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Last class, Matt did forward kinematics for the simple RR arm. The process seemed intuitive and easy. But the drawback with such a technique is that it is not amenable to automation. We would like to have a procedure that is handy for complex mechanisms also.

Ideally, we would like to know the position and orientation of each link as the mechanism moves. This can be done by attaching frames to each link and computing how the frames change as the robot moves. For this, we need to know how the frames change with the mechanism parameters. Intuitively, it seems good to parametrize the relationship between two adjacent links (frames), so that we can move from one link to another. Thus, ultimately, we will have a table of parameters that denes the relationship between two adjacent frames (links). Here are the steps: 1. Attach Frame i to Link i. 2. Dene i T (qi ) for each link, where qi is the joint coordinate i or di for revolute and prismatic joints respectively. 3. Compute 0 T =0 T N 1

(N1) T N (i1)

The frame assignment can be done any way, but it makes sense to have a systematic procedure for xing frames onto links.

2.1

There are two versions of the DH rules. 1. Proximal 2. Distal The main difference between the two is the labelling of the indices. We will be using the Proximal system. Here are the DH frame-xing rules (from Craig p77): 1. Identify the Joint axes and imagine innite lines along them. For steps 2-5, consider two of these neighboring lines (at axes i and (i + 1)). 1

2. Identify the common perpendicular between them, or point of intersection. At the point of intersection, or at the point where the common perpendicular meets the ith axis, assign the frame origin. 3. Assign axis Zi pointing along the joint axis i . 4. Assign axis Xi pointing along the common perpendicular, or if the axes intersect, assign Xi to be normal to the plane containing the two axes. 5. Assign Yi to complete a right-hand coordinate system. 6. Assign {0} to match {1} when the rst joint variable is zero. For N, choose an origin location and XN direction freely, keeping as many linkage parameters zero. Aside: Lines in Space The relationship between two lines in space is given by the common perpendicular between them (Figure 1). a gives the shortest distance between the lines and the angle between the lines.

l_1 a alpha

l_2

2.2

Formula for i

(i1)

It is noticed that frame i T can be reached from (i1) T by executing the following motions all in the moving frame (Figure 2). Step #1: Rotate about X(i1) by (i1) . Step #2: Translate along X(i1) by a(i1) . Step #3: Rotate about Zi by i . Step #4: Translate along Zi by di . Thus, we have (i1) T (, a, , d) = Rot(i , X(i1) ) Trans(a(i1) , X(i1) ) Rot(i , Zi ) Trans(di , Zi ) i Now that we have a expression for i T , we can easily compute matrices out to get eqn. 3.6 (Craig p84). 2

(i1) (i1) T i

alpha_(i1)

Z_(i1)

d_i X_(i1)

{i1} a_(i1)

Figure 2: Transform from Frame i-1 to i

2.3

If the DH frames are assigned properly, then : ai = distance from Zi to Zi+1 measured along Xi i = angle between Zi and Zi+1 measured about Xi di = distance from Xi1 to Xi measured along Zi i = angle between Xi1 and Xi measured about Zi

Now, lets do an example. Lets compare the answers from two techniques for the Revolute-Revolute arm.

3.1

y l_2

(x,y)

theta_2

l_1 theta_1 x

Figure 3: RR Arm

3.2

Denavit Hartenberg

We follow the rules outlined by the convention. Refer to Figure 4. We note the following:

2. Z0 = Z1

5. X2 intersects X1 .

1T 0 2T 1

0 0

a 0 l1

1 2

d 0 0

X_2

{0},{1} ORG

l_2

theta_2

Y_0

l_1 theta_1

X_1

{2} ORG

Z_0,Z_1 Z_2

X_0

Figure 4: RR Arm with DH Frames Attached

0 2T

0 1T

1 T 2 c1 s1 s1 c1 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0

c1 s2 s1 c2 s1 s2 + c1 c2 0 0 0 l1 c1 0 l 1 s1 1 0 0 1

c2 0 0 s2 0 0 0 1

s2 c2 0 0 0 0 1 0

l1 c1 l 1 s1 0 1

0 0 1 0

l1 0 0 1

The fourth column of 0 T gives the coordinates of 0 PORG and is not the same answer as in the plain trigonometry 2 2 case; this is because we are considering two different points. This is easily remedied by adding an extra tool frame, {T} (Figure 5) dened as:

2 TT

0 0 = 1 0

0 1 0 0

1 0 0 0

l2 0 0 1

{0},{1} ORG l_2 theta_2

Y_0

l_1 theta_1

X_1

{2} ORG

Z_0,Z_1 Z_2

X_0

0 TT

Note that the answers match between eqns. (1) and (2).

0 2 2T T T 0 s12 0 c12 = 1 0 0 0

c12 s12 0 0

l1 c1 + l2 c12 l1 s1 + l2 s12 0 1

(2)

4 When is DH useful?

Clearly, for a simple mechanism such as the RR arm, using DH is a big overhead as compared to simple trigonometry. But for complex mechanisms, DH is far easier to automate. Also, once the frames are xed and the parameters identied, it is easy to nd the relationship between any two frames on the mechanism. Also, the DH parameters are an easy way of completely specifying the mechanism. We will see more of DH in future classes.

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