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Midterm-- Holocaust&Genocide

1) Pogrom: violent riot, mob attack, approved by the government in Russia against Jews Kristallnacht pogrom (night of broken glass) Nov 9~10.1938, a reference to the untold numbers of broken windows of synagogues, Jewish-owned stores, community centers, and homes plundered and destroyed during the pogroms. Encouraged by the Nazi regime, the rioters burned or destroyed 267 synagogues, vandalized or looted 7,500 Jewish businesses, and killed at least 91 Jewish people. The pogroms marked an intensification of Nazi anti-Jewish policy that would culminate in the Holocaustthe systematic, statesponsored murder of Jews. 2) St. Louis (ship)after night of broken glass 1939 The St. Louis incident was when Jewish refugees (aprox. 900) were fleeing Germany, heading for Cuba. They were refused entry to Cuba, so they redirected their route to Halifax. When they arrived, Canada denied the ship's entry, stating that the Jews "would not make good settlers." They were sent home, and most of the refugees died in Nazi concentration camps. 3) Martin Luther To attract Jews to his vision of reformed Christianity That Jesus Was Born a Jew (1523). Luther expressed sympathy for Jewish sufferings and denounced persecution as a barrier to conversion. When the Jews did not abandon their faith, however, Luther launched a diatribe against them. On The Jews And Their Lies (1543) 4) lebensraum Hitler intended to find lebensraum-living space- for his superior Aryan race.

Aryan- originally referred to a group of people in ancient India If we speak try today about gaining territory in Europe, we think primarily of Russia and its border states. 5) Eugenics: scientific and medical advances together with Social Darwinist Notions led to the idea that society could be engineered so that Only the supposedly healthiest elements would reproduce. selective breeding; living burdens; completely worthless creatures; Every human beings worth could be measured in terms of contribution to the community and the nation. 6) Herman Goring: (1893-1946) A German military leader who became a prominent leader in the Nazi Party; 1933 founded Gestapo; commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe (air force) in 1935; second in command of the Third Reich government after Adolf Hitler. After World War II he was convicted for the role he played in the Nazi Holocaust and was sentenced to death by hanging. Before his scheduled execution he committed suicide by ingesting poison. Sent a telegram to Hitler asking to assume control of the Reich. Hitler then removed Gring from all his positions, expelled him from the party, and ordered his arrest. 7) Gypsy: Preferred name of the Gypsies Rom people Nazi associated them with criminality and degeneracy. The Gypsy groups towards which the Nazis most consistently followed a policy of annihilation that included murdering even babies and old people. Anti-Gypsyism was an old, familiar hatred in Europe, so with regard to the Gypsies too, Nazi Germany could draw on long-standing prejudices. They moved from India during the middle Ages.

The Sinti are group of Gypsies primarily based in German-speaking Europe. It is hard to determine whether they are a racial, ethnic, or social group that is whether they are defined by family relationships with one another, language and tradition or lifestyle. Himmler was fascinated by them. They experienced much of what the Jews did during the Holocaust, they were targeted for murder. Black badges 8) Joseph Goebbels Propaganda minister 9) Spring time for Hitler---love power=rebirth Comes at expense of other countries Ideology: Race +Space (racially pure +lebensraum) Positive embrace of violence; fascism=nationalism +violence expansion 10) Heinrich Himmler A German police official of the 20th century. He was confidant of Adolf Hitler, organized the Nazi elite forces (SS) 1929-1945 and secret police (Gestapo). Supervised the execution of millions of Jews in concentration camps during WW II. Architect of genocide 11) asocial One of several categories of people targeted by the Nazi regime. People in this category included gypsies, homosexuals, criminals deemed incurable, people with certain mental disorders, prostitutes. Nazi policymakers used asocial to stigmatize people who did not fit the national ideal

12) Treaty of Versailles- Jun 28,1919 The treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1919 after the end of World War I which demanded reparations from Germany and blamed it for the war., the 1919 treaty that ended World War I. 13) stab-in-back myth Blames German defeat in WWI on Jews and Bolsheviks, claiming that Germans still could have won the war if not for their activities. 14) Article 48 Allowed the president to govern by decree in a state of emergency 15) Night of Long Knives-Jun 30~July2,1934 Purge of Nazi leaders by Adolf Hitler. Fearing that the paramilitary SA had become too powerful, Hitler ordered his elite SS guards to murder the organization's leaders, including Ernst Rhm. Also killed that night were hundreds of other perceived opponents of Hitler, including Kurt von Schleicher and Gregor Strasser. 16) Enabling Law-March,1933 It was the second major step, after the Reichstag Fire Decree, through which Chancellor Adolf Hitler legally obtained plenary powers and became Fhrer. The Act granted the Cabinet the authority to enact laws without the participation of the Reichstag for four years. 17) SS Headed by heinrich himmler, schutzstaffel ( began as body gaurds), grew into large military organization, strict rules for membership, two branches (SD, waffen SS)

18) Zionism A worldwide Jewish movement that resulted in the establishment and development of the state of Israel. Jewish State 19) mischlinge The Nuremberg Laws (1935) considered people who had two grandparents of the Jewish faith to be mischlinge or mixed blood, a category that would remain in dispute throughout the entire Third Reich. Mischlinge who were Jewish by religion or who married people categorized as Jews also counted as Jews. Some Mischlinge who had no contact with Judaism or Jews likewise ended up being treated as Jews, perhaps b/c they looked stereotypically Jewish or had especially hostile neighbor or coworkers. 20) The Jewish Century- Yuri Slezkine He divides the people of the world into two categories: o Apollonians: food-producing majorities o Mercurians: entrepreneurial minorities Modernity is all about Apollonians becoming Mercurians-urban, mobile, articulate, intellectually intricate, physically fastidious and occupationally flexible. Since no group has been more adept at Mercurianism than the Jews, he contends, these exemplary ancients are now model moderns.hence The Jewish Century 21) The Jewish State (1896) Theodor Herzl: Austrian journalist and Zionist; 1896, he published Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State) in which he envisaged a glorious future for an independent Jewish state; Formed World Zionist Organization in 1897; Promoted Jewish migration to Palestine and formation of a Jewish state

22) Sudetenland Area of western Czechoslovakia (only successful and lasting democracy among new states created by the Treaty of Versailles) that contained many ethnic Germans -Hitler wanted the Sudetenland -Britain (Chamberlain) appeased him off this with the Munich agreement. (Sep 29, 1938). -Hitler then took over the rest of Czechoslovakia and he had broken the Munich agreement---Industrial Area ---Germans were already living there ---Extra living space, Expanding his territory ---More power -British people began to realize that a war was needed to stop Hitler. Anschluss (March 12,1938)

23) Bolshevism Became Communists in 1918. (Russia, Soviet Union) (Red) led by Lenin. They believed in an elite group of people who dedicated their lives to the revolution should occur immediately and this elite group would govern until Proletariat were ready to take over. 24) Neville Chamberlain Believed that reasonable compromise between nations would achieve peace and avoid conflict Included acceptance of... Italy's annexation of Ethiopia Hitler's annexation of Austria Hitler's annexation of the Sudetenland Acceptance of German rearmament

British Prime Minister prior to WWII who signed a peace treaty with Germany which promised "Peace in our time." Hitler did not honor the treaty, attacked Britain, and Winston Churchill replaced Chamberlain. 25) Winston Churchill (1874-1965) Prime Minister of Great Britain during WWII (May,10,1940) Extraordinary leader (a great speaker&drinker) who encouraged citizens to continue their support for the war using his famous "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat," despite Hitler's wishes, refused to sue Hitler for peace 26) Wandervogel A German youth movement that started in 1896, which translates to "wandering bird". Their goal was to ignore societal rules and get back to their roots in nature. 27) Eichmann in Jerusalem A report of banality of evil (1963) 28) Weimar Republic Was known in Germany btw 1919-1933 Problems: hyperinflation, political extremists (with paramilitaries -both left and right wing), and hostility from the victors of World War I 29) Blitzkrieg() Invasion of Poland (1939) The Germans technological advantage enabled them to wage a blitzkrieg- a war at lightning speed. 30) Gen. Romeo Dallaire Mission: To keep peace in the country Rwanda; the peace agreement was made between the Hutus and Tutsi's

31) Genocide International and systematic killing aimed at eliminating an identifiable group of people, such as an ethnic or religious group. Reflects ineffectiveness of international organizations to maintain peace. Rwanda Genocide: 100 days. April-June 1994.800,000 died 32) Hutus majority group in Rwanda, killed all the tustis 33) Samantha Power wrote book called 'A Problem from Hell' about modern day genocide; she along w/ Hilary Clinton and Susan Rice push for intervention 34) Tutsis minority group in Rwanda; hutus massacred tutsis 35) Bill Clinton Did not intervene because their primary interests (security and power) were not in jeopardy, which supports ideas of neorealist theory. 36) Kofi Anan the first black African Secretary-General of the United Nations Failure under his watch: Massacres in Rwanda 37) Raphael Lemkin Holocaust survivor lawyer who termed genocide 38) Hannah Arendt What motivated individuals to follow a totalitarian government? (i.e. Nazi regime; Stalinism)

What specific things did Arendt address in combatting totalitarianism?-- Important the people take action 39) problem of evil Book by Samantha Powers where she explores the US relationship with genocide. Even though the United States has made commitments, promises, and memorials to not letting genocide happen again they do little when in the face of genocide if they have no interests in the country. 40) Gestapo (1933) Nazi secret police who enforced Hitler's rules 41) fuhrer principle The German term der Fuhrer means the leader. The Fuhrer principle means commitment to uncontested leadership. When individuals in the Nazi organization grew powerful enough to pose a potential threat to Hitlers position, he found ways to clip their wings, even if it meant temporarily weakening the Nazi Partys base of support. Hitler believed power had to be focused in order to be effective; the crucial focal point, in his view, was himself. 42) Mit Brennender SorgeWith Burning Concern A Catholic Church encyclical of Pope Pius XI, published on 10 March 1937 Mit brennender Sorge spoke of "God-given rights" and invoked a "human nature" that went beyond national boundaries. It stated that rejection of the Old Testament, which some leadersreligious as well as secularadvocated in Nazi Germany, was blasphemous.

Final Solution (1941-45) Hitler's "solution" to the Jewish question - the complete extermination of all Jews in Europe. At first this was done through shootings by the S.S. and poison gas, but since this was not efficient enough, the Nazis created death camps such as Auschwitz to kill thousands of Jews a day Date 3/33------ Enabling Law 6/30/34 - Night of Long Knives 9/15/35 - Nuremburg Laws 3/12/38 - Anschluss 9/30/38 - Munich Pact - Sudetenland 11/9/38 - Kristallnacht 9/1/39 - Attack on Poland (War begins) May '40 - Auschwitz opens 6/14/40 - Nazis conquer Paris *6/22/41 - Nazis invade Russia 7/19/42 - Himmler orders extermination of Jews by end of year Why did Europe ignore the problem of Evil? In Eastern Europe the worst wartime crimes against the Jews were committed there; and although those crimes were sponsored by Germans, there was no shortage of willing collaborators among the local occupied nations many non-Jewish East Europeans were themselves victims of atrocities (at the hands of Germans, Russians, and others) and when they remembered the war they did not typically think

of the agony of their Jewish neighbors but of their own suffering and losses. Most of Central and Eastern Europe came under Soviet control by 1948. The official Soviet account of World War II was of an anti-fascist waror, within the Soviet Union, a Great Patriotic War. For Moscow, Hitler was above all a fascist and a nationalist. His racism was much less important. In Western Europe The wartime occupationin France, Belgium, Holland, Norway, and, after 1943, Italywas a humiliating experience and postwar governments preferred to forget collaboration and other indignities and emphasize instead the heroic resistance movements, national uprisings, liberations, and martyrs. In postwar West Germany too, the initial national mood was one of self-pity at Germans own suffering. And with the onset of the cold war and a change of enemies, it became inopportune to emphasize the past crimes of present allies. Rwanda: How the Genocide Happened. What does this event say about our Govs capacity to respond to evil?

Describe the origins and nature of anti-Semitism

[Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf.] What did Hitler and the Nazis stand for? Hitler was a National Socialist. He stood for conservative values and economic policies that favored big business, as well as helping small businessmen. He opposed communism and liberalism.

Nazi 1919 (National Socialist German Workers' Party) stands for National Socialism: the Nazis were extreme nationalists who were loyalty to their country. They wanted racial purity, equality, lebensraum, state control of the economy, remove Jews and destroy communism and Weimar Republic and state control of the economy. Mein Kampf (My Struggle) Topics included: Jews were evil; Germans were superior race, Fuhrer principal, dislike of Communism and Democracy and need to conquer Russia Compare the responses of Chamberlain and Churchill to the Hitler menace. -- Chamberlain's attempts to keep the peace through appeasement --Instead Churchill favored a continuation of the conflict at all costs until final victory was secured.