti. Another - aa. pro. Answers - paivadati. Appearance - vaa. m. Approaches - upasakamati. Aquatic - jalaja. Arahant - arahanta. Arises - uggacchati. Arises (is born) - jyati, uppajjati. Army - sen. f. Around - pari. ind. Arrives - pputi. Article - bhaa. n. Ascends - ruhati. Ascetic - samaa, m. Asceticism - tapa. m. Asks - pucchati. As long as - tva. ind. Assembles - samgacchati. Associates - bhajati.

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Attachment - pema. m., rati. f. Attains - adhigacchati. Aunt - mtulni. f. Avaricious person - kadariya. m. Averted - vimukha. Away - apa, ava, par, ni. pre.

B Back - puna. ind Backwards - pailoma. Bad - du. pre. Bad man - asdhu. m. Becomes - bhavati. Becoming - bhava. m. Bed - maca, m. Beggar - ycaka. m. Beginning - udaya. m. Behind - pacch. ind. Bench - pha. n. Beyond - pra. ind. Big - mahanta. adj. Bird - sakuna. m. Black - kaha. adj. Blamable - vajja. Blame - apavda. m. Blessed - bhagavanta. Blessings-bestower - sivakara. m. Blue - nla. adj. Blueness - nlat. f. nlatta. n. Boat - nv. f. Bodily - kyika. Bone - ahi. n. Book - potthaka, m., n. Born (is) - jyati. Brings - harati. Brother - vuso. (A form of address). Brother - bhtu. m. Buddha - Buddha. m. Bull - go. m. Buries - nikhaati. But - pana. ind. Buys - kiti.

C Care - dara. m. Carries - harati. Cart - ratha. m. Chair - pha. n. Chapter - pariccheda. m.

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Chariot - ratha. n. Chews - khdati. Chief - adhipati. m. seha. adj. Child- draka. m. Childhood - blat. f. City - nagara. n. Clear - vippasanna. Climbs - ruhati. Cloth - vattha. n. Coach-builder - rathakraka. Cold - sta. adj. Collection - samha. m. Collects - saharati. Colour - vaa. m. Comes - gacchati. Compiles - sagahti. Complete - sampua. Condenses - sakhipati. Condition - bhva. m. Condition (of birth) - gati. f. Conduct - paipad. f. cra. m. Conqueror - abhibh. m. Conquers - jinti. Consent - anumati. f. Control - dama. m. Cook - sda. m. Cooks - pacati. Cook (wishing to) - pacitukma. Cooked rice - odana. n. Cool - sta. adj. Counterfeit - patirpa Country - raha. n. Courageous - dhitimantu. m. Course - paipad. f. Cover - apidhna, pidhna. n. Covetousness - abhijjh. f. Cow - dhenu. f. Craving - tah. f.

D Darkness - andhakra. m. Daughter - dhtu. f, Day - divasa. m., n. Death - maccu. m. Declares - vadati. Defeat - parjaya. m. Defiles - sakilissati. Deliverance - mutti. g. Delusion - moha. m. Departs - nikkhamati.

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Descends - okkamati. Despises - avajnti. Destroys - dhunti. Destruction - khaya. m. Devotee (male) - upsaka. m. Devotee (female) upsik. f. Devotion - saddh f. Different - nn. Difficult - dukkara. Digs - khaati. Dinner - syamsa. m. Direction - dis. f. Disappears - antaradhyati. Disciple - svaka. m. Disease - roga. m. Dispensary - osadhasl. f. Do (wishing to) - kattukma. Doctor - vejja. m. Doctrine - Dhamma. m. Doer - kraka. m. Dog - sunakha. m. Doing - karonta. .pres. p. Down - heh. ind. Drags down - upakahati. Drinks - pibati, pivati. Drinkable - peyya. Dust - raja. n. Dwells - viharati.

E Ear - sota. n. Early - pubba. adj. Earnestness - appamda. m. East - puratthim. Easy (to do) - sukara. Eat (wishing to) - bhjitukma. Eater - bhojaka. Eats - bhujati. Edible - khdanya. Eight - aha. Eighteen - ahadasa, ahrasa. Eighty - asta. Either - v. End - anta. m. Enlightened one - Sambuddha. m. Especial - visesa. Essence - sra. n. Esteem - dara. m. Even - api. ind. Evening - syaha. m.

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Evening-meal - syamsa. m. Everyday - sabbad. Evil - ppa. n. Evil doer - ppakr. m. Evil State - duggati. f. Excellent - seha. adj. suhu. ind. Exhortation - ovda. m. Existence - bhava. m. Expounds - vykaroti. Extent - pariccheda. m. Eye - cakkhu. n.

F Face - mukha. n. Falls - patati. Faith - saddh. f. Farmer - kassaka. m. Father - janaka. m. pitu. m. Fear - bhaya. n. Few - appa. adj . Field - khetta. n. Fifteen - pacadasa, paarasa. Fifth - pacama. Finger - aguli. f. Fire - aggi. m. Firewood - dru. n. First - pahama. Fish - maccha. m. Five - paca. Flower - puppha. n. Folds - saharati. Follows - anugacchati. Food - hra. m. Foot - pda. m. . Foremost - pubba. adj. Forenoon - pubbaha. m. Forest - aavi. f. vana. n. Forest (residence in) - vanavsa. Forty-nine - ek'na pasa. Four - catu. Fourteen - cuddasa, catuddasa. Fourth - catuttha. Freed - mutta. p.p. Freedom - mutti. f. Friend- vuso, mitta. n., m. sahya. m. Fruit - phala. n. Further - puna. ind.

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G Gait - gati. f. Ganges - gag. f. Garden - rma. m. Garland-maker - mlkra. m. Garment - ambara. m. vattha. n. Germ - bja. n. Gets - labhati. Gets (angry) - kujjhati. Gift - dna. n. Girl - drak. f. Giver - dyaka. m. Giver (of food) - annada. Gives - deti. Giving - dna. n. Glory - yasa. n. Goal - attha. m. Goat - aja. m. Goat (she ) - aj. f. God - deva. m. Goddess - dev. f. Goes - gacchati. Goes about - vicarati. Goes away - apagacchati. Goes forward - abhigacchati. Going - gamana. n. Golden - sovaamaya. Good - sundara. adj. Good doer - puakr. m. Good man - sujana. m. Goods - bhaa. n. Grass - tia. n. Grateful-person - kata. m. Great - mahanta. adj. Greed - lobha. m. Grief - soka. m. Ground - bhmi. f. Grows - vahati. Gruel-rice - ygu. m. Guest - atithi. m.

H Hall - sl. f. Hand - hattha. m. Happy - sukhita. adj. Happy state - sugati. f. Hatred - kodha. m. He - so. Head - sira. n. Health - rogya. n.

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Healthy - nroga. Heard - suta. p.p. Hearer - sotu. m. Hearing - sutv. ind. p.p. Hears - suti. Hence - ito. ind. Here - idha. ind. High - ucca. adj. Higher - uttara. Hinders - bdhati. His - tassa. pro. Holy man - samaa. m. Home - ghara. n. Horse - assa. in. Hospital - gilnasl. f. House -ghara. n. Hundred - sata. Hundred millions - dasakoi. Hundred thousands - satasahassa. Husband - smi. m.

I I - aha. pro. Ignorance - blatta. n. Immediately - khippa. ind. In - anto. ind. Indeed - have, hi, eva. ind. Informs - roceti. Intoxicating - majja. Iron - aya. n. Iron-made - ayomaya.

J Jar - ghaa. n. Jewel - mai. m. Joy - pti. f.

K Kindness - karu. f. King - rj. m. Kingdom - raha. n. Knower - tu. m. Knowledge - a. n. Knowledge, higher - abhi. f. Knows - jnti.

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L Lake - taka. m. Lakh - lakkha. Lamp - dpa. m. Language - bhs. f. Last - antima. adj. Law - dhamma. m. Lays aside - nidahati. Leader - nyaka. m. Leading - nayanta. pres. p. Learns - sikkhati. Letter - lekhana. n. Lid - pidahana.n. Lie - mus. f. Lier - alikavd. m. Light. dpa. n. Like - viya, iva. ind. Limit - pariccheda. m. Little - appa. adj. Lives - jvati. Long - cira, dgha. adj. Lord - ntha. m., Issara. m. Low - nca. adj. Lust - rga. m.

M Maiden - ka. f. Majesty - teja. n. Man - nara. m., manussa. m. Mango - amba. m. Manhood - manussatta. n. Mankind - paj. f. Mare - ass. f. Market - pana. n. Master - adhipati. m. Mastered - adhibta. Matter - attha. m. Medicine - osada. n. Meaning - attha. m. Meets together - sameti. Memory - sati. f. Mental - mnasika. Merchant - vija. m. Merit - pua. n. Middle - majjhima. adj. Milk - khra. n. Mind - mana. n. citta. n. Minister - amacca. m. Miser - kadariya. m. Monastery - rma, vihra. m.

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Monk - bhikkhu. m. Monkey - kapi. m., vnara. m. Month - msa. m., n. Moon - canda. m. Morality - sla. n. Morality, higher - adhisla. n. Morning - pto. ind. Morning meal - ptarsa. m. Mother -janan. f., mtu. f. Mountain - pabbata. m., n. Mouth - mukha. n. Multitude - janat. f. My - mama, mayha. pro.

N Name - nma. n. Name (by) - nma. ind. Nature - dhammat. f. Navigator - nvika. m. Near - santike. ind. Need - payojana. n. Nephew - nattu. m. Night - ratti. f. Nine - nava. Nineteen - ek'na vsati. Ninety - navuti. Ninety-nine - ek'na sata. Noisy - ghosana. No - na, nahi. Not - na. Now - idni. Nun - bhikkhun. f.

O Ocean - jalanidhi. f., samudda. m. Offers - pjeti. Old - vuddha. adj. Once - ekakkhattu. One - eka. Only - eva. ind. Or - v. ind. Other - apara. adj. Our - amhka. pro. Over - upari. pre. Overcomes - abhibhavati.

P Paddy - vhi. m.

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Palace - psda. m. Plays - kati. Pi language - pibhs. f. Park - rma. m. Partakes - bhujati. Path - paipad f., magga. m. Patience - khanti. f. Perceives - abhijnti. Perishes - vihaati. Physician - vejja. m. Poet - kavi. m. Pond - taka. m. Pool - taka. m. Pot - ghaa. n., kumbha. m. Potter - kumbhakra. m. Powerful - balavantu. m. Practice - paipad. f. Praise - vaa. m. Preaches - deseti. Preaching hall - dhamma sl. f. Precept - sla. n. Presence - sampa. m. Protects - rakkhati. Pupil- sissa. m. Purified (is) - parisujjhati.

Q Quality - vaa. m. Quarter - dis. f. Queen - mahes. f. Question - paha. m. Quickly - khippa. ind.

R Raiment - vattha. n. Rain - vassa. m., n. Realm - raha. n. Receives - labhati. gahti. Resites - bhaati. Recollection - sati. f. Red - ratta. adj. Refuge - saraa. n. ntha. m. Relative - ti. m., bandhu. m. Relatives (having) - bandhumantu. m. Release - mutti. f. Remaining - sesa. m. Removes - nharati, avaharati. Retreats - paikkamati. Reverend Sir - bhante.

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Reverse - pailoma. Reward - pakra. m. River - gag. f., nad. f. Rice - odana. m., n. Road - magga. m. Rock - pabbata. m., n. Runs - dhvati.

S Sage - muni. m. Saint - Arahanta. m. Salt - loa. n. Salt, mixed with - loika. Salutation - namo. ind. Salutes - vandati. Sapless - nrasa. Scatters- vikkhipati. School - phasl. f. Sea - samudda. m. Seat - sana. n. Second - dutiya. Seed - bja. n. Sees - passati. Seizes - gahti. Self - atta. m. Self Enlightened - Sambuddha. Sells - vikkiti. Sends - peseti. Separated - vigata. Servant - dsa. m. Servant maid - ds. f. Seven - satta. Seventeen - sattadasa. Seventh - sattama. Seventy - sattati. Shaky - kampana. Ship - nv. f. Shop - paa. n. Shoulder - ura. n. Sick - gilna. Sick person - gilna. Silver (made of) - rajatamaya. Sister - bhagin. f. Sits - nisdati. Six - cha. Sixteen - soasa, sorasa. Sixth - chaha. Sixty - sahi. Sky - ksa. m. Slave - dsa. m.

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Sleeps - supati. Snake - sappa. m., uraga. m. Some - eka. Son - putta. m. Song - gta. n. Soul - atta. m. South - dakkhia. Sows - vapati. Spade - kuddla. m., n. Speaks - vadati. Sport - k. f, Spreads - pattharati. Stainless - vimala. State - bhva. m. Steals - coreti, corayati. Stick - daa. n Street - visikh. f. Strength giver - balada. Strikes - paharati. Strives - parakkamati. Subsequent - apara. adj. Such - amu. pro. Suitable - yogga. Sun - suriya. m. Superior - uttara. adj. Supporter - dyaka. m. Surrounds - parikkhipati. Sword - asi. m. Sword fight - asikaaha. m.

T Taken - gahita. p.p. Takes - gahti. Talker - vcaka. m. Tasteless - nirasa. Teacher - cariya. satthu. m. Tells - roceti. Temple - rma. m. Ten - dasa. That - amu. pro. Thief - cora. m. Their - tesa. m., n. tsa. f. pro. Then - tad. ind. They - te. pro. Third - tatiya. Thirteen - terasa, teasa. Thirty - tisati, tis. This - ima, amu, pro. Thoroughly - samm. Thousand - sahassa.

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Thousand millions - koi sata Three - ti. Throws - khipati. Till - yva. ind. To-day - ajja. ind. Tomorrow - suve. ind. Too - api. ind. Trader - vija. m. Transgresses - atikkamati. Travels - vicarati. Traveller - maggika. m. Traverses - avacarati. Treasurer - bhagrika. Treats - sagahti. Tree - rukkha. m. Tries - vyamati. Truth - dhamma. m., sacca. n. Truthful - saccavd. Twelve - dvdasa, brasa. Twenty - vsati, vsa. Twice - dvikkhattu. Two hundred - dvi sata.

U Uncle - mtula. m. Under - heh. ind Understanding - a. n. Uneven - visama. Until - tva. ind. Urban - ngarika. Use - payojana. n.

V Very - eva . ind. Viceroy - uparja. m. Victory - jaya. m. Village - gma. m. Virtuous - guavantu. m.

W Wander - carati. Washes - dhovati. Water - udaka. n. Water born - jalaja. Way - magga. m. We - amhe. pro. Wealth - dhana. n. Welfare - attha. m.

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Well - kpa. m. West - pacchima. Western - apara. adj. What - katama. pro. When - yad. ind. Whence - kuto. ind. Where - kuhi. ind. Which - ya. pro. While - yad. ind. Who - ya. pro. Why - ki. ind. Wicked - dussla, duha. Wife - bhariy. f. Wife - (young) - vadh. f Wisdom - pa. f. Wise man - medhv. m. Wise woman - medhvin. f. Wish - icch. f. With - saddhi. ind. Without - vin. ind. Woman - nr. f. World - loka. m. Writes - likhati.

Y Year - vassa. m., n. Yellow - pta. adj. Yes - ma. ind. Yesterday - hyo. ind. Young - bla, tarua. adj. Younger - blatara. adj. Your - tava, tuyha, Sing. tumhka. Plu. pro.

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Guide to Exercises
II. III. B. 13. B. 8. 9. 14. IV. A. 12. 13. 16. 20. B. 7. 8. 9. 10. 14. 16. V. B. 7. 10. 14. VI. A. 8. 11. 12. 17. B. 1. 3. 4. 5. 10. 15. VII. A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 11. 13. 14. 16. 18. B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 7. 11. 12. 17. 18. VIII. A. 4. 5. 6. 15. B. 1. 2. ovadittha? 3. 4. 6. 7. 8. 10. Janako drakehi gma gacchati. Mya takasm ruhma. assa ruhma. pabbatsm pabbata. in ponds and seas. I see the sun in the sky, but not the moon. Yes, he, too, goes now, I, too, am going. The merchants are wandering in the villages in chariots with the travellers. Kassak, kad tumhe puna idha gacchatha? vicaranti. Idni maya kse suriya ca canda ca na passma. Kasm sama sad pabbatesu na vasanti.? always = nicca. ma, te'pi gacchanti. hra bujanti. Aha dsena potthakni ghara pesemi. pdena haritu = to carry. She is the teacher's wife. There is no dispensary in the street to treat the sick. We converse with the teachers in the Pi language. Kayo, ajja tumhe rma gantu icchatha? Idha visikhya osadhaslyo na honti. Janaka, aha idni Pibhsya sallapitu jnmi. Maya gagya nvyo na passma. Gilnaslya giln na honti Jntha tumhe was born preached. The child went to the school in the early morning. gave. For a long time they did not come to our house. The girls stood in front of their father. tumhe y'eva = you yourselves. did not receive. I myself. We were your teacher's pupils. Like the ascetics we too heard the Doctrine with faith. supi. ahsi. Aha tassa mittassa lekana likhitu slya phe nisdi. Maya pto'va gagya nahyimh Mayam'eva hyo gilne sagahimh. Draka, kasm tva tuyha cariyassa purato ahsi? Kasm tumhe tumhka janako viya Dhamma na suittha? Kuhi tumhe hyo syamsa bhujittha? na harisu. Aham'eva hyo pto gilnna osadha adsi. I was the chief of their temple. We with the laymen brought water form the river, and threw into the fire. The king took the sword in hand and mounted the horse. Having heard the Doctrine, faith in the Buddha arose in the laymen. Munino janako narapati ahosi. Gahapatayo, kasm tumhe tumhka drake phasla gantu na Maya narapati disv agamimh. Aha gantv kavino vadi. Hyo eva aha lekhana likhitv mayha patino pesesi. potthaka sagahitv. Amhka tayo atithino ghare vasitv pto'va nikkhamisu. suimh.

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11. 12. agami. 13. 14. 15. 3. 6. 7. 8. 9. 6. 9. 10. 11. 12. 14. 15. 1. 8. 10. 11. 12. 7. 4. 8. 15. 13. 15. 16. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Narapati rma katv muino pjesi. Aha atithhi saddhi ptarsa bhujitv mayha tayo passitu

kiitv adsi. Kasm tva aggissa purato hatv kapin saddhi aki? Munimh Dhamma sutv narapatissa saddh uppajji. IX. A. Tomorrow, the king will enter the forest and see the sage. will build. will become. will reach. will go. B. Munayo, kad tumhe mutti labhitv lokassa dhamma desessatha? ovda gahetv Aha kavi bhavissmi. Aha narapatino purato hassmi. Khantiy. Mayam'eva X. A. The wise man guards earnestness like an excellent treasure. B. Dhammacrino ppa akatv duggatsu na uppajjissanti. seha dhana'va. Brahmacrsu medhvino honti. Hatthi disv ajyo bhayena palyisu (or dhvisu). Narapati mahesiy saddhi hyo nagara ppui. XI. A. You stand here till I go. B. Mitta, yv'ha gacchmi tva m gacchasi. Yva maya aaviy dru harma tva te idha tihantu. vuso, yva maya gacchma tva m ygu bhikkna detha. XII. A. kareyymi, I would make. Jine, one should conquer. Strive quickly (and) be wise. B. always = nicca. Bhante, ta paha pucchitu iccheyymi. Sdhu, may saddhi eva m kujjheyysi. Yva tava lekhana labheyymi tva aha tuyha mitta passitu na gaccheyymi. 6. to overcome = abhibhavitu 7. Sace tva mayha ovda sueyysi tay saddhi aha have gaccheyymi. 11. Yva maya saccni bujjheyyma tva maya duggatsu na uppajjeyyma. 12. Tva khippa gantv me lekhana hareyysi. XIII. A. 1. Who (are) you? 2. Who (is) he? 3. Who (is) your teacher? 5. What do you question him? 6. What is this woman to you? 8. To which mendicant shall we send that book? 9. Of what use to me is their wealth? 10. Who knows what he will do? 11. Of which fruit is that? 14. He who sees the Doctrine sees the Buddha........ 15. What you wish, tell it to him. 16. Whatever they do that alone they take and go to the other world. 17. In whatever direction he lives in that direction also they too wish to live. 23. He does not know to do anything. B. 1. K es? 2. Ki tassa nma? 4. Nanu eso tava ti? 10. Etena tassa v tass v ki payojana. 12. Sehi, tava dhanena ki payojana? Tva ta sabba gahetv para loka na gacchasi. Tasm suhu bhujhi. Tava dhanassa m rati karohi. Tena soko jyati. Tava dhanena pua karohi. Gilnna gilnaslyo ca drakna phaslyo ca bhikkhna bhikkhunna rme ca karohi. Yad tva para loka gacchasi tad tni tni puni gahetv gacchasi. 14. Ya icchasi so ta vadatu.

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16. 17. XIV. A. 2. 3. 4. 5. 8. 12. 13. 15. 19. 20. B. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 1. 2. 3. 1. 5. 9. 13. 3. 6. 7. 10. 11. 15. 18. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 10. 13. 14. 1. 2. 3. 6. 7. 8. 13. 15. XVIII.A. 1. B.

XV. A. B. XVI. A. B.

XVII. A.

Ya tava cakkhun passasi sabba aesa m vadeyysi. Yesu nagaresu pait vasanti tesu maya vasitu icchma. He came when I went. What did he do? (it. What was done by him?) Extolling his virtues he approached me. Whilst I was going on the way I saw a bird seated on that tree. Today, I should go by that road. When you go to the other world, good or evil done by you goes with you. Standing or sitting or going or sleeping I (lit. do) extend (my) loving-kindness towards all beings. Not knowing what should be done they stood in front of me. We saw them bathing in the river. Leaving aside the cudgel towards all beings, not hurting any of them he would not wish for a son. Whence a friend? One should wonder alone like a rhinoceros. Ida tay kata. Skh tena chinn. Aha visikhya gacchanta purisa passi. S muni vandant ahsi. Tasmi phasla gate aha ghara gato. Kapayo patitni phalni khdisu. nisdanti Tay na nahtabba. Ya kattabba ta so karotu. Eva tay ta dahabba. May likhitni potthakni tesa na dtabbni. Aggimhi khitta mai mama sahy passisu. Bhikkhi desita dhamma suanto (aha) bhmiya nisdi. Guavantehi bahu pua kattabba. Vejjena dinna osadha pibante gilne manuss passisu. What is this? Whose are these? Of what use is this to you? Ko eso drako? Ida may kata. He gave his three sons twelve fruits, four for each. At least the five precepts should be observed by laymen. Amhka dve chakkhni atthi, api ca eka mukha. Imesa pakrna ki tva gaheyysi? Drako tni ambni kiitv eka bhujitv, dve ghara hari. dve satni. Ito sattame divase. So paca satni datv sahassa alabhi. Eknatisatime vasse gharasm nikkhamitv cha vassni vyamitv cattri saccni bujjhitv paca-tisatime vasse so Buddho abhavi. Buddho hutv so paca-cattsa vassni dhamma desesi. This is not my soul. We shall mention that matter to the Blessed One. Walk in the right, O king. Self indeed is one's refuge for who else could refuge be? He who protects oneself protects others, he who protects others protects gat, came. me-atthi - lit. to me have - Sons have I, wealth have I thus the fool perishes. Self indeed is not for self. Whence sons, whence wealth? By self alone is evil done, by self is one defiles. By self is not evil done. By self is one purified. Aha attano pati. So attna ovadi. pesit. It is not good = na sundara. Guavant nicca sabehi pjit. good = attha Ekacce rjno aesa rahna lobhena vihaanti. (nassanti) dibbati Praise be to the teacher.

oneself.

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Make us also hear the Doctrine heard by you. aggi dpetha = kindle a fire. bodhento = causing to understand. taught and made = uggahpetv kresi. made to give = dpesi. Sad mayha mt ca pit ca sabbesu sattesu metta bhvetv amhe'pi tath ktu ovadanti. 12. caused to erect = kresu. 14. Bhikkhu bhmi na khaeyyu v na khapeyyu. XIX. A. 1. That the teacher said. 2. The Blessed One spoke thus. 5. Meaning indeed is the guide the Lord said. B. 2. gahetabb. 8. caused to give = dpetv. 11. conquered = jin. 12. have no = n'atthi. XX. A. 7. vejjakamma - medical work. 9. stodaka - cold water. 12. One should ever live with a heart of love towards bipeds and quadrupeds. 13. I have never before seen Saints or heard the doctrine of the teacher. 14. Men and women experiencing pain and pleasure wander in the three fold existence. 16. Saddhcetas - with a heart of faith. Samaadhamma = duties of a monk. B. 7. village-school = gmaphasl. 9. well-water = kpodaka. sea-water = samuddodaka. 12. Etni macaphni ajja dsadshi dhovitni. 13. Desireless One = nittaho. 15. Aha setahatthiyo v nlasse v na dihapubbo. 16. gift of truth = Dhammadna. XXI. A. 1. Stop not proceed. 3. yathbuddha = according to seniority. 6. yathkamma = according to deeds. 8. His pupils wandering in villages and hamlets arrived in the city at sunrise. 11. paitasotna = to the wise hearers. 13. Sattasattha = seven weeks. B. 1. in due course = yathkkamena. 3. Suriyatthagatey'eva yathkkamena to upanagara samppuisu. 5. come together = samgacchanti. 7. It is not right = na vaati. 14. Candodaye tamo antaradhyati. XXII. A. 13. lokiyajan = worldlings. 14. By the power of their truth, virtue, patience and loving-kindness may they protect you in health and happiness. B. 14. Drumayamac ayomayamacehi sundaratar. XXIII.A. 1. Giver of what is a giver of strength........ 2. dpado = giver of lights. 4. He who drinks the Dhamma lives happily. 8. Tahakkhayo = he who has destroyed craving. 12. Amidst prosperity and adversity be unshaken in mind. 13. dhammasavaatthya = for the purpose of hearing the Dhamma. B. 1. Rga-dosa-mohakkhayena mutti labhanti. 6. coming = gamana. 14. Dyak dhammasavaatthya gantukm tehi pjita-svake upasakamisu.

2. 7. 12. B. 3. 4. 7.

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