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TABLE OF CONTENT CERTIFICATE ...(ii) 1. SUPERVISOR',S 2. STUDENT DECLARATTON 3. ACKNOWLEGEMENT 4. PREFACE.... 5. INTRODUCTION OF HRM 6. OBJECTIVE OF HRM 7.

FOCOUS OF HRM ACTIVITES ...(v) ..... I.3 ...... 4 ..... 5

.(iii) ..(i")

8. MAJORTRENDS.... ......6 9. HRM STRACTURE. ,... .. ,7 10. ROLE OF HRM. ..... 8-22 11. DEVLOPING HRM STRATEGY. T2.THE EMERGING ROLE OF HRM ION ORGINISATION ... 26.27 13.HRMTOOLS.:.... ...28-50 14. LIMITATION OF HRM ... 51 15. CONCLUISION... . 16. BIBLIOGRAPHY. .. 52 ....53

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INTRODUCTION OF HRM These issues motivate a well thought out human resource management strategy, with the precision and detail of say a marketing strategy. Failure in not having a carefully crafted human resources management strategy, can and probably will lead to failures in the business process itself. This set of resources are offered to promote thought, stimulate discussion, diagnose the organizational environment and develop a sound human resource management strategy for your organization. We begin by looking at the seven distinguishable function human resource management provide to secure the achievement of the objective defined above. Human Resou,rce Management Human resource (or personnel) management, in the sense of getting things done through people. It's an essential part of every manager's responsibilities, but many organizations find it advantageous to establish a specialist division to provide an expert service dedicated to ensuring that the human resource function is performed efficiently. "People are our most valuable asset" is a clich6 which no member of any senior management team would disagree with. Yet, the reality for many organizations is that their people remain o under valued o under ftained o under utilized o poorly motivated, and consequently o perforrn well below their true capability The rate of change facing organizations has never been greater and organizations must absorb and manage change at a much faster rate than in the past. In order to implement a successful business strategy to face this challenge, orgartizations, large or small, must ensure that they have the right people capable of delivering the strategy.

The market place for talented, skilled people is competitive and expensive. Taking on new staff can be disruptive to existing employees. Also, it takes time to develop 'cultural awareness', product/ process/ organization knowledge and experience for new staff members. As organizations vary in size, aims, functions, complexity, construction, the physical nature of their product, and appeal as employers, so do the contributions of human resource management. But, in most the ultimate aim of the function is to: "ensure that at all times the business is correctly staffed by the right number of people with the skills relevant to the business needs", that is, neither overstaffed nor understaffed in total or in respect of any one discipline or work grade. Human resources is a term used to describe the individuals who make up the workforce of an orgarization, although it is also applied in labor economics to, for example, business sectors or even whole nations. Human resources is also the name of the function within an organization charged with the overall responsibility for implementing strategies and policies relating to the management of individuals (i.e. the human resources). This function title is often abbreviated to the initials'HR'. Human resources is a relatively modern management term, coined as early as the 1960s - when humanity took a shift as human rights came to a brighter light during the Vietnam Era. The origins of the function arose in or ganizations that introduced'welfare management' practices and also in those that adopted the principles of 'scientific management'. From these terms emerged alargely administrative management activity, coordinating a range of worker related processes and becoming known, in time, as the 'personnel function'. Human resources progressively became the more usual name for this function, in the first instance in the United States as well as multinational or international corporations, reflecting the adoption of a more quantitative as well as strategic approach to workforce management, demanded by corporate management to gain a competitive advantage, utilizrng limited skilled and highly skilled workers.

OBJE,CTIVE OF HRM

1. To attain an effective utilization of human resources in the achievement of org anizational goal s. 2. To satis$ individual and group needs by providing adequate and equitable wages incentives and social security. 3. To maintain high morale of employees by improving conditions and facilities 4. To provide an opportunity for expression and voice in management. 5. To provide fair, acceptable and efficient leadership. 6. To create facilities and opportunities for the development of employees in the organization . 7. To provide better working conditions and favourable atmosphere retaining the employees. 8. To help the organisation in maintaining adequate, comprtent, and trained personnel at aIl levels. 9. To help the subordinates in making quick decision, which also save time and labour. l0.To ensure the environment within which employee may develop on the orderly basis.

FOCUS OF HRM ACTIVITES

1. Selection 2. Recurtiment & Development 3. Traning 4. Performance Maintain 5. 6. Planing

MAII{ FACTOR OF HRM

Maior trends To know the business environment an organization operates in, three major trends must be considered: 1. Demoeraphics: the characteristics of a population/workforce, for example, age, gender or social class. This type of trend may have an effect in relation to pension offerings, insurance packages etc. the variation within the population/workplace. Changes in 2. Diversitv: society now mean that a larger proportion of organizations are made up of "baby-boomers" or older employees in comparison to thirty years ago. Advocates of "workplace diversity" simply advocate an employee base that is a mirror reflection of the make-up of society insofar as race, gender, sexual orientation etc. as industries move from manual to more 3. Skills and qualifications: managerial professions so does the need for more highly skilled graduates. If the market is "tight" (i.e. not enough staff for the jobs), employers must compete for employees by offering financial rewards, community investment, etc

HRM STRCTITTJRE ROLE OFHRM Manpower planning The penalties for not being correctly staffed are costly. Understaffing loses the business economies of scale and specialization, orders, customers and profits. Overstaffing is wasteful and expensive, if sustained, and it is costly to eliminate because of modern legislation in respect of redundancy payments, consultation, minimum periods of notice, etc. Very importantly, overstaffrng reduces the competitive efficiency of the business. Planning staff levels requires that an assessment of present and future needs of the orgarization be compared with present resources and future predicted resources. Appropriate steps then be planned to bring demand and supply into balance. Thus the first step is to take a'satellite picture' of the existing workforce profile (numbers, skills, ages, flexibility, gender, experience, forecast capabilities, character, potential, etc. of existing employees) and then to adjust this for 1, 3 and 10 years ahead by amendments for normal turnover, planned staff movements, retirements, etc, in line with the business plan for the corresponding time frames. The result should be a series of crude supply situations as would be the outcome of present planning if left unmodified. (This, clearly, requires a great deal of information accretion, classification and statistical analysis as a subsidiary aspect of personnel management.) What future demands will be is only influenced in part by the forecast of the personnel manage1 whose main task may well be to scrutinize and modify the crude predictions of other managers. Future staffing needs will derive from: Sales and production forecasts The effects of technological change on task needs

Variations in the efficiency, productivity, flexibility of labor as a

result of training, work study, orgarizational change, new motivations, etc.

. Changes in employment practices (e.g. use of subcontractors or agency staffb, hiving-off tasks, buying in, substitution, etc.) . Variations, which respond to new legislation, e.g. payroll taxes or their abolition, new health and safety requirements . Changes in Government policies (investment incentives, regional or trade grants, etc.) What should emerge from this'blue sky gazing' is a'thought out' and logical staffing demand schedule for varying dates in the future which can then be compaied with the crude supply schedules. The comparisons will then indicate what steps must be taken to achieve a balance. ..T WILLvolve the further planning of such recruitment, training, retraining, labor reductions (early retiremenVredundancy) or changes in workforce utilization as will bring supply and demand into equilibrium, not just as a one-off but as a continuing workforce planning exercise the inputs to which will need constant varying to reflect'actual' as against predicted experience on the supply side and changes in production"

Recruitment and selection of emplovees Recruitment of staff should be preceded by: An analysis of the job to be done (i.e. an analytical study of the tasks to be performed to determine their essential factors) written into a job description so that the selectors know what physical and mental characteristics applicants must possess, what qualities and attitudes are desirable and what characteristics are a decided disadvantage; In the case of replacement staff a critical questioning of the need to recruit at all (replacement should rarely be an automatic process). Effectively, selection is 'buying' an employee (the price being the wage or salary multiplied by probable years of service) hence bad buys can be very expensive. For that reason some firms (and some firms for particular jobs) use external expert consultants for recruitment and selection. Equally some small orgarizations exist to 'head hunt', i.e. to attract staff with high reputations from existing employers to the recruiting employer. However, the'cost' of poor selection is such that, even for the mundane day-to-day jobs, those who recruit and select should be well trained to judge the suitability of applicants. The main sources of recruitment are: Internal promotion and internal introductions (at times desirable for morale purposes) Careers officers (and careers masters at schools) o University appointment boards o Agencies for the unemployed o Advertising (often via agents for specialist posts) or the use of other o

local media (e.g. commercial radio)

Where the organization does its own printed advertising it is useful if it has some identi$ing logo as its trade mark for rapid attraction and it must take care not to offend the sex, race) etc. antidiscrimination legislation either r0

directly or indirectly. The form on which the applicant is to apply (personal appearance, letter of application, completion of a form) will vary according to the posts vacant and numbers to be recruited. It is very desirable in many jobs that claim about experience and statements about qualifications are thoroughly checked and that applicants unfailingly complete a health questionnaire (the latter is not necessarily injurious to the applicants chance of being appointed as firms are required to employ a percentage of disabled people). Before letters of appointment are sent any doubts about medical fitness or capacity (in employments where hygiene considerations are dominant) should be resolved by requiring applicants to attend a medical examination. This is especially so where, as for example in the case of apprentices, the recruitment is for a contractual period or involves the firm in training costs. Interviewing can be carried out by individuals (e.g. supervisor or departmental manager), by panels of interviewers or in the form of sequential interviews by different experts and can vary from a five minute 'chat' to a process of several days. Ultimately personal skills in judgment are probably the most important, but techniques to aid judgment include selection testing for: Aptitudes (particularly useful for school leavers) o Attainments o General intelligence o

of these need skilled testing and assessment.) In more senior posts other techniques are: Leaderless groups o Command exercises

o Group problem solving o (These are some common techniques - professional selection organizations often use other techniques to aid in selection.) Training in interviewing and in appraising candidates is clearly essential to good recruitment. Largely the former consists of teaching interviewers how to draw out the interviewee and the latter how to xratex the candidates. For consistency (and as an aid to checking that) rating often consists of scoring candidates for experience, knowledge, physical/mental capabilities, intellectual levels, motivation, prospective potential, leadership abilities etc.. ll

Emplovee molivation To retain good staff and to encourage them to give of their best while at work requires attention to the financial and psychological and even physiological rewards offered by the organization as a continuous exercise. Basic financial rewards and conditions of service (e.g. working hours per week) are determined externally (by national bargaining or government minimum wage legislation) in many occupations but as much as 50 per cent of the gross pay of manual workers is often the result of local negotiations and details (e.g. which particular hours shall be worked) of conditions of service are often more important than the basics. Hence there is scope for financial and other motivations to be used at local levels. As staffing needs willvary with the productivity of the workforce (and the industrial peace achieved) so good personnel policies are desirable. The latter can depend upon other factors (like environment, welfare, employee benefits, etc.) but unless the wage packet is accepted as'fair and just'there will be no motivation. Hence while the technicalities of payment and other systems may be the concem of others, the outcome of them is a matter of great concern to human resource management. Increasingly the influence of behavioral science discoveries are becoming important not merely because of the widely-acknowledged limitations of money as a motivator, but because of the changing mix and nature of tasks (e.g. more service and professional jobs and far fewer unskilled and repetitive production j obs). The former demand better-educated, mobile and multi-skilled employees much more likely to be influenced by things like job satisfaction, involvement, participation, etc. than the economically dependent employees of yesteryear. Hence human resource management must act as a source of information about and a source of inspiration for the application of the findings of behavioral science. It may be a matter of drawing the attention of senior managers to what is being achieved elsewhere and the gradual education of middle managers to new points of view on job design, work organization and worker autonomy.

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Emplovee evaluation An organizationneeds constantly to take stock of its workforce and to assess its performance in existing jobs for three reasons: . To improve organizational performance via improving the performance of individual contributors (should be an automatic process in the case of good managers, but (about annually) two key questions should be posed: o what has been done to improve the performance of a person last year? o and what can be done to improve his or her performance in the year to come?). . To identiff potential, i.e. to recognize existing talent and to use that to fill vacancies higher in the orgarization or to transfer individuals into jobs where better use can be made of their abilities or developing skills. . To provide an equitable method of linking payment to performance where there are no numerical criteria (often this salary performance review takes place about three months later and is kept quite separate from 1. and 2.butis based on the same assessment). On-the-spot managers and supervisors, not HR staffs, carry out evaluations. The personnel role is usually that of: . Advising top management of the principles and objectives of an evaluation system and designing it for particular organizations and environments. . Developing systems appropriately in consultation with managers' supervisors and staffrepresentatives. Securing the involvement and cooperation of appraisers and those to be appraised. . Assistance in the setting of objective standards of evaluation / assessment, for examPle: o Defining targets for achievement; o Explaining how to quantiff and agree objectives;

o Introducingself-assessment; o Eliminating complexity and duplication. . Publicizingthe purposes of the exercise and explaining to staff how the system will be used. 13

Organrzing and establishing the necessary training of managers and supervisors who will carry out the actual evaluations/ appraisals. Not only training in principles and procedures but also in the human relations skills necessary. (Lack of confidence in their own ability to handle situations of poor performance is the main weakness of assessors.) Monitoring the scheme - ensuring it does not fall into disuse, following up on training/job exchange etc. recommendations, reminding managers of their responsibilities.

Full-scale periodic reviews should be a standard feature of schemes since resistance to evaluation / appraisal schemes is common and the temptation to water down or render schemes ineffecfual is ever present (managers resent the time taken if nothing else). Basically an evaluation / appraisal scheme is aformalization of what is done in a more casual manner anyway (e.g. if there is a vacancy, discussion about internal moves and internal attempts to put square pegs into 'squarer holes' are both the results of casual evaluation). Most managers approve merit payment and that too calls for evaluation. Made a standard routine task, it aids the developrnent of talent, wams the inefficient or uncaring and can be an effective form of motivation.

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Industrial relations Good industrial relations, while a reco gnizable and legitimate objective for an organization, ffie difficult to define since a good system of industrial relations involves complex relationships between: (a) Workers (and their informal and formal groups, i. e. trade union, organizations and their representatives) ; (b) Employers (and their managers and formal organizations like trade and professional associations) ; (c) The govefirment and legislation and govemment agencies I and 'independent' agencies like the Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration Service. Oversimplified, work is a matter of managers giving instructions and workers following them - but (and even under slavery we recognize that different'managing' produces very different results) the variety of 'forms' which have evolved to regulate the conduct of parties (i.e. laws, custom and practice, observances, agreements) makes the giving and receipt of instructions far from simple. Two types of 'rule'have evolved: . 'Substantive', determining basic pay and conditions of service (what rewards workers should receive); . 'Procedural,' determining how workers should be treated and methods and procedures.

Determining these rules are many common sense matters like: Financial, policy and market constraints on the parties (e.g. some unions do not have the finance to support industrial action, some have policies not to strike, some employers are more vulnerable than others to industrial action, some will not make changes unless worker agreement is made first, and rewards always ultimately reflect what the market will bear); The technology of production (the effect of a strike in newspaper production is immediate -it may be months before becoming effective

in shipbuilding); t5

. The distribution of power within the community - that tends to vary over time and with economic conditions workers (or unions) dominating in times of fulI employment and employers in times of recession. Broadly in the Western style economies the parties (workers and employers) are free to make their own agreements and rules. This is called 'voluntarism'. But it does not mean there is total noninterference by the govemment. That is necessary to: . Protect the weak (hence minimum wage); . Outlaw discrimination (race or sex); . Determine minimum standards of safetyo health, hygiene and even important conditions of service; paf. . To try to prevent the abuse of power by either

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HR managers responsibilities The personnel manager's involvement in the system of industrial relations varies from organization to organization, but normally he or she is required to provide seven identifiable functions, thus: To keep abreast of industrial law (legislation and precedents) and to 1. advise managers about their responsibilities e.g. to observe requirements in respect of employing disabled persons, not to discriminate, not to disclose'spent'convictions of employees, to observe codes of practice etc. in relation to discipline and redundancy, and similarly to determine organizational policies (in conjunction with other managers) relevant to legal and moral requirements (see also 4.). To conduct (or assist in the conduct) of either local negotiations 2. (within the plant) or similarly to act as the employer's representative in national negotiations. This could be as a critic or advisor in respect of trade etc. association policies or as a member of a trade association negotiating team. Agreements could be in respect of substantive or procedural matters. Even if not directly involved the personnel manager will advise other managers and administrators of the outcome of negotiations. To ensure that agreements reached are interpreted so as to make sense 3. to those who must operate them at the appropriate level within the organization (this can involve a lot of new learning at supervisory level and new pay procedures and new recording requirements in administration and even the teaching of new employment concepts like stagger systems of work - atmanagement level). To monitor the observance of agreements and to produce policies that 4. ensure that agreements are followed within the organization. An example would be the policy to be followed on the appointment of a new but experienced recruit in relation to the offered salary where there is a choice of increments to be given for experience, ability or qualification.

To correct the situations which go wrong. 'Face' is of some 5. importance in most orgarrizations and operating at_ a'remote' staff level personnel managers can correct industrial relations effors made at local level without occasioning any loss of dignity (face) at the t7

working level. 'Human resource management' and the obscurity of its reasoning can be blamed for matters which go wrong at plant level and for unwelcome changes, variations of comfortable'arrangements' and practices and unpopular interpretation of agreements 6. To provide the impetus (and often devise the machinery) for the introduction ofjoint consultation and worker participation in decisionmaking in the organization. Formal agreement in respect of working conditions and behavior could never cover every situation likely to arise. Moreover the more demanding the task (in terms of the mental contribution by the worker to its completion) the more highlyeducated the workers need to be and the more they will want to be consulted about and involved in the details of work life. Matters like the rules for a flexitime system or for determining the correction of absenteeism and the contents ofjobs are three examples of the sort of matters thatmay be solely decided by management in some organizations but a matter for joint consultation (not negotiation) in others with a more twenty-first-century outlook and philosophy. Human resource management is very involved in promoting and originating ideas in this field. 7. To provide statistics and information about workforce numbers, costs, skills etc. as relevant to negotiations (i.e. the cost of pay rises or compromise proposals, effect on differentials and possible recruitment/retention consequences of this or whether agreement needs to be known instantly); to maintain personnel records of training, experience, achievements, qualifi cations, awards and possibly pension and other records; to produce data of interest to management in respect of personnel matters like absentee figures and costs, statistics of sickness absence, costs of welfare and other employee services, statements about development in policies by other organizations, ideas for innovations; to advise upon or operate directly, grievance, redundancy, disciplinary and other procedures

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Provision of emplovpe services Attention to the mental and physical well-being of employees is normal in many orgarizations as a means of keeping good staff and attracting others. The forms this welfare can take are many and varied, from loans to the needy to counseling in respect of personal problems. Among the activities regarded as normal are: . Schemes for occupational sick pay, extended sick leave and access to the firm's medical adviser; . Schemes for bereavement or other special leave; . The rehabilitation of injured/unfit/ disabled employees and temporary or pennanent move to lighter work; . The maintenance of disablement statistics and registers (there are complicated legal requirements in respect of quotas of disabled workers and a need for'certificates' where quota are not fulfilled and recruitment must take Place); . Provision of financial and other support for sports, social, hobbies, activities of many kinds which are work related; . Provision of canteens and other catering facilities; . Possibly assistance with financial and other aid to employees in difficulty (supervision, maybe, of an employee managed benevolent fund or scheme); . Provision of information handbooks, . Running of pre-retirement courses and similar fringe activities; . Care for the welfare aspects of health and safety legislation and provision of first-aid training. The location of the health and safety function within the organizationvaries. Commonly a split of responsibilities exists under which'production' or 'engineering' management cares for the provision of safe systems of work

and safe places and machines etc., but HRM is responsible for administration, training and education in awareness and understanding of the law, and for the alerting of all levels to new requirements

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education. training and Emplovee * development In general, education is 'mind preparation' and is carried out remote from the actual work area, training is the systematic development of the attitude, knowledge, skill pattern required by a person to perform a given task or job adequately and development is'the growth of the individual in terms of ability, understanding and awareness'. Within an organi zationall three are necessary in order to: . Develop workers to undertake higher-grade tasks; . Provide the conventional training of new and young workers (e.9. as apprentices, clerks, etc.); . Raise efficiency and standards of performance; . Meet legislative requirements (e.g. health and safety); . Inform people (induction training, pre-retirement courses, etc.); From time to time meet special needs arising from technical, legislative, ffid knowledge need changes. Meeting these needs is achieved via the 'training loop'. (Schematic available in PDF version.) The diagnosis of other than conventional needs is complex and often depends upon the intuition or personal experience of managers and needs revealed by deficiencies. Sources of inspiration include: . Common sense - it is often obvious that new machines, work systems, task requirements and changes in job content will require workers to be prepared; . Shortcomings revealed by statistics of output per head, performance indices, unit costs, etc. and behavioral failures revealed by absentee figures, lateness, sickness etc. records; . Recommendations of government and industry training organizations; . Inspiration and innovations of individual managers and supervisors; . Forecasts and predictions about staffing needs;

. Inspirations prompted by the technical press, training journals, reports of the experience of others; . The suggestions made by specialist (e.g. education and training officers, safety engineers, work-study staff and management services personnel). 20

Designing training is far more than devising courses; it can include activities such as: . Learning from observation of trained workers; . Receiving coaching from seniors; . Discovery as the result of workingparty, project team membership or attendance at meetings; . Job swaps within and without the organization; . Undertaking planned reading, or follow from the use of self-teaching texts and video tapes; . Learning via involvement in research, report writing and visiting other works or organizations. So far as group training is concerned in addition to formal courses there are: . Lectures and talks by senior or specialist managers; . Discussion group (conference and meeting) activities; . Briefing by senior staffs; . Role-playing exercises and simulation of actual conditions; . Video and computer teaching activities; . Case studies (and discussion) tests, quizzes, panel'games', group forums, observation exercises and inspection and reporting techniques. Evaluation of the effectiveness of training is done to ensure that it is cost effective, to identiff needs to modiff or extend what is being provided, to reveal new needs and redefine priorities and most of all to ensure that the objectives of the training are being met. The latter may not be easy to ascertain where results cannot be measured mathematically. In the case of attitude and behavioral changes sought, leadership abilities, drive and ambition fostered, etc., achievement is a matter of the judgment of senior staffs. Exact validation might be impossible but unless on the whole the judgments are favorable the cooperation of managers in identiffing needs, releasing personnel and assisting in training ventures will cease In making their judgments senior managers will question whether the efforts

expended have produced:

More effective, efficient, flexible employees; Faster results in making newcomers knowledgeable and effective than

would follow from experience; More effective or efficient use of machinery, equipment and work procedures; Fewer requirements to implement redundancy (by retraining); Fewer accidents both personal and to property; Improvements in the qualifications of staff and their ability to take on tougher roles; Better employee loyalty to the organization with more willingness to innovate and accept change.

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Developine HRM strategv

HRM business strategy. . Highlight the key driving forces of your business. What are they? e.g. technology, distribution, competition, the markets. What are the implications of the driving forces for the people side of your business? What is the fundamental people contribution to bottom line business performance? Develop a Mission Statement or Statement of Intent That relates to the people side of the business. Do not be put off by negative reactions to the words or references to idealistic statements - it is the actual process of thinking through the issues in a formal and explicit manner that is important. . What do your people contribute? Conduct a SWOT analysis of the organization Focus on the internal strengths and weaknesses of the people side of the business. Consider the cuffent skill and capability issues. Vigorously research the external business and market environment. High light the opportunities and threats relating to the people side of the business. What impact will/ might they have on business performance? Consider skill shortages? The impact of new technology on staffing levels?

From this analysis you then need to review the capability of your personnel department. Complete a SWOT analys.is of the department - consider in 23

detail the department's current areas of operation, the service levels and competences of your personnel staff. Conduct a detailed human resources analysis Concentrate on the organization's COPS (culture, organization, people, HR systems) . Consider: Where you are now? Where do you want to be? . What gaps exists between the reality of where you are now and where you want to be? Exhaust your analysis of the four dimensions. critical people issues : Determine Go back to the business strategy and examine it against your SWOT and COPS Analysis . Identiff the critical people issues namely those people issues that you must address. Those which have a key impact on the delivery of your business strategy. . Prioritizethe critical people issues. What will happen if you fail to address them? Remember you are trying to identifu where you should be focusing your efforts and resources. Develop consequences and solutions For each critical issue highlight the options for managerial action generate, elaborate and create - don't go for the obvious. This is an important step as frequently people jump for the known rather than challenge existing assumptions about the way things have been done in the past. Think about the consequences of taking various courses of action. Consider the mix of HR systems needed to address the issues. Do you need to improve communications, training or pay? What are the implications for the business and the personnel function?

Once you have worked through the process it should then be possible to translate the action plan into broad objectives. These will need to be broken down into the specialist HR Systems areas of:

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employee training and development management clevelopment organ ization de ve lopm ent perfonnance appraisal employee reward employee selection and recruitment manpower planning communication Develop your action plan around the critical issues. Set targets and dates for the accomplishment of the key objectives. Implementation and evaluation of the action plans The ultimate purpose of developing a human resource strategy is to ensure that the objectives set are mutually supportive so that the reward and payment systems are integrated with employee training and career development plans. There is very little value or benefit in training people only to then frustrate them through a failure to provide ample career and development opportunities

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Role of HRM in Or anizations The E,mer The Human Resource Management (HRM) profession and practices have undergone substantial change and redefinition over the years. It is interesting to note that many articles on HRM issues have been critical of the traditional HRM Function. Well, the observations were quite true, as many HRM practitioners have not yet adapted to the more strategic functions of HRM in anorgarization. They failed to ride in the new emerging role of HRM. Unfortunately, in many organizations HRM services are not providing value but instead are simply going into the motion of attending trivial administrative tasks. lJnfazed, HRM Departments can be replaced with new technology or outsourced to a vendor who can provide higher-quality services at a lower cost, which is by the way the emerging trend right now in doing business. Although this seem to be a pessimistic view on this trend, it simply demonstrate thatHRM departments need to ensure that their functions are creating value for the company. agree that, technology should be used where appropriate to automate I routine activities, and managers should concentrate on HRM activities that can add substantial value to the company. Consider employee benefits: technology is now available to automate the process by which employees can enroll in benefits programs and a keep detailed record of benefits is easily monitored via network or internet. The use of technology allows the HRM manager to focus on his role as an strategic partner of other managers and attend to activities that can create value for the firm. Although the importance of some HRM department is being debated, everyone agrees on the the need to successfully manage human resources for a company to maximise its competitiveness. Three obvious developments

seem to emerge in the HRM landscaPe: 1. Today's flatter and streamlined organizations, managers are now becoming involved and responsible for HRM in their own departments; 2. Some perceived the HRM Department as incompetent, lacks business sense and knowledge of the business operations; 26

3. And many believed that if the HRM department has to become effective, it should align itself to to strategic directions of the organization. : With this, it is imperative that the HRM department begin to saddle up and ride with the corporate directions of the organizations and become more involve in the firm's planning, control and operations -that is the emerging role and competence of HRM.

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HRM TOOLS

Orsanizational Structure and HRM Organizational Structure and Human Resource Management, Formal and InformalOrganizations,FormalOrganization,InformalOrganization,Tall and Flat Orgarizational Structures, Responsibility, Authority and Accountability, Responsibility, Authority, Accountability, Line and Staff Functions, Line and Staff Relationship, Line-Staff Conflict, Human Resource Management as a Line Responsibility, Human Resource Management as a Staff Function, The Role of Human Resource Department in an Orgarization, Human Resource Management in Harmony, Products and Human Resources, Production and Human Resources, Marketing and Human Resources, Management Techniques and Human Resources, Organizational Structure and Human Resources

Human Resource Planning Definition of Human Resource Planning, Objectives of Human Resource Planning, Human Resource Planning at Different Levels, The Process of Human Resource Planning, Assessing Current Human Resources and Making an Inventory, Forecasting, Matching the Inventory with Future Requirements, Man aging the Forecasted Demand/ Surplus, Managing F-uture Demand, Managing Future Surplus, Dealing with Surplus Manpower, Growing Importance of Human Resource Planning, Current Trends

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Job Analvsis and Desigu Concept of Job Analysis, Process of Job Analysis, Information Gathering, Job Specification Competency Determination, Developing a Job Description, Developing a Job Specification, Job Analysis Methods, Observation Method, Individual Interview Method, Group Interview Method, Questionnaire Method, Technical Conference Method, Diary Method, Functional Job Analysis, Position Analysis Questionnaire, Critical Incident Technique, Job Analysis Information, Job Description, Drafting and Maintaining Job Description, Job Specification, Uses of Job Analysis, Employment, Organization Audit, Training and Development, Performance Appraisal, Promotion and Transfer, Preventing Dissatisfaction, Compensation Management, Health and Safety, Induction, Industrial Relations, Career Planning, Succession Planning, Issues in Job Analysis, Concept of Job Design, Different Approaches to Job Design, Modern Management Techniques, Job Rotation, Job Enlargement, Job Enrichment, Some More Modem Management Techniques Recruitment Concept of Recruitment, Factors Affecting Recruitment, Organizational Factors, Environmental Factors, Recruitment Policy, Sources of Recruitment, Internal Search, External Sources, Need for Flexible and Proactive Recruitment Policy, Evaluation of Recruitment Program Selection Concept of Selection, The Selection Process, Selection Method Standards, Reliability, Validity, Generalizability, Utility, Legality, Application Forms, Evaluation of Application Forms, Ethical Issues in Application Form Design, Selection Tests, Intelligence Tests, Aptitude Tests, Achievement Tests, Situational Tests, Interest Tests, Personality Tests, Polygraph Tests, Graphology, Interviews, Preliminary Interview, Selection Interview, Decision Making Interview, The Interview Process, Preparation, Setting, Conduct of Interview, Choosing an Interview, Evaluation, Reference Checks, Medical Examinations, Placement

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Socialization Concept of Orientation- Objectives of Induction/Orientation, Role of of Orgarizational Culture in Orientation, Roles, Values, Norms, The Process S o cialization, A s sumptions, Model of S o cial i zation Proces s, Different Socialization Strategies, Formal or Informal, lndividual or Collective, Sequential or Non-sequential, Fixed or Variable, Tournament or Contest, Serial or Disjunctive, Investiture or Divestiture- Existing Employee Socialization

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Manasing Cargetq

Concept of Career, Career Anchors, Autonomy, Security, Technical, General Management, Entrepreneurial Creativity, Service, Pure Challenge, Lifestyle, Elements of a Career Planning Programme, Individual Assessment and Need Analysis, Organizational Assessment and Opportunity Analysis, Need Opportunity Alignment, Career Counseling, The Benefits of Career Planning to an Orgarization, Ensures Availability of Resources for Future, Enhances Orgaruzational Ability to Attract and Retain Talent, Ensures Growth Opportunrty for Al1, Handles Employee Frustration, The Benefits of Career Planning to an Individual, Issues in Career Planning, Dual Family Careers, Low Ceiling Careers, Declining Opportunities, Career Stages, Restructuring, Career Plateaus, Work Family Issues, Career Development Cycle, Exploration Stage, Establishment Stage, Maintenance Stage, Disengagement Stage, Career Objectives and the Career Path, Promotion, Transfer, Model for Planned Self-Development, Self Assessment, Opportunity Analysis, Decision Making, Leverage Network, Venture, Continuous Assessment, Succession Planning, Continuity, Long-term perspective, Organizati.onal Need Perspective, Tumover Management, Emphasis on Results

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Performance Appraisal Concept of Performance Appraisal, Objectives of Perfofinance Appraisal, The Appraisal Process, The Appraisers, Self Appraisal, Supervisors, Peers, Customers, C lients, Subordinate s, Performance Apprai sal Metho ds, Management by Objectives, Graphic Rating Method, Work Standards Approach, Essay Appraisal, Critical Incident Method, Forced Choice Rating Method, Point Allocation Method, Ranking Method, Checklist, Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scale, 360 Degree Performance Appraisal, Team Appraisals, Balanced Scorecards, The Appraisal Interview, Challenges of Appraisal Interview, Pitfalls in Performance Appraisal, Uses of Performance Appraisal, Ethics of Performance Appraisal.

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JOB DESINE The nature of work and its organization has interested managers, economists and social scientists for as long as people have been employed by others to engage in productive activity. (See section on scientific management.) Managers have largely been interested in maximizingoutput from available resources. Economists and social scientists have raised questions about the orgarization of work in relation to issues of the individual and society in general. The aims of this section are to: Define selected terms applicable to job design and work organization Examine the aspects of traditional thinking applicable to job design

and work organization . Propose alternative factors to be considered that take cognizance of employees needs Generate some ideas on how these factors may be applied in work situations in existing and new organizations Stress the importance of fitting the work to the worker, in order to achieve the productivity benefit

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Job Desig{r-Defined . Job design and work organization is the specification of the contents, method and relationships ofjobs to satisSr technological and organizational requirements as well as the personal needs ofjob holders. N.B. A full glossary of terms appropriate to job design and work organization can be found in the Job Design section of the PDF (which you can purchase by clicking on the 'Purchase PDF' icon.) 1970's In the 1970's increased interest in how best to organize work in the light of: The loss of productive effort due to industrial action and absenteeism Increased demands for employee participation and industrial democracy and Imposition of employment legislation, which appeared to make the task of controlling the workforce more difficult. 1980's In the 1980's, major changes took place in the workplace. o o Recognition of the need to introduce new technology o Shift in relative costs away from the worker to the machine and or O Recession, with attendant retrenchments Increased competition

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1990's and the Future Challenge In the 1990's the trends started in the 80's continue at an increased pace. The challenge, now and in the future for managers, is the optimum design of jobs and work orgarization to meet unsteady circumstances, brought on in the workplace by changes in the external environment.

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evaluated. The primary objective set in each instance was the minimization of costs of performing a task. Criteria used in job design from the study included: Economic considerations o the desire to minimize costs Technical considerations o relating to process requirements Time and Space o limitations imposed by time and space Skill requirements o availability of labor with the right skills Machinery o equipment needed Industrial relations o frlill&gement / union agreements relating to staffing levels and wages o traditions, customs and norms of the plants A better way? research on what All too often in our post-industrial societies, despite much constitutes a productive, rewarding work environment, examples of counter productive organizational environments can be all too easily found. Job designers would appear to have ignored the psychological and social aspects of work to the detriment of the organization, the workforce and society as a whole. Opportunities (and the benefits flowing from) the development of problem solving and other skills in employees, at all levels, are being squandered. For instance, high levels of task rationalization are associated with high levels of boredom, which in turn is associated with job dissatisfaction and counter productive worker behavior. (It should be noted that such jobs have some appeal to some workers.) Research, some of which is described on this site, indicates that there are no clear rules to design jobs. It can be said, though, that people bring a diverse range of skills and abilities to the workplace, together with a diverse range of experiences, aspirations and expectations. The task facing responsible organizations would therefore be to strike a balance between the needs of the orgarization to achieve it's goals and the

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creation of a working environment which results in the job satisfaction for employees. Early attempts to develop new approaches to job design During and immediately after the second world war American writers, particularly, were questioning the relationship between job and organizatlon design and productivity. It was being recognized that difficulties arise in the selection of personnel if only those able to tolerate and work well in simple, highly repetitive jobs are to be recruited. Job Enlargeme$t As early as 1950 in the USA job rotation and job enlargement were being both advocated and tested as means for overcoming boredom at work with all its associated problems. In an early case example IBM introduced changes to machine operators' jobs to include machine setting and inspection. In addition they introduced other wide-ranging changes in both the production system and the role of foremen and supervisors. It is less than clear just how successful changes of this type have been in practice. Undoubtedly management in certain circumstances can benefit from the increased flexibility of the labor. However, workers often expect higher payment to compensate for learning these other jobs and for agreeing to changes in working practices. The new jobs are often only a marginal improvement in terms of the degree of repetition, the skill demands and the level of responsibility;'as a result workers have not always responded positively to such change. Job enlargement schemes may not be feasible, e.g. in motor vehicle assembly, without a major change in the production facilities. The concepts of both job rotation and enlargement do not have their basis in any psychological theory. However, the next generation of attempts to redesign jobs emerging from the USA developed from the researches of Frederick Herzberg. During the 1950's and 1960's Herzberg developed his 'two factor'theory of motivation.

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Job Enrichment In this theory he separated'motivators' from'hygiene' factors. The hygiene factors included salary, company policies and administration as well as supervision. They were seen as potential sources of dissatisfaction but not of positive motivation. Another set of factors including achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, growth and the work itself were postulated as the'real' motivators. From this theory Herzberg developed a set of principles for the enrichment ofjobs as follows: removing some controls while retaining accountability; a increasing personal accountability for work; o assigning each worker a complete unit of work with a clear start and a end point; granting additional authority and freedom to workers; O making periodic reports directly available to workers rather than to o supervisors only; the introduction of new and more difficult tasks into the job; o encouraging the development of expertise by assigning individuals to O

specialized tasks. Herzberg's Checklist Herzberg's other major contribution to the development of ideas in the area ofjob design was his checklist for implementation. This is a prescription for those seeking success in the enrichment ofjobs: . select those jobs where technical changes are possible without major expense; job satisfaction is low; performance improvement is likely with increases in motivation; hygiene is expensive; examine the jobs selected with the conviction that changes can be

introduced; 'green light' or'brainstorm'a list of possible changes; screen the list (red lighting) for hygiene suggestions and retain only ideas classed as motivators; remove the generalities from the list retaining only specific motivators;

avoid employee involvement in the design process; set up a controlled experiment to measure the effects of the changes; . anticip ate anearly decline in performance as workers get used to their new jobs. Job enrichment, theno aims to create greater opportunities for individual achievement and recognition by expanding the task to increase not only variety but also responsibility and accountability. This can also include greater worker autonomy, increased task identity and greater direct contact with workers performing servicing tasks. Findings Whilst job enrichment is based on a theory resulting from research carried out by Herzberg and his colleagues, the research is not itself without its critics. Later research has not always produced such neat results. Also the focus of the approach is the individual job and only limited consideration is given to the wider context in which the job is carried out, particularly social groupings. Some examples ofjob enrichment have been considered by the various parties involved as highly successful continuing over many years. Results reported include greater productivity as well as a more satisfied and better paid work force. However, the approach has limitations, including its inapplicability in certain situations, the lack of opportunities in others and the emphasis upon management decision at the design stage. Nevertheless the principles advocated in the design ofjobs have obvious merit. Open systems approach The approaches to the design ofjobs considered to this point have taken as their focus the individual job. We have already identified some of the weaknesses of this type of approach. At the same time that job redesign techniques were being developed and implemented in the USA progress was being made, particularly in Europe and Scandinavia, on the development of the socio-technical systems approach where the focus of attention is at the level of the working group utra tn" aim is to develop a match between the needs of the group and the

organization in relation to the technology

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Organization as an open system This approach is based upon the concept of the organization as an open system with the primary work group as a subsystem of the total otganization. Organizations can be compared to other living systems such as biological cells in that they are engaged in active transactions with the environment Raw materials or customers form the input to the organizati.onal system and finished goods or services form the output. The environment through competition, the influence of suppliers, and customers and govemment legislation will all exert pressure on the orgarization to comply with certain rules and organize incertain ways. The changing economic situation, changing values in society, new alternative products or services, and many other factors demand adaptation within the organizationif it is to survive. Since these factors have an impact on the internal design and functioning of an organization it is important that the organizationbe aware of environmental changes when seeking an optimal design of its social and technical systems. Guiding Principles A sociotechnical systems approach to designing organizations is based upon a set of guiding propositions: The design of the organization must fit its goals. Employees must be actively involved in designing the stmcture of the organization. Control of variances in production or service must be undertaken as close to their source as possible. Subsystems must be designed around relatively self-contained and recognizable units of work. Support systems must fit in with the design of the organization. The design should allow for a high quality of working life. Changes should continue to be made as necessary to meet the changing environmental pressures.

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Motivation Factors It has been suggested that four categories ofjob characteristic are significant in terms of motivation and performance: resporsible autonomy- the group's acceptance of responsibility for the production cycle, output rate, quality, and quantity of output; . adaptability; . variety; . participation. Autonomous behavior includes the self-regulation by the group of work content, critical self-evaluation of work group performance, seltadjustment to cope with changes, and participation in goal setting. Selection criteria In the previous sections we have examined alternative approaches to designing jobs and work organization. We have identified limitations in these approaches. However, we have also seen the principles underlying the several approaches. This section brings together principles which seem to have relevance in the design of any job and work organization. This will be followed by suggestions as to how these principles may be applied in the design process. work Groups Focus on The preceding criteria can be used to assess any individual job; however, as we saw earlier, it may be more appropriate to focus attention on the design of the work group and its activities rather than the design of each individual job. Membership of the work group can have certain positive benefits for the individual. These extend beyond the obvious aspect of social opportunities to include the mutual help and support which is available, and the wider range of skills and responsibilities which are often demanded of all members. In designing the work group activity one of the basic principles is that of 'minimum ciitical rp.rifirution' of the tasks and the 'minimum critical

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specification of tasks to jobs. Specification of objectives remains essential but the means for obtaining them in many instances can be decided by the task perfonner. This approach should result in a greater degree of flexibility for individual job holders within the work system and allow for their personal development through increased involvement in decision-making relating to the control and regulation of the work system. Suggested guiding principles for the design of work group activity include: . Primary work groups should have between four and twenty members. . The primary work group should have a designated leader who is accountable for the group's performance. . The group should be assigned tasks which make up a complete unit of work. . Wherever possible the group members should have responsibility for planning their own work . Group members should then be involved in evaluating their performance in relation to the plans. In designing the work system it will often be the case that some overriding factor limits the application of all these principles. Nevertheless they can form the basis for questioning the assumptions being made in the design process and lead to discussion about the possible consequences of ignoring them. Application of principles An approach is advocated in which each situation is considered in relation to certain guiding principles. Unique solutions are identified, tailored to the needs of both the organization and the individuals concerned, both managers and workers. Consideration is given to the particular context in which the work is to be undertaken. Economic factors as well as social factors have to be considered. Existing management/ union agreements, custom and practice, the aspirations and motivation of the workers as well as their skills and potential will affect the solutions proposed. The job design process In this section we will consider ways in which the design criteria proposed in the previous sections can be employed in the design process. 42

Attention will be given specifically to the psychological needs of workers and how they may be met. The technical aspects of design in which the normal techniques of industrial engineering and organization and methods are employed will not be considered here. First Step The first step in the design process is to speciff the design principles to be applied in the particular situation. This first step requires those responsible for the design to form a view about the skills, o abilities, o needs and o motivation ofj ob incumbents. o The simple questionnaire Characteristics of the Typical Employee PDF (available in the PDF version,) can be used to elicit the views held by the members of the design team and help in formulating an acceptable model of human behavior. The particular results shown could be collected from a project group charged with designing/ redesigning a new/ existing facility in a company. The team could comprise members of management and supervision. At the design stage no operatives had been recruited. Considerable initial differences will be apparent in the opinions held by members of the team and considerable time will need to be spent in elaboration and debate. Second Step The next stage involved completing the questionnaire Ideal Job Characteristics of the Typical Employee (contained in the PDF version of

this article.) The result, should be, agreement over the principles to be applied in the design ofjobs and work organization in a particular situation. Earlier we introduced the concept of minimum critical specification ofjobs to tasks in the design of group activity. This approach enables the group to make decisions about the methods and organization of work. Along with this there should be an examination of sources of performance variation in the work system and a questioning of who should be responsible for monitoring and regulating the system.

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A process defects analysis can assist in this process. In carrying out this analysis the stages in the process have to be identified initially. Then sources of variances are listed relating to each stage. The relationships of sources of possible variances to problems at later stages in the process can be shown in the matrix form. (Suggested pro forma is contained in the PDF version of this article.) Process defects analysis can identiff the problems introduced in one stage of a work process flow can have an impact on the operations at later stages. Those involved in compiling the analysis chart considerably improve their understanding of the total process. This, however, would be a secondary benefit of the chart. The main benefit came about through rethinking the allocation of responsibilities and the steps taken to make the process/ system more responsive, thereby reducing losses. In the design process we have now looked at means for deciding the criteria to be adopted in designing jobs and work organization. We have also seen a method for identiffing key decisions in the operation of the work system. Final Step Finally, a means for comparing alternative job and work organization designs is presented. This is in the form of a checklist which covers the areas of work content, work organization, o working conditions, o social opportunities and o career opportunities. o

The method is illustrated in the Analysis of Job Design and Work Structure proforma, (contained in the PDF version of this article) where an example of an analysis of clerical work is presented. If the work in this section of this organization is expected to change, then the job design / work organization

project team would use the analysis proforma. This would then form the basis of a discussion document for the project team and for consideration of feasible altematives.

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An analysis of the proposed jobs, or those to be redesigned can be carried out, so as to form a basis for discussion with the project team and later consideration of feasible altematives. In the Job Profile Design Summary for an invoice clerk ( contained in the PDF version of this article ) career opportunities and work organization were assessed particularly poorly. The work content also scored below average. Jobs being replaced by the new systems could be engineered to offer greater opportunities for job holders in this position. The design team now has a method for looking at broader aspects of the job beyond those normally considered in financial appraisals. They are in a better position to consider the implications on and for employee motivation of the proposed changes as well as considering other options.

Future challenge The challenge facing managers now and in the future, is that of employing the new technology with all its opportunities in ways which not only meet the organization's needs but also the expectations and aspirations of employees. In order to achieve this more effectively there is the need to further develop these approaches to job and work organization design which facilitate these broader criteria being incorporated into the design process as well as the tools with which to achieve the task.

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JOB ANALYSIS

Job Enrichment fob The Characteristics Approach Approuches to Job Design

Job Engineering

Socisl Information Processing Approuch (sIPA)

Quality of Work LWQw/L)

JOB DE,SCRIPTION

First, let's look at some terms. A job is a collection of tasks and responsibilities that an employee is responsible to conduct. Jobs have titles. A task is a typically defined as a unit of work, that is, a set of activities needed to produce some result, e.g., Vacuuming a carpet, writing a memo, sorting the mail, etc. Complex positions in the organizationmay include a large number of tasks, which are sometimes referred to as functions. Job descriptions are lists of the general tasks, or functions, and responsibilities of a position. Typically, they also include to whom the position reports, specifications such as the qualifications needed by the person in the job, salary range for the position, etc. Job descriptions are usually developed by conducting a job analysis, which includes examining the tasks and sequences of tasks necessary to perform the job. The analysis looks at the areas of knowledge and skills needed by the job. Note that a role is the set of responsibilities or expected results associated with ajob. A job usually includes several roles. Typically, job descriptions are used especially for advertising to fill an open position, determining compensation and as a basis for performance reviews. Not everyone believes that job descriptions are highly useful. Read Dr. John Sullivan's article listed at the end of the following links. He points out numerous concerns about job descriptions that many other people have as well, including, e.g.,that too often job descriptions are not worded in a manner such that the employee's performance can be measured, they end up serving as the basis for evaluation rather than perforrnance, etc. Read the following links to build your own impression.

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JOB DISCRIPTION

Reflexivity Meta and Learning Routi nes Processes Job Design Completeness Demand on Cooperatlon Demand on Responsibillty Cognitive Dernand Habitual Work Routlnes Learning Opportu nities Social Routi nes Routine$

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JOB SAPICFICTION

A job specification describes the knowledge, skills, education, experience, and abilities you believe are essential to performingaparticularjob. The job specification is developed from the job analysis. Ideally, also developed from a detailed job description, the job specification describes the person you want to hire for a particular job. A job specification cuts to the quick with your requirements whereas the job description defines the duties and requirements of an employee's job in detail. The job specification provides detailed characteristics, knowledge, education, skills, and experience needed to perform the job, with an overview of the specific job requirement.

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LIMITATIONIS OF HRM Technological advancement. Due to the advancement of 1. technology, the automation and computerization of the organisation is taking place, which are making the job and skills of the employees obsolete. Chanees in legal environment. The human resource managers 2. have to anticipate the future changes in the legal environment and prepare the organisation to face them without any intemrption in day to day working. Mobilitv of profession and technical workforce. Today employee 3. have more technical and professionl gualification, which are demanded by many organisation. Due to thise, the mobility of workforce increase, which poses the new challenge for the human resource managers. New work ethics. The human resource managers will have to 4. develop new work ethics for setting up and enforcing new work standards. Changing work ethics will require the redesigning of jobs for providing and the challenge to the employee. They should be provided with the flexi time policy. New personnel policies. New and better personle policies will be 5. required for the workforce of the future. The human resource managers have to concentrate on the goal oriented performance apprasial; development oriented training system, team building, participative management etc.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY L. Deeanz&,David 2. Gomez-Mezia, 3. Luis. R. , Balkin David B. 4. Robert. L.Cardy 5. Dssler, Gary 6. Dwivedi, R.S.,Managing Human Resource 7. Stephen P.Robins. 8. F.C sharma 9. www.google.com l0.www.city hr.com

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