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THE LANGUAGE SCIENCE

By: Prof. Mr. Maqsood Hasni

Complied By: Prof. Syed Mohammad Raza Madni Principal, Govt. College, Minchan'abad Pakistan

1. Language experts can produce new letters


As far as it regards for expression often two methods are adopted: 1.Conversation 2.Writing Without a language the process of expression cannot obtain an existence. A language obtains to an existence by the words while the words are come to an existence by the sounds. The alphabet is not equal in counting in the languages of the world. Each sound has it own culture, civilisation, atmosphare of economy, religion, and atmosphare of politician. A rule can not be fixed for a word when the meanings and shapes it supplies to another language. The circle of circumstances and attitude of another language change the shape of that word . Like these examples

Words vote file advice and sport have different figures in the Urdu and in the Punjabi. Votroon Votraan, Votain Faelain, faeloon, faelaan Sportraan, spotroon, spotran Edition of words can also be seen i.e Researchmar (researcher), Mintmar (mintue) (hurry up) The Arabic words jaloos, oqaat and khasam has meanings differing in the punjabi and in the Urdu. The Arab word hosla has prononciation differing in Punjabi, Mivati, Gojri and Pothohari. The word Suzuki is used for a machine while the real meanings are different in Japanese.

The speaker and the writer, these foreigners use in the second place the local uses of the routine. The thing interesting is this that the person uses it intentionally. The custmer must still have completely awearness their origen and Prononciation organised to us. The cause of this fact is this that the custmer is besides a native listener of that zone. He wants to carry out what he wants. He has not tention or worry for the disposition of the phrases. The disposition of a line of poetry does not follow the fixed rules of the linguistics. Like example: According to poetic installed: Modat hoe hai yaar ko mehmaan kiay howay (Ghalib) Second the rule of installed language: Yaar ko mehmaan kiay howay modat ho gaee/chali hai.. No doubt language has a key list as far as it regards the expression but the language is not going to express enough the ideas impressions or the sensitiveness or the thoughts. The expression completes with someone other fountains. For exxample: Tone of the conversation Style of the conversation Sense of the conversation

Positions their lies speaker Positions their lies of the listener Atmosphare and condition of the place to the times of the conversation Situation or sitions Reference to the competitions Signs of the body of the speaker Impressions of the forehead of the speaker Movments of the hands (during the meeting) Distingtion between direct or indirect naration Personal taste and interest as far as it regards to go on the meeting

In case of indirect naration, the value of the talk will not remain more then a translation. The talk of that side of the wall can be rasied many complecations and confusions. Because the listener has not knowledge of the situation, need, atmosphare of the meeting as also the body and the forehead is not in his look. We listen the music or the different type sounds in the radiophonic and periodic banns of the TV. Both elements are necessary for the comprehension the expressions and the points of the view. These elements have an importencein the called ones. In fact to write something, is a written talk. The different marks are used in the writing for the freest assembling of the expression. The reader perhaps an expert in the reading but without these marks he cannot clearly understand the meanings of the writing. These marks have their own meanings and can help in the assembling of the meanings of the writing. i.e Roko, mat janay doo. Roko mat, janay doo. At the times of the conversation, the language of the body of the speaker, impressions of the forehead, passes the remains of the marks within the bounds of the supervision of the listener. Not only he listens to the words that besides look at the marks of the body and of the

impressions of the forehead. During the listening only to be able of the meeting but from the look power besides does one relative job. The blind people obtain both the work from their ears (that they observes and that listens to). While the deaf people obtain both the work from their eyes. (that they observes and that looks to). Their look power does double job. This position is not a maximum common. A person listens to sar sar (snakes moving sound) while nothing is before him. With the help of this voice he is able to know that this sound is touching of the snake. A person sees certainly the movment over a bundal of cotton he will automatically come to know that something is moving under the bundal of cotton and he will consider this sure matter of great care. If the experts in language take some pain they can do a lot with the help of these helping elements. They can produce more and more new letters/sounds. For example: A man with his mark of the hand asks to some one have your seat please or to sign by hands to leave the place, if the overseeing person understands the means of these signs so these signs can be converted into letters. Considering like these marks I can introduce the hundreds examples. It is my faith that if the experts in the languages take the living interest and pain sure they will earn good results for their labour.

2.

Sound sheen is very commen in the world languages


After a deep, long, sensative thinking and linguistic experiments of books and interviews with the experts on languages that I have mentioned four points in my writings: a. languages alphabets of exercise are insufficient to meet the streat talking and some very personal conversations/interviews. b. This is a serious and hot need of this age that linguistic experts must do their best to invent and create some more alphabet sounds.

c. Crunt alphabets of the languages have more than one sound in speaking or writing but they are not in record. d. Languages experts should get sounds from nature, streat talks or children talks. They can easily convert these sounds into symbles for alphabet. These points are connected. Someone took them serious, but their attempts turtle are not sufficient to meet the needs of this age. With the passage of time due circumtences different lifestyles and preferences have been totally changed. In every moment of life challenges encountered strange horrible and hard events. These are stand before men as a policy and not as qualified engineer. Geting to register for these events available alphabets are not enough. Poets and writers events paining people face a very uncomfortable. They cover and to over come this deficiency through the sounds made compounds. But this attitude is incorrect and so low standered by all means. These compound sounds alway create complications in prononciation. For example, sheen sound is very commen in the world languages. In eastren, specially sub-continent languages have this sound almost like a part of the sound alphabet. But languages of the west have not this sound like the sound of alphabet. They use ten or more than ten compounds for this sound: 123456ch ce cI sh si ti cliche nietzoche, Fitche, charade, chauvanism croce facial precious, special, social, ancient, apperciate, chicago shift, sheet, shirt, shawal, shrink, ship, shop, shade, shelve asia, malaysia, tesion, demension, inpulsion action, mention, residentional, confidentional essential potential 78910ssi ssu su sch ititial, admition mission, permission, discussion, procession, session issue, assure, pressure sugar, sure, insurance schedule, schizophrenia

These compounds are also other sounds shine. None english speaking reader feel difficulty to pronounce these sounds to made up. What bad or wrong in addtion of a sound on regular bases in alphabet of the

world's languages instead of using many many different types of compounds. S is available in the alphabets of the westeren languages. After S shes (s)sound can be adapted. It can be demonstrated by a second s under line or a line could be put on it. It can be read shes. Do see this added sound in English alphabet: a ay an apple b bi book C ce cat d de dog e ee egg f eff fan g ge/gi girl h eh hen i ae inkwell j jay jug k kay kite l el lemon m em mango n en nothing o oo orange p pe/pi pen q ku r ar rail s es sachool s shes sirt, screening, seet, sawal, srink, korose, nietzose, Crose, Fasal, presous, consous, asa, Malaysa, Menson, essensal, potensal, t te/ti tree u yo umblrella V vi van w dablu whistle, west x ex xrays y wae year z zee (zed Amercian)zoo Certainly first time s (shes) will be appeared as a stranger, but when it will become part of the alphabet sound, people will not feel strange with it.

3.

Native speakers are not feel problem

When I say sheen, kaaf or Chay; people living in sub-continent, chinese Arabic or Persian language speaking, can easily understand that these are their language alphabet sounds/traces. But people of the west or where these sounds are not available in some languages of the world, there people can not easily understand my point of view. Firstly I will try to explain that what is sheen, kaaf or chay. These are the sounds of the alphabet (letters) in Urdu, Punjabi, Barahvi, Balochi, Sindhi, Rajistani, Mivati, Gojra, Haryana, Dakni, Pothohari, Saraeki, Arbitrary, Farsi and many other languages. There forms are as under: sheen: sh It is alphabet sound of subcontinet's language and also in used and regular alphabet letter of Arabic and persian. kaaf k, c, ch for geting this sound in English often c (cat), k (kite) ch (school) are used.) chay: ch for taking this sound in English, often the sound made by a compound ch is used. For example, look over these words: chest, cheep, peach, change, church khay: kh This sound is pure Arabic sound, but very common in many languages of the sub-countinet and have much commentary in Persian. Second point is this that a germen even the English can easily under that in these words: standcliche nietzoche, Fitche, charade, chauvanism. compound sound ch is providing sound sheen (sh). While croce (Atalian) there ce is pronounced sheen (sh); Ka ro shay. Some where ci is also providing sound sheen (sh) for example have a friendly look over these words: facial precious Sh, composed sound is very common and very clear gloss sound letter. For reference see these words: shift, sheet, shirt, shawal, shrink sheep, shall Some where si is used for letter sheen (sh). In these words si is providing sound sheen (sh): Asia, Malaysia In many places composed gloss ti gives the sound sheen (sh): action, mention, essential, potential residentional confidentional Native speakers or even the english speaking persons will not feel problem or difficulty to pronounce these so many compound sounds but same position is not with the none-natives or those who are living in the east or for east. They can read these compound sounds very different way other then the nativess. For example: ch for chay chest ce for si/ke cource, resource, force Compound sound sh in sub-continent for roman script is used for sheen (sh). For example: shak (doubt), sharbat (sweet drink), shadi (marriage, happiness) etc. si for si sick, silk, sink ti for ti citi (city), socity/sociti (socity), beauti (beauty), preti (pretty) For the removal of these severe comlications, I have suggested letter S (shes) which canbe

used for sound sheen (sh) insted of using different componds for geting sound sheen (sh). Compound sound ch has also many complications in pronounciation for none natives. This compound sound needs special attantion and care of language experts. It almost provides five different sounds: 1- chay (ch) chary che re, ch are chaser cha sor 2- kaaf (k) chasm ka zam chemistry kai mist ri 3- sheen Sh/S chassepot sha s po chasseur sha suo 4- h (eh) chasid ha sid chasidic ha si dik 5- khay (kh) munich, mu nikh boch bokh zolicha zo li kha In various languages of east or for east, sh is used in roman/romanji script for sound sheen. For example see these words: shak (doubt) sharbat (sweet drink) shadi (marriage, happiness) shamil (included) shola (flame) si for si sick, silk, sink ti for ti citi (city), socity/sociti (socity), beauti (beauty) Linguists should be to resolve the case arises because the sounds of these compounds. They must provide letters of the alphabet to the sounds made. So ch, sh, ci, ti, si etc. are not only the sounds made by compounds that have complications.

4.

Languages are by the man and for the man

It's a common and open fact that every language sounds and words are getting effect from local and forigen languages. But each language has its own style, word's culture, language speaking, listening and writing system, grammar, sentence requirements, the speaker's attitude, flexsibility in form of organs, its people's behaviour, needs of socity, the economic situation and the circle and social relations. These facts and many other references are most effective helper to invent new sounds and words with the help of imported words from

other languages. If these sounds and words will follow the rules of that language then these words or sounds will have got room in that language or tounge otherwise they will not have space/place in that language. During this process something new take place in that language. For example: 1 - In the westren languages can not be written in Roman characters with the za'ay Farsi ( .) To resolve this matter, compound/substitute sounds j/g/y/ion will be used i.e. mijgaan/miya/mijda/television/decsion 2 - Which language is governed other languages spoken words can be converted that the language sounds available from its own alphabet sounds rather than the original speech sounds. For ready reference please see these examples: (( , , , Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Punjabi Saraeki. Pothohari, Gojri etc.) reads: zikr zaria arzaan namaz zaeef arz zalim zarf kamisan (wife) camizn insted of camisan nozomi (Wish) nozomi, insted of nosomi oozora (Heaven) oozora insted of oosora 3 - Where these sounds are not available there substitute sounds can be used. For reference check out these examples: talwaar tarbooz aaru/aadu rairi/raidi 4 - Words get associated with that language. See these examples: a. advice advice laina, advice karna, advice hona etc. bound bound karna, bound hona, bound nikalna etc. care care karna, care hona, care daina etc. b. vote votroon, votaan, votraan, votain etc. sport spotraan, spotoon, spotain etc. c. mintue mint'mar, research'mar 5 - Sigular plural and sexual identity are lost: * word media is used sigular in Urdu, Punjabi saraeki, Gojra, Barahvi, Gujrati, Pothohari, Pakhto etc. * these words: hoor, ahwal, asami, oqaat are prural in Arabic but are used singular in many languages of the sub-continent. * Firdoos is a Persian word. It is fimine in Punjab, but oposist sex in Sarhad.

6 - In the new language the words often fail to remain their meanings. ie. sex animal glass, jaloos, etc. have not used in their orignal meaning in Urdu, Punjabi etc. As these examples I can present here hundreds. These six examples are enough to demonstrate that words and sounds can not keep their forms and meanings in orignal in other languages. Like many other languages, English have taken hundreds of words and sounds from other languages. English words and sounds have not taken themself to remain in the orignal sounds, forms or meanings. After migration in this language we can not identify their oriban. If the new language to meet the sustitute sounds then what need to deliver through composed migirated sounds?! Hundreds words started by ch and provide sound kaaf (k). I think this is not fair because ch is composed at a time many sounds. For example: ch sh sheen shes s nietzoche cliche, Fitch, charade, chauvanism Khay ch kh Munch, Zelicha (qibti) Chay ch chest, chair, Chester ch kaaf K chemical kemi kl chemist ke mist chiasma ki az'ma chiasmus ki az'mas chimeric ka merik chlorophyl klo ra fil chrismal kriz'ml christ krist chrome krom chronic karonik chromite kromit chroma kroma These words get start by compound ch and are providing sound k. These words are almost came from the greek. Here my goal is depending on three things: 1- English alphabet has its own registered alphabet letter k. What it need to start these words by ch. While this thing was decided that English is a language with its own identity. Because to start migrate words with their original style rules and linguistics established. The compound ch that give sound k (kaaf) canbe written by letter k. 2- chrismal kriz'ml chiasmus ki az'mas reason rezan season seazan treason treazan prose proz rose roz pose poz nose noz hose hoz

lose loz resume rezum resist rezist cosy cozi misery mizeri In many words sound s is giving sound z what need to write it with s why not with z? Many words are available in English, which are providing their orignal sound s (-seen). Please see these words: Dose doz Loose looz Noose nooz Goose gooz 3 - The third point is that some words end with e and this aditional e has no function in a word. For example look at these words: resume, Dose, loose, prose, pink, pose, nose, hose, lose, chromium, chromite I think after removing this extra e, no bad effect can be seen at any stage. Of course this argument can not easily diagest and a book written logic that are different from the language of the street. My opion is that this place to get all the writings in the books of the street and all the writings are on the road but not above or below ground. Literature is by the man and for the man. Languages are by the man and for the man.

5.

The language is a strong element of pride for the people


The language is a strong element of pride for the people. They claim that their language is the best, easy for learning and expression. Their language can express all kinds of thoughts and events. Unfortunately, they express their thinkings about their language for the blind. They never try to learn or know about other languages. Especially now a days people use the dictionary as a perametere for this purpose. They think that their language has words count a lot in other languages later. No doubt, it is certainly a strong argument and rationale for their declaration. I mentioned some where that dictionary is not a useful instrument for the expression or to learn the meanings of a word. It is a source for just over a side or to know a few meanings of a word. But it is not a complete and reliable source for understanding words. Words their pronunciations, meanings and different uses can be culculated only into the streat life. Streat and book languages are different from each other. dictionary/Book can not provide mixsimum informitions required about words. Every language is a representative of a land his people and its culture. The language is bound to follow the needs of a man, thoughts, new events and other situations in progress. But man is not obliged to follow the words as

words are intended to hold the finger of the minds of his people and their souls. Territory and culture of each language has many small groups and cultural objectives. These different cultural groups are: 1a- thinking preferences b. castes c. religions d. Lifestyles e. thoughts f. socity involvement g. political events h. methods gain g. taste for good or bad 2a- knoweldge b- resources of earnigs c- Art d- Work Unit e- Workplaces f- Indoor activities g- Games h- shows Under these infulences facts and circumstances, a language must move towards his goal. Users of a language: 1 - use words as their needs and requirements 2 - say the words in different pronunciations 3 - get very different meanings at different places, event and situations of the words It is barely unsufficient for poets, writers of fiction or drama, historical, political, etc.,to aproch all mini cultues. In this way, he can not detect streat words from different cultures and mini groups of a big cultural set up. For this reason, dictionary always remain a failure machine to collect complete deta about words of streat, their meanings and usages, but behind the record of unculculated word of the street remains in the street. After knowing this fact no one can say with full responsibility that the dictionary is a parametere to compare the words and figure to be counted. In the present age, English is a dominant and ruling language in the world. A class dictionaries are avaiable in the markets. But these two items mentioned above, do not make it the bigest and the largest language in the world. These two elements are in English, can not claim that English literature is unparalleled in other languages to compare.

In the present era more then half population of the world is speaking Chinese. This language has not less then lacs words in chenese literary and none literary books. Besides this fact, hundreds of words can be searched which are wondering in the streat and are waiting for their forms of book. But this thing can not demonstrate that the Chinese is the bigest and the largest language in the world. Reasons is that this language has not massive sounds controls. For none availble sounds, substitutes sounds are alway got the room. Hindvi/Bar-a-Sagirian (Hindi+Urdu) is the second most spoken language in the world. This language can be judged by different ways. For example: 1234567891011121314151617It has more than 63 basic sounds More than 163 compounds of sounds This languages is comparetively more social then other languages of the World It met and took a breath under infulence dozens cultures (1) Its languistics rules and devices allow to its speaker to make pural by different ways. In this strange language singuler can be spoken of pural Many words have dozens of decisions and meanings Many words has dozens of their uses Many words have their dozens forms and verities Many words have meanings that have dozens more space in books. There huhundreds ways to make new words Masadars (2) can be used with the words of other languages (3) lok said, adverbs and masadars are still under culculation. Masadar can be made up by a adition of composed sound "na" after a verb Kay ki can be added to make a name of a place (4) Ka can be used after a verb/noun for the female names (5) Arts have an important and respectable place in the life of a man living in the subcontinent. 18- It 's full of substitutes 19- Compound noun can be done easily by the adition of compound sound kar.(6) Subcontinent is a beautiful land where the art has a certainly very important. Even a common man unconsciously put his hand in the arts. I have a lot of topics and noted the reference in my previous postings. The words that took place in books and dictionaries are hundreds times more than other languages of the world. With reference to cuculation of words it can be easily declared that Hindvi is the bigest and the largest language in the world. But no one should blindly declere this statement because this area has still sincere and serious need for further research. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 - Iraqi, Unani, Arabic, Chinese, Turkish, Afghani, Russian, French Walandaizi, Duch purtaghali, Irani, Aryae, Tatars, etc. 2 - infinite

3 - advice karna, advice Daina, tip laina, capture karna , capture Hona, help Milna help laina, help Daina, help karna, kill karna, kill hona, etc. this attitude and language set set-up is not found in the languages of the world . 4- Patoki, Kamoki, ghoeinki, satoki jaamkay, moreedkay, badhaekay 5- Devika, Anamika, merrika, Ritika,rozika 6- Dinkar parbhakar, diyakar, Ataka, Ziakar, Shankar

(6)

Why to learn Urdu under any language of the world


This age is very strange and painful for slave nations that they are not knowing or not understanding what to do or which to leave. They are breathing under the feet of dominated powers. They have not the clear distination. There deparatments work under the guaiance or the supervision of others. The true unfortunate is this that the powers of forgion do not know there needs, like or dislike, atmosphere mental leval, thought anatomy, working preferences etc. They know only how to return these weak and weak nations and order over their resources. The education department is espcially disrupted by the foreign powers' selfishness, interference and attitude. The principal cources of university have not the individual match of spirit. For example I will talk here on the subject of the language of Hindvi. The langauage of Hindvi (Urdu+Hindi) is a 2nd speaking/using language of the world. It has a stronge expressing power and a sounds system of matching man's nature. In this regard, no language can be held before Hindvi. This language has his own sentence to do the rules and the code. Why to do it jump to learn it under any language of the world. It is true, Muslims have their own methods, phychalogy, attitude, likes or dilikes and life preferences. Reasoning, the two languages affected on their local languages. The Muslims have heart relation with Hindvi and Arabic leanguages. But his average no under which one must think the Hindvi or by or with the assistance of these languages. The languages ie Arabic and the Persian one have possess there installed linguistics and the system of sounds that is different absloutely of the Hindvi or of behind. In the universities Arabic and the Persian one are included as cource. The student must study these two languages. Which need of the study of these two languages to learn the Himdvi. Which links and cocercon of these languages with the Hindvi. One does not think currently nevertheless any language of the world or by the assistance of other languages. They have adopted the so many words of other languages. You can obtain the English as example. It let thousands words adopt of other, not only this English has got a lot of

componds sounds Sh, kh, ph, phy, kh, ch, gh etc. Engish is not thought anywhere in the world by or trough or with the help of any other language. Why the Arabic and the Persian one are included in the principal cources. Which Arabic and persian word took place in the Hindvi is not now the Arabic or Persian. That very different of these two languages by a lot of reasons: There the meanings in the Urdu are different. In the Urdu there the usages are not as there maternal languages Here the words mahajar have the different pronanciation there in value and the value is different The system of linguistics of the Urdu is different quitely of the latter bilingual ones It is stupid and old days thinking that we can not learn and pass know outside the Arabic and the Persian one. While these are languages of seprate so why to lean itself for the better one and learn consequently the language of Urdu. I want to mention a certain example the release and arrangement and to clear my point of view: Hoor, oqaat, asami, ahwaal are pural in Arab but the latter are the unique one used in the Urdu. These words equally are not employed as there systems of linguistis of mother tongues. A more thing they have the different meanings of there maternal language. Aienak (means glasses) is a composed world (Aien, the Arab means eye); runs naak (nose), average smell, (a local word) and never are employed in Arbaic. Zimma; an Arabic word, (means responsible ) but speaks here zomma. Zomawaar, zommadar are heard to the western Pendjab. Tashnagi speaks tishnagi, khalwat speaks khilwat. As these hundreds of words are speaks inside in different. Khasam is employed for the husband and the master. I can here mentioned of the examples of hundreds to show that these mahajar words are have not now a small concern with the Arab or persian. It is true that these languages did the affects on the Hindvi but his average no that now the Hindvi have the Arabic or the Persian become one. On the reasoning that these languages have the affect and deep affections on the Urdu thus these languages are necessary to learn the Urdu, why not English, Japanese, Turkish and a lot of other languages did not include in cources of Masters of Urdu. I think that no one have answar of this question. In the new age English did affects of root on the Hindvi. On this earth masters editors of cource should take the English in the principal cources because morden Hindvi have the word of thousands of English in different model and meanings of form. I recommended that the Hindvi must be matter and treated by the Hindvi because it has its own rules of identity and linguistics. The word transfer from a language to other, is not a strange process. In fact the gathering of

man the other visits men or of man to other places or the man come from different places. They would have to take care of the various works and life bussines. Of this manner they obtain a lot of things of every others. They speak on a lot of questions and burning matters of the day. By this manner, the words move themselves of here to there. The Hindvi is a language of phase and social. It obtain not only of the affects of the other equally put affect of languages on them. A sincer and a researcher working hard can find words of language of Hindvi in different forms and meaning in the world languages.

(7)

Word is nothing without a sentece


It is a fact that the dictionary is a tool useful in order to understand the meaning of the word. Moreover it helps to sense of a word. No doubt dictionary a sure time idenritify a track trace or a sighn. The dictionary to moreover says what a word is in itself if relative pronoun of name or some other more. But my point is this that we cannot render them low to knowing or to understand a word. Perhaps the dictionary demonstrates to a tool or an element helping in the search of the linguistica process. Besiside this, dictionary is often transformed in a hardle to knowing or understanding or discovering of the meanings of a word. A earth part, country does not have a community of the acronyms. That one can have many comunities. That one has always different colors thus, race and different languages that people speak . Not only this the same colors, race pure the same people speaking about language do not have one-way of conversation style or speaking. However cultivation of that country on the whole will be considered one cultivation. Relative it means that cultre of the country, in effects having many mini/little cultivations. Every miniums cultivation have relative the own style, rules and living codes of value of life and tradations social that are only for that cultivation. Perhaps prominente identity of that cultivation. Here the citizen or the country language of comunication of language, own making style, conversation and phrase will even have theirs the rules. The words have the different uses and meanings the other zones. The word second gives to the meaning the relative phrase. Every construction of phrase within of the situation puts into effect them of value of the cultivation, of event or need or of the legal document of conversation. The words moreover give to the meanings second the relative social condition and operation. A word can have different meanings between the person that different the two status.. one is servent while other is landladies. The phrases are spoken in the different experiences and on the situactions different. Here the word differs from already in use to the meaning or available in the meanings of the dictionaries. Reason for which every experiece and every situation perhaps different in the experiences record.The language of the market is not like the domestic language. Here the style and the sense of conversation will be changed automatically. This change, changes the meanings of a word. The market/bazzar is not to consist of a type stores etc. of things and the poeople. Thus infuences of this variety on the meaning of the word.

In fact the word has relative servival and the life in a sentence. Thus the meaningshave deep relationship with the relative one sentece. If we try to having meanings without a phrase that will be limited the word for fixed and already the meanings. While the fact is this that the word is nothing without a sentece. It is to align that the word indicates a sure thing. The chair means a thing for location down. But the chair has many to mean other then this meaning. They are not wrong meanings or unaccepted. As an example: The chair has relative own preferences. The chair must seen all the good ones or bads. The not gradice chair people of the anti-chair. The chair does not have justification for the critics. The chair cannot make some unusual one without relative sporters submissive. The words will not remain the same style, conversation sense or of it pronounces in the different situations, places of differents, between different people and the different houses. It does not forget that to mean and the word form they are living in the movments. The movement supplies energy to a word. After experince and long and deep experiments I have obtained this result that without a doubt; The dictionary is a useful tool for the meanings of words but they are not last and minimal. the second thing is this that the dictionary does not make resolve all the linguistici problems of comunities. The relative meanings supplied perhaps refused to many places, situations, expeiences, needs to be human and necessity. The words have not repaired and stationary meanings. A word that has positive bonds and meanings but it has a strong possibility perhaps that negitive and defective meanings and are available in the market. As an example O (yes, in Urdu acha) it was you who abuse me. (Acha to yah tum thay jis nay mujhy galiaan dein.) O now i have to leave. (acha to ab mein chalta hoon) No doubt you have done a good job./Bilashoba tum nay acha kaam kiya hai. Ab woh acha ho giya hai. Now he is better./Bimar tha sehat'mand ho giya hai/bora tha magar ab bora nahain raha. Urdu word acha is using for good or better.