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BAYERO UNIVERSITY KANO DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MEC 4202: MANUFACTURING PROCESS; Assignment GROUP H - PLASTICS

A DISCUSSION ON THE MANUFACTURE OF PLASTICS

ADEBAYO ABDULMAJEED SALIHI ABBA SHARIF BUBBA HYELADI OGANGBO JOHNSON TAIWO MOJEED MUBARAK .D. ABDULLAHI USMAN ABDULZAHIR OKINOBANYI

TEC/08/MEC/00300 TEC/07/MEC/00046 TEC/07/MEC/00021 TEC/07/MEC/00041 TEC/07/MEC/00007 TEC/08/MEC/00343 TEC/08/MEC/00311

HISTORY OF PLASTICS
The development of plastics is believed to have started in the 1860s, when a phelan and colander, a US pool and billiard ball company, offered a prize of $10000 to the person who could design the best substitute for natural ivory. One of the entrants, although not the winner, was John Wesley Hyatt who developed a cellulose derivative for the contest. His product was later patented under the name celluloid and was quite successful commercially, being used in the manufacture of products ranging from dental plates to men collars. Over the next few decades, more and more plastics were introduced, including some modified natural polymers like rayon, made from cellulose products. Shortly after the turn of the century, Leo Hendrix Baekeland, a Belgian-American chemist, developed the first completely synthetic plastic which he sold under name Bakelite. In 1920, a major breakthrough occurred in the development of plastic materials. A German chemist, Hermann Staudinger, hypothesized that plastics were made up of very large molecules held together by strong chemical bonds. This spurred an increase in research in the field of plastics. Many new plastic products were designed during the 1920 and 1930, including nylon, methyl methacrylate, also known as Lucite or Plexiglas, and polytetrafluoroethylene, which was marketed as Teflon in 1950. Today, the search for new plastics still continues, new and plastics still continues, new and exciting ways to use existing plastics are constantly being developed, replacing other materials such as wood and glass, taking use to an era of polymers and plastics

Classification
There exist several varieties among the different types of plastics. To simplify the organization of their similarities and differences, it is categorized into three specific classes: Polymerization process Processilibility Chemical nature

Polymerization
Plastics are produced either by addition or condensation reactions. Both processes involve the combination of two or more molecules to produce a polymer chain. A table outlining the differences these two processes is shown below.

Plastics polymerization processes


Addition reactions By-products Polymer chain length Molecular weight of structure Examples None Specific Larger Polyolefins, Vinyls, styrene Condensation reactions Water, glycol, ammonia Varying Smaller Polyurethanes, polyesters

Processibility
The processibility of a plastic is classified as either thermoplastic or thermosetting

Thermoplastic
Thermoplastics generally have linear or branched macromolecular structure. A thermoplastic may be repeatedly heated and cooled. Upon heating, the plastic hardens, it is the non-cross-linked molecular structure of these plastics which gives them their fusible properties and examples are: Acrylics Cellulosics Polyamides Polyolefins Vinyls and styrenes

Thermosets
After these plastics have been formed, thermosets undergo a chemical reaction (by heat, catalyst, UV light) that results in a final cross-linking within the plastic, causing it to harden when they are further heated and cannot be easily molded after their initial formation. Most Phenolics are thermosets.

Chemical nature
The chemical nature of a plastic is determined by its monomer. There are many different plastics monomers which make up many different types of plastic, as stated below:

Types of plastics
Acetyls, acrylics, amino resins, Cellulosics, phenolics, polyamides, polyesters, Polyolefins, polyurethanes styrenes, Vinyls we are going to be discussing only acetyls, acrylics and Vinyls.

Acetyls
Acetyls are engineering-type thermoplastics, the acetyls Homopolymer is Polyoxymethylene, in which methyl groups are linked together by an oxygen atom.

H C H

H C H

O C H
Polyoxymethylene

Mechanical and chemical properties


Acetyls are highly crystalline. They are rigid, resilient, tough, and strong. They do not easily become brittle. Even with long-term exposure to unfavorable conditions and high temperatures. Acetyls cannot be dissolved by organic solvents, however they have limited resistance to strong acids and oxidizing chemicals, acetyls absorb minimal amounts of moisture, a characteristic which enhances their high flammability.

Applications
Acetyls are used in hardware components such as gears and bearings, they are also found in pumps, valves, screws, bottles, fans, paint sprayers, shower heads, tool handles, and dishes.

Acrylics
Acrylics are synthetic plastics, prepared from acrylic acids. They are polymers of esters of acrylic acid.

H C H

CH3 C C=O CH3

H C H

CH3 C C=O CH3

H C H

CH3 C C=O CH3


Methyl Methacrylate

Mechanical and chemical properties


While acrylics are clear and transmit light exceptionally well, they are also easily colored. They can be found in all shades, including fluorescents. Their surface luster is outstanding. Despite the fact that they have low softening point, acrylics are weather resistant and hard. Acrylics have low moisture absorptivity and high scratch resistance. They are susceptible to damage by certain chemicals such as gasoline and cleaning fluids, however they will withstand non-oxidizing acids and household alkalis. Acrylic plastics are slow burning and burn with little smoke or toxicity.

Applications
Acrylics are good as lens material. They are used in binoculars, cameras, and eye glasses. Acrylics are also used in stop lights and car headlights, lighting fixtures, dishes, floor waxes, and skylights and all contain acrylics plastics.

Vinyls
Vinyl plastics are formed by the polymerization of chemical compounds containing the group CH2=CH-

H C H

H C CL

H C H

H C CL

H C H

H C CL
Vinyl (Halide)

Mechanical and chemical properties


Vinyls are strong, with excellent resistance to damage caused by water and chemical wearing. However, they are ruined by prolonged exposure to sunlight. They are available in a wide variety of colors. Vinyls range from being hard and rigid to soft and flexible, Vinyls are self-extinguishing.

Applications
Vinyls are used in automobile seat covers, shower curtains, raincoats, bottles, visors, shoe soles, and gardens hoses.

References
Arnold, L.K: introduction to plastics, Iowa state university press (1968). Baird, R.J: industrial plastics. Goodheart Wilcox co Inc. (1971). Loudon, G.M: Organic chemistry (3rd ed.) Benjamin/ Cummings publishing co. Inc. (1995). Milby, R.V.: Plastics technology. McGraw hill (1995). Duck, E.W.: Plastics and Rubbers. Butterworths (1971). Gatt, A.J. & Hancock, e.g.: Plastics and synthetic rubbers. Pergamon press (1970). Plastic bottles Pty.: www.plasticsbottles.com.au Polymer and liquid crystals: http://abalone.cwru.edu/