Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 46

Ad o p t - a- M o n u me n t Jerash Survey Putney Debates Kolkata G r a v e y ar d

Past Horizons
Online Journal of Volunteer Archaeology and Training
Issue 6: January 2009

colo u r ing the pa st at el pil ar


Issue 6
January 2009

Editors: Felicity Donohoe & Maggie Struckmeier


Layout: David Connolly & Maggie Struckmeier

Past Horizons
Traprain House
Luggate Burn
Haddington
East Lothian
EH41 4QA

Tel: +44 (0)1620 861643


Email: editor@pasthorizons.com
Find us on the web: www.pasthorizons.com

Contributors:
James Bull
Helen Bradley
Dr. Anabel Ford
Tom Addyman
12 Survey: Beyond the City Walls of Jerash
Annie Evans Surveying the hinterland of Jerash, an ancient Decapolis City
in Jordan has become a race against time to discover and map
as many sites as possible, many of which are being lost to
development.

Front Cover:
An artists rendition of Archaeology Under the
Canopy at El Pilar

Note
Past Horizons can give no endorsement of any listed project or
guarantee the accuracy of the information supplied. The editors
accept no responsibility for any loss, injury, or inconvenience
sustained by anyone using the resources contained within
this magazine and/or the websites mentioned herein. When 32 Two Monsoons
considering a project, be sure to contact the director with
any questions you might have about conditions, travel, health
Archaeologist and buildings historian Tom Addyman describes
issues, etc. Check for references from previous participants, the past, present and future of the decaying Scottish Cemetery in
seek advice where possible and select a project that will be of
the greatest benefit to you, the project and the team. Kolkata and the enormous task of surveying the six acre site.

past horizons 2
Contents
26 Adopt-a-Monument 8 Putney Debates
A Scottish initiative that enables communities Re-enactment group the Tower Hamlets
to interact with their local monuments to Trayned Bandes bring to life the 360th
safeguard their future. anniversary of these historic discussions.

Regulars
20 Colouring the Past at El Pilar
Dr. Anabel Ford describes a unique project that combines archaeology and conservation in the
Maya forest amongst the ruins of El Pilar.

5 Editorial 42 Interested In...


The study of textiles.
6 News 43 Dig In
News stories from around the world. Archaeological volunteer digs and
field schools for 2009.
38 Dig Cook
Annie Evans on culinary escapades, 44 Viewpoint
with a delicious recipe each issue. David Connolly reflects on the crisis
within commercial archaeology.
40 Profile
Archaeologist Tom Addyman. 45 Fun Page

3 past horizons
Never miss an issue by subscribing to Past Horizons and recieve an email
informing you of the latest online magazine.
Just click this link and ll in your email address:

Dont keep it to yourself! If you think that a friend would love reading the online
Past Horizons let them know about us.
Just click this link and tell them.

Past Horizons
where quality matters
toolstore
www.pasthorizons.com/shop

We only sell the best equipment for the job and everything is tried and tested in the eld, we
send anywhere in the world. Order and pay online and leave the rest to us.
Our customers include museums, universities and archaeological companies around the
world as well as community groups and individuals.

whs 4inch wood handled tr owel tool r olls


whs 4inch soft handled tr owel dr afting film
t yzack leaf & square r otring mechanical pencils
t yzack tr owel & square blundell harling scale ruler
stanle y br a ss plumb bob japanese pot tery combs
stanle y aluminium line le vel finds bags
sm all tools set t y vek l abels
stanle y powerwinder m a sking tape
stanle y mea suring tapes indelible m arkers

SPEAR &
JACKSON Tyzack

past horizons 4
editorial
G oing into 2009 most of us will no doubt be thinking about tightening
our belts to get us through the credit crunch. So how do we pursue
a love of archaeology when the cost to volunteers on an excavation
can seem prohibitive? The notion of austerity tourism is creeping into
peoples minds, so maybe we can practice a bit of austerity archaeology
as well.

A good starting place to indulge your passion inexpensively is to join your local archaeological
society. Many societies have active excavation seasons and, when the weather is not so good, do
finds processing and historical research, as well as offering lecture programmes throughout the winter
months. Many members have years of experience and love to pass on their skills for the benefit of
everyone. Some societies even operate affordable yearly field training schools.

There may also be opportunities to volunteer in your area so getting in touch with the local museum is
a good place to start. Find out what volunteer programmes they have in place, or ask your archaeology
service if they can point you in the right direction, as there are often archaeological surveys taking
place that need enthusiastic helpers. If you are lucky there may even be a community dig in your area.
These are usually free to take part in and can be enormous fun.

If you are studying archaeology at university you will need to participate in some field schools to
gain the experience necessary to complete your course. This does not come cheap, however, and your
university should be able to give you details about travel grant options. It is also worth considering
some of the above suggestions as joining local societies and volunteering with museums might give
you an edge over the competition when looking for work after your course has finished.

If you still hanker after a trip to foreign parts there are some options that are available to you that will
not break the bank. You might have to rough it a bit so be prepared to camp, wash in the river and eat
simple food, but often this experience can beat all the luxuries that other, more expensive, excavations
can give you. If you look at www.pasthorizons.com/worldprojects you can browse through lots of
excavation and heritage conservation opportunities, many of which are now accepting applications for
the coming year. If you need some help choosing please dont hesitate to email us for some advice at
info@pasthorizons.com.

If you are a professional archaeologist and would like a busmans holiday you may want to consider
offering your services to an excavation. In return you may get your air fare paid and your expenses
covered. This is quite a difficult one to achieve and requires a bit of work on your part, contacting
excavation directors and sending out CVs, but if it works out it can lead to all sorts of exciting
opportunities.

I hope this has given you some food for thought, but keep in mind that if an expedition seems expensive
to you, try to remember the huge cost involved in carrying out such an operation. Money received from
volunteers goes towards offsetting that burden, contributes to the local economy and supports long-
term research projects, most of which could not exist without your involvement. So please, if you can
afford it, keep supporting them.

For the rest of us, austerity archaeology here we come.

MaggieStruckmeier

Maggie Struckmeier
editor@pasthorizons.com

5 past horizons
ne w p y r a mid found in egypt

E
news gyptian archaeologists announced the discovery of the remains o f a p y r a m i d
possibly built for an ancient queen around 4,300 years ago.

T h e pyramid, with only the lower portion intact, was found south o f C a i r o i n
N o vember 2008. It was buried under 22 metres of sand in the des e r t n e a r t h e
f a mous Step Pyramid of Saqqara and is thought to house the remai n s o f Q u e e n
S e sheshet who was the mother of King Teti from the Sixth Dynasty.

T h e original entrance t o the pyramid was sealed with large gr a n i t e b l o c k s


f o r cing archaeologists to use an ancient robbers shaft to gain entry t o t h e b u r i a l
c h amber.

Wi thin it they found a huge sarcophagus. After five hours spent li f t i n g t h e l i d


t h e y found the remains o f a body wrapped in linen. The only other o b j e c t s f o u n d
i n the chamber were pottery and gold wrappings for the fingers of the m u m m i f i e d
b o dy.

T h is is the 118th pyramid to be found in Egypt and using the angle of t h e l i m e s t o n e


b a se it was possible to d etermine that it was originally 14 metres hi g h .

A r chaeologists had discovered two subsidiary pyramids for Tetis pri n c i p a l w i v e s


I p ut I and Khuit around a hundred years ago and it was assumed this i n t e n s i v e l y
e x cavated site had been exhausted.

If you are viewing this magazine on SCRIBD, then


you will not be able to see the video.

You can view it on either the full flip page version


of the magazine:

www.pasthorizons.com/magazine
OR: on our dedicated video website:
http://www.pasthorizons.tv/tv/view/273/new-
pyramid-discovered-in-egypt/

L eft: Face of King Teti

past horizons 6
I r on Age stele re v e a l s e a r ly e v ide nc e of be l ie f in t he s o u l
A team from the Oriental Institute, Chicago, working in southeast e r n Tu r k e y
has discovered an Iron Age stone slab that provides the first writt e n e v i d e n c e
i n the region that people believed the soul was separate from the b o d y.
Read more: http://chronicle.uchicago.edu/081120/ironage.shtml

ar chaeologists try to dat e t he Br od g a r m e g a l i t h s


This season saw the antic i p a t e d r e - o p e n i n g o f P r o f e s s o r C o l i n R e n f r e w s 1 9 7 3
trenches at the Ring of B r o d g a r, O r k n e y. A l t h o u g h t h e d a t e h a s n e v e r b e e n s c i e n t i f i-
cally confirmed, the imp r e s s i v e m o n u m e n t i s t h o u g h t t o b e 4 , 0 0 0 t o 4 , 5 0 0 y e a r s o l d .
Read more: http://www.24hourmuseum.org.uk/nwh_gfx_en/ART62367.html

Babylon Is Tar gete d in Pr oj e ct of W or l d M on um e n ts F u nd


The World Monuments Fund is launching a project with Iraq to pr e s e r v e t h e
a ncient city of Babylon where King Nebuchadnezzar II (630-562 B . C . ) b u i l t
h is hanging gardens, one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
Read more: http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601088&sid=apwIlJ7IbtWc

Gl adiators to Figh t A g a in at R om e s Colo s se um


Gladiators are to return to the Colosseum almost 2,000 years afte r t h e i r
bloody sport last entertained Roman crowds. Now five million pe o p l e w h o
visit each year will experience the sights, sounds and smells ag a i n .
Read more: http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2009/01/06/gladiator-rome.html

Germ an bat tlefield y ie l d s R om a n s u r pr i se s


Archaeologists have found over 600 relics from a huge battle betw e e n
a Roman army and Barbarians in the third century, long after hist o r i a n s
believed Rome had given up control of northern Germany.
Read more: http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/europe/01/05/germany.battlefield

dna tr ack s ancien t A l a ska n s de s c e nda n ts


An ancient mariner who lived and died 10,000 years ago probably d o e s n t h a v e
a ny close relatives left in Alaska. But some of them migrated sou t h a n d t h e i r
d escendants can be found today in coastal Native American popula t i o n s .
Read more: http://www.adn.com/news/alaska/rural/southeast/story/636254.html

Current Archaeology, Cardiff University and the Natio n a l


Museum Cardiff announce the 2nd annual Archaeolog y F e s t i v a l ,
6-8 February 2009
Join us there: http://www.archaeology.co.uk

For more news stories that are updated constantly, try:


Past Horizons News Blog: http://pasthorizons.wordpress.com/category/news-and-articles
Stonepages Weekly News and Podcast: http://www.stonepages.com/news
CBA Archaeology News Feed: http://www.britarch.ac.uk/newsfeed
Archaeologica: http://www.archaeologica.org/NewsPage.htm

7 past horizons
Pu tney D ebate s

Explaining the issues surrounding the Putney Debates All photographs: John Beardsworth

past horizons 8
Re-telling
a forgotten
past

by james bull

B
etween 28th October and 9th
November 1647, after the defeat
of King Charles 1, soldiers and
officers of Oliver Cromwells New Model
Army held discussions on the constitution
and future of England. Known as the
Putney Debates, these talks were far-
reaching and heralded the way for many
of the civil liberties we value today.
Should suffrage (a civil right to vote) be
limited only to property-holders? Would
democratic changes lead to anarchy?
Should there still be a king or lords? This
historic event, forced by the Leveller
movement, saw ordinary soldiers take on
generals to argue for greater democracy
and to provide a platform for common
people to make their voices heard.
continued

9 past horizons
Pike charge Debating the issues

B r i n g i n g t h e s e historic debates back to life, The congregation took commu n i o n t o t h e


t h e To w e r H a m l ets Trayned Bandes re-enacted accompaniment of the soldiers, go o d w i v e s a n d
t h e e v e n t a s part of the 360th anniversary children singing period psalms, a n d s i n g i n g
c e l e b r a t i o n s h eld at St. Mary the Virgin continued in the churchyard, ju s t a s i t h a d
C h u rc h , P u t n e y, in October 2007. This marked 360 years earlier. Later in the a f t e r n o o n , a s
o n e o f t h e k e y milestones in the development the bells of St. Marys rang out, t h e r e g i m e n t
o f p a r l i a m e n t ary democracy in England provided a guard of honour for civi c d i g n i t a r i e s
a n d a c r o s s t h e world: the call for a written from the House of Commons in c l u d i n g t h e
c o n s t i t u t i o n , universal (male) suffrage, a local MP and Black Rod, who a r r i v e d i n a
r e g u l a r t i m e t a ble for parliaments to sit, replica of a seventeenth-century b a rg e .
f r e e d o m o f c o nscience and equality before
t h e l a w - t h e a genda of the radical political The group aired the main points of t h e o r i g i n a l
I n d e p e n d e n t s o r Leveller movement. Putney Debates, with some soldie r s e s p o u s i n g
the Leveller cause of widening t h e f r a n c h i s e
T h e r e - e n a c t o r s set up a soldiers encampment while others argued for mo r e c a u t i o n .
i n t h e c h u r c h yard overlooking the River Throughout the weekend the pub l i c w a n d e r e d
T h a m e s , a n d w hile the regimental goodwives freely through the camp, stopp i n g s o l d i e r s
s e t a b o u t c o o king food for the assembled and civilians to ask about the ba c k g r o u n d t o
c o m p a n y, t h e menfolk were placed on guard the event and the nature of mid - s e v e n t e e n t h
d u t y, p e r f o r m e d drill and a variety of other century politics, and also about t h e w e a p o n s ,
c h o r e s . O n t h e Sunday morning the group was equipment, clothing and ev e n c o o k i n g
i n v i t e d b y t h e vicar to join the parishioners recipes.
a n d t h e i r g u e s ts in St. Marys for morning
s e r v i c e . T h e r e adings were all associated with The actual Debates ended in fru s t r a t i o n f o r
t h e D e b a t e s a nd included Colonel Thomas the Levellers, and their politica l m a n i f e s t o ,
R a i n s b o r o u g h s poignant words (below) which An Agreement of the People, was n o t a d o p t e d
h a v e r e s o n a t e d through the centuries: by the Army when the Debates c o n c l u d e d i n
November 1647. Nonetheless, th e d o c u m e n t
For really I think that contains much that we in the m o d e r n w o r l d
the poorest he that is in now hold dear and some things t h a t w e s t i l l
England hath a life to only aspire to. The Civil War was t o c o n t i n u e
live, as the greatest he; until Charles I was defeated again , p u t o n t r i a l
and therefore truly, sir, I in London on 1st January 1649 a n d e x e c u t e d
think it s clear, that ever y on the 30th January. It was only i n 1 8 6 7 t h a t
man that is to live under full male suffrage was achieved, a n d f e m a l e
a gover nment ought first suffrage had to wait until 1928 i n t h e U n i t e d
by his own consent to
Kingdom, but the starting point f o r t h i s a n d
put himself under that
gover nment.
other political rights can be trace d b a c k t o t h e
Putney Debates.
past horizons 10
The Levellers
represented the
aspirations of
working people who
suffered under the
persecution of kings,
landowners and the
priestly class, and
spoke for those who
experienced the
hardships of poverty
Singing hymns and deprivation.
They campaigned, first with Cromwell and then
C o n n e c t i n g t h e past to the present was a against him, for a political and constitutional
h u g e l y e n j o y a ble experience for the re- settlement of the civil war which would embody
e n a c t o r s a n d public alike. Throughout the principles of political freedom, anticipating by a
w e e k e n d t h e c h urchyard was filled with a large century and a half the ideas of the American and
French revolutions. Their ideals and beliefs are
a p p r e c i a t i v e a udience, most of whom stayed
still with us today, and the principle of freedom
f o r s e v e r a l h o urs to watch the story unfold,
of debate and social justice can be directly
w i t h m a n y r e t u rning the following day. It was
traced to this 17th century group.
a n i m p o r t a n t experience for all those that
e n g a g e d i n t h e occasion, where the reliving
the new model army
a n d r e - t e l l i n g o f the event on the anniversary
The New Model Army created by Parliament
o f t h e P u t n e y D ebates at its original location in 1645 was a military force based on ability
b r o u g h t n e w u n derstanding. rather than on position within society. Cromwell
preferred that the men were strong believers
L i v i n g h i s t o r y displays such as this are and, like himself, many became Puritans. It
e x t r e m e l y v a l u able, and although this display was not unusual for the men to sing psalms just
m a y h a v e l a c k e d the blood and thunder of loud before going into battle.
m u s k e t r y d u e l s and clashing pikes, it offered
a n i n t i m a c y o f contact with the public and the
t i m e n e e d e d t o explain the complex issues of Find out more
The Putney Debates now has a proper
t h e p e r i o d . Wi t h real people interpre ting real
monument at St. Marys Church where there
l i v e s, t h e r e w a rds and benefits to those who
is also a small permanent exhibition inside
a t t e n d e d w i l l r emain long after the tents have
the nave. More information can be found at:
b e e n p u l l e d d o wn and the re-enactors return
http://www.putneydebates.com
t o t h e i r 2 1 s t c e ntury lives.

Get Inv olv ed

The Tower Hamlets Trayned Bandes was formed as a re-enactment unit by enthusiasts within the Sealed Knot. The
regiment has gone from strength to strength and is regarded as one of the best units in the country. Members are
dedicated to the goal of achieving authenticity, in both appearance and drill, while still offering the maximum
enjoyment from the experience. Visit the website at: http://www.traynedbandes.org.uk

11 past horizons
Survey:
Beyond the
City Walls of
Jerash

by Maggie Struckmeier & David Connolly

J
e r a s h , o r G e r a s a a s i t w as once
k n o w n , i s a n a n c i e n t D ecapolis
C i t y s i t u a t e d o n t h e e a s t e r n frontier
of t h e R o m a n E m p i r e i n n orthwest
Jord a n . I t h a s b e e n s t u d i e d e x t e nsively
over t h e p a s t h u n d r e d y e a r s b u t almost
excl u s i v e l y w i t h i n t h e o l d c i t y walls.
The t e a m r e t u r n e d t h e r e i n S e ptember
2008 t o c o n ti n u e a h i n t e r l a n d survey
whic h s t a r t e d t h r e e y e a r s a g o , i n stigated
by P r o f e s s o r D a v i d K e n n e d y of the
Univ e r s i t y o f We s t e r n A u s t r a l i a .

The m a i n g o a l o f t h e p r o j e c t is to
reve a l m o r e a b o u t h o w t h e h i nterland
of J e r a s h w a s u t i l i s e d t o s u stain a
grow i n g p o p u l a t i o n m a d e wealthy
on t h e p r o f i ts o f t r a d e f r o m t he Silk
Road a n d s o u t h e r n A r a b i a . H owever,
the m o d e r n c i t y i s n o w e x p a n d ing into
these a r e a s a n d s o t h i s s u r v e y may be
the l a s t c h a n c e t o l o c a t e u n d i s covered
sites , s o m e o f w h i c h w i l l s o o n d i sappear
fore v e r, d e s t r o y e d b y t h e d e v eloper s
bulld o z e r.
This site forms a huge necropolis area which was purchased a few year
continued damage through bulldozing, dumping of rubble on top of the burial area

past horizons 12
rs ago by the Department of Antiquities to save it from development. Unfortunately due to the lack of secure fencing it is sustaining much
as and tomb robbing. The inset photograph shows a sarcophagus smashed under the weight of a huge dumped boulder.

13 past horizons
F r o m i n f o r m a t i on gained in the init ial 2005
s u r v e y w e k n e w the kind of sites we would be
l i k e l y t o e n c o u nter. They ranged from various
t y p e s o f t o m b s , quarries, cisterns, insc riptions,
m a u s o l e u m s , olive and wine presses to
a r c h i t e c t u r a l f r agments and mosaics. Given
t h e la rg e a r e a that the small team needed to
c o v e r, t h e p r i mary objective was to gather
s u ff i c i e n t i n f o r mation as quickly as possible
t o e n a b l e i n t e r pretation to take place.

O n d i s c o v e r y o f a new site, a global positioning


s a t e l l i t e ( G P S ) reading was taken, a unique
i d e n t i f y i n g n u mber allocated and a survey
f o r m f i l l e d o ut with a basic description,
i n c l u d i n g t y p e o f site, condition and immediate
t h r e a t , a l o n g with a quick sketch plan and
m e a s u r e m e n t s . The site was photographed
a n d , w h e n n ecessary, a surface artefact
c o l l e c t i o n w a s undertaken, mainly ceramics in
t h i s c a s e . T h e whole process could take about
2 0 m i n u t e s b e f ore the survey team m oved on.
A m o r e c o m p l ex site, however, could take
c o n s i d e r a b l y l onger, but it was important to
r e m em b e r n o t t o get bogged down i n detail,
t e m p t i n g t h o u g h it was. The hinterland in the immediate v i c i n i t y o f
the city is filled with tombs, m o s t l y d a t i n g
from Roman times when the popu l a t i o n w a s a t
its largest. It is common to find t h a t a r o c k y
limestone outcrop first used as a q u a r r y w a s
then reworked into a site for buria l a f t e r w a r d s .
We encountered simple rock cut g r a v e s , c a v e s
with niches for sarcophagi or o s s u a r i e s , t o
impressive monumental mausoleu m s c o m p l e t e
with underground chambers inten d e d t o h o l d
up to 30 sarcophagi which wou l d b e s e a l e d
behind heavy limestone doors. S a d l y, a l l
those we recorded had been rob b e d w i t h t h e
internal spaces now being used a s s t o r a g e
rooms or rubbish dumps, whils t o t h e r s a r e
being destroyed by the new c o n s t r u c t i o n
works which are taking place.

Discovering stone inscriptions w a s a l w a y s


exciting, and those located dur i n g t h e t w o
seasons of work ranged from Gree k a n d R o m a n
altar texts to an early Christian g r a v e s t o n e
and a 13th century Abbasid text. O n e o f t h e
most satisfying days for us was t h e r e s c u i n g
of four Roman milestones, one o f w h i c h w a s
previously unknown, lying amo n g s t r u b b i s h
in an olive grove. Where poss i b l e , a l l o f
Limestone Roman water channel lying in a field at Wadi Deir these pieces were immediately r e c o v e r e d b y

past horizons 14
One of four Decorated
Roman sarcophagus
milestones fragment
that were embedded in
rescued the ground
from an
orchard in
Wadi Deir

Greek
inscription
found in
City Walls

Finding a
tiny stone
childs
sarcophagus
in a
residential
garden
t h e D e p a r t m e n t of Antiquities of Jordan for
p r o t e c t i o n a n d further research.

B e y o n d t h e i m mediate vicinity of the city, the


s u r v e y t e a m b e gan to discover an agricultural
l a n d s c a p e t h a t consisted of olive presses
a n d r o c k c u t wine production areas. One A Roman
s u c h e x a m p l e , excavated 20 years before is pillar
base
s t i l l i n a n e x c e llent state of preservation and
built
c o m e s c o m p l e t e with a mosaic floor, sadly into a
n o w b e g i n n i n g to suffer from erosion. Some later
terraced
o f t h e t e a m a l s o came across a site that they
wall
c h r i s t e n e d t h e black cave becaus e of its
s o o t - b l a c k e n e d interior. This large cave,
c o n s i s t i n g o f a round 10 separate areas, was
e x t r e m e l y d i ff i cult to interpret without further
i n v e s t i g a t i o n as it had possibly started off
l i f e a s a t o m b , then functioned as a wine or A well
o l i v e p r o d u c t i on area and much later on as a preserved
d w e ll i n g , h e n c e the soot. Roman olive
press

Water had alw ays been important to settlements


i n t hi s a r e a a n d the collection and storage of
e v e r y d r o p w a s a big pre-occupation to the
i n h a b i t a n t s o f Jerash. An impression of this
i n t r i c a t e a n d widespread water management
s y s t e m h a s b e g un to emerge from this survey,
w i t h l a rg e r c i s terns and reservoirs feeding
continued

15 past horizons
Andrew Card David
prepares to Kennedy
photograph a examines
rock cut tomb a tomb
entrance

Traditional Circassian building Don Boyers draws the black cave A twisted column lies amongst a bulldozed pile

d o w n r o c k c u t channels or ceramic pipes a few remaining Circassian buil d i n g s d o t t e d


e i t h e r d i r e c t l y into the city or diverted into around the city but these will quick l y d i s a p p e a r
s m a l l e r d o m e s t ic cisterns. In one such case, unless they are given some sort o f p r o t e c t e d
p i p i n g d i s c o v e red in a residential garden was status.
s t i l l i n t a c t a l o n g with a perforated le ad cover
t o s t r a i n t h e w a ter as it flowed into a rock cut Some of the field systems that the C i r c a s s i a n s
s u b t e r r a n e a n t ank. A narrow circular opening turned from Bedouin grazing l a n d t o c r o p
w o u l d h a v e a l l owed buckets of clean water to production are now under immed i a t e t h r e a t o f
b e l i f t e d t o t h e surface which were the n poured development in the Wadi Deir to t h e n o r t h o f
i n t o a w h i t e p l aster-lined basin for domestic
u s e . T h e s e s y stems seem to have been used
a n d m a i n t a i n e d from the Roman period right
u p t o t h e f i n a l abandonment of Jerash some
t i m e i n t h e m i d dle ages.

J e r a s h b e c a m e ruinous as a result of
e a r t h q u a k e s , p l agues and a change in trading
r o u t e s . F r o m the 16th century onwards the
O t t o m a n s r u l e d Jordan but had very little
c o n t r o l o v e r t h e outlying areas of the country
a s t h e y w e r e only interested in protecting
p i l g ri m a g e r o u tes to Mecca. By the late
1 9 t h c e n t u r y t he Ottomans decided to settle
C i r c a s s i a n p e o ple from south eastern Russia
i n t o J e r a s h t o help protect against attack
f r o m t h e l o c a l Bedouin tribes. These people,
w h o w e r e a l s o Muslim and seeking to escape
r e l i g i o u s p e r s ecution, set about building
h o u s e s f o r t h e mselves within the crumbling
c i t y w a l l s a n d established the field systems
t h a t c a n s t i l l b e seen today. There are still Broken storage jars and light-coloured soil are some of the telltale sig

past horizons 16
t h e c i t y w a l l s . These fields hold many clues to
a m o r e a n c i e n t past and are littered wit h Roman
p o t t e r y, t e s s a r a and architectural fragments.
W h i l s t i n v e s t i gating this area, two Greek
i n s c r i p t i o n s w e re recorded, having apparently
b e e n b u l l d o z e d onto waste ground as a result
o f t h e c o n s t r u c t ion of a newly-opened medical
c e n t r e . N e a r b y, an unusual octagonal sixth
c e n t u r y B y z a n tine church sits unprotected
i n a n o v e rg r o w n back plot, and its huge red
g r a n i t e c o l u m n s, thought to have come all the
w a y f r o m A s w a n in Egypt, lie forgotten in the
o r c h a r d b e l o w. On the opposite side of the
r o a d a o n c e g r and mausoleum, hidden behind
a n e w l y - b u i l t h ouse, will soon be hemmed in
b y d e v e l o p m e n t on its north and south side.

T h e t e a m i s a cutely aware that the Jerash


H i n t e r l a n d S u r vey is important in many ways,
a n d a f t e r l o c a t ing over 450 sites so far in
t h e m o s t t h r e a tened areas, there is still so
m u c h t o d o . However, some of these sites
w i t h o u t d o u b t need re-visiting and further
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and it is important that this
s u r v e y w i l l p r ovide information for those
w h o w i s h t o c arry out further research on A mosaic forming part of an olive press complex, excavated
t h e h i n t e r l a n d of Jerash, whether it is the 20 years ago but now needing conservation work
f a r m i n g , t h e w ater management systems, the
q u a r r i e s a n d i n dustry or the burial practices while others desperately need c o n s e r v a t i o n
o f t h e p r e v i o u s inhabitants. Some need to work. Other sites simply nee d i m m e d i a t e
b e e x c a v a t e d t o realise their full potential, protection by being fenced off s o t h a t t h e y
cannot be plundered or used as d u m p s . It
was extremely distressing to re t u r n t o f i n d
that approximately 30 per cent o f t h e s i t e s
that had been surveyed in 2005 h a d b e e n l o s t
to development over the three i n t e r v e n i n g
years, and many more will prob a b l y b e l o s t
all too soon. Hopefully action w i l l n o w b e
taken to protect some of these trea s u r e s b e f o r e
it is too late, and a report with a p p r o p r i a t e
recommendations has been hande d o v e r t o t h e
authorities.

Thanks are due to the Department o f A n tiq u ities


of Jordan for allowing this sur v e y t o t a k e
place, and it is hoped that the i n f o r m a t i o n
provided in the report will be an i n f o r m a t i v e
and useful point of reference w h e n l o o k i n g
at the areas that are under imme d i a t e t h r e a t .
There is still much of the hinterla n d t o s u r v e y
and if funds permit the project w i l l c o n t i n u e
to discover what lies beyond the c i t y w a l l s o f
gns of recent tomb-robbing Jerash.

17 past horizons
Paul Sharman
investigates a
large rock cut
tomb, now used
for storage but
under threat of
collapse due
to roadworks
directly above

The full survey report will be published in the CBRL Bulletin and Annual of the Department of Antiquities
of Jorda n by the project directors Prof. David Kennedy and Fiona Baker (FIRAT Archaeological Services).
The authors were part of the team which included Paul Sharman, Don and Ann Boyer, Andrew Card, Anne
and Naomi Poepjes, with Abd al-Majeed Mujalli, from the Department of Antiquities.

Jerash Timeline
3200 - 1200 BC Jerash area already inhabited of Jerash shrank to around quarter of its
by the Bronze Age previous size

3rd century BC Referred to as Antioch on the AD 635 A major earthquake destroyed much
Chrysorrhoas of Jerash and its surroundings

63 BC Roman conquest by Pompey AD 746 The Artemis Temple (now a Muslim


fort) was completely destroyed by Baldwin
AD 90 Absorbed into the Roman province of II, King of Jerusalem during the Crusades
Arabia
AD 1400 After the Crusades the only
AD 106 Emperor Trajan brought more trade mention of Jerash was by an Arab
to the now flourishing Jerash by constructing geographer, Yaqut in the thirteenth century
roads throughout the region who described it as a field of ruins,
completely uninhabited
AD 129-130 A Triumphal Arch was built to
celebrate a visit by Emperor Hadrian AD 1808 Ulrich Jasper Seetzen, a German
travelling through Jordan recognised a small
3rd century AD Jerash starting to decline as part of the ruins as that of ancient Jerash.
a city along with the fortunes of the Roman
Empire AD 1878 Circassians, escaping persecution
in south east Russia, moved to Jerash and
AD 400 Christianity has come to Jerash and built homes within its ruins
many churches were built in and around the
City AD 1931 University-American School
expedition to Jerash, under the direction of
AD 614 Moslem conquest, the population Dr. C. S. Fisher

past horizons 18
Jerash Hinterland Survey

Berketeine

Wadi Deir

Chrysorrhoas river

Necropolis

Old City Walls

Wadi Jerash

Map of the Jerash Hinterland Survey area. The brown shaded areas represent the 2005 survey, while the green
shaded areas represent the 2008 survey.

19 past horizons
Colouring the

An artists rendition of Archaeology Under the Canopy at El Pilar

past horizons 20
Past at El Pilar

By Anabel Ford

I
magine how Frederick
Catherwood and John Lloyd
Stephens must have felt
upon seeing the vine-wrapped,
overgrown, abandoned cities
and temples of the ancient
Maya in their expeditions of
the 1830s and 40s. Discovered
only 25 years ago, the unique
Maya site of El Pilar on the
border of Guatemala and Belize
offers that same experience: the
monuments are still embraced by
the forest, showcasing the Maya
foliage as much as the Maya
c i t y i t s e l f . We c a l l t h e s t y l e o f
presentation practised at El Pilar
Archaeology Under the Canopy,
where the ancient monuments are
protected by the natural habitat
that envelops them.

continued

Inset: A representation of the Maya ruins at Labna in Yucatan, Mexico, by Frederick Catherwood

21 past horizons
C en t r a l M aya Lowl ands
w i t h El P i l ar and other environmental management, and t h e e v e r y d a y
m a jor c en t r es indicated. people of the Maya civilisat i o n . P a r t i a l
exposures offer glimpses of the m o n u m e n t a l
architecture, while a fully ex c a v a t e d a n d
consolidated house site, Tzunu u n , e v o k e s
everyday Maya life.

In fact, everyday Maya life c a n s t i l l b e


experienced in the surrounding v i l l a g e s o f
El Pilar, where the rich cultural h e r i t a g e o f
the Maya people has been main t a i n e d . T h e
management model at El Pilar inco r p o r a t e s t h i s
community, leading to a rewarding collaboration

A t i t s h e i g h t , this ancient city centre of El


P i l a r h o u s e d o ver 20,000 people in a mosaic
l a n d s c a p e o f city houses and gardens,
s u r r o u n d e d b y forest and agricultural fields.
I t h a s o v e r 2 5 identified plazas in an area
o f a p p r o x i m a t ely 100 acres (38 hectares),
r a n k i n g i t e q u al with major centres of the
l o w l a n d M a y a region. It is the largest centre
i n t he B e l i z e River area, more than three to
f i v e t i m e s t h e size of nearby centres Baking
P o t o r X u n a n t u nich. Protected today in Belize
a n d G u a t e m a l a , El Pilar s temples and plazas
a r e c o n n e c t e d by an ancient Maya causeway,
s y m b o l i s i n g i t s potential to become the
w o r l d s f i r s t a r chaeological peace park.

I f E l P i l a r i s such a large, important site,


w h y n o t e x p o s e its monuments? The ancient
b u i l d i n g s a r e s heltered by vegetatio n, while
s i m u l t a n e o u s l y encouraging an alternative
f o c u s f r o m o t h er sites: the environment, life
w a y s a n d l i v i n g culture of the Maya. Research A Maya temple at El Pilar protected by forest
a t E l P i l a r c e ntres on settlement patterns, vegetation (credit: Macduff Everton)

past horizons 22
w i t h t h e s t e w a r ds of Maya culture: traditional the past, telling us about life a r o u n d E l
M a y a f a r m e r s . They Pilar at i t s h e i g h t .
a r e k n o w n a s forest E t h n o g r a p h i c
gardeners b e cause analogs have focused
their a g r i c u ltural on the m i l p a a n d
t e c h n i q u e s maize cultivation
a c t u a l l y e n c o urage which a r e i m p o r t a n t
biodiversity and aspects o f M a y a
f o s t e r t h e g r o wth of land use. The
the forest. contemp o r a r y M a y a
forest gardeners,
A r ch a e o l o g y Under howeve r, h a v e a
t h e C a n o p y and range o f c r e a t i v e
Maya agriculture may approac h e s that
s e e m d i s c o n n ected. have traditionally
I n r e a l i t y, t h e y are provide d for
the thread connecting H e a d a rc h a e o l o gist of El Pilar and director of ESP-Maya h o u s e h o l d
the past to the A n a b e l F o rd w i t h forest gardener Carmen Cruz at the Maya liveliho o d passed
p r e s e n t a n d f u t ure as h o u s e s i t e T z u n u un down t h r o u g h t h e
( c re d i t : M a c d u f f Everton)
r e s e a r c h e r s u n ravel generat i o n s . For
t h e m y s t e r i e s of the example , t h e f o r e s t
a n c i e n t M a y a . In practicing their traditional garden is an intensive poly-cu l t i v a t e d p l o t
l i f e w a y s , t h e contemporary Maya inform that can be nurtured in a house y a r d o r i n
continued

Th e M a y a F o re s t G a rd e n a t E l P i l a r, s h o w c a sing the biodiversity of the Maya Forest and plants used by the Maya
(cre d i t : B R A S S / E l P i l a r P ro j e c t )

23 past horizons
View of the
Maya Forest
from El Pilar
(credit:
Macduff
Everton)

a d i s t a n t a g r i c ultural field. A wide varietyExploring Solutions Past: The M a y a F o r e s t


o f u s e f u l p l a nts are cultivated, supplying Alliance teamed up with a gro u p o f M a y a
g r o u n d c o v e r, h erbs, shrubs, bushes, trees and
forest gardeners to help preserv e a n d t e a c h
p a l m s , p r o v i d i ng for food, spice, medicine,Maya plant knowledge and land m a n a g e m e n t
b e v e r a g e , c o n s truction and ritual needs to solutions. With the support o f B e l i z e s
s a y t h e l e a s t . O ver 370 different plant species
National Institute of Culture and H i s t o r y a n d
h a v e b e e n d o c umented in the forest gardens in conjunction with the Ministry o f E d u c a t i o n
o f t he E l P i l a r area alone. With their heritage they developed the Maya Forest G a rd e n a n d E l
o f k n o w l e d g e of the multitude of plants and Pilar Coloring Book for the integ r a t e d h e a l t h
t h e i r u s e s , M a ya forest gardeners practice education in primary schools t h r o u g h o u t
c o n s e r v a t i o n t hrough interaction with theirBelize. The colouring book is d e s i g n e d t o
environment. connect children to their forest e n v i r o n m e n t
and learn plant uses. They, lik e t h e f o r e s t
C l e a r l y, M a y a heritage and agriculture are gardeners, will learn to be stew a r d s o f t h e
l i n k e d t o t h e conservation of the Maya forest, ensuring the future of M a y a c u l t u r e
f o r e s t a t l a rg e . The non-profit organisation and knowledge, as well as the Ma y a f o r e s t .

One of the challenges of preserving


the important cultural t r a d i t i o n s o f
the Maya is educating t h e p u b l i c o n
the merits of their tim e - h o n o u r e d
approach that offers a n a l t e r n a t i v e
direction for culti v a t i o n a n d
conservation. With a f o c u s o n t h e
everyday Maya peop l e , T h e E l
Pilar Archaeological R e s e r v e f o r
Maya Flora and Faun a i s a l i v i n g
classroom where tou r i s t s , l o c a l s
and researchers alike a r e l e a r n i n g .
As a protected area w h e r e n a t i v e
forest species can flo u r i s h a m i d s t
the monuments, it pro v i d e s i n s i g h t
into the ancient Maya l a n d s c a p e .

El Pilar also house s a n a c t i v e


forest garden, maint a i n e d b y t h e
El Pilar Forest Gard e n N e t w o r k ,
an organization of M a y a f o r e s t
gardeners from the local
community. Their i n v o l v e m e n t
and presence at El P i l a r c o l o u r s
An a b e l F o rd m e e t i n g w i t h m e m b e r s o f t h e El Pilar Forest Garden the past with the vivid h u e s o f t h e i r
Ne t w o r k i n B e l i z e ( c re d i t : L i s a U d w i n ) gardens and Maya tra d i t i o n s .

past horizons 24
A short video introduction to the El Pilar project

If you are viewing this magazine on SCRIBD, then you


will not be able to see the video.

You can view it on either the full flip page version of the
magazine:

www.p asthorizons.com/magazine
OR: on our dedicated video website:
http://www.pasthorizons.tv/tv/view/275/el-pilar-
mesoamerican-research-center

Get Inv ov led


W e are involved with archaeologic a l s u r v e y a n d w o r k w i t h G I S ,
laboratory analyses, park manag e m e n t , c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t a n d
e n vironmental education. We welcome n e w i n s i g h t s w i t h o u r v o l u n t e e r s .

O ur websites detail our multifaceted p r o j e c t .

http://www.marcucsb.edu
http://www.espmaya.org

We also have an online application at t h e U C S B w e b s i t e .

C o st: $2,500 including room and board


D a tes: 15 April - 30 June 2009

F o r more infor mation about the El Pila r F o r e s t G a r d e n N e t w o r k g o t o :


http://www.mayaforestgardeners.org

25 past horizons
Adopt a M

A dopt-a-Mon u m e n t t e a m e d u p w i t h t h e B re s s a y H i story Group and The SCAPE Trust to carry out an ambitious project to
relocate and re c o n s t r u c t a n d e ro d i n g B ro n z e A g e b u rnt mound on the Isle of Bressay this summer. (Credit: Tom Dawson/SCAPE)

past horizons 26
Monument Cowal Archaeological Society is managing sites along the
Ardnadam Heritage Trail (an original Adopt-a-Monument
project from the early 90s) with help from the British Trust for
by helen bradley Conservation Volunteers.

A
rchaeology Scotlands Adopt-a- Monuments and this number is increasing.
Monument Scheme has been running Other bodies, including the National Trust for
since August 2006 (re-launched due to Scotland and local authorities, also contribute to
popular demand after a series of projects in the the management and interpretation of Scotlands
early 1990s) and is supporting 11 volunteer groups heritage.
across Scotland. Each project brings its own
unique challenges and has been a rollercoaster Despite this, many sites across the country
experience, both for participating groups and for remain in need of help. They may be at risk
me, as Adopt-a-Monument officer. of vandalism, dilapidation and collapse, or are
simply vanishing into obscurity under a blanket
Whats it all about? of vegetation. Furthermore, a wealth of sites are
well-managed but lack interpretive information
The principle idea is simple; the scheme provides to explain their importance and possible meanings
a supporting framework for societies who wish to visitors. Other sites are fabulous and really
to do something active to care for local sites and worth a visit, yet are almost impossible to get
monuments. There are plenty of communities to.
already doing this all over Scotland, but many
more would like to be steered in the right There are plenty of energetic and committed
direction to get started. people with a desire to conserve and promote
these sites, and Adopt-a-Monument offers some
There are thousands of archaeological sites and of the building blocks that help feasible projects
monuments across Scotland. Some of these are to become established. We facilitate a sort of
in the custodianship of Historic Scotland. Over mutual back-scratching between community
8000 are protected under the Schedule of Ancient group and monuments; the community benefits
continued

Scol p a i g To w e r, N o r t h U i s t . A c c e s s A rc h a e o l ogy has adopted this Georgian folly with a view to interpreting and
cons e r v i n g t h e b u i l d i n g . ( C o p y r i g h t J a m e s G e ntles Remote Camera Ltd.)

27 past horizons
Coldingham Priory
Community Garden:
local school children
have fun learning about
metal detecting and
geophysical survey as
part of a project to
develop and conserve
the grounds of this
Benedictine priory (The
Friends of Coldingham
Priory).

from new experiences and skills (and, on a good Projects follow the same basic structure, which
day, has a lot of fun) and the chosen monument we have developed during the last two years and
gets the help it needs. are continuing to improve upon as participating
groups give feedback on their experiences.
Deciding to take on the responsibility for caring
for a site can be extremely rewarding, but it
can also be difficult and complicated, given
the minefield of legislation, permissions and
funding that must be negotiated. This is where
Adopt-a-Monument steps in. We also advocate
a lightness of touch, helping to ensure that
interpretation or access works are unobtrusive
and reversible, and that conservation works are
sensitively planned and implemented.
what shape do these projects take?

Adopt-a-Monument tries not to impose value


judgements on the communities we support, and
prefers to hear from the public which heritage
sites are important to them. Projects range,
then, from the modest to the truly monumental, Cromar History Group has adopted these Victorian
with 11 active ones spread across Scotland from lined mineral springs which were swamped with
Shetland to Arran and Harris to the Borders. Rhododendron and decades of leaf litter. The original
culverts draining the wells have been excavated and
restored, and a waymarked route established from
the nearby village of Logie Coldstone. A new bridge
has been put in place and a leaflet is available to
tell the story of the site.

The first step is to get together with the


group and help them to identify what the site
needs, whether it is further survey or research,
conservation, access or interpretation, perhaps
all of these. We then devise a project plan,
putting the group in touch with everyone they
need to consult including landowners and land
managers. We support the identification of, and
Rubh A n Te a m p u l l , N o r t h o n , H a r r i s . H a r r i s A rchaeology
application to, funders and statutory bodies, as
Group i s w o r k i n g t o c o n s o l i d a t e a n d i n t e r p re t t h e ruins of well as helping out with the details of health and
this M e d i a e v a l c h a p e l . safety, insurance and project promotion.

past horizons 28
Loca l s c h o o l c h i l d re n s e w a n a t i v e w i l d l f l o w er meadow around this inner city stone circle in Dundee, adopted by the
Frie n d s o f B a l g a r t h n o S t o n e C i rc l e . ( C re d i t : M. Ritchie)

We hope to expand Adopt-a-Monument over the


Sandwick
coming years, helping as many new groups as
possible to take part. Local heritage has so much
to offer from the perspective of education and
life-long learning, tourism, and even promoting
Rubh an Teampull
Chapel
Bronze Age
Bressay! a sense of place and community. Lots of our
groups are reaping the benefits already and are
setting an example to the rest of the world about
Scolpaig
Tower
what community intervention can achieve for
Poldhu Wells
heritage protection.

SE Perthshire
Adopt-a-Monument is sponsored by Historic
Stone Circle Trail Scotland. To subscribe to the A-a-M Email
Balgarthno Stone Circle
Bulletin, contact Helen on:
h.bradley@scottisharchaeology.org.uk
Ardnadam
Coldingham Priory
Heritage Trail
Community Garden
SCAPE (Scottish Coastal Archaeology and
Kilbride Chapel
the Problem of Erosion) is a charity that
Lyne Adam and Eve Stone
seeks to research, conserve and promote the
archaeology of Scotlands coast.

http://www.scapetrust.org
Map o f S c o t l a n d d e t a i l i n g t h e A d o p t - a - Monument
proj e c t s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s a r t i c l e .
http://www.shorewatch.co.uk

U n s t A rchaeology group, The SCAPE Trust


a n d A d o pt-a-Monument worked to partially
re c o n s t r uct and interpret this Iron Age site
o n S h e t l and in the summer of 2007.
( C re d i t : Tom Dawson)

Save Saint B r i d e s Chapel Lyne Kirkyard Project: Peeblesshire


(Arr a n ) h a s a d o p t e d t h i s e a r l y Archaeology Society adopted this rare
Med i a e v a l chapel. To g e t h e r Adam and Eve memorial stone in
with Strathclyde Building 2006. It was recently conserved and
Pres e r v a t i o n Tr u s t a n d A d o p t - a - returned to its original location. An
Mon u m e n t t h e y h o p e t o c o n s e r v e ongoing programme of interpretation
and i n t e r p re t t h e r u i n s a n d is being developed to tell the story of
adjo i n i n g g r a v e y a rd . the stone and the kirk.
(Credit: Trevor Cowie)

29 past horizons
The ax i a l p a t h s o f t h e c e m e t e r y w h i c h c o n t a i n c rumbling obelisks of brick and plaster
Right: T h e j o i n t S c o t t i s h a n d I n d i a n s u r v e y t e a m at the entrance to the Scottish Cemetery
All ph o t o g r a p h s b y S i m p s o n a n d B ro w n A rc h i t e c ts

past horizons 30
Two M onsoons
Sur ve y and analysis of the S co t t i s h Ce me ter y, K olk at a

by Tom A dd ym a n

C
al cu t t a ( n ow Ko l k a t a ) w a s l o n g th e p r in c ip al c it y o f th e Ho n o u r ab le Eas t In dia Company
f r o m w h i c h t he B r i t i s h t e r r i to r ie s i n In d ia w er e r u le d . I t b e ca m e a great tr ading
ce n t r e t h r ou g h w h i c h t h e r i c h es o f th e s u b -c o n tin e n t flo w ed in d ig o , jute, t ea and,
no tor i o u s l y, o p i u m, t h e l a t t e r d e s t i n e d fo r th e m a rk e ts o f Ch i n a. Dr aw n to th is vas t, di seas e-
r id de n a n d a l i e n l a n d we re e n d l e s s w a v e s o f tra d e rs , a rt is an s , s o ld ie r s, m iss io n a r ies, colonial
ad m in i st r a t o r s a n d a d v e n t u r e r s a n u n u su a l p ro p o rt io n o f wh o m w e re S co ts .
I n t h e w a ke of th e Fi rs t Wa r o f In d e pe n de nc e (or j ungl e 20 fe e t high. T he m onum e nt s a n d sto n e s
I nd i an M ut in y, d e p en d i n g o n o n e s p e rspe c t ive ) a re vi si bl y broke n a nd de c a ye d. Th e c e m e te r y,
Cal c u tt a b e ca m e th e B ri ti s h i mp e ri a l c a pi ta l , a whic h i s a ra re gre e n s pa c e i n a de ns e ly - p o p u la te d
r ol e it f ul f i ll e d u n ti l i ts re p l a c e me n t b y N e w De l hi a re a of Kol ka ta , s e rve s no use ful pu r p o se f o r t h e
i n 1 9 1 2 . H ow e v e r th e le g a c y o f th e B r it i sh Indi a n c it y, the loc a l popula t i on or t he rela t iv e s o f th e
p as t i s s ti ll c e nt r a l t o th e c it y s c ha r a c te r a nd
t h er e a r e ma n y u n s u s p e c t e d a r c hi t e c tu ra l s urvi va ls
g r ea t pa l ac e s , c h u rc h e s , b ro a d b o ul e va rds a nd
f or t i f i c a t io ns . a n d c e me t e ri e s .

I n t he e a r ly da y s o f t h e Br it i s h R a j t w o mons oons
w as th e e xp e ct e d l i fe -s pa n o f a E u r op e a n i n India
an d s u c h e xt r a or di n a ry le v e l s o f mo r ta l i ty a re
r ef l ec t e d i n th e c o lo n i a l c e me t e ri e s throughout
t h e su b- co nt in e n t . So m e o f t he m o s t fa s c ina t ing
ar e i n C a lc ut ta . T h e So u th Pa rk St re e t c e m e te ry
i s a w on dr ous ne cr o po l i s o f o v e rs i z e d m onum ent s
u n de r a ca n opy of t ro p i ca l ve r d ur e , w hi le t he
Sc ot ti s h a nd D i s s e nt e rs C e me t e ry, o n ly a s tone s
t h ro w a w a y, i s li t tl e k n o wn - a n o v e rg r own a nd
i m p as sa b le w il de rn e s s i n t h e h ea r t o f t h i s t e e m ing
m et r o po li s o f 12 mi ll io n p e o p le .

E ng u l f e d by th e m o de r n t ow n s c a p e w it h i n a poor,
d en s e l y- p a ck e d mi x e d M u s l im a n d Chri st i a n
n ei g hb ou r ho od , t h e Sc o tt i s h C e me t e ry li e s
u n fr eq ue nt e d a n d a l mo s t fo rg o tt e n , s c re e ne d
b eh i nd i ts e nc lo si n g w a ll . As o n e e n te r s t hrough
t h e a t tr a ct iv e oc h re -w a s h e d g a t eh o u s e t he e ye i s
m et b y a s c e n e o f d e s o l a ti o n g l im p s e d through
t h e u nd e rgr ow t h hu n d re d s o f mo n u me n t s i n e ve ry
s t ag e of de ca y a n d c o ll a p s e , b u rs t a p a rt by long- pe opl e who a re buri e d the re . It ha s b e c o m e a g r e a t
es t a bl is h e d r o ot s y s t e m s o r s i mp l y s w a m pe d by burde n for St Andre ws Churc h, up o n w h i ch th e
s t ra n gl in g u nd e rgr o wt h . O n ly a l on g t he princ i pal S c ot t is h Ce m e te ry - a nd t he c hurc h i n g e n e r a l - is
ax i a l p a th w e r e s o m e o f t h e mo re be a uti ful de pende nt , a nd i s a m a tt e r of c once r n f o r th e c ity
s u rv i v a ls to b e s e en c ru m b li n g o b e l is ks of bri c k a nd st a t e a ut horit ie s . Ye t i t is a n e x tr a o rd in a ry
an d p la s te r. re c ord of t he li ve s of ge ne ra ti ons of S c o t s, a p a r t
of S c ot l a nds he ri t a ge ove rs e a s a nd su re l y a s ite
D es p i te th e e ff or t s of t h e c a r e ta k e r, w h o l i ve s wit h for w hi c h pre s e nt da y S c otl a nd sho u ld f e e l s o m e
h i s f a mil y in t he a rc h e d g a t e h o us e , t h e c e m e te ry re spons ibi li t y.
i s d e r e l ic t a nd o v e rgr o wn w it h s n a k e -i nfe s t e d continued

31 past horizons
Steve Wa l l a c e o f t h e R C A H M S u n d e r t a k i n g f o r m al photography of the cemetery architecture

nov ember 2008 field investigat ion undertook the first stage of the project to save
the cemetery a preliminary field investigation
U n d er the auspices of the newly-formed K o l k a t a to assess the extent, condition and history of the
S c o t tish Heritag e Trust (KSHT), in N o v e m b e r site and its monuments, work that will underpin
2 0 0 8 a joint team from Scotland a n d I n d i a the development of a detailed strategy for their
restoration.

T h e s i x - a c r e c e m e t e r y w a s c l e a r e d o f u n d e rg r o w t h
over a period of two weeks. The site was strangled
with vines, the occasional clump of banana palm
and general jungle, amongst which a number of
m a t u r e f r a n g i p a n i , b a n y a n s a n d o t h e r l o n g e r-
established tropical trees were retained for the
canopy they provide.

The site investigation involved a team of 10,


with members from Simpson and Brown, The
Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical
M o n u m e n t s o f S c o t l a n d ( R C A H M S ) , C o n t i n u i t y,
and The Highland Council. The team undertook
an intensive, week-long site assessment and
recording exercise.

In order to ensure that the monuments in the


cemetery were recorded systematically and
consistently, a standardised recording methodology
was established prior to the field recording
exercise. Drawing upon current practices in
cemetery recording, this involved the creation
of standardised monument recording sheets,
d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s p r o j ec t f r o m a w i d e
range of sources. For each monument a variety
Kenny e n j o y i n g a w e l c o m e c u p o f s w e e t t e a of information was recorded, including materials,
condition assessments and a transcript of the
past horizons 32
i n s c r iption. A corresponding database w a s a l s o
c r e a t ed in order to store and allow interr o g a t i o n
o f a l l the information collected from th e f i e l d
s u r v ey of the monuments. With such a l i m i t e d
t i m e in the field a 20% sample of the ce m e t e r y
w a s recorded in detail, with further ta rg e t e d
e x a mination in other areas.

e volution of the cemetery

T h e cemetery was established in the 1 8 2 0 s


a n d from then until c1940 was the pr i n c i p a l
b u r y i ng place for generations of Ca l c u t t a -
b a s e d Scots, Bengali members of t h e S t
A n d r ews congregation, Welsh and othe r N o n -
C o n f ormists. Prior historical research in v o l v e d
t h e examination and transcription of e x i s t i n g
r e c o rds for the site including the Regi s t e r o f
I n t e r nments, which records the names o f t h e
m a n y hundreds of Scots who died fa r f r o m
h o m e and are buried there. Well over 9 0 % o f
t h e n ames are recognisably Scots nam e s l i k e
A n d erson, McGregor, Campbell and Ross . M o s t
o f t he others are Bengali, like Banerj e a a n d
M u k erjee.

A n early 20th century cemetery pla n a l s o


s u r v i ves, and from this it is apparent t h a t t h e
c e m e tery has over 1600 burial plots. I n m o s t
a r e a s these were laid out in regimented r o w s .
H o w ever, notable irregularity in their posi t i o n i n g
t o t h e NW suggested this might have be e n t h e
Recording and photographing the condition of the graves
e a r l y nucleus of the cemetery. under the watchful eye of the local inhabitants
continued

33 past horizons
A sand s t o n e t o m b w i t h h i g h Vi c t o r i a n g o t h i c d e t ail Inset: A marble tomb c arved in Moghul

A m o ngst the vast variety of headsto n e s a n d Vi c t o r i a n g o t h i c d e t a i l . F r o m t h e l a t e r 1 9 t h c e n t u r y


m o n uments it is onwards white marble
p o s s ible to discern was increasingly used,
a very marked monuments often
c h r o n o l o g i c a l becoming recumbent
e v o l ution of rather than erect.
m o n ument type. H o w e v e r, t h r o u g h o u t
T h o s e of the earlier the cemetery there
19th century are are oddities: one
g e n e rally classically- monument formed
i n s p i red, built of of glazed terracotta
b r i c k and finished blocks, elaborately
with elaborate enriched with acanthus
m o u l ded detail in scrolls; a marble tomb
l i m e plaster. These carved in Moghul
c o n t ain inscription S o m e o f t h e n a m e s of the monumental sculptors who had style; high crosses of
i n s e t s of imported c a r v e d t h e i n s c r i p t i ons on the gravestones Aberdeen granite and
l i m e stone, lettering many others. Many
f i n e l y cut. Mid 19th century monuments a r e o f t e n m o n u m e n t s b e a r t h e n a m e s o f t h e m o n u m e n t a l
o f a buff-coloured, fine-grained sandst o n e v e r y s c u l p t o r s w h o h a d c a r v e d t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s , n a m e s
s i m i l ar to York st one and apparently also i m p o r t e d s u c h a s L i n d e m a n , D o w l i n g , S h a m i a n d L l e w e l y n
t h e se are both of classical inspiration a n d h i g h & C o . T h e l a s t i s s t i l l i n b u s i n e s s i n t h e c i t y.

past horizons 34
fa m ily history
T h e most striking and, for many, the most i m p o r t a n t trace the burial place of their forebears. In one
a s p e ct of the cemetery is the gen e a l o g i c a l such case it was possible to relocate a grave
i n f o r mation it contains. Inscriptions tell a w e a l t h f o r r e l a t i v e s w h o h a d h a d n o k n ow l e d g e o f i t s
o f h u man stories, many of which are pecul i a r t o t h e whereabouts for over 70 years.
C a l c utta situation. There is also great po i g n a n c y ;
A photograph album held at Dundee archives
contains mid 20th century images of 25 individual
there is also great poignanc y - so
graves. These were relocated on site in 2008 and
m any e xpired at such a tender age.
recorded, the comparison providing a striking
measure of the extent of decay and physical
s o m any expired at such a tender age c h i l d r e n , d a m a g e t o t h e s i t e i n t h e i n t e r v e n i ng y e a r s .
y o u n g wives, young sailors and company o ff i c e r s , t he c e m e t e ry sinc e 1 9 5 0
m o s t victims of the pestilential sub-co n t i n e n t a l
c l i m ate. Recorded graves include tho s e o f a The Scottish Cemetery seems to have been
G l a s gow iron-master named Boyle; the d i r e c t o r m a i n t a i n e d t o t h e e a r l y 1 9 5 0 s . E a r ly p h o t o g r a p h s
o f t he Calcutta Zoological Gardens; off i c e r s o f of that time show the grass beginning to grow
t h e Honourable East India Company; M r J a m e s up but otherwise the site is well preserved. In
W h e atley, police constable, who was m u r d e r e d the intervening half-century the site was only
i n t he execution of his duty, 1844; T h e R e v. occasionally cleared and in later years became
J o h n Adam late Missionary to the he a t h e n , w h o l l y o v e rg r o w n . R o b b i n g o f m a t e r i a l s f r o m
n u m erous jute workers, a tea planter, an A m e r i c a n g r a v e s o c c u r r e d . L e a d i n s e t le t t e r i n g w a s
s a i l o r, Anglo-Ind ians and an occasional d i s s e n t i n g systematically but very carefully removed from
We l s hman. The towns, villages and s h i r e s o f inscriptions throughout the site, all cast iron
o r i g i n are scrupulously recorded: Duffus , P a i s l e y, has now gone and stone robbing took place in
B r o u ghty Ferry, Sutherlandshire, Inver k e i t h i n g , isolated areas. The most severe physical damage
F i f e , Campbeltown, and many from the D u n d e e to monuments has been caused by invasive
a r e a , the major processing centre for B e n g a l r o o t s y s t e m s , a n u m b e r o f i n d i v i du a l s t r u c t u r e s
jute. simply having exploded. The brick and plaster
m o n u m e n t s s u ff e r e d t h e w o r s t f r o m t h e e ff e c t s o f
T h e cemetery project has stimulated con s i d e r a b l e general weathering, many now little more than
i n t e r est both in India and in Scotland. In S c o t l a n d crumbling rubble piles. In the 1980s a number of
t h i s has been on many levels from go v e r n m e n t monumental inscriptions were removed for their
d o w n, and from local history archives , f a m i l y own protection and relocated at the South Park
h i s t o ry groups and family members hopin g t o S t r e e t C e m e t e r y.
continued

Recording gravestone inscriptions

35 past horizons
T w o m on s o on s
The plight of such European cemeteries
came to the publics attention in 1976 with
the publication of Two Monsoons; The Life
and Death of Europeans in India by Theon
Wilkinson MBE, who went on to found
the British Association for Cemeteries
(BACSA) in South Asia. Over the last 30
years BACSA has effectively spearheaded
the conservation of this important element
of cultural heritage, working closely with
Indian NGOs and local communities in the
restoration and maintenance of cemetery
sites. For more information see:
http://www.bacsa.org.u k

Drawi n g t h e m o n u me n t s

past horizons 36
t he future

T h e data gathered in November 20 0 8 w i l l It is the intention that the general recording


e n a b le the production of a condition su r v e y a n d exercise should be extended to take in the remainder
c o n s ervation plan for the Scottish Cem e t e r y. A o f t h e c e m e t e r y i n 2 0 0 9 - 1 0 . D e t a i l ed r e c o r d i n g o f
d e t a i led programme of required work s a n d a individual monuments will continue as the repair
b u s i ness plan for the setting up of a tr a d i t i o n a l programme progresses, and the general database
c r a f t s training fa cility will follow. successively upgraded.

T h e project cannot hope to be successfu l w i t h o u t It is hoped that, over the duration of a decade
t h e support and partnership of authori t i e s a n d or so, this extraordinarily evocative site can be
g r o u ps in Kolkata and, very importa n t l y, t h e restored for the benefit of the local population
p e o p le of the surrounding neighbourhoo d . L o c a l and for those wishing to explore the fascinating
c o n t acts are being strengthened and co m m u n i t y legacy of generations of Scots who died on Indian
i n v o lvement developed. It is hoped t h a t t h e soil.
t r a i n ing in the use of traditional mater i a l s w i l l
p r o v ide career opportunities for local t e e n a g e r s
a n d increase the skill base for those wo r k i n g o n To m A d d y m a n i s t h e f i e l d d i re c t o r o f t h e s u r v e y
t h e r epair of traditionally-built structures t h a t c a n t e a m t h a t f o r m s p a r t o f t h e K S H T, c o n c e i v e d
b e a pplied throughout the city. b y J a m e s S i m p s o n a t t h e re q u e s t o f G M K a p u r,
d i re c t o r o f t h e C a l c u t t a C h a p t e r o f t h e I n d i a n
I t i s intended that the recording data from t h e 2 0 0 8 N a t i o n a l Tr u s t f o r A r t a n d C u l t u r a l H e r i t a g e
s i t e a ssessment be made publicly availabl e t h r o u g h ( I N TA C H ) . I t i s a j o i n t v e n t u re de v e l o p e d w i t h
t h e Trusts and the RCAHMS websites, w i t h t h e and undertaken on behalf of the KSHT by Simpson
p r o j ect archive to be lodged in the N a t i o n a l a n d B ro w n A rc h i t e c t s o f E d i n b u rg h , i n p a r t n e r s h i p
M o n ument Recor d of Scotland in Edinbu rg h , p a r t with the RCAHMS and Kolkata-based Continuity
o f t h e RCAHMS. A rc h i t e c t s .

The K olkata Scot tish Heritag e Tr u s t

The KSHT was established in 2008 to commemorate and to build on the historic links between Scotland
and India, with the setting up of the Kolkata Scottish Cemetery Project as its first task. This ambitious
conservation project has the following aims:

1. To maintain the Scottish Cemetery as a managed green space which can be a lung for the
surrounding pop ulation.

2. To research and record the cemete ry and thereby improve the understanding of the sit e, its history
and its genealogical importance. To make this information readily available.

3. To restore the cemetery buildings and as many of the monuments as possible.

4. To establish a centre for training traditional building skills necessary for the repair and restoration
of the monuments as well as of the traditional buildings of Kolkata.

how can you help?

To date, the Kolkata Scottish Cemetery Project has been entirely supported by charitable contributions,
and further progressed by the donation of professional time. The support of individuals and sponsoring
bodies must clearly continue if the aims of the project are to be successfully achieved.

If you wish to help or are interested in being kept informed of future progress please contact The Kolkata
Scottish Heritage Trust, c/o Simpson and Brown, St Ninians Manse, Quayside Street, Edinburgh EH6 6EJ,
United Kingdom. The trust is a charity registered in Scotland (Charity No. SC0039917).

Some weblinks
http://scottishcemeterykolkata.wordpress.com - the blog for the 2008 expedition
http://www.simpsonandbrown.co.uk - Simpson and Brown Architects website
http://www.rcahms.gov.uk - RCAHMS website

37 past horizons
Recipes for Archaeologists
W hile dinner is th e h i g h l i g h t o f t h e
culinary day, n o c o o k w o r t h h i s
or her salt can afford t o t r e a t l u n c h a s
tomatoes. This is dressed with either a
good vinaigrette or quite simply with
o l i v e o i l a n d r e d w i n e vi n e g a r w i t h a
mere routine. When th e t e a m c o m e s i n , l i t t l e s a l t a n d p e p p e r.
hot and hungry from t h e f i e l d , t h e r e h a d
better be something o n t h e t a b l e t h a t I m a k e , n o t b u y, a v a r i e t y o f d i p s s u c h
pleases their palates a n d k e e p s t h e m a s h u m m u s , t z a t z i k i , t a r am a s a l a t a , a n d
Annie Evans going through the afte r n o o n . perhaps eggplant, beetroot, capsicum
The Dig Cook and garlic dips served with lots of fresh,
Getting lunch right r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l crusty local bread. There are things
judgment and a fine b a l a n c e . To o h e a v y t h a t a d i g c o o k w i t h a l a rg e t e a m t o f e e d
and hearty a meal r u n s t h e r i s k o f s i m p l y d o e s n t h a v e t i m e t o f i d d l e w i t h
making everyone dro w s y w h e n t h e r e s but if you are fortunate enough to have
still plenty of work to b e d o n e . a food processor on hand making dips is
easy and very rewarding.
I aim to make lunch d i s h e s i n t e r e s t i n g
but avoid putting out a m e a l t h a t r e q u i r e s Dishes I serve for lunch include pickled
a lot of energy to dige s t . T h e r e s a l w a y s beetroot, potato salad, chickpea salad,
plenty of food on the t a b l e b u t n o n e o f rice and tuna salad and often an egg and
it is dense with subst a n c e i f y o u g e t bacon pie (quiche) or frittata. Savoury
what I mean. bread and butter pudding is also a
favourite with my teams as well as
A great big, full-of - e v e r y t h i n g s a l a d zucchini pie and many variations on the
with a tasty dressing i s t h e c e n t r e p i e c e . old reliable quiche.

Frittata can be made with baked pumpkin,


zucchini, potato and maybe leftover meat
o r c h i c k e n f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s n i g h t s
d i n n e r.

Pasta is also a great standby for lunch,


either cold in a salad or hot in pastitsio
or carbonara.

I u s u a l l y m a k e a l l o f t h e s e d i s h e s i n l a rg e
pans so that they can be cut into slices.
I prefer to cut these myself, as that way
I can regulate portions and ensure that
everyone gets their share. In addition
to all of the above, there is always a
vegetarian option.

T h e t a b l e i s c o m p l e t e d w i t h l a rg e p l a t t e r s
This is made up of w h a t e v e r g r e e n s a r e of seasonal local fruit and pitchers of
available locally, plu s f i n e l y - s h r e d d e d cold water for hard-earned thirsts.
cabbage, herbs such a s m i n t , p a r s l e y,
coriander, celery, sh a l l o t s , r e d s a l a d T h e m e a l i s s i m p l e b u t t h e r e s e n o u g h
onions, lightly steam e d b e a n s , f e t t a , variety on the table at lunchtime to
olives, oregano (pref e r a b l y f r e s h , b u t ensure that everyone goes away happily
dried will do), bean s p r o u t s , c u c u m b e r, with stomachs that are full but not
red or green capsicu m ( p e p p e r s ) a n d overloaded.
The Dig Cooks website
http://www.digcook.com

past horizons 38
ba con a nd e gg pie
For six

pa s t ry
250 g (8 oz) plain flour
125 g (4 oz) butter cut into cubes and chilled
2 egg yolks
pinch of salt
small quantity of iced water
1 beaten egg for glazing

Method
R u b butter through flour until it resem b l e s f i n e b r e a d c r u m b s o r
p u t in a food processor and pulse to co m b i n e . A d d e g g y o l k a n d
p u l se then add one tablespoon of iced w a t e r u n t i l m i x t u r e c l u m p s
t o g ether. Add a little more water if too d r y. F o r m i n t o a b a l l , w r a p
i n plastic wrap and refrigerate for 30 m i n u t e s .

R o ll prepared pastry to fit a 22cm flan t i n , m a k i n g s u r e i t g o e s u p


t h e sides to for m a well for the filling. L i n e w i t h b a k i n g p a p e r
a n d add a weight such as dried beans. B a k e f o r 1 5 - 2 0 m i n u t e s a t
1 6 0 degrees Centigrade (300 degrees F a h r e n h e i t )
R e move paper and beans, increase temp e r a t u r e t o 1 8 0 d e g r e e s C e n t i g r a d e ( 3 5 0 d e g r e e s F a h r e n h e i t )
a n d bake for 10 more minutes. Remove f r o m t h e o v e n , s e t a s i d e a n d m a k e f i l l i n g .

fil l ing
75g (3 oz) butter
2 tablespoons olive oil
2 brown onions, finely chopped
150g (5 oz) bacon, rind removed and finely diced
2 teaspoons chopped oregano or 1 teaspoo n of dried
2 teaspoons of chopped chives
Half a teaspoon ground nutmeg
6 eggs
300ml (half pint) cream
250g (8 oz) grated tasty cheddar
salt and pepper

Method
M e lt butter and oil in a frying pan and s a u t b a c o n u n t i l c o o k e d b u t s t i l l s o f t . Tr a n s f e r b a c o n t o a
b o wl. Add chopped onions to the pan a n d c o o k g e n t l y u n t i l t r a n s p a r e n t .

I n a large bowl beat the eggs until fluff y a n d s t i r i n c r e a m , h e r b s , n u t m e g , s a l t a n d p e p p e r t o


t a s te.

B r ush base of pastry with beaten egg, a n d a r r a n g e b a c o n a n d o n i o n o v e r i t . C a r e f u l l y p o u r c r e a m


m i xture until the dish is full. Sprinkle w i t h g r a t e d c h e e s e a n d b a k e a t 1 8 0 d e g r e e s C e n t i g r a d e
( 3 50 degrees Fahrenheit) for 20 minute s . T h e n t u r n d o w n o v e n t o 1 6 0 d e g r e e s ( 3 0 0 d e g r e e s
F a hrenheit) for a further 30 minutes or u n t i l t o p i s g o l d e n a n d t h e c e n t r e o f t h e p i e i s s o f t l y s e t .

S e rve warm from the oven.

39 past horizons
Profile
T o m A d d y m a n l i v e s i n A rg y l l ,
Scotland, and is a partner at Simpson
and B r o w n A r c h i t e c t s , E d i n b u rg h , w h e r e
he i s i n c h a rg e o f t h e i r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l
div i s i o n , A d d y m a n A r c h a e o l o g y. To m
spe c i a l i s e s i n t h e a r c h a e o l o g y a n d
ana l y s i s o f s t a n d i n g b u i l d i n g s b o t h
in S c o t l a n d a n d f u r t h e r a f i e l d , a n d
spe n d s m u c h o f h i s t i m e a d v i s i n g
on t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g , c o n s e r v a t i o n
and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s a n d
arc h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s .

Your first archaeological experience? Have you had any near-death experiences?
Digging on the spoilheaps of the old mans excavation One or two. Nearly falling from a mountain side in
at Chalton, Hampshire, age 2 (1969, see above). My the Faroe Islands; surveying mine-fields in Abkhazia
first find, a fossilised sea-urchin - much more fun to (in retrospect, not necessarily advisable); the odd
lick than a small sherd of Anglo-Saxon pot. snake encounter... Until meeting one, Id never heard
of a jumping tommygoff
Top three essential items for travelling?
Trowel, pith helmet, Imodium (a machete - not so What country do you enjoy visiting and why?
good for travelling these days, but incredibly useful Belize and Guatemala, particularly the rainforests,
once youre there). a wholly different world where self-reliance is a
necessity.
What is the worst job youve done?
Each for a variety of reasons. On the Canadian What gets you out of bed in the morning?
border, using blow-torches within a bubble tent to My beautiful wife; a big stick; bouncing children.
soften the frozen soil before trowelling.
What historical character would you have liked to
Faneuil Hall, Boston, in mid winter, wet-sieving at meet?
about -10 degrees centigrade with finds and gloves Master James of Saint-Georges, purveyor of fine 13th
freezing to the sieve. Memorably miserable. century castles.

A site in Belize which suffered theft of equipment, What is your current obsession?
archives and looting. Getting archaeologists and architects to talk to one
another without the aid of sharpened implements.
Have you ever volunteered on an excavation and,
if so, where? Eighteenth-century pottery.
Yes, accidentally at a crannog site on Rousay, Orkney,
on a biking trip. Copn, Honduras, for a short while What is you best work achievement so far?
helping to piece sculpted monuments back together. Raising four children on an archaeologists lack of
Cahal Pech, Belize, to dig a lordly tomb. salary.

Do you have any heroes or heroines? The work of disentangling historic buildings for The
The early antiquarians. National Trust for Scotland.

What do you prefer survey or excavation? What new skill would you like to learn?
Both enjoyable and challenging in their own ways, Watercolour painting.
though much depends on the quality of site catering.
If you werent an archaeologist what would you do
What book are you reading right now? instead?
Against a Dark Background by Iain M. Banks. A bad novelist.

past horizons 40
Advertising Feature

Learn about Archaeology at

A t Birkbeck we offer a wide range of courses on all aspects of Archaeology & Egyptology,
taught by people who are as passionate about the past as they are about sharing their
expert knowledge with you.
Archaeology & Egyptology Courses Part Time, Evening and Weekly Courses
We offer a number of courses within the following awards:

MA Archaeology 2 years Part time Certificate HE Archaeology


Certificate HE The Archaeology of Britain Certificate HE Egyptology
Certificate HE Ancient Near Eastern and Aegean Studies Certificate HE Archaeologicall Practices & Techniques

Archaeology modules include:

Society and Culture in the Roman Empire Birth of a Nation: The Archaeology of England c.400-1540
Human Evolution Discovering Archaeology: Studying the Past
Bioarchaeology The Archaeology of Human Bones Landscape Archaeology
Prehistoric Britain: New Ideas Thoughts & Theories Art and Archaeology I: Prehistoric Art
After the Excavation: Archaeology from Processing to Publication The Study of Artefacts
Kings over Everything: The Archaeology of Britain within the Roman Empire
London Bodies: An Introduction to the Study of Human Skeleton Remains

We are also oering the following new modules:

Archaeology, Codices and Ethnohistory of Sixteenth-Century Mexico


The Ancient Near East in the Second Millennium BC: The Rise of Nationalism and International Relations
Discovering Mesopotamima: History of Ancient Middle Eastern Studies
Historical Developments in Ancient Egypt
Introduction to Akkadian
Advanced Akkadian

1 day conferences (study days)


From Babylon to Amarna: Ancient Middle Eastern Interaction in the Days of Akhenaten (1 day conference)
Gods of Ancient Egypt
New Research in Egyptian Archaeology
The Beginning of the Egyptian State

MA Archaeology

The MA Archaeology is designed to teach the methods and practice of contemporary archaeology. It is suitable for both
volunteer and professional archaeologists. Our MA in Archaeology has been designed to fit around the lives of working
people. Core course and options modules take place over the weekend and in one week slots. The MA course runs from
October to July and is undertaken over two years on a part-time basis. Interviews for the MA in Archaeology are between
July and September.

For more information please go to: http://www.bbk.ac.uk/ce/archaeology/ma_archaeology.html


T: 020 7631 6627 E: archaeology@FLL.bbk.ac.uk

www.birkbeck.ac.uk/ce/archaeology where you can enrol


For a copy of the new 2008/2009 prospectus please
directly online by completing the online form beside each module
telephone 020 7631 6627 or 0845 601 0174 or go to:
description or by calling central enrolment on 020 7631 6651.

41 past horizons
Intere s ted i n t e xt i l e s
Co u rse s

F i b re I d e n t ification Workshop - West Dean College, UK


Tr a i n s p a r t i cipants in the examination of the most important natural and synt h e t i c f i b r e s
f o u n d i n t e x tiles. While the emph asis is on practical work, essential theory w i l l a l s o b e
g i v e n . E x a mination methods presented include the use of the human senses a s w e l l a s
t h e u s e o f t he microscope and stain tests. Dates: 29 June - 2 July 2009, Cost : f r o m 3 4 5
http://www.westdean.org.uk/site/conservation/profdev/pcip/pc_0905.htm

Archaeological Textiles Studies in P e r u - C a l i f o r n i a I n s t i t u t e f o r P e r u v i a n S t u d i es


Course includes hands-on experien c e i n t h e a n a l y s i s , w r i t t e n d o c u m e n t a t i o n a n d m u s e u m
c onservation of archaeological texti l e s p e c i m e n s . S t u d e n t s l e a r n t o a n a l y s e t e x t i l e s p e c i m e n s ,
d ocument their features and make a s a m p l e r o f t h e a n c i e n t w e a v e s t h e y h a v e a n a l y s e d .
Dates: 7 - 27 July 2009, Cost: $940 f o r 1 w e e k
http://www.archaeological.org/webinfo.php?page=10037&entrynumber=2282

S e m in a r
Textile Term inology in the 3rd and 2 n d m i l l e n n i a B C - C o p e n h a g e n , D e n m a r k
I n the written records of the Mediterra n e a n a r e a i n t h e 3 r d a n d 2 n d m i l l e n n i a B C t h e r e a r e r e f e r e n c e s
t o a complex terminology of textile s , t o o l s , t e c h n i q u e s a n d d e c o r a t i o n . H o w e v e r, t h e p r e c i s e
meaning is often hard to interpret. T h e s e m i n a r a i m s a t i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h i s t e x t i l e t e r m i n o l o g y.
Dates: 5 - 8 March 2009
http://ctr.hum.ku.dk/upload/application/pdf/f51d6748/web%20site%20text.pdf

P u bl ic at ion
Archaeological Textiles Newsletter ( AT N )
A twice-yearly publication for textile s , w h i c h h a v e b e e n f o u n d i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t s , d a t i n g
f rom the Pre historic to the Modern A g e . G e o g r a p h i c a l l y, AT N c o n c e r n s i t s e l f m a i n l y w i t h t h e
Old World textiles from Western Euro p e t o J a p a n . C u r r e n t l y i t p u b l i s h e s a u n i q u e c o m b i n a t i o n o f
f eatured scientific articles and repor t s , n o t e s , q u e r i e s , r e v i e w s , r e s o u r c e s a s w e l l a s c o n f e r e n c e
a nd event announcements. Subscript i o n f e e : 2 0
http://www.atnfriends.com/index.htm

S o c ie t ie s
The Medieval Dress and Textile Soc i e t y - U K
F ounded in 1991 with the aim of prov i d i n g a f o r u m f o r a l l t h o s e c u r i o u s a b o u t E u r o p e a n c l o t h i n g
a nd textiles secular or sacred, from th e e n d o f t h e R o m a n E m p i r e i n w e s t e r n E u r o p e u n t i l 1 6 0 0 A D .
The Societys members are friendly a n d i n f o r m a l , n e w c o m e r s a r e a l w a y s w e l c o m e a n d s t u d e n t s a r e
p ositively encouraged. Annual subsc r i p t i o n : 1 0
http://www.medats.org.uk/index.php

The Textile Society of America


P rovides an i nternational forum for t h e e x c h a n g e a n d d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t e x t i l e s
worldwide, from artistic, cultural, ec o n o m i c , h i s t o r i c , p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l a n d t e c h n i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s .
Membership cost: $65 North America a n d $ 7 5 r e s t o f t h e w o r l d .
http://textilesociety.org

past horizons 42
D ig In A selection of ar chaeological pr ojects ar ound the world

BELIZE M AYA R E S E A R CH PR OGR A M


The project is in its 18th year of investigating the ancient Maya city of Blue Creek.
There are two week sessions for students and volunteers in May and June 2009.
Cost: $1500 ($1200 for students)
http://www.mayaresearchpr ogram.org/index.html

BOLIVIA - L A K E T I T IC A C A T E M PL E PR OJECT
Help excavate an early Tiwanaku temple threatened by rising water levels and road
construction. Students and volunteers welcomed between June and August 2009.
Cost: 2400 for 28 days or 75 per day for informal volunteers
http://www.heritageaid.com/index.htm

C YPRUS - T H E KA L AVA S OS PREHISTORIC PR OJECT


The site of Kalavasos-Kokkinoyia dates to the late Neolithic. With its pits, subterranean
chambers and connecting tunnels, its purpose still remains a mystery.
Cost: 700. Dates: 6 April - 2 May 2009
http://www.uea.ac.uk/art/research/kalavasos

SOUTH AFRICA - H IG H A LT I T U DE O CCUPATIONAL SET TLEMENT SURVE Y


Documenting all the historic and prehistoric features resulting from human activities along
the high altitude regions of the western Soutpansberg for future research.
Cost: R2400 (approx $320 dollars) per calendar month
http://www.lajuma.com/ResearchIndexPage.htm

UKR AINE - A RT E Z I A N A R CHAEOLOGICAL E XPEDITION


Excavate the ruins of the Bospor Kingdom town of Artezian in the Crimean Peninsula. It
later became a Greek outpost and has produced many interesting finds from that era.
Cost: 40 per day. Dates: 15 June - 1 September 2009
Email: sboriskin15@yandex.ru (no website)

ENGL AND - W H I T E H I L L R OM A N V I L L A AND L ANDSCAPE


Volunteers are involved in the excavation of a Romano-British villa concentrating on
structural elements of an estate bath house. No experience necessary.
Cost: Free (donations welcome). Dates: 1 5 June - 10 July 2009
http://www.whitehallvilla.co.uk/index.html

UNITED STATES - A L L E NDALE PALEOA MERICAN E XPEDITION


Volunteers can register for a week or more and help excavate one of North Americas most
ancient archaeological sites associated with several prehistoric chert quarries.
Cost: $466 per week. Dates: 4 May - 6 June 2009
http://www.allendale-expedition.net

GREECE - T H E H E L I K E PR OJ E CT
Ancient Helike is on the southwest shore of the Gulf of Corinth where many Hellenistic
buil dings, an Early Helladic settlement and a Late Classical cemetery have been found.
Cost: 550 per week (minimum stay two weeks). Dates: 29 June - 7 August 2009
http ://www.gaiaocean.geology.upatras.gr/labs/tektoniki/erevna/helike_2006/index.htm

ISR AEL - J A F FA E XC AVATIONS


Excavations will continue within a large Hellenistic housing complex and also seeks to
identify layers associated with an Egyptian fortress of the Late Bronze Age.
Cost: $500. Dates: 28 June - 7 August 2009
http://www.antiquities.org.il/jaffa

More projects can be found at http://www.pasthorizons.com/worldprojects

43 past horizons
Viewpoint
crisis, what crisis?

T
owards the end of 2008 commercial archaeology around the world sta rted to feel the
squeeze. As a commercial archaeologist myself, I have looked on in shock as field
archaeologists are being made redundant on an unprecedented scale. The downturn in
the world economy has seen housing and infrastructure developments slow to a near standstill.
Commercial archaeology is inextricably linked to this kind of development and has become
viewed by developers as a contamination to be removed as quickly and cheaply as possible,
and has done nothing to promote the positive benefits that archaeology can bring.

This negative view of archaeology has had a knock-on effect within the archaeological
community itself and has produced companies whose business it is to help remove the
contamination. This is not the archaeology that most of us want to be involved in and indeed
by its very nature has seen the public excluded from participation. The r easons for this
lack of involvement are due to pressures from developers themselves: health and safety,
client confidentiality, inappropriate, only under controlled conditions , these are the
explanations that are commonly given to justify exclusion of the very people whose support
is badly needed to give archaeology an added value to society.

So, with so many out-of-work archaeologists and a public who obviously want to be involved,
how do we bring about a change? How do we give archaeology a value? The answer has to
lie in archaeology as a tool for education. For example, a pilot project is being rolled out
by Archaeology Scotland in the county of Midlothian for training in schools. This is in its
infancy but already thoug hts and discussions are leading to calls for expanding this to day
schools for both children and adults, and for creating a series of field schools around the
country for people who want to learn the theory then put it into practice. This presents exciting
possibilities for the future which could see archaeology brought back into the public domain
and give professional archaeologists, sick of the cynicism that prevails in the commercial
world, a chance to use their skills for the good of society.

Of course, commercial ar chaeology is never going to go away and it would be foolish to


assume that the public can be involved to any great extent in this area. Things did seem to
be different when I was working on commercial developments in York in the 1980s, though. It
was common practice then to allow public access, put on a display and construct a gantry for
the public to view the excavation with someone taking the time to explain what was happening.
Maybe archaeologists have to take some of the blame for this recent attitude being allowed
to develop where the profit motif has taken over. However, the external pressures have been
immense, to do the job as quickly and as cheaply as possible, and not let the archaeology
get in the way. It is no surprise, then, that the public element has been squeezed. However,
there have been recent notable exceptions to this with commercial companies such as L-P
Archaeology creating a public element to their Prescott Street excavation, and Headland
Archaeology holding master classes as part of the M74 road project. This shows that it is still
possible to do but it takes a desire and a will.

So, what might the future hold for archaeology as we start 2009? I for one am excited about
the possibilities. Harsh as it may seem, the world economic problems have allowed us to
take stock, do some soul-searching and come up with some potential solutions. We have
transferable skills which can benefit many people and for this reason we should be able to
present archaeology in a way that excites and educates, and this, I am sure you will agree, can
only have a positive outcome.

DavidConnolly

David Connolly is director of British Archaeological Jobs and Resources (BAJR)


www.bajr.org

past horizons 44
Fun Page... archaeology can be fun...honest
Quotes for ar chae olo g i s ts
Taken from the BAJR s i t e h u t
A c o uple of Biblical quotes to start with:

Remove not the ancient landmark which your fathers have W h i l e w o r k i n g o n a l a rg e s i t e i n


set. (Proverbs 22:28) London and becoming increasingly
h a c k e d o ff a s t h e m o n t h s w e n t b y, i t
He who digs a pit will fall into it. seemed that I was being asked to dig
( E c c lesiastes 10: 8, showing that even th e B i b l e m o r e t h a n m y f a i r s h a r e o f t h e l a rg e
a c k n owledges Sods Law) features. While others were working in
groups, digging ankle deep gullies, I
John Wa l f o rd was digging quarry pits, alone!

One of the books I was reading at the


time during the lunch breaks provided
I sa w t his a t t he start of the sci-fi show a quote that still stands out and sums
A n d rome da up my memories of that site.

Those who do not learn from the mistakes of history are The reward for toil had been more toil. If
doomed to r epeat them....and those who dont learn their you dug the best ditches, they gave you a
history, well they are just doomed . bigger shovel.
( Te r r y P r a t c h e t t s C a r p e J u g u l u m)
S e e ms to sum up the nature of our profe s s i o n .
Austin Ainsworth
Dirty D a v e L i n c o l n

What you call hell, he calls home.

C o l o n e l Tra utma nn in First


B l o o d, c omme nti ng on the fact
t h at R a mbo i s a bi t of a masochist
a nd l o v es f uti le wa tching briefs in
t h e p * ss ing r ai n and sleet on the
S co t t i sh Bor der s.

Bier Keller

F r om T h e Good, T he Bad and The


Ugly:

There ar e two kinds of people in this


world, my fr iend; those with loaded
guns and those that dig. You dig.

A l w a y s se eme d to me to sum
u p t h e rel at ionshi p between
a r ch a e o l ogi sts a nd developers.

Curator Kid

The professor s calculations were obvious l y w r o n g

45 past horizons
past horizons 46

Оценить