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. Uses:
1. Manufacture of : Detergents, artificial fabres and paint. 2. As electrolyte in car batteries 3. production of fertilizer

. Manufacture:
. The process called Contact Process . The raw materials used are sulphur, air and water.

The stages of process:

STAGE 1 : Formation Of Sulphur Dioxide
. Molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxde S + O2 . SO2 . Sulphur dioxide alsa can be produced by roasting sulphide ores ( lead )II sulphide) in air.

STAGE 2: Formation Of Sulphur Trioxide

.Sulphur dioxide and access oxygen gas pass over vanadium (V) oxide catalyst at 450 .C to produce sulphur trioxide , SO3. 2 SO2 + O2 . 2SO3 . Optimum condition used are: Temperature: 450 .C Pressure: 1 atm Catalyst : Vanadium(V) oxide .About 97 % conversion occurs under this condition.

STAGE 3 : Formation Of Sulphuric Acid

.Consists of 2 steps:

Step 1 : SO3 is dissolved with concentrated sulphuric acid to form oleum. SO3 + H2SO4 . H2S2O7

Step 2 : Oleum is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid. H2S2O7 + H2O . 2 H2SO4

. H2SO4 can be formed if react SO3 directly to water: SO3 + H2O . H2SO4 But it is not done in industry because SO3 reacts too violently. A lot of heat and large cloud of sulphuric acid mist are produced which are corrosive and can pollute the environment. It is difficult to condense.

SO2 And Environment Pollution

. SO2 is released into atmosphere from: 1. burning of fossil fuels containing sulphur 2. The burning of sulphur (Contact process) 3. The extraction of certain metals from their sulphide ores

Will cause: 1. acid rain 2. coughing 3. chest pain 4. shortness of breath 5. bronchitis and lung disease


Manufacture of Ammonia Through Haber Process This process combines nitrogen gas from the air with hydrogen gas

derived mainly from natural gas to form Ammonia, NH3. Nitrogen gas is obtained from the fractional distillation of liquid air. Hydrogen gas obtained from natural gas.

Step :
1. The ratio of one volume of nitrogen gas to three volumes of hydrogen is passed through the reactor. 2. The mixture is compressed to high temperature ( 200 atm) at 450 .C. 3. Iron is used as catalyst in this process. N2 + 3H2 = 2 NH3

The Properties of Ammonia

. Alkaline . Colourless gas . Pungent smell

. Less dense than water . Burns in oxygen gas but not in air . Is very soluble in water . Gives a white fume when a reacted with hydrogen chloride gas, HCl.

Uses Of Ammonia
. To make fertilizers which is important to provide nitrogen for the healthy growth of plants. . Can be converted to nitric acid which used to synthetic fibres, explosives, wood pulp, paints, varnishes, lacquers rocket propellants.

Preparation Of Ammonium Fetilisers :

. Ammonium fertilizers contain ammonium ions. In the soil, the ammonium ions are oxidised to nitrate ions. . Example of ammonium fertilisers: Ammonium sulphate ( (NH4)2SO4 ) Ammonium nitrate ( NH4NO3 ) Ammonium phosphate ( (NH4)3PO4 )

. Example : What is the percentage by mass of nitrogen in ammonium sulphate, (NH4)2SO4

. Is mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in

which the major component is metal. . Pure metals are make up of the same type and same size of atoms. . The orderly arrangement of atoms make the metal ductile and malleable. . Orderly arrangement of atoms in metal enables the layer of atoms to slide on one another when force is applied.

Arrangement of atom in pure Metal:

Closely packed & In an orderly manner Force Layers of atoms slide over each other. Most pure metals are weak and soft. The properties of pure metal can be improved by making them into alloys. Alloys are stronger, harder, and resistant to corrosion, have a better furnish and luster. The example of alloy. ( refer text book page 160 )

Why make alloys ?

1. To improve the appearance of the pure metal

2. to increase the strength and hardness of the pure metal 3. to increase the resistance to corrosion of the pure metal.

The Arrangement Of Atom In Alloys

. The presence of atoms of other metals that are of different size disturb the orderly arrangement of atoms in the metal. This decrease the layer of atoms from sliding. . Thus alloy is stronger and harder than its pure metal.

Alloy High carbon steel

Composition 99% iron 1% carbon

Properties Strong,hard and high wear resistance Do not rust and tarnish, strong and durable

Uses Making of cutting tools, hammers and chisels Making of surgical instrument, knives, forks and spoons

Stainless steel

80.6% iron 0.4% carbon 18% chromium 1% nickel


70% copper 30% zinc

Hard, do not rust, bright appearance Hard, do not corrode easily and durable

Making of omaments, electrical wiring and plug For casting bells, medals, swords and statues


90% copper 10% tin


90% tin 2.5% copper 0.5% antimony

Duralumin Cupronicked