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Globe/Angle Cage Guided Valves

Series 12 & 72

Technical Bulletin T12/72 - 1205

Welcome to Koso Kent Introl Limited


Recently acquired by Nihon Koso Co. Ltd. of Japan, Koso Kent Introl Ltd is based in Brighouse West Yorkshire. Originally formed in 1967 under the name of Introl Ltd, it has seen various changes over the years. Each change has seen the company become much stronger and well positioned to meet the demands of a forever changing market place. Koso Kent Introl specialises in the supply of Standard Service Control Valves, Severe Service Control Valves and High Technology Surface Choke Valves. We have gained a reputation for supplying specially designed high quality valves for the most onerous service conditions. With operating facilities worldwide, Nihon Kosos goal is to achieve the possibilities of the future as we exceed the expectations of today.

The Koso Group of Companies


The Koso group of companies specialise in the Controls and Process Automation Systems market. The key products and services that we provide are; Control Valves, High Technology Surface Choke Valves, Actuators, Instrumentation, Factory Automation Systems, Chemical Pumps and Production Services.

4 9 3 1 2 7 10 8 11 12

5 6

1 Koso International Inc. Pacific Seismic Products Inc. 2 Koso America Inc. Houston Office. 3 Koso America Inc. 4 Koso Kent Introl Ltd. 5 Koso Fluid Controls PVT Ltd. Kent Introl PVT Ltd. 1

6 Koso Controls Asia Pte. Ltd. Koso Kent Introl Ltd. Singapore Office.

9 Ar-Koso Automatic Control Instrument Co. Ltd. 10 Korea Koso Co. Ltd.

7 Nihon Koso Co. Ltd Beijing Office. Korea Koso Engineering Co. Ltd. 8 Koso Control Engineering (Wuxi) Co. Ltd. Koso Control Engineering Co. Ltd. Wuxi Koso Valve Castings Co. Ltd. 11 Hangzhou Hangyang Koso Pump & Valve Co. Ltd. 12 Nihon Koso Co. Ltd.

Technical Bulletin T12/72 - 1205

CONTENTS Trim Options Liquid Service Trim Selection Gas Service Trim Selection Design Cv Tables Selection Guidelines Dimensions

PAGE 4 5 8 9 12 15

Cage Guided Valves


KKIs core product is the Series 12/72 range of cage guided control valves. The designs have been established in the Oil & Gas, Power, Petro-chemical markets for in excess of 20 years. The design was introduced to compliment & enhance the existing product range and combines the successful high integrity features of the Series 10 valve together with a high capacity economic design philosophy. The Series 12/72 bodies have been designed to enable increased end connection sizes (see below) to be easily incorporated making pipeline installation easier. There should be a cost benefit to the end user, as this cuts down on the requirement for pipe reducers, additional gaskets and bolting. This added facility makes the Series 12/72 valve ideally suited to high pressure drop compressible fluids as it enables the flow velocity to be controlled through the valve by the incorporation of an increased outlet size and pressure drop elements in the outlet end. The Series 12/72 range of valves combines high integrity features, such as ASME VIII body/bonnet bolting design, a high flow capacity and a wide range of trim designs. This means it is ideally suited to meet the various critical service process control requirements that are demanded from a wide range of industry related applications. Performance: Noise, cavitation control and erosion resistant trims Streamlined flow passages to optimise capacity Stable flow control with high rangeability

abcdef abcdef

Design Flexibility: Modular construction design available with a range of different end connections and styles Large variation of trim designs from single stage multi-hole cage to multiple stage low noise/anticavitation trim designs Wide range of supplementary noise control components, silencers, dynamic attenuators Inherently characterised trim offered in Equal Percentage, modified Eq%, Linear, and Quick Open Balanced or unbalanced plug designs All trim components removable from the top for ease of maintenance Clamped in guide for ease of service Large range of CVs per body size allowing for large changes in process conditions Standard Valve Design Integrity: High integrity body/bonnet bolting system design to ASME VIII Clamped cage for positive guiding on severe service applications High integrity plug guiding system Low emission packings Quality Assured Manufacturing: Rigorously tested to ensure specified performance Quality assurance systems in accordance with ISO 9001 Optional full NACE MR-01-75/ISO 15156 certification

One Size Expansion Two Size Expansion

Technical Bulletin T12/72 - 1205

Scope of Design
Valve Body/End Connection Sizes 1 to 36 (25mm to 900mm) nominal bore Valve Body Ratings ANSI 150 to ANSI 4500 (PN10 to PN640) API Ratings can also be supplied Design Standards ASME B16.34 ASME FCI 70-2 Control Valve Seat Leakage ASME B16.25 - Butt Weld End Valves ASME B16.5 - Pipe Flanges & Flange Fittings NACE MR-01-75/ ISO 15156 Designs fully PED certified

Trim Designs
There are a large range of trim designs to cover the wide range of applications encountered in the served industries. The standard design is a low noise/anti-cavitation trim referred to as an HF (High Friction). This is complimented by several multi-stage designs with up to 9 stages (20 turns) of let down. These are described in detail within this bulletin.

Plug Designs
Metal seated Soft seated Pilot balanced Body Materials The Series 12 range can be supplied in the majority of castable alloys as required by the service. All materials used are fully PED certified. Standard materials include: Carbon steel -WCB/LCB/LCC Stainless steel - CF8M, CF3M etc. Chrome moly - WC6, WC9 Duplex St.St - A995 Gr 4A/5A/6A, A351-CK- 3MCUN etc. High Alloys - Monel, Hastelloy B/C, Alloy 625, Alloy 825 Aluminium bronze Titanium Offset globes/Angle Valves are also available in forged and HIPed Materials. Trim Materials All materials compatible with the above body materials. Standard trim material combinations are given later in this document. Stellite overlays and tungsten carbide inserts will be specified for high pressure drop and low / high temperature applications and or where there is significant levels of contamination. Bonnet Options Standard/Normalising/Cryogenic Actuation The standard actuation offered is a spring return diaphragm actuator. For more arduous duties where high operating forces are encountered, piston spring return and double acting would be specified. In addition to this, most other third party actuators can be fitted, i.e. Electric, electro-hydraulic,etc. G Series spring opposed pneumatic diaphragm C Series spring opposed pneumatic piston D Series double acting piston Most third party actuators

Technical Bulletin T12/72 - 1205

Trim Options
General Description
The general features of the standard HF trim are presented in Figure 1 below. The cage is clamped in with its flange between the body and bonnet. To ensure concentricity and support, the bottom of the cage locates on a spigot on the screwed in seat. The lower part of the cage is drilled with a number of radial holes, over the length of the plug travel. In Figure 1, the plug is shown in its mid position. The flow is controlled by the plug moving up or down within the cage covering and uncovering holes to vary the flow area and consequently the flow rate. The plug is designed to be guided within the cage, therefore clearances between the cage and plug are critical. In order to ensure there is no galling (pick up) between the plug and cage the cage is either hard chrome plated or the plug and/or cage are stellited. Stellite running on stellite has excellent galling resistance. Most materials are NACE compliant. On high temperature applications, hardened materials 420 st.st. & 17/4 PH st.st. are utilised. Again these materials have excellent galling resistance. On high duty applications the plug/cage clearance will be designed around the specified design temperature, and a guide/damping strip may be included to give enhanced stability. One of the common features of the various trims utilised in a Series 12/72 valve is the use of a balanced plug design. This significantly reduces the resultant unbalanced forces acting on the valve plug. This is achieved by allowing the same process pressure (either the inlet pressure when the flow is under the plug or the outlet pressure when the flow is over the plug) to act equally above and below the plug. The holes shown on the top of the plug pass through into the lower section of the plug, enabling the pressure above and below the plug to equalise. The net effect is that unbalanced force in the open position is equal to only the stem area multiplied by the pressure. In order to ensure that this is not a leak path when the valve is in the closed position the plug is fitted with a plug seal, preventing axial flow between the plug and cage. HF/XHF - High Friction First introduced in 1969 the HF, High Friction trim is suitable for the majority of process control applications. It is a low pressure recovery design which gives both advantageous cavitation reduction and noise reduction when compared with standard profiled trim designs. The flow can be directed either under the plug (the flow passes through the seat into the inside the cage and then through the radial holes to outside the cage), or over the plug (the flow passes from the outside of the cage, through the radial holes, to the inside of the cage and then down through the seat into the valve outlet). Figure 1. HF Trim Design For liquid flows over the plug is preferred, in this case the flow is split into many radial jets and as the flow passes through the cage the jets impinge upon themselves within the confines of the cage. This is where most of the flow energy is dissipated, and the erosional forces will be at their highest. The flow then exits the trim through the valve seat. This means the valve body is protected from the effects of flow erosion. A trim manufactured from harder materials is more capable of handling these erosional forces. On the more severe applications, high pressure drop, contaminated fluids etc., the trims operational life can be maintained by using overlays such as stellite or tungsten carbide inserts. On gas/vapour services, the preferred flow direction is under the plug. The main reason for this is that it has been shown that the acoustic efficiency is lower for this flow direction. This reduction is attributed to the smaller scale turbulence structure and higher frequency of the flow turbulence resulting in a greater level of attenuation from the downstream pipework, which results in a lower transmitted noise on HF designs. The HF family of trims achieve noise reduction of between 15 to 20dBA over a conventional contoured/ported trim. In cases where further noise reduction is required, smaller holes can be utilised in the cage. This design is referred to as the XHF. This can result in further attenuation of up to 5 dBA.

Technical Bulletin T12/72 - 1205

Liquid Service Trim Selection


For Flashing Service/Contaminated service
Over 20 years of supplying valves into the oil and gas retrieval industry has resulted in KKI gaining a great depth of knowledge in providing solutions for arduous service applications. There is no hard/fast rule in identifying a severe service application. However, we may assume the following as potentially severe liquid services. Pressure drop > 50 bar (700 psi) Flashing services PV - P2 > 30 bar (435 psi) Multi-phase P1 - P2 > 30 bar Contaminated Service KKI have supplied many valves on these types of application and have from experience identified that on flashing, multi-phase and contaminated services there can be a detrimental performance if multi-stage trim designs are miss-specified. The photographs below give evidence of the erosion damage that can occur in supplying multistage trim designs on flashing and/or contaminated services. Figure 2. Multi-stage trim - erosion damage

The reason for the accelerated wear in these cases is attributed to high inter-stage flow velocities. This will occur on flashing service or multi-phase flows as soon as the pressure is reduced below the fluid vapour pressure or when entrained gas is released. This results in a significant increase in the specific volume of the fluid leading to much higher flow velocities and greater erosional forces. In recognising this problem KKI have been able to solve many erosion problems by changing out labyrinth type/multi-stage trims to a single stage of pressure let down incorporating tungsten carbide inserts. The success of this approach resulted in the launch of the Choke Valve product range during the 1980s, a product that has gained an excellent reputation. Figure 3. Selection of trim on Contaminated Services 100

Pressure Drop (bar)

10 tungsten carbide or ceramic base material + full stellite base material + stellite face base material 1 0 .0001 .001 .01 .1 (% Contamination by weight) 1 10

The above figure gives an indication of the trim material overlay/insert requirements based on the operating pressure drop and the level of contamination. Other factors that will influence the correct material selection are flashing or the level of entrained gas that will come out of solution as the process pressure reduces.
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Technical Bulletin T12/72 - 1205

Figure 4. Trim Incorporating Tungsten carbide

Tungsten Carbide Trim Design The above figure illustrates a carbide trim design. This design has developed over many years with essential design criteria, interferences etc, critical to the correct operation of the valve. There are also various grades of tungsten carbide which are selected around the specific design and depend on the process fluid being controlled. The carbide cage being retained within a metallic cartridge is protected from impact from large debris and is referred to as a brick stopper. The figure above illustrates a standard control valve seat design. KKI have a patented seating design, used as standard in the Choke valve design, for contaminated services. This design is known as an LCV trim, the name taken from the application it was first used on. The LCV design keeps the throttling components away from the high velocity erosive zones by directing the flow to specific sacrificial energy dissipating elements. The trim can be provided with or without a sacrificial plug nose. Seat Exit Diffuser It is recommended practice to specify angle valve design on high-pressure drop flashing/contaminated services. However, if the installation requires a globe design then KKI recommended to use a seat exit diffuser. The diffuser is used to prevent the high velocity fluid exiting the trim from impinging directly onto the body wall. The diffuser handles the initial impact of the process fluid and then breaks the fluid flow into small jets directed towards the valve outlet. The diffuser is normally manufactured from hardened materials or stellite overlayed stainless steel to reduce the rate of erosion. For the most severe applications, the seat diffuser would incorporate a solid tungsten carbide base.

Technical Bulletin T12/72 - 1205

Multi Stage Guides, HFD, HFT, HFL The multi stage guides, HFD (High Friction Double), HFT (High Friction Triple) are a design enhancement on the standard HF trim. They are used in applications where noise or cavitation would otherwise be a problem. If not properly controlled high pressure drop liquid applications can severely damage the valve. The photograph below shows a cage that has suffered from severe cavitation damage. It should be noted that this mechanism can occur on relatively low pressure drops with the more conventional trims, for example contoured or ported trim designs. Figure 5. Cavitation Damage In order to avoid the destructive effects of cavitation it is necessary to apportion the pressure drop across a number of stages of let down. There are 2 different families of trims that can be applied to this problem as well as the Series 50/57 specialist anti-cavitation trim design. The HFD (2 stages) and HFT (3 stages) apportion the pressure drop equally across either 2 or 3 stages of let down. The stages are in the form of concentric sleeves, drilled with radial holes within a number of grooves that form distinct flow galleries. These will be specified on the less severe applications. The HFL design, as illustrated in Figure 6, also incorporates a number of concentric sleeves (2 or more); each sleeve has a multitude of grooves incorporating radial holes. The grooves in each sleeve line up to create a torturous radial flow path (see illustration Figure 8). The trim uses the principle of controlled velocity. The holes within the sleeves are completely misaligned to produce a tortuous path through the trim. Energy is dissipated within the cage by the combined effect of flow splitting, flow impingement, and turning of the flow as it passes through the sleeves. There is a large increase in flow area between the stages of let down resulting in a reduction in pressure drop as the flow passes from one stage to the next. This significantly reduces the likelihood of cavitation, because the final stage of let down has a relatively small pressure drop, and together with the low recovery characteristic minimises the potential for cavitation. Figure 7 presents the difference between a single stage high recovery trim, and a 3 stage trim with reducing stage pressure drop, e.g. the HFL3 design. Figure 6. HFL-3 Trim Design Figure 7. Stage Pressure Drop

P1

HFL-3 stage pressure drop low recovery trim Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3

P2 PV P1VC

High recovery CAVITATING FLOW VENNA CONTRACTA

Flow Path

Valve Inlet

Trim Inlet

Valve Outlet

Technical Bulletin T12/72 - 1205

Gas Service Trim Selection

Flow Path

Figure 8. Flow Path through a Low Noise Trim The major factors to be considered in the selection of a valve trim on a gas/vapour service are aerodynamic noise generation, vibration, and high fluid velocities. Each of these are is interrelated in that high velocities can lead to vibration and resultant noise, but will also generate aerodynamic noise. It is therefore necessary to control the fluid velocity through the stages of let down in the trim and also in the valve outlet and downstream pipework. Poor installation of pipe-work, such as bends immediately before and/or after the valve can also be a major factor in the valve functioning correctly. KKI undertook an extensive research program during the 1980s into Aerodynamic noise generation within control valves. This resulted in the successful introduction of low noise trim designs referred to as HFQ1 and HFQ2. These complemented the already proven HFD and HFT trim designs that had been previously used for low noise applications. The trims work in a similar principle to the liquid service designs in that they split the flow up into a large number of radial jets, see Figure 8. The preferred flow direction is under the plug, this enables the optimum flow area increase as the flow passes through each stage of the trim. The result is a very low trim exit velocity and very high levels of noise attenuation. The flow geometry means the process fluid enters the cage radially and passes through the subsequent sleeves in a tortuous path resulting in high frictional and impingement losses. Shock wave formation is controlled by jet impingement to the sleeves, which has been shown to have a major (advantageous) bearing on the noise generation process. Silencers In solving the aerodynamic noise generation problem it must also be recognised that there is a need to control downstream velocities, otherwise high pipeline velocities can produce secondary noise which could be significantly higher than that produced by the valve trim. It is generally accepted that to achieve a low noise solution, the downstream velocity should be restricted to less than 0.3 times the fluid sonic velocity. This coincides with the velocity at which compressibility effects start to become noticeable. In order to address this problem KKI utilise downstream silencers, these are in the form of a taper pipe fitted with a number of baffle plates (circular plates with a number of drilled holes). These are used to produce a back-pressure to the valve and are selected so that the velocity from the trim exit to the valve outlet is less than 0.3 times Sonic velocity (0.3 Mach). In selecting these devices it is necessary to ensure that the trim and silencer system operate effectively over the full range of operating conditions. This approach has effectively been used by KKI for in excess of 30 years. A large number of these units are installed in the Oil and Gas and Power sectors. Variable Stage Guide The variable stage guide is used on applications where multiple stages of pressure let down are required, but a high trim capacity is desirable. The trim is therefore constructed with multiple stages of pressure let down at lower travels, but typically is a single stage trim at higher travels. This design is suitable for controlling high pressure drops at low flow rates and a reduced pressure drop at normal or maximum flow rate. The number of stages of pressure let down and the actual transition between the multiple and single guides is dependent on the process conditions, so each variable stage guide tends to be designed specifically for the application.
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Technical Bulletin T12/72 - 1205

Single Stage Trim Design HF, XHF, LCV & Ported


Figure 9. Series 12 Single Stage Cv Values Flow under or over Trim Size Ref ins. 1 1 /2
1

Figure 12. Series 12/72 HF-LCV Design Cv Values Flow over XHF Trim Size Ref Lin. 9 20 39 75 155 290 550 900 1350 1850 2430 3130 3920 5220 in 1 1.1/2 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 Steel Trim T. Carbide Trim

Ported

HF

Q.O 14 33 55 125 220 490 800 1250 1810 2280 3000 3750 4650 6800

=% 13 30 50 120 180 400 650 1020 1460 1940 2550 3180 3940 5750

Lin. 13 30 50 120 200 425 720 1120 1610 2110 2780 3520 4360 6260

=% 9 20 39 75 145 270 510 810 1220 1690 2230 2850 3540 4760

=% 4.6 18 38 100 174 393 630 1006 1462

Lin. 4.6 18 38 100 185 421 693 1097 1593

=% 4.6 18 38 100 163 370 595 944 1372

Lin. 4.6 18 38 100 174 393 635 1006 1462

2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24

Tungsten carbide Cvs are reduced in order to ensure the integrity of the guide is not compromised by incorporating too much flow area. The HF-LCV incorporates a special patented seating design which protects the seat face and flow control surfaces. It is usually specified on high-pressure drop contaminated services.

Figure 10. Series 72 Single Stage Cv Values Flow under or over Trim Size Ref ins. 1 11/2 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 Ported HF XHF

Q.O 15 33 59 135 245 555 995 1560 2240 2905 3825 4805 5955 8700

=% 13 30 50 125 190 445 740 1165 1665 2280 2985 3730 4605 6710

Lin. 13 30 50 125 220 480 850 1320 1900 2570 3375 4310 5320 7565

=% 9 20 40 75 150 280 550 880 1330 1900 2500 3225 4000 5265

Lin. 9 20 40 75 160 305 600 995 1505 2135 2800 3650 4575 5905

Figure 11. Liquid Flow Velocity Limits - Body and End Connections SERIES 12 Valve Size in 1-12 >25
9

SERIES 72 Ali-Bronze ft/s 35 30 21 m/s 11 9 6.5 WCB, St.St ft/s 65 55 42 m/s 20 17 12.5 Duplex, 21/4 Cr Mo ft/s 75 65 55 m/s 23 20 17 Ali-Bronze ft/s 40 35 26 m/s 12 11 8

WCB, St.St ft/s 60 50 35 m/s 18 15 11

Duplex, 2 /4 Cr Mo ft/s 70 60 50 m/s 21 18 15

mm 25-300 >600

14-24 350-600

Note: This applies to uncontaminated fluids.

Technical Bulletin T12/72 - 1205

Multi-Stage Trim Designs for Liquid Applications


Figure 13. Series 12 Multi Stage Cv Values for Liquid Application - Flow Over Trim Size Ref ins. 1 1 /2
1

Figure 15. Series 12&72 Variable Stage Cv values for Liquid Applications - Flow Over Trim Size Ref

HFD

XHFD

HFT

XHFT

=% 10 24 38 95 140 320 520 820

Lin. 10 24 38 95 155 330 560 890

=% 7 15 30 55 110 205 395 630

Lin. 7 15 30 55 115 215 415 690

=% 8 20 32 80 115 270 440 695

Lin. 8 20 32 80 130 280 480 760

=% 6 12 25 45 90 170 330 525 800

Lin. 6 12 25 45 95 180 345 570 870 1 1 /2


1

25%VHFD 50%VHFD 25%VHFD 50%VHFD Mod EQ % Mod EQ % Mod EQ % Mod EQ % 15.5 34 63 140 255 530 870 1310 1750 2330 2960 3710 5070 15 32 60 135 245 510 850 1270 1700 2280 2900 3630 4950 15 33 62 135 250 525 860 1300 1740 2320 2950 3700 5050 14 30 55 130 240 500 840 1250 1680 2240 2850 3570 4870

2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

1190 1260 960

1030 1005 1080

1580 1710 1340 1450 1340 1480 1125 1230 2090 2270 1780 1910 1780 1960 1500 1630 2610 2880 2260 2480 2215 2490 1900 2110 3170 3450 2800 3030 2670 2950 2340 2560

Note: Multi stage trim designs can only be fitted in bodies one size up from the trim. ie. 2 Trim size Ref. fits into 3(80mm) body. Figure 14. Series 72 Multi Stage Cv Values for Liquid Applications - Flow Over Trim Size Ref ins. 1 11/2 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 HFD XHFD HFT XHFT

Note: Multi stage trim designs can only be fitted in bodies one size up from the trim. Figure 16. Series 12&72 HFL Design Cv Values - Flow Under High Performance Anti-Cavitation Trim Trim Size Ref ins. 1 11/2 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 HFL2 HFL3 HFL4 HFL5

=% 10 24 38 95 140 320 520 820

Lin. 10 24 38 95 155 340 580 920

=% 7 15 30 55 110 200 380 620

Lin. 7 15 30 55 115 215 420 700

=% 8 20 32 80 115 265 430 680

Lin. 8 20 32 80 130 290 490 780

=% 6 12 25 45 90 165 320 510 800

Lin. 6 12 25 45 95 180 350 580 915

=% 10 20 40 62 125 194 316 470 605 910

Lin. 16 30 65 94 190 295 480 710 920

=% 6 12 24 35 66 100 170 240 350

Lin. 9 16 32 53 102 150 255 370 530 725 920 1130

=% 6 10 16 41 58 94 177 236 302 409 506

Lin. 9 15 30 62 89 142 270 350 450 620 770

=% 5 8 14 34 49 78 150 200 252 340 420 580 810

Lin. 8 13 21 51 74 120 220 300 380 520 640 1080 1200

1200 1400 960

1095 1020 1190

1620 1820 1340 1510 1360 1540 1120 1270 2160 2460 1800 2020 1820 2090 1500 1690 2690 2310 2310 2630 2275 2670 1930 2210 3180 3640 2780 3160 2660 3070 2310 2640

1380 480

1250 1900 600 1420 2150 745

696 1050 971 1470

2110 3200 1270 1930

Note: Multi stage trim designs can only be fitted in bodies one size up from the trim.

Note: The HFL-2 and HFL-3 trims can be fitted in a minimum body size, one size larger than the trim size, i.e. the minimum body size for a 4 trim is 6 (150mm). The HFL-4 and HFL-5 trims can be fitted in a minimum body size two sizes larger than the trim size, i.e. the minimum body size for a 4 trim is 8 (200mm).

10

Technical Bulletin T12/72 - 1205

Multi-Stage Trim Designs for Gas/Vapour Applications


Figure 17. Series 12&72 Multi Stage Cv Values for Gas Vapour Applications - Flow Under Trim Size Ref ins. 1 1 /2
1

Figure 20. Series 72 Multi Stage Cv Values for Gas Vapour Applications - Flow Over Trim Size Ref ins. 1 1 /2
1

HFD

XHFD

HFT

XHFT

HFD

XHFD

HFT

XHFT

=% 11 26 40 102 155 340 570 900

Lin. 11 26 40 102 170 360 610 955

=% 8 16 32 60 120 225 435 695

Lin. 8 16 32 60 125 235 455 750

=% 10 24 38 95 140 320 520 820

Lin. 10 24 38 95 155 330 560 890

=% 7 15 30 55 110 205 395 630 960

Lin. 7 15 30 55 115 215 415 690 1030

=% 9 21 34 85 120 280 455 725

Lin. 9 21 34 85 140 300 520 825

=% 6 13 26 50 95 180 340 545

Lin. 6 13 26 50 100 190 370 620 970

=% 7 16 25 64 90 205 330 530 800

Lin. 7 16 25 64 100 220 380 605 940

=% 4 9 18 35 70 125 240 390 615 860

Lin. 4 9 18 35 75 140 270 450 710 980

2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

1290 1350 1055 1120 1190 1260

1090 1260 850

1720 1840 1470 1570 1580 1710 1340 1450 2260 2430 1940 2070 2090 2270 1780 1910 2800 3080 2460 2680 2610 2880 2260 2480 3450 3730 3060 3290 3170 3450 2800 3030

1440 1630 1190 1350 1060 1210

1930 2215 1000 1800 1420 1650 1160 1320 2400 2820 2060 2350 1770 2100 1500 1720 2830 3260 2460 2810 2060 2400 1780 2045

Note: Multi stage trim designs can only be fitted in bodies one size up from the trim. Figure 18. Series 12&72 Multi Stage Cv Values for Gas Vapour Applications - Flow Under Trim Size Ref ins. 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 HFQ1 XHFQ1 HFQ2 XHFQ2

Note: Multi stage trim designs can only be fitted in bodies one size up from the trim. Figure 21. Series 12&72 Variable Stage Cv Values for Gas Vapour Applications - Flow Under

=% 165 350 560 870

Lin. 180 360 600 930

=% 135 250 460 730

Lin. 145 270 490 790

=% 155 320 510 790

Lin. 170 330 550 830

=% 130 240 430 680 990

Lin. 140 255 460 730 1050

Trim Size Ref. 1 1.1/2 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

25%VHFD 50%VHFD 25%VHFT 50%VHFT Mod Eq % Mod Eq % Mod Eq % Mod Eq % 15.5 34 64 140 260 530 880 1310 1750 2340 2970 3720 5080 15.5 34 62 140 250 520 860 1290 1720 2300 2920 3660 5000 15.5 34 63 140 255 530 870 1310 1750 2330 2960 3710 5070 15 32 60 135 245 510 850 1270 1700 2280 2900 3630 4950

1230 1310 1070 1160 1100 1160

1610 1710 1460 1560 1440 1510 1330 1400 2100 2220 1910 2030 1860 1950 1720 1810 2610 2790 2420 2580 2310 2430 2170 2290

Figure 19. Gas/Vapour Velocity Limits - Body and End Connections

Valve Size

Req. Noise Level dBA >95 <95 <85 <85

Inlet ft/s 670 670 670 670 m/s 204 204 204 204

Outlet ft/s 1150 1150 1150 1150 m/s 350 350 350 350 Mach Number 0.65 0.5 0.4 0.3

All All
1

/2 to 2

3 to 24

11

Technical Bulletin T12/72 - 1205

Selection Guidelines
Flanges are specified as a nominal size, the actual bore size varies with pressure class. On higher rated flanges that the flange bore can be considerably less than the body bore area. This could lead to the flange end connection restricting the capacity of the valve. In order to ensure this does not happen the following tables reference the standard end sizes available as a function of valve body size and pressure rating. Figure 22. Flanged End Restrictions Valve Body Size Available End Connection Size to ANSI 600 1 1. /2
1 1

Figure 23. Butt Weld End Restrictions Valve Body Size Available End Connection Size to ANSI 600 1
1 1

in 1 1 /2
1

mm 25 40 50 80 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600

ANSI 900 1

ANSI 1500 1
1

ANSI 2500 1 2, 3 3, 4 4, 6 6, 8 8, 10 12, 14 14, 16 18, 20 20 24

in 1 1 /2
1

mm 25 40 50 80 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

ANSI 900 1

ANSI 1500 1
1

ANSI 2500 1
1

1. /2, 2, 3 1. /2, 2, 3 2, 3, 4, 3, 4, 6 4, 6, 8 6, 8, 10 8, 10, 12 2, 3, 4 3, 4, 6 6, 8 8, 10 10, 12

1. /2, 2, 3 1. /2, 2, 3 1. /2, 2, 3 1. /2, 2, 3, 4 2, 3, 4 3, 4, 6 4, 6, 8 6, 8, 10 2, 3, 4, 3, 4, 6 4, 6, 8 6, 8, 10 2, 3, 4 3, 4, 6 8, 10 3, 4, 5, 6 4, 6, 8 6, 8, 10

2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24

2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24

2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

8, 10, 12 8, 10, 12 12,14 14,16 16,18 20,24 14,16 18,20 20 24

8, 10, 12 8, 10, 12 10, 12, 14 12, 14, 16 10, 12, 14 10, 12, 14 12, 14, 16 12, 14, 16 14, 16, 18 16, 18, 20 16, 18, 20 18,20,24

10, 12, 14 12, 14 12, 14, 16 14, 16 16,18, 20 16, 18 18, 20, 24 20, 24 20,24 24 24

Figure 24. Bonnet/Packaging Options Below - 100oC (-150oF) Cryogenic PTFE Chevron -100oC to -20oC (-148oF to -4oF) Normalising PTFE Chevron -20oC to 250oC (-4oF to 482oF) Standard PTFE Chevron 250oC to 400oC (482oF to 752oF) Above 400oC (752oF)

Component Bonnet Packings

Standard/Normalising Standard/Normalising Graphite Graphite (*)

* not suitable for oxidizing service Figure 25. Pressure Drop Limitations Gases/ Vapours Max P (Bar) 75* 100 150* 150 180* 180 150 180 150 180 210 230 Figure 26. Standard Rangeability Valves

Trim Design HF/XHF HFD/XHFD HFT/XHFT HF4 HF5 HFQ1 HFQ2 HFL - 2 HFL - 3 HFL - 4 HFL - 5

Flow Dir. Under Over Under Over Under Over Over Over Under Under Under Under Under Under

Liquids Max P (Bar) 10 50* 20 95* 30 125* 185 230 80 125 140 190

Trim Size Ref - in


1

HF / XHF single Multi-stage stage Standard Designs Standard Rangeability Rangeability 20:1 30:1 40:1 50:1 60:1 70:1 80:1 15:1 25:1 35:1 45:1 55:1 60:1 70:1

/4 to 1/2 /4 to 1
1

1 /2 to 2 3 to 6 8 to 12 14 to 24 Above 24

Note: Rangeability is the relationship between the minimum controllable Cv and the design Cv of the trim. Note Figure 25: 1. Pressure drop limits do not apply to flashing applications. 2. These apply on the basis that cavitation has been eliminated. 3. In cases of wet/saturated vapours then pressure drops for liquids should be applied. 4. On liquid applications, where final stage pressure drops are greater than 50 bar then angle valves are recommended.

12

* these are the recommended flow directions for these trims.

Technical Bulletin T12/72 - 1205

Figure 27. Standard Material Combinations Industry Sector Typical Duties Guide Plug 316 St.ST. Duplex Super Duplex Monel 400 Hastelloy (B/C) Alloy 625 Titanium Stem 316 St.ST or 174PH St.St. Duplex Super Duplex Monel K500 Hastelloy (B/C) Alloy 625 Titanium Seat Integral with guide/ 316 St.St./ 316 St.St. Integral with guide/ Duplex St.St. Integral with guide/ Super Duplex St.St. Integral with guide/ Monel;K 500 Integral with guide/ Hastelloy (B/C) Integral with guide/ Alloy 625 Integral with guide/ Titanium Gr. 6 Stellite Gr. 6 Stellite Tungsten Carbide Insert Tungsten Carbide Insert 431 St.St 431 St.St 431 St.St Temp Range -46oC to 250oC -46oC to 250oC -46oC to 250oC -38oC to 250oC -40oC to 250oC -40oC to 250oC -28oC to 250oC

316 St.St. + Hard Standard Combination/NACE Chrome Plated or 17/4 PH St.St. Sea Water/Sour Gas Sea Water/Sour Gas Highly corrosive Highly corrosive Highly corrosive Highly corrosive Oil & Gas Low Temp Cryogenic Medium Temp Hard Chrome Plate Gr. 6 Stellite Hard Chrome Plate Duplex + Hard Chrome Plated Super Duplex + Hard Chrome Plated Monel K500 Hardened Hastelloy (B/C) + Hard Chrome Plated Alloy 625 + Hard Chrome Plated Titanium / Titanium Nitride

Overlay Options Gr. 6 Stellite Gr. 6 Stellite Gr. 6 Stellite -100oC to <-100oC 250oC - 350oC 350oC - 400oC -

Gr. 6 Stellite Gr. 6 Stellite High Temp Fast stroking time i.e compressor re-cycle Gr. 6 Stellite Gr. 6 Stellite > 1.75 (45mm) /sec Liquids - Pressure Gr. 6 Stellite Drops 20 - 35 bar (300 - 500psi) Liquids - Pressure Gr. 6 Stellite Gr. 6 Stellite Drops 35 bar (500psi) Liquids - Pressure Tungsten Carbide Tungsten Carbide Drops > 150 bar Insert Insert (2175 psi) Contaminated services Feadwater Power Low Temp Steam High Temp Tungsten Carbide Tungsten Carbide Insert Insert 420 St.St Hardened 420 St.St Hardened Cr Mo Gas nitrided to Rc>64 420 St.St. Rc 3543 or 17-4PH St.St. Rc 39-41 420 St.St. Rc 3543 or 17-4PH St.St. Rc 39-41 Cr Mo Fully Stellited

Integral with guide/ 316 <250oC St.St.+Colmonoy Integral with guide/ 250oC to 427oC Carbon Steel +Colmonoy Integral with guide/ 428oC to 595oC 316 St.St/ 316 St.St. + Stellite

Note: Materials listed above are suitable for most applications. Material variations are available on request. Tungsten Carbide/Ceramic are available for high duty process applications. Figure 28. Leakage Class Options Plug Design Unbalanced Unbalanced Balanced Balanced Balanced Pilot Balanced Balanced Seating Style Metal/Metal Metal/Soft Face Metal/Metal Metal/Metal Metal/Metal Metal/Metal Metal/Soft Face Piston Ring None None Graphite Carbon/PTFE Alloy 25 Carbon Carbon/PTFE Leakage Class III, IV &V VI III IV & V IV V VI* Temperature Range Cryogenic to 5650C Cryogenic to 3150C 2500C to 5650C Cryogenic to 2650C 2650C to 5650C 2650C to 5650C Cryogenic to 2650C

Note: For contaminated services a scraper will be incorporated within the plug seal. * this is a special design for valve sizes up to 10 (250mm) - the application must be reviewed by Applications before specifying.
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/2
50mm
10 254 113/4 298 173/4 451 35 889 361/2 927 381/4 972 63 1600 181/4 464 34 864 461/2 1180 12 305 10 254 53/4 146 53/4 146 53/4 146 53/4 146 53/4 146 53/4 146 53/4 146 53/4 146 53/4 146 13 330 141/4 362 281/8 714 351/2 902 425/8 1082 401/8 1020 9 229 241/2 622 353/2 908 7 178 53/4 146 53/4 146 53/4 146 53/4 146 53/4 146 53/4 146 8 203 397/8 1013 283/8 721 153/4 400 191/4 489 435/8 1108 491/4 1251 60 1524 415/8 1057 47 1194 60 1524 54 1372 40 1016 185/8 473 20 508 8 203 131/8 333 201/2 521 301/2 775 6 152 39/16 90 53/4 146 53/4 146 187/8 479 31/2 89 39/16 90 39/16 90 39/16 90 53/4 146 39/16 90 39/16 90 53/4 146 39/16 90 39/16 90 4 102 5 127 213/4 552 267/8 683 153/4 400 177/8 454 83/4 222 10 254 121/2 318 24 610 295/8 752 321/4 819 23/8 568 277/8 708 301/2 775 261/2 673 453/8 1153 581/4 1480 121/2 218 131/4 337 43/8 318 97/8 251 151/8 384 21/4 57 213/16 71 213/16 71 213/16 71 39/16 90 213/16 71 213/16 71 21/4 57 165/8 422 11 279 55/8 143 151/2 394 141/2 368 101/2 267 111/4 286 31/2 89 73/8 187 123/8 314 11/2 38 21/8 54 21/8 54 213/16 71 137/8 352 213/8 543 29 737 521/2 1334

/4
80mm 100mm 150mm 200mm 250mm 300mm 350mm 400mm 450mm 500mm 600mm

11/2

10

12

14

16

18

20

24

Series 12

15mm
83/4 222 91/4 235 97/8 251 31/4 82 81/8 206 121/8 308 11/8 28 21/8 54 21/8 54 213/16 71

20mm

25mm

40mm

ANSI 150 and PN10 & 16

71/4 184

71/4 184

71/4 184

ANSI 300 PN25 & 40

71/2 191

71/2 191

73/4 197

ANSI 600 PN100

8 203

8 1/8 203

81/4 210

to ANSI 600

25/8 67

Standard Bonnet Series L 12 / 72 to ANSI 600

53/4 146

53/4 146

53/4 146

Normalising Bonnet Series L 12 / 72 to ANSI 600

83/4 222

83/4 222

83/4 222

Valve Stroke

11/8 28

11/8 28

11/8 28

Figure 29. Series 12&72 Common Dimensions

Bonnet Mount Dia (to ANSI 600)

21/8 54

21/8 54

21/8 54

Bonnet Mount Dia ANSI 900 / 1500

21/8 54

21/8 54

21/8 54

Bonnet Mount Dia ANSI 2500

21/8 54

21/8 54

21/8 54

/2
50mm
5 127 57/8 148 61/4 159 65/8 168 73/4 197 10 254 12 305 71/4 184 95/16 237 113/16 284 87/8 225 51/4 267 55/8 143 615/16 352 1011/16 271 131/4 337 1315/16 354 1415/16 376

/4

11/2

10

12

14

16

18

20

24

Series 72

15mm
43/8 111 45/8 117 45/16 125

20mm

25mm

40mm

80mm 100mm 150mm 200mm 250mm 300mm 350mm 400mm 450mm 500mm 600mm
141/2 368 151/4 387 161/8 410 171/2 889 181/4 464 191/8 486 20 508 2013/16 529 2113/16 5548 2211/16 576 231/2 597 245/8 625 261/4 667 27 686 281/2 724 291/8 740 30 762 311/2 800

ANSI 150 and PN10 & 16

ANSI 300 PN25 & 40

Figure 30. Series 72 Dimensions

ANSI 600 PN100

Technical Bulletin T12/72 - 1205

14

Koso Kent Introl Limited Armytage Road, Brighouse West Yorkshire. HD6 1QF Telephone: +44 (0)1484 710311 Fax: +44 (0)1484 407407 Email: control.valves@kentintrol.com

Internet Address www.kentintrol.com


Copyright Dec 2005 All rights reserved Koso Kent Introl Limited

The Companys policy is one of continual development and the right is reserved to modify the specifications contained herein without notice.