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2. Damping

What is damping?

Damping is a phenomenon by which mechanical energy is dissipated (usually converted as thermal energy) in dynamic systems.

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Three primary mechanisms of damping Internal damping of material Structural damping at joints and interface Fluid damping through fluid -structure interactions Two types of external dampers can be added to a mechanical system to improve its energy dissipation characteristics: Active dampers require external source of power Passive dampers Does not Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

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Noise and Vibration Control MATERIAL (Internal) Damping Internal damping originates from energy dissipation associated with: --microstructure defects (grain boundaries & impurities), -thermo elastic effects (caused by local temperature gradients) -eddy-current effects (ferromagnetic materials), -dislocation motion in metals, etc. Types of Internal damping: -Viscoelastic damping -Hysteretic damping

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Noise and Vibration Control Area of hysteresis loop is energy dissipation per cycle of motion- termed as per-unit-volume damping capacity (d).

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Stress strain relationship is given by

E young's modulus E* - visco elsatic parameter Damping capacity per unit volume

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Subjected to harmonic sinusoidal excitation

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Maxwells model

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Hysteretic Damping

Damping forces does not significantly depend on the frequency of oscillation of strain. (frequency of harmonic motion )

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Hysteretic Damping

By considering harmonic motion at frequency

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Experimental results indicate that for most structural materials such as steel or Aluminium the energy loss is: - independent of the frequency -proportional to amplitude squared.

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Structural damping is a result of the mechanical-energy dissipation caused by rubbing friction resulting from relative motion between components and by impacting or intermittent contact at the joints in a mechanical system or structure Energy dissipation caused by rubbing is usually represented by a Coulomb-friction model. Energy dissipation caused by impacting, however, should be determined from the coefficient of restitution of the two members that are in contact.

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Figure 5 Some representative hysteresis loops [4] (a) Structural damping, (b) Coulomb friction, (c) Simplified structural damping model

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Structural damping

A simplified model for structural damping caused by local deformation can be given by

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Consider a mechanical component moving in a fluid medium. The direction of relative motion is shown parallel to the y-axis in Figure , Local displacement of the element relative to the surrounding fluid is denoted by q(x,z,t). The resulting drag force per unit area of projection on the x-z plane is denoted by fd .This resistance is the cause of mechanical-energy dissipation in fluid damping. It is usually expressed as

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Figure 6 A body moving in a fluid medium [4] Direction of relative motion parallel to y-axis q(x,z,t) local displacement of the element relative to surrounding fluid

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Figure 7 Mechanics of fluid damping [4] Resulting drag force per unit area of projection on the x-z plane fd fd = 0.5 cd q 2 sgn ( q ) & & Where - fluid density 19/54

Damping Classification

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N dof mechanical system Its motion- represented by vector x of n generalized coordinates xi Eqns of motion expressed in vector-matrix form:

M is mass (inertia) matrix K is Stiffness matrix f(t) is forcing function vector & d damping force vector (nonlinear function of x and x )

Where C =cm M + ck K

Damping Models

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Damping capacity of a device is energy dissipated in a complete cycle

Loss factor

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Damping parameters

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Damping can be represented by various parameters (such as specified damping capacity loss factor Q-factor and damping ratio) a and models ( such as viscous, hysteretisis , structural and fluid) A major difficulty arises because usually it is not possible to isolate various t types of damping( e.g. material. structural, and fluid) from an overall measurement. Further more, damping measurements must be conducted under actual operating conditions for them to be realistic'

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There are two general ways by which damping measurements can be made:

1. Time-Response Method and 2. frequency-response methods.

The basic difference between the two types of measurements is that the first type uses a time-response record of the system to estimate damping, where as the second type uses a frequency-response record.

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Logarithmic method

when a single degree-of-freedom oscillatory system with viscous damping is excited by an impulse input or an initial condition excitation its response takes the form of a time delay

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Logarithmic method

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Logarithmic method

damped natural frequency is given by

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Logarithmic method

Damping ratio can be expressed as

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This is also a time-response method If a unit-step excitations applied to the single-degree-of freedom oscillatons by system of equations response is given by

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Response is given by

Percentage overshoot PO

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Damping ratio is computed using appropriate relation from the following equations

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Depending on inertial and elastic conditions the hystersis loop will change but the work done in the conservative forces will be zero consequently work done will be equal to energy dissipated by damping only without normalizing with respect to mass, the energy dissipation per hysteresis loop of viscous damping is

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The energy dissipation per hysteresis loop of hysteretic damping is

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consider the single-degree-of-freedom oscillatory system with viscous damping , the magnification factor is

Plot of this value and the peak value of magnitude occurs in the denominator

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Figure 11 The Magnification Factor method of damping measurement applied to a single dof system [4]

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Multi degree freedom system model damping can be estimated by bode plots

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Bandwidth method

The bandwidth method of damping measurement is based on frequency response The peak magnitude is given by equation for low damping. Bandwidth (half-power) is defined as the width of the frequency-response magnitude curve when the magnitude is 1/sqrt2 times the peak value.

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Bandwidth method

w Frequency expressed as

w2 of quadratic equation is

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Bandwidth method

Figure 13 Bandwidth method of damping measurement applied to a single dof system [4]

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Bandwidth method

The damping ratio can be estimated by using band width in the relation

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Bandwidth method

For small (in comparison to 1)

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Noise and Vibration Control Bandwidth method of damping measurement in multidegree freedom system

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In many practical applications, damping is generated by the interface of two sliding surface e.g. : bearings , gears ,screws and guide ways Interface damping was formally considered by Da Vinci in the early 1500s and again by columb by 1700s

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Interface damping

Simplified model is coulomb dry friction model

f= frictional force that opposes the motion r = normal reaction force between the sliding surfaces v= relative velocity between the sliding surfaces =coefficient of friction'

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Thank you

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