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# Q,Charge (Coulomb [C]): Q= It, Q= W/V I,Current (Amperes [A]) I= Q/t, I= , I=P/V, I=V/R

Coulomb: the quantity of charge which passes a section of a conductor in 1s when the current flowing is 1 A. Current: The amount of electrical charge transferred per unit time. Voltage/ Potential Difference: the p.d. between two points, A & B, is the work done by an external agent in taking the unit positive charge from B to A in an electric field. Ohm: the resistance of a conductor through which a current of 1 A flows when a potential difference of 1 V is maintained across it. Resistance: the ratio V/I. Capacitance: the ratio Q/V between the plates of a capacitor. Farad: unit used to measure the capacitance of a capacitor that is used to store a charge of 1C at a p.d. of 1V. Current Density: current per unit area. Drift Velocity: the average speed of electrons in the direction of the field. EMF : the total energy per coulomb a battery/ generator delivers round a circuit joined to it. Resistivity: the numerical equivalent to the resistance of a sample of a material of unit cross section area and unit length (m).

, V= W/Q

## R, Resistance (Ohms []) R= P/ , R= /P, R= V/I

C, Capacitance (Farads [F]) C= Q/V J, Current Density (A J=I/A, J=nev , Drift Velocity ( = I/nAe ) )

E, EMF (Volts [V]) E= W/Q, E= IR+ Ir, E= Blv E= , Resistivity (m) = R B, Magnetic Flux Density (Tesla [T]) B= B=
of coil) long straight wire

## flat circular coil (N= # of turns, R= Radius

Magnetic Flux Density: the force on a conductor unit length carrying unit current when placed at right angles to the field. Tesla: the flux density of a uniform field when the force on a conductor 1m long, placed perpendicular to the field & carrying a current of 1A is 1N.

B= NI {inside solenoid} B=
at the end of the solenoid

B= F/ Ilsin VH, Hall Voltage (Volts [V]) VH= Bvd... d= width of slab V H= ... t= thickness, n= # of electrons per
unit volume, v=velocity

Hall Voltage: the p.d. at which no more electrons can be added to the surface where electrons are collected. Hall Effect: process whereby an EMF is set up across a current carrying conductor when a perpendicular magnetic field is applied.

F, Force (Newtons [N]) F= BIsin, F=BnAvesin, F= BNvesin.... N= n*A*l F=BQVsin, F=Bev, F= VH/ de F=

, Magnetic Flux (Weber [Wb]) = ABcos , Flux Linkage (Weber [Wb]) = BANcos Irms, Root Mean Square Current Irms= I2/2, I= Iosint, I= Iosin2ft, I= Iosin2fNA B

Magnetic Flux: the number of field lines through an area Flux Linkage: the sum of fluxes through the individual turns in a coil. Root Mean Square/ r.m.s. Value: that value of steady current which would dissipate heat at the same rate in a given resistance

Same equations are used for root mean squared voltage; Vrms

Laws
Ohms law; the current, I, passing through a conductor is directly proportional to p.d., V, between its ends. I=nAve Kirchhoffs 1st Law; at any junction, the sum of the currents entering the junction equals he sum of the currents leaving the junction (conservation of charge). I=0

IA+ IB= Ic IA+ IB- Ic= 0 Kirchhoffs 2nd Law; in any closed loop, the sum of the E.M.F. s are equal to the sum of the potential drops (conservation of energy). E= IR

Faradays Law of E.M.F.; an E.M.F. is induced in a conductor whenever there is a change in magnetic flux linkage between the conductor & a magnetic field. The magnitude of the individual E.M.F. is proportional to the rate of change of flux linkage. Lenzs Law; the direction of the induced E.M.F. is always such s to oppose the change producing it. E= BV Coulombs Law; if two electrically charged bodies are small compare with the distance between them, then the force, F, is inversely proportional to the square of the distance r,

.... where k=

= 9 * 109