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Cooking Taoshobuddha Way

Taoshobuddha
Other cook books by taoshobuddha

Gluten Free Recipes


Other Cookbooks by Taoshobuddha

1. 2. 3. 4.

Cooking Taoshobuddha Way Vol:1 Cooking Taoshobuddha Way Vol:2 Vaishnava Cookbook Cooking Taoshobuddha Way Cooking Class Edition 5. Cuisines of India (in publication) 6. Hakka Indo Chinese Cookbook (in publication) Links to related Taoshobuddha documents on Scribd.com http://www.scribd.com/doc/86411 390/Rajagaro-Flour-AmaranthFlour http://www.scribd.com/doc/62531 854/Rock-Salt http://www.scribd.com/doc/47004 839/Buckwheat

Cooking Taoshobuddha Way

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Gluten Free Recipes

Taoshobuddha

Cooking Taoshobuddha Way

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Gluten Free Recipes

Gluten Free Recipes Cooking Taoshobuddha Way

Taoshobuddha
This book is a Free Gift from Taoshobuddha for all those who are health conscious.

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The word Taoshobuddha comes from three words, tao, sho, and Buddha. The word Tao was coined by the Chinese master, Lau Tzu. It means that which is and cannot be put into words. It is unknown and unknowable. It can only be experienced and not expressed in words. Its magnanimity cannot be condensed into finiteness. The word Sho implies, that which is vast like the sky and deep like an ocean and carries within its womb a treasure. It also means one on whom the existence showers its blessings. And lastly the word Buddha implies the Enlightened One; one who has arrived home. Thus, Taoshobuddha implies one who is existential, on whom the existence showers its blessings and one who has arrived home. The Enlightened One! Cooking Taoshobuddha Way Page 5

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Contents

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Preface Gluten Free Chapatti Flour Xanthan Gum and other thickening agents Chia seeds and flaxseeds Besan Ki Roti Bajri Millet Roti Bajri-Aloo Roti Bajri-Methi-Paneer Paratha Rice Roti Masala Rice Puris Kuttu Ke Aate Ki Poori Kuttu ki Roti Paratha Kuttu and Singoda Roti

8 11 21 25 50 59 70 72 75 80 82 85 87
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14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. Rajgira Puri Rajgira Roti Singoda-Rajagira Uttapam Kuttu Dosa Kuttu Basan Dosa Singoda Flour Dosa Missi Roti Jowar Roti Bhakri Jowar Roti - An easy way Bajri roti Rajsthani Cornmeal and Methi Paratha Sweet Potato Fritters 90 93 96 100 103 107 109 113 129 132 138 142

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Preface

ife is innovative. One who is not innovative in ordinary thing is already dead.

Cooking Taoshobuddha Way is unique way cooking lovingly cooking meditatively. Although love and meditation are not separate instead two sides of the same coin yet where ever these two techniques are the outcome is the state of beyondness. Therefore when love and meditation blend together your actions bring bliss. This I call innovation in modern terms. Here in Trinidad we make certain gluten flours available nationwide with great difficulty. Most of these are difficult to manage without much practice and understanding.

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The leading supermarkets continue to play puppets in the hands of big business conglomerates whose main objective is high returns on their investments than the health and welfare of the consumers. Even the so-called health promotions are clouded covers and feed on the ignorance of the people. It is true that no business can run on loss. Still it is necessary to create a suitable balance between the two. The media and illusive advertising tactics support in such efforts. And consumers continue to perpetuate their imbecile ignorance and remain enslaved to these business conglomerates helping them optimize profits at the cost of their self-perpetuation ignorance. In such an environment that is not conducive to seeking the health benefits we continue to make our presence in leading supermarkets. Ironically one leading chain of high profile supermarkets told me that these products are not on their priority list.
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And we continue to support such business. I personally do not support such supermarkets. This work is the outcome of the request of one of our Retailers who markets health food products, to create Gluten Free Recipes so that the individual consumers can learn how to use these Gluten Free Flours. Furthermore during recent trip to North America many people who always support my cooking style made such request. Therefore this book is the expression of awareness from Taoshobuddha for all those who are looking for gluten free recipes. Remember food is consciousness. And you are consciousness. Cook lovingly and meditatively. Love

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Gluten Free Chapatti Flour

M
stores.

any gluten flours are available in Indian Groceries in USA and in certain specialty and health food

However for the last few years I have been persistently struggling to have
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various health foods and flours to be on the shelves of the supermarkets here in Trinidad. And now after much deliberations many gluten free flours like: Kuttu Flour (Buckwheat); Jowar Flour (Sorghum); Bajri Flour (Millet); Raggi Flour (Red Millet); Moong Daal Flour; Besan (Chana Daal Flour); Rajagiro Flour ( Amaranth); Singoda Flour (Water chestnut) are now available at major selected groceries in the countries. I have also written on these flours and the links to various documents on scribd.com are given in the beginning. Consumers find it difficult to use these flours to make rotis and other items as these flour does not have the gluten effect. In the past whenever we were faced with gluten problems we did not have any solutions. Gluten free flours were not available then. You were faced with a situation of quagmire. Twisting and turning you fail to find any clues.

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It has been my constant effort to explore every possibility of creating healthy and even gluten free flours. Now that we have these gluten free flours available the problem is of a different nature. We do not have much clue how to use these flours as the use of each of these flours requires efforts and special technique. Recently one of our friends who run a health food store expressed her concern about the use of these flours. It was because of her I explored more in creating multipurpose gluten free flour that can be used to make rotis, puris, parathas, and bread. This is multipurpose gluten free flour. Under such situation when we have problem with gluten we usually turn to Rice flour, Chick-peas flour, corn flour or certain South-Indian Recipes to solve wheat allergy or the need to stay away from Gluten. And still find difficult to use them effectively. It seems as if everything is lost in life. Rice flour is the base of most cake, cookie, bread and all-purpose gluten
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free flour mixes. Rice, however, does not provide great nutrition and the dough can be quite crumbly, especially when made egg free. I have combined two amazingly nutritious gluten free flours - Amaranth and Sorghum, with a starch for binding, to make fantastic and tasty puris, rotis and parathas. Amaranth or Rajgira and Sorghum or Jowar are easily available, and not just in the Indian stores, but also in specialty food markets and increasingly in mainstream grocery stores in the USA. Here in Trinidad we make these flours available nationwide although our consumers continue to perpetuate their imbecile ignorance and remain enslaved to the business conglomerates who are guided by profit motives at the cost of the ignorant consumers. The purchasing Manager of one of the leading chain of Supermarkets has emphatically told me, THESE ITEMS ARE NOT ON THE PRIORITY LIST OF
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THE SUPERMARKET. What an example of human imbecility and Ignorance ad infinitum. Amaranth is an excellent source of protein which contains those amino acids that are usually found only in animal foods. It is loaded with fiber, iron, calcium, vitamins and minerals, and is significantly more nutritious than whole wheat. The name Amaranth itself comes from the Latin root word amar, meaning long-lived. In Sanskrit amar means immortal! Sorghum - Jowar is one of the oldest known grains, very nutritious, and high in iron, calcium and potassium. Because the protein and starch in sorghum are digested more slowly than that of other cereals, it has a glycemic index that is among the lowest of all food grains. I combine Amaranth and Sorghum, with corn starch for binding and I add a very small quantity of a type of gum Xanthan gum. You could also use another gum called Guar gum. Both are available in specialty food stores.
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Gums are used frequently in gluten free foods, because they help to create the spongy, elastic texture which gluten provides. You can use Tapioca starch if corn is an issue. I do not use soy flour as it is an established allergenic food and I also stay away from chick pea and varied bean flours as they may not suit one and all. With this flour your chapattis will be easier to roll, the edges will not be uneven and even a thinly rolled chapatti will not tear. If you do not like to use the Xanthan or Guar gum you can use Chia seeds and flax-seed meal to make the flour suitable for use.

Ingredients:
Amaranth Flour-Rajgira Atta Sorghum Flour - Jawar Atta Cornstarch Xanthan Gum Salt 1 cup 1 cup cup 1 tsp tsp

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Chia seeds ground Flax-seed meal 1 tsp 1 tsp

Methodology:
In a large bowl, mix all flours well taking care that bowl and mixing spoons are dry. Mix in Salt, Xanthan Gum, chia seed, and flax-seed meal and mix well into the flours. Make double the quantity if you like and store in dry, airtight jars

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In fact, wheat eating ones will hardly be able to notice the difference. It does take a little bit of practice if you have not worked with gluten free flours before, but take it from me, it only gets better and soon enough you will want to make allergy free puris for everyone.

Gluten free dough

When kneading this mixture to prepare rotis take the required quantity of this flour mix. To this add 1 tbs coconut oil and cup of boiled mashed potato. This will keep the rotis moist and soft.
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Use warm water to knead the flour. Add water little by little. It may absorb less or more water depending on the texture of sorghum flour. Unlike wheat flour this mixture will take longer to knead and after the dough is made allow it to settle for hour and make the regular chapatis.

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You can use rice flour for dusting or use two greased layers of plastic bag to roll thin. Peel off the upper layer and then
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remove the rolled chapatti from the other layer and place on hot griddle or tawa. When cooked on both sides bake on open flame. Smear ghee before serving.

Xanthan Gum and other thickening agents

anthan gum is a natural product derived from the fermentation of corn, wheat or soy. It is used as a thickening stabilizer agent in a wide variety of products from food to
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personal care products. Xanthan Gum is used in many types of food from salad dressings, frozen foods, beverages, egg substitutes, ice cream and flour based food products. Xanthan gum is also widely used in the cosmetic industry, where the additive thickens some creams and acts as a binding agent to ensure product consistency. People who are allergic to these traces may need to find a substitute. Xanthan Gum can cause symptoms of internal pain, bloating, gas and diarrhea problems as the gum is a fiber that is indigestible as it passes through the intestines. Xanthan Gum is also used as a laxative as it stimulates the digestive track to push stool through the system. Typical reactions to Xanthan Gum are migraine headaches, skin itchiness, and nose and throat irritation. But the trace quantity of 1tsp may not cause any problem. Still as an alternative you can use guar gum. If you are looking for a Xanthan Gum Substitute, then why not try one of these solutions:
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Guar Gum
Guar Gum is an alternative thickener that is a water soluble fiber made from Guar Beans and is produced as an offwhite colored grounded powder. Guar Gum is more soluble and is a better stabilizer than Locust Bean Gum. It has 8 times the thickening effectiveness of Cornstarch. Xanthan gum is a thickening agent used in pastry fillings, pie crusts and other baked goods and sauces. It is created through the introduction of bacteria during the fermentation of corn sugar. Substitutes for this ingredient include several older ingredients that xanthan gum was actually created to replace. These substitute ingredients may be more expensive.

Cornstarch
Cornstarch makes an ideal thickening substitute for xanthan gum when used in baked goods, gravies and sauces. It is gluten-free and imparts no added
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flavors to food. Cornstarch may also be kept for indefinite periods of time as long as it is stored in an airtight container in a dry environment. A problem with cornstarch occurs when products made with it are frozen as this can cause separation of ingredients. Foods that are inherently acidic like fruit pie filling generally require a larger amount of cornstarch to thicken them.

Arrowroot
Arrowroot has a similar consistency and look to cornstarch and works as a thickening agent substitute for xanthan gum. The plant is native to countries in South America where native peoples used it to draw out poisons from the skin. When arrowroot is used as a thickening agent for fruit pie fillings and other baked goods, it thickens at a lower temperature than cornstarch; however, more arrowroot powder is needed to produce the same effect.

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Chia seeds and flaxseeds

hia seeds are considered one of the five wonder foods that have not been contaminated as yet. Rich is minerals and vitamins Chia Seeds are very beneficial to human health.
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Chia seeds are very easy to incorporate into your diet. I have narrated a list of ways in which you can use them in your recipes. You can discover your unique ways of using chia seeds. The more I use chia seeds, the more ways I find to add them into my food. Here are even more ways to use chia seeds and the most important in the context of creating a gluten free multi grain flour that can be used to make Indian flatbread and a wide variety of items. 1. Mix 1 dessertspoon of chia seeds with a quarter cup of water to make an egg substitute for baking cakes and cookies. 2. Add chia seeds to apple juice to make sago. 3. Grind seeds and add to hot milk to make porridge. 4. Mix seeds in yogurt.
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5. Add seeds to soup to thicken. 6. Grind seeds and mix with flour, milk and eggs to make pancakes. 7. Add seeds to salad dressings. 8. Eat Chia seeds whole and raw as a snack. 9. Add whole seeds to diluted fruit juice to make Chia Fresca. 10. Add ground chia seeds to flour when making bread. 11. Make Chia Pudding by adding whole seeds to milk, nut milk or soy milk. 12. Blend chia seeds into smoothies. 13. Make a lassi by blending chia seeds, yogurt and fruit juice. 14. Add chia seeds to beaten eggs, soak for 10 minutes and make an omelet.
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15. Mix with Worcestershire or Barbeque sauce and brush over barbequed meats. 16. Make chia pan bread by combining chia seeds, eggs, milk, flour and baking powder. Cook in a heavy based pan with a lid on. 17. Add whole chia seeds to a cake batter to make a heavy poppy seed like cake. 18. Add seeds to stews to thicken. 19. Throw some seeds into a stir fry. 20. Make a thin batter of ground chia seeds and milk and cook in a slow oven to make crackers. 21. Sprinkle seeds over a salad. 22. Pureed fruit, chia seeds and a little fruit juice is a good topping for ice cream.
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23. Stir whole seeds through cooked lentils. 24. Soak seeds in beaten eggs and use this mix to make a frittata. 25. Cook brown rice in vegetable stock and stir chia seeds through when rice is cooked. 26. Top a cheesecake with chia seeds soaked in fruit juice to make a gel topping. 27. Add whole or ground seeds to cookie mixes. 28. Mix ground seeds with ground beef to make meatballs. 29. Cook brown rice in apple juice, add grated apple and stir whole chia seeds through the mixture for a tasty dessert. 30. Toasted ground chia seeds mixed with honey and cinnamon makes a wonderful base for cheesecake.
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31. Add whole seeds to granola. 32. Mix white chia seeds that have been soaked in milk through mashed potatoes. 33. Sprout the salads. seeds and use in

34. Mix ground seeds with butter or peanut butter for a nutritious spread. 35. Cinnamon, ground chia and butter is great on hot scones. 36. Add a desert spoon of black seeds to a green jelly mix for frogs egg jelly. 37. Spread a mixture of honey, cinnamon, dried fruit and ground chia on to filo or puff pastry sheets, roll up and cook in a hot oven.

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38. Mix the seeds, whole or ground through Nutella. 39. Add ground seeds soaked in an egg to bind a hamburger mix. 40. Soak chia seeds in milk and mix through hot oatmeal. 41. Add half black and half white chia seeds to custard to make polka dot custard great for kids 42. Make a pasta sauce by blending chia seeds, cooked cauliflower and vegetable stock. 43. Do not waste left over liquid from a stew. Add chia seeds, allow thickening and then heating and serving with toast. 44. Add ground or whole chia seeds to your favorite stuffing mixture. 45. Whisk a dessertspoon of chia seeds into coconut water. This is especially good on a hot day for
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keeping hydrated and an excellent idea for athletes. It is so effective and healthy I feel it will soon be marketed as a sports drink. 46. Want a crunchy breakfast? Add half to one tablespoon of chia seeds to crunchy toasted muesli. Add milk, fruit juice, soy or nut milk and eat immediately. The chia seeds will retain their crunch. 47. Add ground chia seeds to your favorite fish cake recipe

Benefits of Chia Seeds


Weight-loss without Starving The Chia Seed is a dieters dream come true. The tiny, healthy seeds can be made to taste like whatever you want, and their unique gelling action keeps you feeling full for hours. Hunger is a main enemy of real weight loss, and you do not want to fight it with jittery expensive pills.

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When a chia seed is exposed to water, it forms a coating of gel, increasing its size and weight. Since the gel made of water, it has no calories. It is also difficult to remove from the seed, meaning that it helps your body think it is full, without adding calories!

Balanced Blood Sugar Keeping balanced levels of blood sugar is important for both health and energy. Blood sugar may spike after meals, especially if you eat high-starchy foods or sweets. This can lead to slumps in your day where you feel tired and out of energy. By balancing your blood sugar, you not only lower your risk for type-2 diabetes, but you also ensure steady, constant energy throughout your day. But how does the Chia Seed help with this? Both the gelling action of the seed and its unique combination of soluble and insoluble fiber combine to slow down your bodys conversion of starches into sugars. If you eat chia with a meal,
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it will help you turn your food into constant, steady energy rather than a series of ups and downs that wear you out. Diverticulitis - Diverticulosis With the abundance of over-processed foods and white flour on the market today, rich sources of fiber are harder to come by. These foods of convenience have contributed to the rise of diverticulitis. Irregularity is a big factor in this risky condition. To help ensure regularity, you need plenty of soluble and insoluble fiber in your diet. If you do not want to eat celery and whole-grain everything or piles of bran flakes, the Chia Seed is here to help. Each seed is coated with soluble fibers which aid its gelling action. The exterior of the seed is protected by insoluble fiber. The insoluble fiber is unable to be digested. It does not contribute any calories, or break down so instead, it helps keep food moving smoothly
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through the digestive process. Soluble fiber and the gel coating of the seed keep the colon hydrated and ensure the easy movement of food. Healthy omega-3 oil to your diet Omega-3 oil is usually thought of as that healthy stuff in fish. When you are a vegetarian Chia is the richest plant-source of this healthy oil. By weight, chia contains more Omega 3 than salmon, and it still tastes like whatever you want! Omega 3 oil is important in heart and cholesterol health. It is also recently been targeted as a weight-loss helper. USA Weekend magazine also reports on a study where overweight dieters who included omega 3s in their eating plan lost 2 more pounds monthly than the control group, who did not. Feel more energized all day long Your energy levels have a lot to do with what you eat. Chia is one of natures highest plant-based sources of complete
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protein. Usually protein from items like peanut butter and some beans are incomplete, meaning you have to combine them with other foods to get the full benefit. Chia is complete source of protein to raise your energy levels. The combination of complete protein, vitamins, minerals and blood-sugar balancing gel all work together to make sure you have steady, never jittery energy. Bake with less fat Do you enjoy making baked goods at home, but hate all the butter and oil that has to go into them? Chia gel can substitute for half the butter in most recipes! The food will bake the same and taste the same or even better from the addition of the chia gel. All you need to do is divide the amount of butter or oil in half, and then use the same amount of chia gel to fill in. The antioxidants in chia can even help keep the food tasting fresh longer. Everything from cookies to cakes to muffins,
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pancakes and waffles can be made with chia gel as your butter replacement. Which recipe will become your new favorite? Add age-defying anti-oxidants Anti-oxidants have been in the news lately due to their super healthy benefits. You know that blueberries and several exotic fruits that are not always in season have them, but did you know that Chia is extremely high in antioxidants too? These helpful substances are what make the Chia Seed stay fresh for so long. At room temperature, they will stay fresh and ready to eat for over two whole years! And that is all without a single chemical or preservative. This amazing ability is not found in other seeds like flax or sesame, because those seeds do not have the same rich anti-oxidant content. Anti-oxidants help prevent free-radical damage in your body. Free radicals lead to problematic conditions such as premature aging of the skin and inflammation of various tissues. Fight
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free radical damage by staying fresh and healthy with natures anti-oxidant powerhouse Cut cravings for food Being deficient in minerals or vitamins can create a craving for food. For example, if you are low on calcium, you may feel compelled to eat lots of cheese and ice cream. This happens because your body knows that cheese is a source of calcium, and it has not been getting enough. You can always add calcium to your food by sprinkling on the chia. By weight, chia has more calcium than whole milk. It also has magnesium and boron, essential trace minerals used in the absorption of calcium and other vitamins. By balancing your vitamins and minerals with chia, you can curb cravings that might tempt you. Pack in more flavorful punch How can a seed with no flavor help the foods you already like to taste better?
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First, these seeds have no taste of their own. Chia seeds will never cover up or add to the flavor of your food. Second, when the seeds hydrate, they magnify the taste of whatever they were added to. Put them in pudding? Chocolaty! Swirl them into a smoothie? Fruity! The same thing goes with dressings, dips, salsas, sauces and more. These two factors combine to let chia seeds take on the taste of whatever you add them to. They distribute and never dilute the flavors you love. Save your money More than enough chia for 1 month costs less than a dollar a day. You can use as much or as little as you want to achieve your own desired results. There are no preparations required for these simple seeds, not even pesticides need to be used to grow them. They are always safe and 100% chemical free. A measuring spoon is all you will need when you are ready to take advantage of chia for yourself. It does not get any easier or more inexpensive.
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There are a number of benefits in these little flax seed. If you have not heard of flax seed or flax seed oil before, then you may be surprised, to know that they can help in a number of areas. Such as, but not limited to acne prevention, muscle building, constipation, heart related diseases, arthritis, depression, and all around fat killer. It is enough to make you want to throw everything in your medicine chest. Well hold on a little, as too much of any one thing is never a good idea. The flax seeds themselves seem somewhat small and innocuous, but they do pack a powerful punch. As a major plus, flax seed is one thing that comes pretty cheap. Far cheap then many of the wonder drugs, and miracle cures you find. Flax seed is an all-natural product. If you were concerned about that kind of thing, and wanted for example, to have tooth whitening done, I would think you
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want to check out a few web sites to learn more. No synthetics here. They are very high in Omega 3 fatty acids, which are good, since Omega 3s are important to good health, but are also something that our bodies are not able to produce on their own. Flax seeds could be found at just about any organic health food or bulk food store. While you can eat it in its pure seed form I would not recommend it. It tastes pretty blah. I prefer to sprinkle a little bit on my favorite foods. A little on cereal or toast will hardly be noticed by your taste buds. You can of course get it in a capsule for a bit more money. Be sure of what you are buying though. Getting some exercise is always a good addition to any diet plan, and why not be more efficient about the exercise you are getting with an exercise plate? Storage of your flax seeds is important, as heat can cause the seeds to lose their effectiveness. While some people will tell you to keep them refrigerated, as long as you keep them in a relatively cool place, they should be fine.
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Flax seed is also available in ground form flax-seed meal. It makes for sprinkling on other foods a little easier. Another alternative is just to dilute some in water. A little extra water can be a good thing, as too much fiber can pretty quickly backfire if you are using flax seed to counter the effects of constipation. Three to six tablespoons is often the recommend dose, but never be afraid of trying a little less. Milk thistle, is also another good all natural, addition to a healthy diet. As with any diet or drug, if you are unsure you really should consult your own doctor. They know your specific health situation better than anyone else. Flax seeds supplement our bodies with the Omega 3 that we are unable to produce. Fish oils have been publicized as providing similar Omega 3 benefits. Omega 3 is great for breaking down cholesterol, and working to lessen it in the future. While not only limited to the middle aged, flax seed is a good diet
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supplement for acne prone teenagers. Androgens which are brought on by hormones in teenagers are somewhat controlled by flax seed. While it true, that certain physical conditions can be treated with surgical procedures like cosmetic surgery, not everything works that way. Muscle building, fat loss, water retention, and even hair loss are a few other conditions, that flax seeds are known to help prevent or lessen. Flax seeds are readily available, and pretty inexpensive. As with all things we take, it is highly recommended to start with small doses and see how they affect your body. If you are the least bit unsure about whether flax seed is right for you, be sure to consult your personal physician. They know your personal health history, and can always recommend the best course of action for you. Remember, there is no substitute for healthy eating habits. After all, it is good to have a balanced approach to healthy eating. You cannot rely on just one thing even something as good as flaxseed, to solve your
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dietary puzzle. The more you learn, the better off you will be when it comes to your health.

I have stopped using xanthan and guar gum in our baked goods. Many people do not tolerate xanthan and guar gum well either. They continue to have digestive problems after going glutenfree and tried cutting the gums after I wrote about it. I am thrilled to hear that so many of you say you feel better. That is what this is about.
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But there is more to it now. Truly gluten-free baked goods made without xanthan or guar gum are even better than with them. You know how a lot of gluten-free breads, even when they are good, have that texture of cornbread? These are somewhat gummy? Indeed it is the gums that cause that texture.

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Brownies do not need any gums. I really believe that when people see glutenfree recipes without those strange ingredients, they are going to feel a lot more comfortable.

Inside texture of the bread

Most recipes do not need any replacements or gums or additives. Cookies, muffins, quick breads, cakes, biscuits, flour for dredging fish or batter for fried chicken? Do not worry about
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the gums. Just make sure you are working with the right ratio of flours to fats to eggs to liquid in your batter or dough. So far, everything gluten-free that I have baked uses the same ratio as the gluten recipes. Sometimes, when a baked good needs more structure, when it is something that truly relies on gluten, we are using some flaxseed or chia seeds in slurry form. The bread you see above is made with our multi-grain flour blend and 1 tablespoon combined flax seeds and chia seeds combined with 2 tablespoons of boiling hot water then whisked into thick mixture. That is all it takes. I am still learning about ground flaxseed and chia seed, so I cannot claim to be an expert on this. However, I am finding that whatever amount of xanthan or guar gum I would have used in a bread recipe, I substitute it with the same amount of flaxseed or chia seeds. Then
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I combine that with twice as much boiling hot water and stir. That is it. Both flaxseed and chia seed are healthy for us. Both of these ingredients make nutritionists happy when we include them in our diet. It is widely suggested that both flaxseed and chia seeds help in heart health along with its good effects from omega 3s and fiber. Use the golden flaxseed for baking because the brown flaxseed can turn your baked goods green. Chia seed is one of the five wonder foods and seems to be everyones favorite healthy ingredient although it has been around for thousands of years. Chia seed was one of the foods of the Aztecs and Mayans. Chia seeds are full of fiber and nutrition and are rich in omega 3s as well. They also last much longer in the cupboard than flaxseeds, so you do not have to refrigerate them or throw them out too early. Flaxseeds on the contrary require a relatively cooler storage.

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You can make your flaxseed punch by blending both flaxseed And chia seed into milk for a healthy breakfast drink rather than buying expensive drinks. I like using foods that feel like real foods, something that might actually be good for me, instead of a strange ingredient that puts off people new to living gluten-free.

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Besan Ki Roti

esan is the flour made from black gram split daal. Black gram is very versatile of all the grains.

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Black Gram Chana

It is said when Mughal King Aurangzeb imprisoned his father Shahjahan, who built the famous mausoleum TajMahal and put him in captivity, he was asked to choose only one grain for his subsistence. Shahjahan was indecisive then him minister who was allowed to accompany the exiled king to ask of Chana black gram.

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Washed split Chana Chana dal

Black gram or chana or chickpeas or garbanzo beans are the various names of the versatile grain. It can be used in many ways boiled, roasted, fried, as vegetable, daal, roti, paratha, puri, sprouts, soups, fritters, sweets, porridges and many other ways that I can go on and on. It is highly rich in protein and is GLUTEN-FREE flour that can be used by those that are GLUTEN intolerant.

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Besan

Today I will give you a few recipes of this versatile flour. There are different ingredients, flours and spices that are used to make roti spicy and tasty.

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Besan Paratha

In this recipe besan flour is used to make roti. Gram flour is flour made from ground chickpeas without removing outer skin. It is a staple ingredient in Indian cuisine. However for besan the chana is first split and skin removes before grinding into fine flour. Besan ki roties are nutritious because of the protein content of chick peas. Both Gram flour and Besan are gluten free that is the reason whole wheat flour is added to make the dough workable and roti called missi-roti. Besan roti with onions is a very popular combination. You can also use the same recipe to make spicy besan parathas.
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Ingredient:
Besan flour (gram flour) 1 Cup Whole wheat Flour 1 Cup Boiled Mashed Potato 1med Red chili powder tsp Asafetida (Hing) 1 Pinch Fine chopped onions Cup Green Chili fine chopped 1 Medium Finely chopped coriander leaves 1Tbsp Salt to taste Water as required making dough Butter or ghee to apply on the parathas

Methodology:
Place besan or gram flour and whole wheat flour in a bowl and mix well. Add chopped onions, chopped coriander leaves, chopped green chilies, salt, red chili powder, one Tbsp ghee and asafetida, in the flour and mix everything together. Add water bit by bit at a time and mix it in a rotating motion from the center of the bowl to outward until it forms dough
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and it cleans the sides of the bowl as well. Because of boiled potato the dough may seems to be sticky, knead it with some oil in the hands, make a ball, then cover it and keep it aside for at least half hour. Dough maker or food processor could be used to make the dough. Pre heat the tava (cast iron flat griddle) on medium heat. Knead the dough with oily hands for a minute, and then roughly divide the dough into 6 to 7 equal parts without forming into the balls. Take some extra flour in a plate for dusting. Dust your hands lightly with the extra flour and take a portion of the dough and roll it in between your palms in to a ball. Place the ball of dough into flour and press flat, dusting on both sides.
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Now place the dough on the kitchen cutting board or chackla (Indian roti rolling board) and with the help of a rolling pin roll into a 6-7 circle or as you prefer. Now pick the roti and pat between your hands for few seconds to shake off the excess flour. Place the roti on the hot tava, and let it cook, in about 30 seconds little bubble will start appearing with the help of a tongs turn over to other side and cook for 30 seconds. If the roti sticks to the tava (griddle), it is not hot enough, if it is too dark or burn, it is too hot, adjust the heat accordingly. Once both side of the roti are cooked, then with the tongs (chimta) lift the roti off the tava (griddle) and immediately place it over the medium flame on the gas stove, keep moving the roti in a circular motion about all the time. Cook on both sides over the flame, when you see black or brown spots on both side of roti, and you have the
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desired crispness, take the roti off the stove. Slap the roti lightly over the cooking board to take the flour out, and then apply some butter or ghee. Serve the roti hot. If you are making a paratha then before cooking on the open flame smear ghee on both sides and cook without burning. Serve hot with gravy of your choice, pickle, yogurt plane or raita.

Tips:
1. Fresh chopped cup of methi or cup of dried methi could be added to the flour to give extra flavor. 2. Grated muli (white radish) could be added to the roti. 3. Any spice or ingredient could also be added or taken off according to taste.

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4. If you have electric stove then take a cooling rack and place it over the burner, and then cook roti over the rack.

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Bajri Millet Roti

Pearl Millet

inger millet (Eleusine coracana), is also known as African millet or Ragi in Kannada: and in

Marathi. It is gluten-free.

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Finger Millet is gluten free. However it is known as poor-mans staple. It is an annual plant widely grown as a cereal in the arid areas of Africa and Asia. Finger millet is originally native in Africa and was introduced into India approximately 4000 years ago. It is very adaptable to higher elevations and is grown in the Himalaya up to 2300 meters altitude. Poor farmers in India and Pakistan use this millet flour to make bread and griddle cakes.

Bajri Flour

Bajri flour or Millet Flour is made from a small round grain resembling mustard seed. The millet flour has a slight nutty flavor. The millet is a small-seeded species of cereal crops. Millet or Bajra
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flour is nutritious as it contains iron, magnesium, zinc, vitamin B etc. Millet Flour is very good for excellent health and longevity. Bajra flour is used in various cultures in many different ways such as a cereal, in soups, and for making dense, Roti, Rotala and chapatti. In India, Bajari flour is very popular to make bajri roti, barja na rotla, breads and many other recipes as ingredient. In Russia millet is used to make millet porridge which is eaten as a sweet dish with meat or vegetable stews. In China millet porridge is eaten with beans or sweet potatoes. In Germany millet is used in sweet dish made from apples and honey. Whereas, millet soup is used by new mothers to increase milk production and heal from child birth. The millet grain is often thought of as the perfect birdseed. It was used in Asia as a whole grain in cooking more than rice because of its extensive nutritional values.

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In USA the use of millet flour is very uncommon. However in recent time with the increased awareness of Gluten Free recipes it is beginning to gain popularity. Millet flour tends to require a binding agent while used in cooking and is much more superior to wheat flour as it is very high in vitamin B, magnesium and potassium. The millet flour is a very healthy alternative to wheat flour because 35 grams of wheat flour contains approximately 4 grams of protein which is very close to wheat flour. You can add corn starch as the binding agent to make smooth dough. In India millet flour is famous as Bajri flour and its usage is high in rural areas. Millet flour is sweet in taste and so you can cut down sugar in many recipes. A little millet flour in breads gives a crunchy taste which is found delicious by many people. In Russia it is eaten sweet (with milk and sugar added at the end of the cooking process) or savory with meat or
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vegetable stews. In China it is eaten without milk or sugar, frequently with beans, sweet potato, and/or various types of squash. Millet soup is commonly used by nursing mothers to aid in milk production and healing from childbirth. In Germany it is also eaten sweet. First it is boiled in water with apples added during the boiling process and honey added during the cooling process.

Bajri Roti

Ingredients:
Pearl Millet flour Water
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cup cup
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Salt to taste.

Methodology:
1. Mix all ingredients together in a mixing bowl and make smooth dough round ball of 2 inch size, Take care that dough should be firm enough.

2. Wet your palms with slight water, take this ball on your palm and slightly flatten it.

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3. After placing the slightly flattened ball in hand, you go on pressing it, just like slowly and slowly clasping the palms with dough in between to get around flat bread. This is how these gluten free flours are used traditionally in India. In the West where we are not accustomed to rolling by hand you can mix a boiled mash potato or practice placing the dough between two layers of plastic bag and then roll to get the desired size.

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4. You will have to wet your palms from time to time in order not to let dough stick to your palms. Keep on expanding the roti in size this way until you get it of your desired size.

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5. And once the roti is completely round and unbroken place it gently on hot clay tawa (also called Tavdi) or iron griddle. This requires practice. In the first instance you may not be able to make the perfect roti. Take care that there should not be any air between tavdi and roti or rotla (Gujrati).

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6. When half cooked on one side, turn it to another side and cook it in low flame. When fully cooked on another side, turn it to the first side again and let it cook fully.

7. Take care to rotate it to give even


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baking. Take it off from tavdi and smear Ghee on it and Serve Hot with baigan bhartha or Jaggery or the gravy of your choice.

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Bajri-Aloo Roti

his is another recipe of bajri flour and also based on your ingenuity you can develop many other recipes finding different usage of this flour. It can be used in making multigrain bread and many other ways.

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Ingredients
Bajra (black millet) flour 2 cups Potatoes boiled and mashed cup Onions, finely chopped cup Fresh coconut, grated cup Chopped coriander 3 to4 tbsp Ginger-green chilli paste 2 tsp Dried mango powder (amchur) 1 tsp Garam masala (optional) 1 tsp Salt to taste Ghee for cooking

Methodology
1. Combine all the ingredients and make soft dough with warm water. 2. Divide the dough into 6 equal portions and roll out each portion into a circle of (6) diameter 1/8 thickness. 3. Cook each roti on both sides on a tava (griddle) till golden brown, using ghee. 4. Serve hot.
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Bajri-Methi-Paneer Paratha

ajri is the staple diet in many parts of North-Western India, where the locals enjoy it with garlic chutney, jaggery and homemade butter.

Ingredients
Bajra flour Pinch of salt Boiled mash potato Ghee for parathas For stuffing Mashed Paneer Dried kastoori methi
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1cup Cup

cup 2 tbsp
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Green chili finely chopped Finely chopped tomato Salt to taste 1 Cup

Methodology
1. For the dough, mix the bajra flour, mash potato salt and enough hot water to make soft dough. Knead well, divide into 16 portions and roll out each portion into thin rotis. To proceed, spread a little stuffing on one roti. Then put another roti on top and press well so that it becomes one roti. Repeat for the remaining rotis and stuffing. Cook each stuffed roti on a tawa (griddle) on both sides with ghee.

2.

3.

4.

Serve hot. If you like, apply a little butter before serving. Serve it
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plane with pickle, yogurt raita, and gravy of your choice. These can be eaten with pickle and yogurt alone as well.

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Rice Roti

hawal ki Roti (rice bread) is very tasty and is eaten all over India. In Bihar, Chawal ki Roti is a favorite with sweet and sour pumpkin curry, while spicy baigan curry and coconut chutney with this roti is loved in Bangalore. In Mysore Rice flour bread is also known as Akki ki Roti. You will also like this Roti. This is gluten free and tasty. You can make these deep fried as well.

Ingredients
Rice flour Salt to taste Coconut Oil Water 1 cup 2 tbsp 1 Cup

Methodology
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Each flour has its unique way of using. Unlike other flours Rice flour is not kneaded in the usual manner. Instead it is kneaded differently. 1. To prepare the dough of rice flour, keep cup separately and boil 1 cup water in a utensil. When the water is about to boil add salt and 2 tsp. coconut oil in boiling water, set on a low flame. While the water is still on low flame gently add the rice flour and mix well. Turn off the gas. Cover the dough and keep aside for 5 minutes so that it becomes soft.

2. Now transfer the dough in a big bowl and knead thoroughly till the
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dough is similar to that of chapatti dough. Cover the soft dough and set aside again for 15-20 minutes allowing it to ferment.

3. The rice dough is now ready to prepare Chawal ki Roti. Place a pan on the gas to heat. Break a lemon sized piece from the dough and shape it into a ball. Apply dry flour on the dough piece then expand it a bit by pressing with your hand on the rolling disc. Apply some more dry flour then gently roll the roti as you press its edges.
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4. Carefully pick up the roti and place on the heated pan or griddle. When the roti is cooked on one side turn it over to the next side. We can press the roti gently with a ladle and continue to cook till brown spots appear on it. Cook roti till it turns light brown on both sides. Take out cooked roti on a bowl on a plate or a plate covered with aluminum foil. Similarly cook all the rotis.

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5. You can deep fry these as well just like puris. Serve hot roti smeared with ghee and puris with gravy of your choice and raita or chutney.

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Masala Rice Puris

his is a slight variation. I am giving you these variations so that you be more creative in creating new dishes out of the basic recipe.

Ingredients
Jeera whole grain
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tsp
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Finely chopped green chili 1 Grated ginger Tsp Green coriander finely chopped 2 Tbs Onion finely chopped tbs Rice Flour 1 cup Oil to Fry and to add to the dough Salt to taste Water 1 cup to boil

Methodology
1. Follow the methodology as in the previous recipe. When the flour is added to the boiling water, add all of the above mentioned spices too. Follow the steps in the previous recipe. 2. Now in the similar manner, knead the flour thoroughly till soft and smooth dough is formed. 3. Deep fry in medium heat turning on both sides until golden brown. Masala Rice flour Puris are served with chutney, pickle and any of your favorite gravies.
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Kuttu Ke Aate Ki Poori


(Fried Bread of Buckwheat Flour)

uckwheat or kuttu flour is gluten free and very nutritious flour. Hindu Indians use this flour during fasting times. Kuttu ki roti is a chapati recipe which is used by Hindus in India during fasts. Each community has its own way of observing fasts. Now this flour is becoming relatively popular here in Trinidad because of its nutritious values. The roti or puri is quick to make but it does require little practice. The dough of kuttu is light in consistency so making round chapati is little difficult. If you know how to make makki ki roti corn flour roti then you surely can make these easily otherwise it will require
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practice. And to help you I have added boiled mash potato or boiled eddoes to give gluten effect.

Ingredients
Kuttu Ka Aata - Buckwheat Flour 1 cup Boiled Potatoes 3 medium Black Pepper Powder 1 tbsp Kasoori Methi 1 tbsp Himalayan Rock Salt - Fire salt to taste

Methodology
1. Mix all ingredients together into smooth dough. Do not add any
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water as boiled potatoes are more than enough to mix the flour. 2. Divide into lemon size balls and roll each ball into a small 2-3 inch diameter circle. Remember you will not be able to make them really thin as the dough may start breaking, so keep them thick. 3. Fry them in hot oil seconds on both the sides. 4. Drain on paper towel. Serve them hot with either just plain curd or any gravy of your choice or both.

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Kuttu ki Roti - Paratha

uttu ki roti, puri or paratha are quite popular in India during fasting especially. Now with growing popularity as gluten free flour buckwheat flour can be used in different ways. I am sharing with you a few recipes so that you learn to use this nutritious flour. It tastes quite nice and bit easy to prepare too.

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Ingredients:
Kuttu ka atta-buck wheat flour 2 cups Grated pumpkin cup Salt to taste Coconut oil 2 tbs

Methodology
1. Mix all the ingredients in a bowl and knead it in smooth dough. Add water as required. 2. Now divide in equal small balls of the dough and knead it in roti. Use oil if required as it tends to be a bit sticky while rolling. 3. You can substitute potato for pumpkin. Adding either of it makes the dough soft and the roti tastes good too besides being nutritious. Cook on both sides applying oil on each side. Serve hot with gravy of your choice.

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Kuttu and Singoda Roti

oth Kuttu and Singoda are gluten free flours. Singoda is water chestnut flour. Together these make tasty roti or paratha or puri. These are quick to make but does require little practice. The dough of kuttu-singoda is light in consistency so making round chapati is somewhat difficult. It will require practice. If you know how to make makki ki roti corn flour roti then you surely can make these easily otherwise you will require practice.

Ingredients:
Kuttu atta - Buckwheat flour singhoda - water chestnut flour Boiled and mashed potatoes
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1 cup 1 cup 2
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Green chili finely chopped Finely chopped coriander leaves Oil or ghee 1

Methodology:
1. Mix all the ingredients together and make dough with minimum of water. 2. Divide the dough into equal medium lemon size balls and flatten it on a greased sheet. 3. Cook it on a hot tawa or griddle the way you make paratha. Cook on both sides. As light brown spots appear on the surface apply ghee till brown spots relatively deepen on both sides. Serve hot with raita, coriander chutney and lauki sabji - if calorie conscious. Otherwise serve with gravy of your choice. P.S If you want to make puris then just fry them up instead of making them as
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paratha. delicious. Both ways these taste

Serve these hot with gravy of your choice and pickles. Make sure to include the yogurt in any form in your diet.

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Rajgira Puri (Amarnath Flour)

ajgira or Amaranth flour is gluten free flour obtained from amaranth seeds. Along with Kuttu, Singoda Rajagira is also used during fasting by Hindus in India. And now because of its gluten free quality its usage is increasing. However people are still unaware of this flour. It is highly rich in protein contents.

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Ingredients
Rajgira Atta 1 cup Boiled potatoes 2 medium Chilies finely chopped 2 green Finely chopped coriander leaves 1 tbsp

Methodology
1. Mash the boiled potatoes fine in a mixing bowl. 2. Add rajgira flour, green chili, coriander leaves and salt. Knead with sufficient water and add little
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oil at the end so that the dough does not stick. 3. Make stiff dough. Divide dough into 10 equal portions. the

4. In a zip lock cover, take the dough and keep it inside and close it. 5. Then using the rolling pin, make round shaped of 3 inch in diameter. 6. Heat the oil and Deep fry till golden brown on both sides. 7. Drain them in a paper towel. Serve hot with dum aloo or any other gravy of your choice.

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Rajgira Roti or amaranth flour

f you are not yet familiar with this flour go to my links given in the beginning of the book and you will be amazed at the nutritive value of this flour. It is a good source of protein, Iron and Calcium. These rotis come out amazingly soft. It will surely be different from the regular wheat flour roti in texture but delicious, nonetheless. In the beginning of the text I have given you a recipe using amaranth flour along with Jowar or Sorghum to create multipurpose gluten free flour.

Ingredients:
Rajgira Flour Potatoes Boiled Mashed
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2 cups 1 cup
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Salt to taste Jeera powder Coriander leaves finely chopped Chili Powder to taste Tsp 2 Tbsp

Methodology:
In a mixing bowl, add the flour mix in the mashed potatoes and

Add salt, coriander leaves, chili powder and jeera powder in the flour. Make firm required. dough adding water if

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Make equal portions of the dough and roll each of them softly like a chapati. Since rajgira flour does not have gluten, it will stick to the rolling pin. Generously use flour for dusting. I used wheat flour for dusting. 1. Heat a non-stick pan, cook on both the sides adding oil or ghee as required like regular chapatis. Serve these rotis with any gravy of your choice.

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Singoda-Rajagira Uttapam

ttapam is very popular South Indian delicacy. This recipe presents a unique variation to the south Indian staple uttapams. Importantly these Uttapams are gluten free. The batter is made from singhoda flour mixed with samo, rajgirha flour, curds, grated coconut and spices. This fasting special dish, farali uttapams make fasting easier and tastier.

Ingredients
Samo rice or rice flour 2 cups Waterchestnut - shingoda flour 1 cup Rajgira flour cup Plain Yogurt 1 cups Ginger-green chilli paste 1 tsp Finely chopped cucumber cup
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Grated coconut Salt to taste 1 tbsp

For Tempering Coconut Oil Chopped green chilies Curry leaves (kadi patta) Cumin seeds (jeera) Chili powder to taste 2 tsp 2 tsp 5 to 6 2 tsp

Methodology
1. Mix the flours, ginger-green chili paste, curds and salt and mix well to make a smooth batter of running consistency.
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2. Keep aside for 15 minutes. 3. For the tempering, heat the oil in a small pan and add the cumin seeds and green chilies. 4. When the seeds crackle, add the curry leaves and red chili powder and pour this tempering to the batter and mix well. 5. Keep aside for 5 minutes. 6. Add the cucumber, tomato and coconut and mix well. 7. Heat a tava and when it is hot wipe it with a wet cloth. 8. Spread the thick layer of batter on the tawa and make a thin circle. 9. Cook on a slow flame using little oil till it is cooked from both the sides. 10. Repeat with the remaining batter to make more uttapams.
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Serve hot with green chutney, tomato chutney, coconut chutney and Smbhar as appetizer or main course meal. I can eat these any time.

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Kuttu - Dosa

uttu Flour or Buckwheat is very versatile ingredient. It is gluten free and can be used to prepare many mouthwatering dishes.

Ingredients:
Buckwheat - Kuttu flour
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1 cup
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Boiled colocassia eddoes Carom seeds (ajwain) Chili powder Salt to taste 4 to 5

Ingredients for the Potato Filling: Potatoes - boiled Ghee - for frying Salt - to taste Red chili powder Ingredients Chopped ginger Mustard Seeds Curry Leaves Method for the Potato Filling: Heat ghee in a pan and then add curry leaves and mustard seed. When mustard seeds begin to crackle add crush potatoes into it and mix in the rest of the ingredients. Toss the potato mixture around for a few minutes till it becomes light brown in color. Take it out and keep aside. 3 Tsp tsp Tsp 3-4

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Methodology:
1. Mix boiled eddoes with kuttu flour put ajwain, chili and salt and make a thick batter 2. Heat non-stick pan on medium heat and spread the batter on it. Cook on one side and flip over to the other side till it become brown and crispy. 3. Fill with the potato mix and fold into half. Serve hot with coconut chutney and sambhar.

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Kuttu Basan Dosa

his is yet another variation of dosa made alternatively with kuttu, rice and besan. Although dosa is made with fermented batter or rice and wash urd daal yet there are so many variations of this dish. Dosa is such a gluten free dish that once you get the taste of it then you cannot leave this.

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While studying in India for ten years every day dosa was my favorite and natural dinner. When in the evening I am ready for dinner before going to college library in most of the case dinner was not ready. Thus I had no choice to eat dosa for dinner. Dosa is basically a street food although many restaurants serve this as well because of its popularity. Dosa vendors used to ply their trade from six in the evening until everything is sold out around nine nine-thirty. It used to be well within my means costing TT15 cents each. Here in Trinidad only one restaurant serves this item costing around TT$70 each.

Ingredients:
Buckwheat flour (kuttu) Besan flour Rice flour Salt to taste Cumin seeds powder Beaten yogurt
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1 cup cup Cup tsp cup


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Ginger paste tsp Water cup Onion finely chopped 1 medium Finely chopped coriander leaves Oil or ghee as required

Methodology:
1. Mix all the dry ingredients first and then add water and beaten yogurt. 2. Mix well and let it stayed covered for 15-20 minutes. 3. Grease the tava with oil/ghee and pour a ladle full of batter and spread it into a thick pancake. 4. Add a little more oil/ghee around the corners. When the bottom
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side is cooked and browned, turn over and cook on the other side as well. Serve hot with chutney and Smbhar.

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Singoda Flour Dosa

ingoda four is water chestnut flour. It is gluten free and quite nutritious and healthy flour. I give you a recipe of dosa from kuttu flour.

Singoda flour dosa

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Ingredients:
Singoda flour Boiled potato Coconut Oil Water Cup 1 5 tbsp 20ml

Methodology:
1. Take a mixing bowl. To this add flour, boiled potato and water to make a smooth paste that can be spreadable not more thin batter. You can add water if that be necessary. 2. Heat the flat pan drop some oil and pour the batter and spread with spoon approximately 3 inch diameter. 3. Now pour a few drops of oil on it and cook from both sides on low medium heat. Sighoda flour dosai is ready to eat. You can serve it plain or with filling along with sambhar and coconut chutney as appetizer or snack or main course meal.
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Missi Roti

hole wheat rotis are consumed regularly in Indian households. However I have not been able to get definitive GI and GL values for rotis, but I think if you eat 3 phulkas (small Indian flat bread made of wheat. No fat added in cooking), you get about 270 calories and a glycemic load all put together of about 20-25. In terms of calories consumed, this is not bad unless, you eat it with something else that is really heavy. But the glycemic level is pretty high and one way of fixing this is to switch to a misi roti, which is made of one part atta (wheat flour) and one part besan (chickpea flour). Besan is much lower than atta on the glycemic index, so the
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average of the two will give you a better GI value. Also, besan is more filling, so you will probably end up eating fewer rotis. So all in all, it is a great idea.

Ingredients:
Besan 1 cup Whole wheat flour 1 cup Carrot grated fine 1 Spinach finely chopped Cup Onion chopped very fine 1 Kastoori methi 1 tbsp Chili powder 1 tsp Chopped green chili for extra jest 1 A pinch of turmeric Salt to taste

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Methodology
1. Mix all the ingredients well and add boiling hot water slowly. Mix the dough with a spoon until a hard dough is obtained. Then you can let it cool down a bit and then knead it with your hands using a little lukewarm water at a time until you get softer dough that you can roll out. Remember that this should not get too wet, or it will stick all over the place. To obtain soft dough boiling water is needed. 2. Roll out the rotis using a rolling pin. You can use whole wheat flour for dusting to roll it out. 3. Then cook the rotis on a preheated skillet. It is better to cook them quickly on a high flame on both sides. Take them off the skillet and apply just a little ghee if you like. Serve them hot with any gravy of your choice, but eat them right off the stove,
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otherwise these will lose their softness and become tough and chewy. Tip: Changing over from chapati to misi roti is a good permanent life style change to make.

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Jowar Roti - Bhakri

hakri is round flat unleavened bread often used in the cuisine of western and central India, especially in the states of Gujarat and Maharastra. Typically bhakri is accompanied by various curries, chutney (thecha - a thick paste of really hot green or red chilies) and raw onion.

Traditional Bhakri meal with different vegetables etc. Cooking Taoshobuddha Way Page 114

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Bhakri is a type of Maharashtrian flatbread or roti which can be made using rice flour, sorghum flour, pearl millet flour or a combination of various flours. This type of flatbread is thicker and has a more coarse texture than chapatti or roti. Bhakri is also very high in dietary fiber and more easily digestible. It is also made using absolutely no oil so it is much healthier as well. The rice, sorghum and pearl millet flours can easily be found in any Indian grocery store or organic - health food places.

Bhakri (bhkr or Dhebra) is round flat unleavened bread often used in the
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cuisine of western and central India, especially in the states of Maharashtra, Gujarat, northern Karnataka and Goa. It is coarser than a Chapatti and slightly harder because of the gluten free flours used in the recipe. It can be compared to a British biscuit with respect to hardness. Bhakri is part of a traditional Indian meal. Bhakri (grey flatbread) is served with vegetables and rice. Like breads around the world, bhakri is a staple food. It is made mostly from wheat flour, jowar flour, bajra flour, nachni (or finger millet) flour and even rice flour (in the Konkan region). Bhakris are made primarily with oil, water, and flour. It has traditionally been the farmers food which would be carried to the farm at the crack of dawn and make up for both breakfast and lunch. In the fields, bhakri even used to serve as a plate, in which chutney or thecha (chutney made up of green chilies and pea nuts) was served and eaten together.

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In modern days, bhakri has been replaced by rotis and phulkas but still enjoys its own fan-following. Typically bhakri is accompanied by pitla (a stew of gram flour) but it may also be served with curry, garlic chutney, thecha (a thick paste of green or red chilies), green leafy vegetables and raw onion. In some parts of North Karnataka it is served with stuffed brinjal curry. Bhakri has dietary advantages. Being made from cereals, it is high in protein and fibre but at the same time very easy to digest.[citation needed] It is made of comparatively coarse flour and hence more nutritious than the fine flour.[citation needed] Although roti is now more commonly eaten, bhakri is still used for traditional Indian meals.

Sorghum Flour:
Sorghum grains have been used for centuries around the world. And now these are becoming increasingly popular as food sources among health conscious in the United States as well. However in India this flour is widely used in
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cooking. This particular recipe of BHAKRI uses Sorghum flour made from these grains as one of the ingredients. It provides specific nutritional qualities in addition to adding variety and texture to standard baked products. Sorghum or Jowar is a very common grain used in Africa and India throughout history. Now sorghum is also grown in the United States and is becoming more widely available for consumers through Indian and Health Food Stores.

Sorghum or Jowar
According to the U.S. Grains Council, sorghum is the third most important cereal crop nationally and the fifth most important around the world. Sorghum has long been used in the United States as a grain feed for animals but is now viewed as an alternative grain for human consumption. The whole grain kernel is ground into flour that can be used for
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cooking and baking. It is also known as milo flour.

Nutritional Benefits
One of the major reasons why sorghum flour has entered the health food spotlight is because it is gluten-free. Gluten is a protein found in many grains such as wheat, barley, rye and oats. Now many people choose to eat glutenfree foods because of gluten intolerance. This type of diet is essential for those who have Celiac Disease. Celiac Disease is an autoimmune disorder caused by a reaction to gluten that can result in the mal-absorption of nutrients as well as severe abdominal pain and related symptoms. People with celiac disease must eat a gluten-free diet. This makes sorghum flour ideal for cooking and baking. Sorghum has a similar nutritional makeup to corn although it is higher in protein and fat and lower in vitamin A.

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The so-called educated world over consider Indian population to be nutritionally ignorant. In reality it is not so. India uses a wide range of food items as part of its daily meals. What the West is now being aware of Indian vast uneducated or less educated population has been using these products for ages. As a result I am making such recipes available for wider cross section of nutritionally conscious people.

Uses for Sorghum Flour


Traditionally this flour has been used as a cereal food to create pancakes and fermented and unfermented porridges and flatbreads throughout different cultures, such as the Jowar Roti and Bhakri in India. In the United States, it is becoming more common to use sorghum flour in baked goods. It can be added or substituted in any recipe that calls for flour such as cakes, cookies, breads and muffins. While using Sorghum flour certain considerations have to be given. The
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flour has a bland flavor therefore it can be beneficial for baking because it would not add an unfamiliar or distinctive taste. However, because of its lack of gluten, it does have an influence on the texture of baked items. Gluten acts as a binder in foods, therefore an alternative binder such as cornstarch is added to recipes when using sorghum flour. In addition, sorghum often produces a drier, crumbly final product. Adding extra oil or another fat source and eggs can improve the texture, and adding a leavening agent such as baking powder or baking soda will help the dough rise. Sorghum flour can be found in many specialty health food stores in the same section as other grains and flours. You might also find it in the gluten-free section if the store has one. It can also be found at ethnic food markets. It may be listed under another name. For example, in the Indian culture Sorghum Flour is referred to as Jowar Atta. Now coming back to our Bhakri recipe

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Ingredients:
1. 2. 3. 4. Sorghum flour (Jowar Flour) Pearl millet (Bajri Flour) Salt to taste optional Rice flour as needed 1 cup 1 cup

The flour has to be very fresh or else the Bhakri will crack and will not be soft. Also the flour if stored for a long time turns bitter.

Methodology:
1. Never knead the entire dough. Always make dough for one Bhakri at a time until you have mastered the art. Boil the water and set aside until needed. Using a clean working surface, mix the flours together and make a hole in the center. Add the salt. Add hot water slowly and carefully, as needed. It is recommended to use a fork to
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2.

3.

4.

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combine the flour and water together in a motion very similar to scrambling an egg. 5. Now using your hands, knead the dough well for a few minutes until it comes together easily into soft pliable dough. This process of kneading the dough is quite important. Bhakris will be soft if the dough is well kneaded. So using your hand and knuckles knead it nicely for 8-10 minutes. The dough should be soft and elastic. Sprinkle the work surface (and your hands) with a little rice flour to prevent the dough from sticking. Make small dough balls (golf ball size). Now using your palms, first flatten the dough and start pressing the dough until you get a round circular shaped flatbread about 6-7 inches in diameter.

6.

7.

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8. Gently pick up the bhakri and flip it onto the hot griddle. Let it cook for 1 minute or so. Sprinkle the topside with a few drops of water and then flip the bhakri over. Let it cook for an additional minute or two and then carefully transfer it to an open burner or flame on low heat for a just a few seconds. Use tongs to flip it over and be careful not to burn yourself. You should get a few black spots on each side and a delicious toasty aroma. Obviously this step works best if you have a gas stove but this can also be just as easily done on an electric stove. If you feel uncomfortable, you may omit this step altogether and just cook it a few minutes longer on the griddle. Serve it with a little ghee or butter along with any traditional Indian meal

9.

10. Take a golf sized round ball from the dough and flatten it with
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both your hands in the steps shown below:

11. The bhakri should also be uniformly thick in size (about 1/8 inch thick). You can also use a rolling pin if you wish, but traditionally bhakri is made using your hands. 12. In the meantime heat a griddle or tawa on medium high heat. A cast iron pan works really well but if you do not have any of these, you can always use a regular frying pan.

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13. On a flat surface sprinkle some dry Jowar flour, keep the flat ball on it, apply some Jowar flour to your hand and with the palm of your hand spread the dough into a thin circle. Take care that the
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dough does not stick at the bottom and should move freely with your hands. 14. Carefully lift this dough with both your hands and place it on a hot iron griddle (tava).

15. Spread a little water with your hands on the surface of the Bhakri and then turn the Bhakri to the other side. Cook on high flame till some brown spots appear on the lower surface of the Bhakri.

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16. Remove it from the tava, turn it upside down and gently put it directly on the flame. It should blow like a balloon. 17. Add dry Jowar flour to the remaining kneaded dough and knead well. Repeat the above procedure to make another Bhakri. Once you have mastered the art of making Bhakri, you can save time by kneading the dough for the next Bhakri while still roasting the first!

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Bhakri (Curry (spicy or any

is usually served with Pithla made from gram flour), Thecha green and garlic chilly chutney) leafy green vegetable.

Remove from flame and serve hot with gravy of your choice.

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Jowar roti Easy way

owar roti is a must in any North Karnataka house. Lingayat women of Karnataka the state from where cricketer Anil Kumble hailed are experts in making these. A lot of experience is required in making these in the traditional way. The dough is prepared by mixing the jowar flour with hot water and then the roti is spread using the palm. I tried making these rotis in the traditional way for 2-3 times with little success. Though I could spread it to get the perfect shape, I could not make it very thin. I like these rotis very thin and soft. Then my grandmother gave me a tip and I was able to successfully make the rotis the way I like in no time.
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If you are in Bangalore, do not miss the Jowar Roti in Kamat Minerva (at Minerva circle). The taste is superb there. They serve Jowar roti with 2-3 vegetables, one of them stuffed eggplant, and butter is always must.

Ingredients:
Jowar Flour Boiling Water Salt to taste 1cup 1 cup

Jowar roti served with butter

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Methodology:
Heat water and add salt. When it starts boiling, add the flour and mix continuously till all the water is absorbed. Take off the heat. When it is still hot, knead the dough on a flat board. Spread using the rolling pin. For rolling, apply dry flour as much as needed. If the roti breaks, make it into a ball again, apply some more flour and roll. Cook on the heated tava like chapathis. These taste great when served hot.

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Bajri Roti - Rajsthani

illet is getting to be increasingly popular as it is gluten free. This tasty bread is Rajasthani in origin and goes well with almost any vegetarian or non-vegetarian dish. It is especially good with curries as it is perfect for mopping up the gravy! Bajra or bajri roti is a popular dish in villages of India. City dwellers have somehow lost the habit of eating it. It is served best with Dal Makhani or Sarson ke Saag or Green Mustard Leaves Curry, and a glass of cool lassi yogurt drink. Though bajra is grown only in certain parts of Rajasthan, however bajra rotis are relished all over the state. Thickly rolled bajra rotis are cooked over open fire of kanda (cow dung cakes) in the
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villages. That is the authentic way of preparing them.

The open fire imparts a smoked flavor to the rotis. Bajra rotis can accompany virtually any vegetable or kadhi on a Rajasthani menu. Bajra roti, lahsun ki chutney garlic chutney and onions is the staple diet of the locals. Although absolutely simple to make, these rotis are delicious! I love to eat them with fresh white butter.

Ingredients:
Bajra (black millet) flour Whole wheat flour
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2 cups cup
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Salt to taste Water Ghee for brushing

Methodology:
1. Combine the bajra flour, wheat flour and salt. 2. Place flour-mix in a heat resistant bowl, add boiling water, mix with a fork and leave until cool enough to handle. 3. Knead to make firm dough. Make sure that the consistency of the
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dough is firm enough to roll out, but not too hard. Hard dough will make hard rotis. 4. Divide dough into 8-10 equal portions and roll into balls, using chapatti flour to dust your hands. You can make one ball at a time, making the next one while previous roti is cooking. Keep them covered with a moist cloth. 5. Place one dusted dough ball on the center of bottom layer of the plastic and cover with the 2nd layer of the plastic. Millet dough is sticky and plastic makes rolling it out easy. 6. Roll it out through the plastic, into a 12 cm. circle. It should not be too thin, roughly 3-4 mm. thick. You can also brush a thin layer of oil on the plastic layers, instead of using dusting flour. 7. Peel the top plastic sheet off the roti gently. Lift the roti off the rolling board, placing the roti side
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on your left palm gently it breaks easily. Peel the 2nd layer of plastic off. 8. Place the roti gently on hot griddle or tawa. 9. After a minute or two, turn over gently using a wide spatula. While it is cooking, you can roll out the next roti. 10. Turn it over once again. Both sides should have a few brown spots on it. 11. Now cook it directly on a flame, using tongs, turning frequently, until crisp and cooked. It takes longer to cook than a wheat roti. You can also cook it under a preheated grill (HOT), but make sure to keep a close eye or it will burn! 12. Serve immediately, smeared with a little butter or ghee, with Sarson ka Sag or Palk Paneer or Dal Makhani.
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Tip:
1. If you need to cook the rotis in advance, cook until the griddle stage, and keep wrapped in a towel or in an airtight container. When ready to serve, heat a grill to maximum and cook 3-4 at a time, on both sides. 2. You can add chopped coriander leaves or a handful of methi leaves or very finely chopped green chilies and onions to the dough, along with a little salt and then shallow fry it to make Bajra parathas.

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Cornmeal and Methi Paratha

akka corn meal, when mixed with methi leaves, makes delicious parathas. You can add about 2 tbsp. oil and one finely chopped onion to the dough, if you want to make these for snack or breakfast, when not serving with gravies etc.

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Ingredients:
Makka atta or cornmeal 2 cups Kastoori Methi 2 Tbs Ginger, peeled inch piece Green chilies finely chopped 2 Salt to taste Carom seeds or ajwain 1 tsp Boiling water 1 cup Wheat flour or makka flour for dusting

Methodology:
1. Clean, wash and chop methi leaves if fresh leaves are available. Otherwise you can use the dried leaves. 2. Grate ginger and finely. Keep aside. chop chilies

3. Place makka flour in a heat resistant bowl, add the methi mix and mix well by rubbing with your fingers. 4. Add 1 cup of hot water, starting bit by bit at a time, and mix well with a fork. If you need more
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water to get pliable dough, then add a more, slowly. 5. Wait a couple of minutes until it is a little cooler and then knead to make a firm dough. You may have to add a little more water or a little more flour, to reach the right consistency. 6. Keep aside for 1 hour or so. 7. Divide dough to make a ball a little larger than golf ball. Roll it in flour and roll out gently into a 1012 cm. or 5 inch wide circle. These should not be too thin, approximately 3/4 cm. thick. 8. Ease off the board, using a flat spatula (makka tends to be a little sticky) and place on a hot frying pan or tava. After about a minute turn over. Spread a little oil on both sides, using a small ladle. Cook on both sides, turning over from time to time, until it is nicely browned and crisp.
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8. Serve hot with yoghurt, pickles and chutney.

Tip:
Another way of rolling out a paratha without it sticking to the board is using a plastic bag. Split a sandwich bag and brush both inside surfaces with oil. Place the dough ball between two layers of plastic and roll out the paratha, to required size. Gently peel off the top plastic layer. Lift the bottom plastic off the rolling board and ease off the paratha from the plastic and transfer to frying pan. This paratha can be made without the methi leaves too. Spinach leave may be used substitute to methi leaves. You can try adding grated instead of methi leaves. as a

onions,

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Sweet Potato Fritters

picy sweet potato fritters with samo rice flour is a quick and tasty snack. Samo flour is gluten free I used mashed potato for binding. Cumin and green chili add zest. Fritters turn out to be extra crispy and delicious. This is easy and delicious treat for fasting and any occasion.

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Ingredients:
Sweet potato cut into juliennes 2 Cup Green chilies - finely crushed 4-5 Samo rice or rice flour Cup Boiled finely mashed potato Cup Cumin 1Tsp Water to bind batter cup Coconut oil for deep frying 2 cups

Methodology:
1. In a medium size bowl combine julienned sweet potato, salt, finely crushed chilies, samo rice flour, cumin and mashed potato flakes. Slowly add water and stir-mix with wooden spoon. You may use fingers to combine all ingredients together. Batter/Mixture should be thick and not running, it should just coat around sweet potatoes. Heat 2 cup oil in wok/Kadhai. Drop tiny piece of sweet potato in oil; it should quickly rise up to the top and should not
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2.

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quickly get dark. This is the indication of right oil temperature. If you have no prior experience to use fingers then use dinner spoon otherwise I use my fingers.

3.

Merge five fingers together and pick one tablespoon quantity batter and slowly drop into oil. Avoid making exact round shape to get nice crab like shape. Drop 6-8 fritters at a time and fry each side for at least for ninety seconds or until fritters turn golden and crispy. After frying two batches if
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mixture gets a bit running then sprinkle some samo flour/ potato flakes or add more sweet potato. 4. Remove from oil and set them on paper towel lined plate. You can make about 25 fritters. Enjoy with peanut-coconut chutney.

Peanut and Coconut Chutney


Ingredients:
Fresh coconut
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cup
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Dry Roasted peanuts Green chilies Water Salt to taste Cup 3-4 Cup

Methodology:
Combine coconut, roasted peanuts, green chilies and salt into small blender jar - Add half cup water and grind to fine paste.

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Gluten free Flours and Recipes
Cooking Taoshobuddha Way is unique way cooking lovingly cooking meditatively. Although love and meditation are not separate instead two sides of the same coin yet where ever these two techniques are the outcome is the state of beyondness. Therefore when love and meditation blend together your actions bring bliss. This I call innovation in modern terms. In a large bowl, mix all flours well taking care that bowl and mixing spoons are dry. Mix in Salt, Xanthan Gum, chia seed, and flax-seed meal and mix well into the flours. Make double the quantity if you like and store in dry, airtight jars

In fact, wheat eating ones will hardly be able to notice the difference. This is multi-purpose Gluten-Free Flour that can be used chapatis, puris, parathas, and bread.

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