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GRIMOIRE OF GEOLOGICAL
COMPUTING
Observatory Manual and Site Notes
Microsoft Office 2010 Edition
G. L. Jacquier
Geocomputing Management 2
About the Grimoire of Geological Computing
MASTER THE CORE OF EARTH SCIENCE: PREPARE THE PAST AND
PREDICT THE FUTURE
Grimoire of Geological Computing is the most complete, up-to-date
book on the core technology for geo-information. Youll learn
everything you need to know about preparing earth models in
spreadsheets, Microsoft Access, Geographical Information Systems
(GIS), and Google Earth the latest, more powerful improvement in
understanding nature. But it doesnt stop there. You also get
practical instruction in complementary productivity software such as
Microsoft Word, Publisher and Outlook, and Thomson EndNote;
along with the Glossary of Geological Computing that makes it easier
to understand the brochures for the purchases you will make. Tying
it all together is the authors expert guidance on planning,
developing and maintaining effective, accessible geo-science
computer systems.
Coverage includes
- buying a computer
- Planning and developing public, personal and intranet
sites
- including images for maps
- creating consistent publication styles
- using batch scripts
- including multimedia
- creating dynamic databases
- validating field data
- creating coherent, easily maintainable computer systems
- making your databases searchable
- accommodating users who dont have geological
knowledge
- Creating an earth model
- Extending the earth model with an ore system

Learn to develop effective earth science databases then make the
leap to building effective computer systems. Tackle advanced topics
like MS Excel formula, and Jscript. This book is filled with check lists
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and instructions that will help you make the transition to the latest
technologies. The book includes the Glossary of Geological
Computing explaining software, hardware and management
information systems and more.
Visit www.grantjacquier.info for more information
About the author:
Grant Jacquier, the editor of the Computers in Geology newsletter,
the specialist how-to journal of tips on geological computing, has
been president of the Australian Geoscience Information Association
and founder of the Specialist Group in Computing of the Geological
Society of Australia. After twenty years contracting he is now
concentrating on science stationery.
What the critics are saying:
Ive just skimmed through it. It reminded me of War and Peace
long book, lots of characters, good plot, historical context and lots of
gems just waiting to be plucked. (PM, 2011 Windows 7 edition)
USER LEVEL
ALL LEVELS
BOOK TYPE
HOW-TO/REFERENCE
CATEGORY
GEOSCIENCE INFORMATION

Geocomputing Management 4
Topics
Grimoire of Geological Computing ............................................................................................ 1
About the Grimoire of Geological Computing .......................................................................................... 2
Topics ....................................................................................................................................................... 4
Publication notes ...................................................................................................................................... 6
Preface ...................................................................................................................................... 8
Contents .................................................................................................................................. 19
Facts and checklists............................................................................................................................... 24
Examples and graphs ............................................................................................................................ 27
Commands and algorithms .................................................................................................................... 28
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 31
Why does the computing have to be geological? .................................................................................. 32
What are the key concepts? .................................................................................................................. 47
Why not just buy the software? ............................................................................................................. 65
How do I not blow my money?............................................................................................................... 67
How can I use a computer safely? ........................................................................................................ 77
Where can I get a computer? ................................................................................................................ 95
Chapter 2 METHOD: an ore system acts on an earth model............................................... 97
Replacing my computer system ............................................................................................................ 98
Why use an earth model? .................................................................................................................... 138
More about an ore system ................................................................................................................... 182
The reference & indexing phase .......................................................................................................... 185
The loading data & verification phase ................................................................................................. 190
The analysis & processing phase ........................................................................................................ 205
Corporate information & data sharing phase ....................................................................................... 211
The presentation & mapping phase ..................................................................................................... 217
The archive & reporting phase............................................................................................................. 219
Further reading for IT management? ................................................................................................... 232
Chapter 3 RESULTS: improving your capability ................................................................ 241
A glossary of your special words with dictionary files ......................................................................... 242
A convention poster in Microsoft Publisher ......................................................................................... 247
A Microsoft batch file for project management .................................................................................... 253
An HTML file to keep track of your projects ........................................................................................ 257
A quotation for work ............................................................................................................................. 264
A capital gains calculator ..................................................................................................................... 269
A comparison of vendor quotes ........................................................................................................... 272
A minimalist bibliography system ........................................................................................................ 275
A newsletter mailout............................................................................................................................. 278
Chapter 4 DISCUSSION: integrating data ......................................................................... 282
A training or emergency plan ............................................................................................................... 283
A Search Centre for web-based research ......................................................................................... 286
A catalogue of document files.............................................................................................................. 291
Time and expense account.................................................................................................................. 301
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An asset catalogue for the built environment .......................................................................................308
An asset catalogue for the natural environment ..................................................................................312
A GIS for an investigation site ..............................................................................................................336
One-significant-figure company tracker ...............................................................................................339
Simple cash flow model with scenarios ...............................................................................................341
Transfer of a computer system ............................................................................................................345
Recovery from a computer failure ........................................................................................................376
Chapter 5 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................... 398
Further research ...................................................................................................................................399
Future scripting or purchases ...............................................................................................................403
Appendix SCRIPTS ............................................................................................................ 405
poster.bat ..............................................................................................................................................406
projlib.xsl ...............................................................................................................................................409
Appendix - GLOSSARY ......................................................................................................... 411
Index ...................................................................................................................................... 437

Geocomputing Management 6
Publication notes
Grimoire of geological computing. Microsoft Office 2010 Edition. by
Jacquier, G. L. (1962- ). Published and distributed by:

Computers in Geology
40 St Anns Place, PARKSIDE, SA 5063
The bibliographic record in Thomson EndNote XML export format can
be found at http://www.grantjacquier.info/grimoire.xml. Details of
previous revisons are given in Table 1. This book is intended to be
printed on recycled paper and bound in A5 format to sit conveniently
beside the computer keyboard or kept in a pocket of a computer
bag. Text, script extracts, programs, documents and any other
associated material:
1998, 2000-2011 Computers in Geology, all rights reserved.
All statements and analysis contained in this Grimoire are opinion
only based on information from various sources which the author
believes to be correct. The author accepts no responsibility for
persons acting solely on this information for any purpose. All readers
are advised to get independent advice tailored to their individual
circumstances.
Recommended retail price is AUD 10. Please pay this by either
cheque made out to Grant Jacquier and mailed to the above
address, or give it to me in cash next time you see me at a
Geological Society of Australia meeting.

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Table 1 revisions of the text and reading list
EDITION (scope of purchasing information)
revisions
1

LogiTech (South Australia)
1. c:\data\c_in_g\letters\cig9803.doc
2. c:\data\c_in_g\letters\c2000002.doc
3. c:\archive1\reports\unimelb\yr2000h2\j2000064.ppt
4. c:\data\c_in_g\letters\c2001004.doc
5. c:\archive1\reports\unimelb\yr2001q1\j2001079.ppt
6. c:\archive2\reports\unimelb\yr2002s1\j2002071.ppt
7. c:\archive2\reports\unimelb\yr2002s1\j2002079.ppt, j2002080.ppt
8. c:\data\c_in_g\letters\c2002013.doc
9. c:\data\c_in_g\letters\c2003001.doc
10. c:\data\c_in_g\letters\c2004001.doc
Officeworks (Australia)
11. c:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2005001.doc
12. c:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2006014.doc
13. c:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2007001.doc
14. c:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2008002.doc
15. c:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2009005.doc
16. c:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2010005.doc
17. c:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2011001.doc
18. c:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2011014.docx
NOTES
1
The revisons in the main part of the table are for the text and reading list. The revison of the
bibliographic database is:
i. c:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2001003.enl
ii. c:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2005013.*
iii. c:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2006036.*
iv. c:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2008003.*
and the revison of the glossary is:
1. c:\DATA\C_IN_G\KITBITS\glossary.20010430.enl
2. c:\data\c_in_g\letters\c2003002.rtf
3. c:\data\c_in_g\letters\c2003002.doc
4. c:\DATA\C_IN_G\KITBITS\glossary.20030905.enl
5. c:\data\c_in_g\letters\c2003004.doc
6. c:\data\c_in_g\letters\c2004002.rtf
7. c:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2002001.enl
8. c:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2006020.*
9. c:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2008011.*
10. c:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2010008.*
Geocomputing Management 8
Preface
Grimoire is a book of magical spells and this metaphor reminds me
of how, when I first graduated, exploration and mine geologists
suspiciously viewed the idea of using a computer in the field. I could
use the term black-box, but I worked for Century Geophysical
Australia running down-hole geophysics with the digital CompuLog
system running in an air-conditioned dog box on the back of a
Toyota DA115 20-tonne truck, and that box was cream with blue
stripes.
I had been convinced of the concept of geological by Mr David
Stapledon, the head of school at the South Australian Institute of
Technology where I had studied. He had worked on foundation and
tunnel stability for major earthworks, such as the Snowy Mountains
Scheme, and was then a member of the United Nations Commission
on High Dams advising developing countries on irrigation schemes.
His idea of geological was not: getting the names right on a box
of dusty specimens in a museum, but determining the earth-logic,
as he called it, of the particular landscape where the construction
was taking place, and then feeding back into the design, more
realistic estimates of the physical properties involved. He impressed
me because it was a philosophy which put science to the folk lore I
had grown up with: bushcraft, boat-handling and watching the sea;
every good bushman, seaman, prospector, miner, farmer and builder
was a geologist, whether they knew it or not. In their time the logic
demonstrated by these workers, was as magical to the uninitiated,
as the entrance of the First Fleet into Port Jackson was to the
Australian aborigine. Also at the Institute I had been given
opportunity to use the mainframe computer and after years of
suffering my manual calculation being spoiled by simple arithmetic
errors, I was grateful for how you could easily repeat and adjust any
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calculation. The combined concept of geological computing
crystallised for me after I reduced all the data from the Lochiel Trial
Pit investigation, and demonstrated the simplest of dewatering
models. I was then working for the Electricity Trust of South
Australia, who had embarked on a million dollar investigation, after
initial measurements conducted by a consulting civil engineer had
indicated that dewatering was highly complex. In comparing the
data from the two studies, I found that the simplest of calibration
errors and misplaced assumptions were the difference, and if the
initial results had been carefully adjusted it would have removed the
need for such an expensive follow-up experiment. Again more
magic.
So this particular grimoire is a collection of tables, diagrams and
references to papers on all aspects of geological computing. It also
contains glossary items that will be eventually transferred to the
Computers in Geology glossary. At each draft I have tried to add
more functionality to the document to make it more applicable for
special uses such as teaching, programming or system design but at
the same time use the separate parts to provide a more
comprehensive vision of geological computing. The next sections of
this preface discuss how I have gone about this.
Who should read this grimoire?
Geologists will always suffer not being at the same scale as their
subject, and have always been chasing down tools to help them
encompass the sheer massiveness of the Earth. In earlier years
geologists have enlisted the stratigraphic diagram, and geological
maps then later there were globes for continental drift and aerial or
space photography. Computers are just another way of reducing a
model of the earth to about the size of a tabletop, so a handful of
workers can share ideas and put forward theories based on the same
data set.
Apart from the general need for computing there are some special
cases that this grimoire addresses and provide the themes for the
exercises:
- The exploration geologist, funded by seed capital, [or more
modestly, a mortgage on the family home] who is preparing
Geocomputing Management 10
an initial prospectus offering (IPO) before floating an
exploration company on the stock exchange.
- Tonge
a
expands on the flexibility available to a consultant
working from an office at home and how it is an advantage
to clients.
- Roach
b
asks that every geologist thinks about preparing local
field guides for their local schools, to help improve delivery
of earth science education. Allowing a geologist to publish a
local geology field guide, without the full facilities of a
geological survey, has only come about because of the rise
of desktop publishing and mapping software for PC
workstations.
The examples generally are for what I call light computing systems.
That is those systems, which are light in terms of weight, cheap and
quick to build. Systems like these are required for geologists:
needing a reasonably mobile field system, undertaking their
PhD/honours project, working on seed capital before floating an
exploration company, leading a local environment group, making a
local field guide for schools, or running a one-person consultancy.
Other geological computing books
This Grimoire is not going to be for everyone; it is subjective, and
takes the perspective of an old-hand working alone. The shortage of
skilled labour in the 21
st
century is encouraging more professionals
to remain practicing. For example Technology & more ran an article
in 2008
c
on one of their clients, a surveyor Jeff Gwin in South
Carolina, who with 23 years experience, and lots of certifications in
heavy construction inspection, materials testing uses a robot
theolodite to peg a four-lane highway, be on call for the construction
company, and runs the whole thing out of a caravan parked next to
the new pavement. If you prefer something more fact-based you
might try:

a
Rob Tonge, How to become a successful consultant in your own field (Coolum Beach, 1991).
b
Michael Roach, 'Australian earth science education and the GSA', The Australian Geologist no. 132
(2004), pp. 22-26.
c
'Efficient by Choice', Technology & more no. 2008-1 (2008), p. 25.
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- I reviewed Hillel
d
for The Australian Geologist
e
, and I found
this a very practical and mathematical approach to applied
geology, though he does not provide any programming
solutions, only the algorithms.
- Keith Johns (1974
f
) a former Chief Government Geologist
has a short review on the role of a geological survey which
gives the policy behind geological data collection and
management practice.
- Regan (1990)
g
is similar but for a commercial perspective,
- see Nadar (1992)
h
for the computing perspective,
- or Berkman (1989)
i
for field practices.
But if you still want something subjective, there are alternatives to
my industry focus. These approaches would better suit those
scientists in academia or government:
- In 2005, Graziella Caprallelli
j
reviewed the work of
Haneburgk which is based around the software Mathematica
loaded with the CompGeosci.m library.
- In Dentith (2008)
l
the experience of the staff of the
University of Western Australia is outlined, in how to put
together a digital mapping programme for students,
including hints on the camp, equipment, software and
training.
- For the caf latte drinkers doing their field work by mobile
phone: Cockbain in 2011
m
reviewed the EarthObserver
application for accessing the Marine Geoscience Data

d
Daniel Hillel, Introduction to environmental soil physics (Burlington, Massachusetts, 2004).
e
Grant L Jacquier, 'Introduction to Environmental Soil Physics by Daniel Hillel. The Elsevier Academic
Press.', The Australian Geologist no. (2004).
f
R. K. Johns (ed.), History and Role of Government Surveys in Australia (Adelaide, 1976).
g
Michael Regan, 'Copyright,' in Australian Business Dictionary (Melbourne: Australian Business Library,
1990).
h
Jonah C. Nadar, 'Prentice Hall's illustrated dictionary of computing,' in Prentice Hall's illustrated
dictionary of computing (Ealglewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentic Hall, Inc., 1992).
i
David A Berkman, Field geologist's manual, vol. 9 (Parkville, Victoria, 1989).
j
Graziella Caprarelli, 'Computational Geosciences with Mathematica', The Australian Geologist no. 137
(2005), p. 39.
k
William C Haneburg, Computational Geosciences with Mathematica (2004).
l
Mike Dentith, 'Introducing digital geological mapping into a 3rd-year field unit: experiences at the
University of Western Australia', The Australian Geologist no. 149 (2008), p. 3.
m
Tony Cockbain, 'EarthObserver', The Australian Geologist no. 159 (2011), p. 41.
Geocomputing Management 12
System
n
(GeoMapApp, Virtual Ocean) from Lament-Doherty
Earth Observatory at Columbia University.
The physical format
This Grimoire began as a printed page of references that I thought
had significance for a geologist using a computer. It has since then
become an A5 book hand bound with a metal binder complete with
plastic cover and carbboard backing page and then as an e-book.
Even though we are working outside which is obviously very
spacious, I often end up doing the paperwork undercover from the
rain or in other places where layout space is limited, such as site or
home offices and hotel rooms, so I have kept the book in A5 format.
I find this particularly useful for the check lists.
The typesetting has always been done in Microsoft Word, though the
companion Glossary of Geological Computing has been stored in a
text files, Windows Card file, Microsoft Excel and most recently a
Thompson EndNote bibliographic database. In 2002 Franco
Smargiani from StereoAid had visited and asked that any work I do I
keep in Microsoft Word, so that when I was confident with what I
had, it would give them an opportunity to publish the Grimoire for
Australian readers.
In 2006 I began experimenting with Microsoft Office Document
Image format that was produced from Microsoft Word. From 13
th

draft in 2007 the MDI file has been available for download from the
Computers in Geology website. This gave me an opportunity to get
feedback from my clients, and practice what looked good in type. In
2011, Paul Maconochie wrote to me that Microsoft had simply
removed the program for viewing .mdi files from Office 2007 and
2010. If I was able to save the Grimoire to an alternative, less
proprietorial format (tif, pdf, doc etc), that would be appreciated. He
had scanned the web for a reader, tried it and immediately got a
virus warning so at that stage he gave up. I also hit that problem
when I moved to Windows 7 but Microsoft Office 2010 has an Adobe
portable document format (PDF) writer often used for documents

n
The Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS) includes web-sites: www.marine-geo.org, www.earth-
observer.org, www.geomapapp.org, www.virtualocean.org

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and e-books. Pauls comments prompted me to finish my notes on
the migration to Windows 7, and so the draft 17/Windows 7
edition was uploaded (six months ahead of schedule) in PDF format
complete with bookmarks to help navigation. It does take about a
minute to download but as I only do a new edition each year, you
can just download it once and keep it on your laptop.
Script reference introduced in draft 14
In draft 14 of 2008, a script reference was set up in the appendix.
This came about because I have been increasing the use of complex
eXtensible Markup Languages (XML) documents to re-format raw
data files into specific reports on web-pages. For example this
method gives me the advantage of keeping a running list of search
engine references and then uploading a new edition of the data file
to the web-site, without having to re-edit that particular HTML page
of the report. I can check and edit the data file in Thompson
EndNote, a computer program for managing bibliographies, faster
than I can keep a block of links and text in a web-page.
I have some theories on why this will work out better in the long
term but it is not something that I would recommend generally, so I
have left the explanation on my web site
h
. Instead I have copied a
few of the more useful scripts into the appendix just for you to make
the best use of as you can, and to help, there are suggestions in the
Exercises chapter.
Exercises formalised into teaching units from draft 12
In draft 12 of 2006, the appendix of exercises was shifted to
Chapter 4 METHODS: improving your capability, with each
example being more difficult than the last, it provides a syllabus for a
series of computing practicals. This structure is primarily intended for
teachers but may also be of interest to the retired scientist getting to
know their recently purchased system. The examples are still cross
referenced in the main text to allow you to build up a system as you
need it.
The appendix of statistical distributions is now Chapter 5
RESULTS: statistical distributions this reflects that computing
methods are essentially numeric and thought must be given to the
Geocomputing Management 14
nature of the expected outcome of any operation. The previous two-
part bibliography has been separated into Chapter 6 DISCUSSION;
further reading and the Appendix: REFERENCES, the latter contains
only those items referenced in the narrative. The REFERENCE now
follows the Index, as this allows me to use the automatic endnote
facility available with the Thompson EndNote program.
The Ballarat map-sheet case study has been dismembered from
Chapter 4 and combined into the two background chapters. This
gives the opportunity for an example for a sub-section even where
there isnt a narrative. Finally a conclusion was added to bring
together the most important things that still have to be sorted out
for these >$10 000 geo-computing systems.
Cross-references and Indexes
In draft 9 the indexing of proper nouns was introduced and where
this corresponded with a headword in the glossary, the page number
given in the index was marked in bold. In draft 13 of 2007 the index
was situated behind the glossary before the Appendix with the
reference, to put it at the back of the book.
I have also tried a few things with the reading lists. In draft 11 the
structured reading lists from the appendix were attached to different
chapters as the last section of each chapter. In draft 18, I moved
them to make a discussions chapter. In future editions, I hope
footnotes will replace the need for reading lists altogether:
1. Principally, footnotes are being used to allow readers to
photocopy a particular page and stick it to the wall as a
reminder, or use it as check list or working plan, in the
fashion of Berkman (1989)
o
.
2. With draft 14, I got rid of the reference; the footnotes were
enough, so the index was the last section. Then in draft 19,
Thomson EndNote XI software put all the references back at
the end of the book. This is not a bad thing as the footnotes
are brief and the extended reference will help you find the
book, so I havent bothered to turn that feature off.

o
Berkman, Field geologist's manual.
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3. With the second edition I found that the footnotes were
taking up too much room and I reformatted them to the
same size as the tables.
4. With Microsoft 2010, I was able to restart the footnote
numbering by section, thereby coping with multiple page
tables, and keep the numbering using letters (some of the
footnote labels were getting impractically long for example
mmmmm), and stop confusion with any table notes that do
use numbers.
Examples
This book uses Australian examples. This is because it is targeted to
Australian geologists practising in the mining industry. However, this
does not preclude use in an international context, quite the reverse
in fact. A peculiar combination of custom, luck and economics makes
Australia an ideal case study for geological computing. It was by luck
that Australia was wholly settled by the British, which led to the first
continent nation Australia. Geologists with one language and
without passports can examine the complete geological system from
ocean crust to ocean crust. It was custom that decided that the
mineral wealth should belong to the Crown and so all geological
records are freely (or almost freely) available to the public and that
that wealth should be untouched until the nineteenth century. The
economic strength of the very active Australian mining industry
means the Australian continent is well studied. With the Internet
audience in mind, tables include northern hemisphere examples for
comparison and regular professional use.
For geologists getting their first computer I have included the
specification I used to select my most current computer. In draft 11
the case study has been rewritten from bullet-points into narrative.
The case study is supplemented by specific exercises within the
discussion to help scientists and students build their own system as
they are reading the notes. I have taken care to select software that
is available for commercial use. For example the Student & Home
edition of Microsoft Office, and FamilySearch Personal Ancestral File,
are very nice software, but the licensing is restricted to home or
non-commercial use. On the other hand if you pay more it is always
tax deductible either as a cost of business or education. That said, I
have shopped on a budget to maximise the money for the
Geocomputing Management 16
conventional research items like satellite imagery, field expenses and
laboratory fees.
Check lists
In draft 11 of 2005, the large and more complex data tables of
previous drafts were moved to the Computers in Geology table
server
p
. Where this has occurred there will be pointer to the direct
web address of that table. The remaining tables were slowly turned
into check lists and these you can print two pages to an A4 page, or
print the A5 page in the corner of the A4 page for extra editing
space.
To print out the check lists two pages to an A4 sheet with the
binding gutter on the outside, you can put these in a clipboard, the
clip occupies the gutter margin, and leave on it on your lap while you
use your laptop propped up on the dashboard (still plugged into the
cigarette lighter). The example commands to do this are Equation 1.
Equation 1 printing out two pages of check lists
File | Print
Pages: 177-178
Pages per sheet: 2 pages
Scale to paper size: No Scaling
In the second method, I print the A5 checklist on a single A4 page,
and I use this where I am adjusting or modifying the check list or
where I think I will need a lot of additional notes. The broad margins
to the right and bottom of the checklist give me plenty of room for
additional notes, edits and layout improvements lots of arrows and
scribbled notes. The final mad scrawl can be filed into a single folder
to act as a work journal and is a more structured record of the work
(usually there is a date and some files names at least) than if I had
written it free form in a notebook.
In writing this book I also use these check lists. If I have new work
and I think it will resemble work I have done previously, I look it up
in procedural order, take the page number/ table references and find
the adjacent procedures. These often have already been updated,

p
The URL for the Computers in Geology table server is http://www.grantjacquier.info/develop.htm
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from another task, in the latest version; and I modify them further.
In this way I get more general procedures, make the check lists
more fact rich, and find opportunities for scripting repetitious tasks.
Geocomputing Management 18
Acknowledgement
The following people were colleagues and participated in this book
by their interaction in work that forced these concepts to be
recognised. Business is a voluntary association and I thank these
people for talking to me.
Triegue ALLEN Jim ALVEY ANAWATI Maria Wayne ASPINALL Steve AUFDERHEIDE
Matthew BALL Richard BEARE Claire BEHAN Danielle BIEG Iain BISHOP Mark BISHOP
Rowan BLAKE Jeremy BOLTON Keith BOYLE Belinda BRIDGMAN Mark BROWNE Robin
BROWNE Mike BRUMBY Suryakant BULGAUDA Kingsley BURLINSON David CARVER
Helen CHALLEN Nico CHART Adrian CORVINO Aaron CUMMINGS Jim DAY Lester
DAVIES Michael DeBROUGHE Steve DeCAUX Patrick DesPLAND Wayne DEGANCE Neil
DONNELLAN Matt DUBSKY Ian EDWARDS Graeme ERRINGTON-WOOD David EVANS
Julian EVANOCHKO Mark EVERSON John FACCI Shane FARRELLY Bernie FARROW
Mary-Ellen FEENEY-FERNANDEZ Max FRATER Tomas GANDUGLIA Darren GRAETZ
Carmine GRASSO David GRYBOWSKI Chris HALL Lisa HALL Jo-Ann HART Rachel
HARVEY Alasdair HAMILTON Nanthea HANNING Tanya HAYWARD Rob HEATH Lanair
HEDGER-SMITH Martin HENDERSON Richard HILLIS Volker HIRSINGER Malcolm
HORTON Sarah HOWIE Peter HOPGOOD Curtis HUMPHRIES David HUDSON Gareth
HENDERSON Gary HUNTER Brendan ISBISTER Jim JAGO Lisa JEFFRIES Mark JOLLY
Bob JOHNSON Chris KAY Irene KIVIOR Zbigniew KIVIOR Neil KOWALD Andrew
KREMOR Rudhi KURNIADI Bob LAWRENCE Joseph LEACH Nick LEMON LOOI Siew
Yuan Chris LUXTON Steve MACKIE Shaylene McCLURE Paul MACONOCHIE John
McCORMACK Leigh MacPHERSON Andy MAGEE Robert MALCOLM Mandy MARLOW
Greg MARCUS Dave MASTERS Angelos MAVROMATIDIS Ben MORETTI Dewi MORGAN
Alistair MUIR Ed NEIL Dutch NEISWENDER Rob NORMAN Mick OBRIAN Cliff OGILVY
John PARKER Nick PAPNICOLAOU Malcolm PARK Joanna PEARSON Annette PETERS
Carrina PHOENIX Andy PIETSCH Chris PORTER James PRICE Tim RADY Ilene REX
Julie ROBERTS Steve ROBERTSON Brett ROGERS Daniel ROGERS Rod RYBURN Milena
ROUSSEKOV Dave SALVIN Naz SAUNDERS David SAVAGE David SCHUBERT Rob
SHAW Jeremy SIMPSON Jill SLATER Ric SMIT Cheryl SMITH Kerry SMITH Elaine
SPENCE Ray SPICER Gavin SPRINGBETT Wence SULDA Darren STANTON David
STAPLEDON Ed TADIAR Paul THEOLOGOU Lisa THOMAS Ann TOOMATH Melissa
VALLEE Sam WALKER David WARNER Jasi WATSON Mark WEBER Bob WILTSHIRE
Kerryn WINKLEY Kuniko YAMADA Zuraidah
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Contents
Grimoire of Geological Computing ............................................................................................ 1
About the Grimoire of Geological Computing .......................................................................................... 2
Coverage includes ........................................................................................................................ 2
About the author: ........................................................................................................................... 3
What the critics are saying: ........................................................................................................... 3
Topics ....................................................................................................................................................... 4
Publication notes ...................................................................................................................................... 6
Preface ...................................................................................................................................... 8
Who should read this grimoire? .......................................................................................................... 9
Other geological computing books ...................................................................................................10
The physical format ..........................................................................................................................12
Script reference introduced in draft 14 .............................................................................................13
Exercises formalised into teaching units from draft 12 ....................................................................13
Cross-references and Indexes .........................................................................................................14
Examples ..........................................................................................................................................15
Check lists.........................................................................................................................................16
Acknowledgement ............................................................................................................................18
Contents .................................................................................................................................. 19
Facts and checklists ...............................................................................................................................24
Examples and graphs.............................................................................................................................27
Commands and algorithms ....................................................................................................................28
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 31
Why does the computing have to be geological? ..................................................................................32
A big bamboozle ...............................................................................................................................34
Surely it is just spatial information ....................................................................................................35
Variation of scale is common in geology ..........................................................................................38
Perhaps it is the uncertainty of it all ..................................................................................................42
What are the key concepts? ...................................................................................................................47
stratigraphy .......................................................................................................................................47
mathematical context ........................................................................................................................49
earth model .......................................................................................................................................54
natural history computing system .....................................................................................................56
ore system ........................................................................................................................................59
application of geological computing .................................................................................................60
Why not just buy the software? ..............................................................................................................65
Geocomputing Management 20
How do I not blow my money?............................................................................................................... 67
Understanding the weaknesses of the American marketing style ................................................... 69
Understanding the weaknesses of the Australian marketing style .................................................. 71
Understanding the weaknesses in the British marketing style ........................................................ 72
A little experience with the Nordic style of marketing ...................................................................... 75
How can I use a computer safely? ........................................................................................................ 77
Intellectual property hazards ............................................................................................................ 81
Marital hazards ................................................................................................................................. 84
Data theft .......................................................................................................................................... 85
Identity Crime .............................................................................................................................. 87
Legionellosis, temperature and humidity stress............................................................................... 92
Where can I get a computer? ................................................................................................................ 95
Chapter 2 METHOD: an ore system acts on an earth model............................................... 97
Replacing my computer system ............................................................................................................ 98
The MrsPots system, used 2005 to 2011 .............................................................................. 103
The Luminiere system, used 2000 to 2005 ............................................................................ 103
Environment of use ........................................................................................................................ 105
Software modules .......................................................................................................................... 107
operating system software ........................................................................................................ 109
Optional utility software ....................................................................................................... 110
Software for finding computer viruses ................................................................................ 112
software required to be supplied .............................................................................................. 115
System Hardware ........................................................................................................................... 116
The chip set for the computer ................................................................................................... 120
secondary storage .................................................................................................................... 122
data backup device ................................................................................................................... 123
Computer ports and a local-area-network (LAN) ..................................................................... 125
More than just ports ............................................................................................................ 127
Modem and wide-area-network (WAN) .................................................................................... 127
printer ........................................................................................................................................ 129
Hewlett Packard Deskjet 880C ........................................................................................... 131
Hewlett Packard Photosmart C2780 Multi-function printer ................................................. 132
Cannon Bubblejet ................................................................................................................ 133
Manuals, servicing and maintenance support ............................................................................... 134
Comparison and delivery ............................................................................................................... 136
Why use an earth model? .................................................................................................................... 138
The Ballarat sheet earth model ...................................................................................................... 139
The logic processing sub-system ................................................................................................... 139
Establishing the logic of the Ballarat earth model .................................................................... 146
The geometry processing sub-system ........................................................................................... 147
Public mapping standards ........................................................................................................ 151
Recommended projections ....................................................................................................... 153
universal transverse Mercator ............................................................................................. 159
Albers Equal Area Conic ..................................................................................................... 163
VICMAP-TM (Transverse Mercator) ................................................................................... 163
VICMAP and VICGRID ....................................................................................................... 165
Other projections in general use .............................................................................................. 166
Ballarat cartographic module .................................................................................................... 167
Astronomy processing sub-system for an earth model ................................................................. 167
Astronomy processing module for the Ballarat earth model .................................................... 170
The algebraic processing sub-system ........................................................................................... 171
analytic module for the Ballarat earth model ............................................................................ 174
The grammar processing sub-system............................................................................................ 176
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The rhetoric processing sub-system ..............................................................................................179
Desktop publishing system .......................................................................................................180
Microsoft PowerPoint ................................................................................................................180
More about an ore system ...................................................................................................................182
The development phases of a Ballarat ore system ........................................................................184
The reference & indexing phase ..........................................................................................................185
Electronic reference and indexing ..................................................................................................186
Reference and indexing for a Ballarat ore system .........................................................................188
The loading data & verification phase ..................................................................................................190
Statistics for field data ....................................................................................................................192
Discrete distribution of variables ...............................................................................................192
Continuous distributions of variables ........................................................................................201
The analysis & processing phase ........................................................................................................205
Analysis & processing for a Ballarat ore system ............................................................................207
Geological model - facts ...........................................................................................................208
orogenic gold mineralisation ................................................................................................208
Geological model - fiction ..........................................................................................................208
Mathematical model ..................................................................................................................209
Assumptions ........................................................................................................................209
GIS model ............................................................................................................................209
Select the input data .................................................................................................................209
Intersections of faults and host rock .........................................................................................210
Select fault intersections within hydrothermal influence ...........................................................210
Corporate information & data sharing phase .......................................................................................211
The Head Office syndrome .............................................................................................................212
Some theory of database design ....................................................................................................213
A good bet: the Extranet .................................................................................................................214
The Ballarat demonstration ............................................................................................................215
The presentation & mapping phase .....................................................................................................217
Presentation & mapping for a Ballarat ore sytem...........................................................................218
The archive & reporting phase .............................................................................................................219
Mapping the layout of your directories to projects..........................................................................224
Managing your archive and reporting system ................................................................................225
The hardware considerations .........................................................................................................229
Further reading for IT management? ...................................................................................................232
Further reading regarding Reference & indexing ...........................................................................238
Further reading regarding Analyses & processing .........................................................................238
The future for corporate information & data sharing ......................................................................238
Further reading regarding Mapping & presentation .......................................................................239
Chapter 3 RESULTS: improving your capability ................................................................ 241
A glossary of your special words with dictionary files ..........................................................................242
Adding your custom dictionaries to Microsoft Office and Thompson EndNote..............................245
A convention poster in Microsoft Publisher ..........................................................................................247
Adding extra figures to the poster ..................................................................................................249
A Microsoft batch file for project management ....................................................................................253
An HTML file to keep track of your projects .........................................................................................257
XML provides versatility in data handling .......................................................................................259
A quotation for work .............................................................................................................................264
Calculations for a campaign of field work .......................................................................................264
A capital gains calculator .....................................................................................................................269
A comparison of vendor quotes ...........................................................................................................272
A minimalist bibliography system .........................................................................................................275
Make a concordance file for Microsoft Word. .................................................................................276
Geocomputing Management 22
Make a glossary from the glossary database. ............................................................................... 276
Apply the concordance file to make index. .................................................................................... 276
Format the bibliographic references .............................................................................................. 277
Insert the glossary document into the report document ................................................................ 277
Update the report index .................................................................................................................. 277
A newsletter mailout............................................................................................................................. 278
Assumptions ................................................................................................................................... 278
Procedure ....................................................................................................................................... 279
Results............................................................................................................................................ 281
Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................... 281
Chapter 4 DISCUSSION: integrating data ......................................................................... 282
A training or emergency plan ............................................................................................................... 283
A Search Centre for web-based research ......................................................................................... 286
A catalogue of document files.............................................................................................................. 291
Software and assumptions ............................................................................................................. 292
The use of Thomson EndNote in preference to Microsoft Excel as a catch-all document database
........................................................................................................................................................ 294
Methods of making a catalogue file ............................................................................................... 297
Export an HTML catalogue direct from Thomson EndNote ................................................ 299
Using Microsoft Excel for editing of the catalogue .............................................................. 300
The future: dedicated catalogue applications ..................................................................... 300
Time and expense account.................................................................................................................. 301
Summarising your work for an accounting period ......................................................................... 302
Preparation of the Journal function in Microsoft Outlook ............................................................... 304
Configuring your Journal reporting spreadsheet ........................................................................... 305
Report the figures for an accounting period ................................................................................... 306
An asset catalogue for the built environment ...................................................................................... 308
An asset catalogue for the natural environment .................................................................................. 312
Google Earth versus HTML links between plans ........................................................................... 315
Make a location plan as the abstract ............................................................................................. 316
Make a KML file for the introduction .............................................................................................. 317
Use photographs as the background ............................................................................................. 320
Share the folders of your digital photographs on your intranet ................................................ 320
Showing thumbnails with Microsoft Internet Explorer .............................................................. 322
Mount the photographs in Google Earth .................................................................................. 325
Show your methods by local government area.............................................................................. 326
Plot your results as thematic data .................................................................................................. 328
Conclude with a map published to the intranet .............................................................................. 329
A GIS for an investigation site ............................................................................................................. 336
Manipulating Atlas boundary files .................................................................................................. 337
One-significant-figure company tracker ............................................................................................... 339
Simple cash flow model with scenarios ............................................................................................... 341
Transfer of a computer system ............................................................................................................ 345
Documenting your computer .......................................................................................................... 346
Before acceptance activity ............................................................................................................. 348
After acceptance testing................................................................................................................. 351
Make your own Panic sticker ......................................................................................................... 353
Installing Microsoft Office data ....................................................................................................... 354
Transferring Microsoft Outlook data............................................................................................... 357
business data ............................................................................................................................ 360
correspondence received ......................................................................................................... 361
Loading and configuring software .................................................................................................. 363
Setting up an intranet ..................................................................................................................... 364
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Installing the IIS service ............................................................................................................366
Mounting directories on the intranet .........................................................................................367
Mounting Microsoft Access databases on the intranet .............................................................368
Making a splash page ...............................................................................................................370
Cleaning out specific disk references .......................................................................................370
Preparing a computer for disposal .................................................................................................371
Removing Microsoft Office data ................................................................................................373
Recovery from a computer failure ........................................................................................................376
Glossary of panic ............................................................................................................................377
asset folder ................................................................................................................................377
diagnostics ................................................................................................................................377
display folder .............................................................................................................................378
DSL............................................................................................................................................378
OEM ..........................................................................................................................................378
recovery disk .............................................................................................................................379
universal serial bus (USB) ........................................................................................................379
Do this if you are panicking! ...........................................................................................................379
If you have panicked do this! ..........................................................................................................380
Return the computer to Internet use .........................................................................................381
Mobile phone network .........................................................................................................384
Return the computer to printing documents use .......................................................................386
Return the computer to editing documents use ........................................................................389
Return the computer to book-keeping use................................................................................392
Return the computer to communications use ...........................................................................393
Restart the science data processing .........................................................................................396
Chapter 5 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................... 398
Further research ...................................................................................................................................399
Orphaned references ......................................................................................................................401
Future scripting or purchases ...............................................................................................................403
Generating a catalog file .................................................................................................................404
Converting image files to Grid files .................................................................................................404
Appendix SCRIPTS ............................................................................................................ 405
poster.bat ..............................................................................................................................................406
projlib.xsl ...............................................................................................................................................409
Appendix - GLOSSARY ......................................................................................................... 411
Index ...................................................................................................................................... 437


Geocomputing Management 24
Facts and checklists
Table 1 revisions of the text and reading list ................................................................................................ 7
Table 2 definitions of spatial information sourced by Winter (2008) ........................................................... 36
Table 3 Geological cartoon by terrain class and use with type of development (after Berkman) .............. 41
Table 4 mapping database design steps to geological computing concepts ............................................. 47
Table 5 stratigraphic systems ..................................................................................................................... 49
Table 6 relating three broad regimes of mathematics to geoscience application ...................................... 50
Table 7 geological modelling in a universal context ................................................................................... 50
Table 8 geological modelling in a spatial context ....................................................................................... 52
Table 9 geological modelling in a spatial-historical context ........................................................................ 52
Table 10 components of a computer system used for natural history ........................................................ 55
Table 11 a matrix of software for Computers in Geology before the introduction of Google Earth prior to
2005.................................................................................................................................................. 56
Table 12 natural history computing system for Computers in Geology circa 2010 .................................... 58
Table 13 review of algorithm against geophysical measurement, processing and hardware .................... 62
Table 14 marketing examples and commercial risk in geological computing ............................................ 70
Table 15 check list of system-design measures against hazard category ................................................. 80
Table 16 a comparison of risk reduction for data theft................................................................................ 87
Table 17 risk matrix for identity theft ........................................................................................................... 90
Table 18 consequences of identity crime.................................................................................................... 90
Table 19 previous systems for Computers in Geology ............................................................................... 96
Table 20 shopping list for a geological computer system ......................................................................... 102
Table 21 minimum specification for a new computer system ................................................................... 107
Table 22 software for the Computers in Geology computing system ..................................................... 108
Table 23 major vendors and key to Table 22 ........................................................................................... 109
Table 24 drivers for additional devices ..................................................................................................... 110
Table 25 utility software against function .................................................................................................. 111
Table 26 satisfaction matrix for virus-protection for a laptop .................................................................... 115
Table 27 software to be supplied with the hardware ................................................................................ 116
Table 28 computer components (central processing unit) ........................................................................ 119
Table 29 current backup policy using a range of materials ...................................................................... 124
Table 30 ports for a hub, computer or printer ........................................................................................... 126
Table 31 check list for an observatory printer ........................................................................................... 131
Table 32 resolution for the HP Photosmart printer ................................................................................... 133
Table 33 packing lists for different activities ............................................................................................. 135
Table 34 checklist for the premier quote and delivery .............................................................................. 137
Table 35 script editors for capturing logic ................................................................................................. 141
Table 36 pick list of MapViewer files for maps .......................................................................................... 149
Table 37 suggested projections by terrain class ....................................................................................... 153
Table 38 general guide for use of map projections ................................................................................... 154
Table 39 Lambert Conformal Conic projections ....................................................................................... 155
Table 40 geodetic monitoring networks after Featherstone
2
................................................................... 157
Table 41 central meridian
2
for western hemisphere UTM zones
1
............................................................ 159
Table 42 central meridian
2
for eastern hemisphere UTM zones
1
. ............................................................ 159
Table 43 estimates of offset from the MGA (Mapping Grid of Australia) coordinates for the old AMG
(Australian Mapping Grid) and other datum................................................................................... 160
Table 44 official mapping grids used by Australian governments, sorted by projection used.................. 161
Table 45 increasing precision of geodetic data ........................................................................................ 162
Table 46 geoid models .............................................................................................................................. 163
Table 47 Albers Equal Area Conic projection for VICMAP ....................................................................... 163
Table 48 cartographic spheroids sorted by geometry............................................................................... 166
Table 49 projections for government publications in Victoria ................................................................... 167
Table 50 recommendation for time axes versus action examples ........................................................... 169
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Table 51 mathematics for geological problems after Berkman .................................................................171
Table 52 official height data. ......................................................................................................................172
Table 53 digital elevation models in order of sophistication. .....................................................................172
Table 54 pick list of the analytical data themes for the Ballarat sheet earth model ..................................175
Table 55 grammar and style rules for Microsoft Office proofing tools against report type .......................178
Table 56 desktop-publishing software categories .....................................................................................179
Table 57 possible Pangaea/Gondwana/Australia ore systems
1
...............................................................182
Table 58 the exploration/computing life cycle ...........................................................................................184
Table 59 sample conversion of key words into project codes ...................................................................185
Table 60 electronic file indexing schemes for geology..............................................................................188
Table 61 general notes to the discrete distribution functions ....................................................................193
Table 62 remote sensing and geological computing stages .....................................................................207
Table 63 - checklist for an ore system .......................................................................................................208
Table 64 Feldspar and quartz mineralogy of some igneous rocks ...........................................................209
Table 65 check list for the General Folder in Microsoft Outlook ...............................................................212
Table 66 equivalent data structures. .........................................................................................................213
Table 67 the alignment of database design and presentation. .................................................................213
Table 68 browsing software for presenting data .......................................................................................217
Table 69 check list of reporting against archive for Computers in Geology..............................................222
Table 70 hierarchy of allocating documents to research projects .............................................................224
Table 71 service levels versus document management ...........................................................................226
Table 72 backup system versus archive system .......................................................................................227
Table 73 emergency recovery plan ...........................................................................................................228
Table 74 abbreviations and conversion of disk capacity ...........................................................................229
Table 75 geological assessment of data-related philosophies .................................................................232
Table 76 popular IT management phrases and where you can find formal definitions ............................235
Table 77 a check list for a rational approach to geoscience data management .......................................236
Table 78 custom dictionary files for Computers in Geology ......................................................................244
Table 79 check list to layout a poster in Microsft Publisher ......................................................................248
Table 80 check list of file documentation ..................................................................................................255
Table 81 check list when writing an XML file.............................................................................................259
Table 82 checks for the basic structure of an XML file .............................................................................262
Table 83 basic financial facts ....................................................................................................................264
Table 84 net income calculation ................................................................................................................265
Table 85 Campaign costs ..........................................................................................................................266
Table 86 Venture profit/loss analysis.........................................................................................................266
Table 87 integrating the venture costs into balance statement .................................................................267
Table 88 key cells for making a capital gains calculator ...........................................................................270
Table 89 computer proposals ....................................................................................................................272
Table 90 check list for making a table map ...............................................................................................285
Table 91 named values for the insert in database.html ............................................................................287
Table 92 named formuale for composing engines.js ................................................................................288
Table 93 checks for making a 'search centre' ...........................................................................................290
Table 94 other types of documents on a computer ...................................................................................292
Table 95 alphabetical list of fields from EndNote with equivalent start tag from the EndNote proprietary
XML .................................................................................................................................................296
Table 96 check list for making a catalogue of files ....................................................................................298
Table 97 expenses incurred by geologists
1
...............................................................................................301
Table 98 Using Microsoft Outlook for tracking project hours ....................................................................302
Table 99 check list for calculating project hours .......................................................................................303
Table 100 example conversion of project codes into expense type .........................................................306
Table 101 summary table for work time allocation ....................................................................................307
Table 102 formulae and headings for a MS Excel-based built asset list .................................................309
Table 103 Using Golden Software MapViewer for mapping .....................................................................312
Table 104 making a plan in Golden Software MapViewer ........................................................................314
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Table 105 the three main activities of moving to a new computing system ............................................. 346
Table 106 facts for a new computer .......................................................................................................... 348
Table 107 acceptance check list for a computer system .......................................................................... 350
Table 108 check list for cutting across to a computer system .................................................................. 352
Table 109 the Computers in Geology recovery plan ................................................................................ 354
Table 110 Installing and customising Microsoft Office ............................................................................. 356
Table 111 Configure additional e-mail other accounts, signatures .......................................................... 358
Table 112 Checklist for transferring any science software ....................................................................... 364
Table 113 check list for setting up an intranet .......................................................................................... 366
Table 114 check list for tidying up after a new computer ......................................................................... 372
Table 115 cleaning out Microsoft Office before resale ............................................................................. 374
Table 116 the disks for the recovery in the order they are needed .......................................................... 377
Table 117 operating system activation details ......................................................................................... 381
Table 118 network activation details ........................................................................................................ 384
Table 119 check list for configuring a mobile phone for data sharing ...................................................... 386
Table 120 peripherals and plotting software details ................................................................................. 387
Table 121 Microsoft Office installation details .......................................................................................... 389
Table 122 restoring your documents ........................................................................................................ 390
Table 123 checklist for recovering critical data from the default folders................................................... 391
Table 124 restoring your accounting system ............................................................................................ 393
Table 125 restoring your e-mail system .................................................................................................... 395
Table 126 science data processing software customisation .................................................................... 397
Table 127 the impact of proposed development on the work flow ........................................................... 404

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Examples and graphs
Figure 1 ignoring the logic of the earth causes computing problems .........................................................36
Figure 2 the compliance pyramid ................................................................................................................54
Figure 3 count of software demonstrating the laws of geology ...................................................................66
Figure 4 a geological computer system marked with the date when components were integrated ...........68
Figure 5 an example of hyperbole from an American software developer .................................................69
Figure 6 plot of risks, for geological computing, by hazard and incident ....................................................79
Figure 7 definition of Insider Trading from Ryan (1990)..............................................................................86
Figure 8 definition of "Confidential Information" from the ITCRA Code of Conduct, 2008 .........................86
Figure 9 identity crime definitions from the South Australia Police .............................................................88
Figure 10 occurrences of selected notifiable diseases from South Australia (after Buckett 2009,
Communicable Disease Control Branch Report) .............................................................................92
Figure 11 temperature tolerances for selected computers plotted against critical temperatures for
Leginellae bacteria............................................................................................................................93
Figure 12 acceptable limits for humidity in computer operation and storage..............................................94
Figure 13 laptop computer air pressure tolerances ...................................................................................106
Figure 14 the increasing speed of the micro-processor chip for geo-computing ......................................121
Figure 15 random access memory capacity for geo-computing ...............................................................122
Figure 16 previous disk capacity specifications ........................................................................................123
Figure 17 modem speeds for LAN: Ethernet, WiFi (or Bluetooth) ............................................................127
Figure 18 modem speeds for WAN connections: PSTN, 3G, ADSL2+ ....................................................129
Figure 19 checking MapInfo export files ....................................................................................................146
Figure 20 some of the mapping files provided with Golden Surfer MapViewer ........................................147
Figure 21 hierarchy of public mapping projection standards ....................................................................151
Figure 22 displacement of boundaries after reprojecting ..........................................................................153
Figure 23 point displacement between AMG, WGS84 and MGA plots. ...................................................161
Figure 24 comparison of spectral frequency and average equivalent distance of a pixel for several remote
sensors ...........................................................................................................................................174
Figure 25 the height of Mount Everest ......................................................................................................205
Figure 26 policy for archive versus backup systems .................................................................................226
Figure 27 equivalent number of archive tapes ..........................................................................................230
Figure 28 equivalent numbers of disks ......................................................................................................231
Figure 29 a print preview of a poster showing cut and pasting lines ........................................................251
Figure 30 essential elements for an HTML file ..........................................................................................261
Figure 31 Scenario window .......................................................................................................................268
Figure 32 is the configuration for the Microsoft Outlook journal function ..................................................305
Figure 33 the Field Settings window..........................................................................................................307
Figure 34 a list of shared photographs for a location ................................................................................320
Figure 35 http://localhost/om2008/Jacquie008325/000011.JPG shown in Google Earth ......................322
Figure 36 the Photo Album folder template for Microsoft Explorer ...........................................................325
Figure 37 map label for MapViewer...........................................................................................................331
Figure 38 add projection details in MapViewer .........................................................................................332
Figure 39 the settings for those little yellow pins on a research summary map .......................................334
Figure 40 MapViewer intranet publishing ..................................................................................................335
Figure 41 cash-flow analyses plotted against risk-reward curve ..............................................................344
Figure 42 panic sticker ...............................................................................................................................353
Figure 43 the Find and Replace screen from Microsoft Wordpad ............................................................371
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Commands and algorithms

Equation 1 printing out two pages of check lists ......................................................................................... 16
Equation 2 resistance as a function of current and voltage, and the uncertainty for that value ................. 43
Equation 3 uncertainty function for geochemistry ....................................................................................... 43
Equation 4 an uncertainty function for a geological story of n facts ........................................................... 45
Equation 5 using VicMine data in Microsoft Excel .................................................................................... 170
Equation 6 loading raster heights and Bougeur gravity in ArcView .......................................................... 175
Equation 7 adding site measurements to the raster image in ArcInfo ...................................................... 176
Equation 8 specifying a flat plane. ............................................................................................................ 176
Equation 9 using Microsoft Excel for a regional maths model .................................................................. 189
Equation 10 URL for code translation ....................................................................................................... 190
Equation 11 binomial distribution of a population ..................................................................................... 194
Equation 12 binomial distribution of samples by a Normal model ............................................................ 195
Equation 13 discrete geometric distribution .............................................................................................. 196
Equation 14 uniform distribution................................................................................................................ 197
Equation 15 Poisson distribution of elapsed time ..................................................................................... 198
Equation 16 Poisson distribution of counts per second ............................................................................ 199
Equation 17 Gaussian distribution ............................................................................................................ 200
Equation 18 uniform distribution of a continuous variable ........................................................................ 201
Equation 19 Poisson distribution of a continuous variable ....................................................................... 202
Equation 20 Standard Normal distribution of a continuous variable ......................................................... 203
Equation 21 Normal distribution of a continuous variable ........................................................................ 204
Equation 22 reference to the continuum of statistics ................................................................................ 205
Equation 23 iterations required for a Bayesian crawler ............................................................................ 206
Equation 24 iterations required for a Fuzzy Logic crawler ........................................................................ 207
Equation 25 - selecting input data in ESRI ArcView ................................................................................. 209
Equation 26 Microsoft Excel formula to calculate the check field. ...................................................... 228
Equation 27 commands to make a dictionary from a Thomson EndNote database ................................ 243
Equation 28 converting an ANSI coded glossary.DIC file to the Unicode standard used with Microsoft
Word 2010 ...................................................................................................................................... 244
Equation 29 modifying the dictionary in Microsoft Office 2010 ................................................................. 245
Equation 30 Adding your glossary to the custom dictionaries in Microsoft Word ..................................... 245
Equation 31 adding your glossary to the custom dictionaries in Thomson EndNote ............................... 246
Equation 32 making the poster background lighter .................................................................................. 250
Equation 33 adding a snapshot to the poster ........................................................................................... 250
Equation 34 starting poster.bat from Microsoft Windows ......................................................................... 253
Equation 35 statements used for project management in a batch file...................................................... 253
Equation 36 XHTML extract showing a link to the project file poster.bat ................................................. 257
Equation 37 DTD (Document Type Definition) statements for various XML subsets............................... 260
Equation 38 XML Schema namespaces ................................................................................................... 260
Equation 39 - making a new worksheet .................................................................................................... 264
Equation 40 Creating named cells ............................................................................................................ 265
Equation 41 URL for a comparison spreadsheet ...................................................................................... 272
Equation 42 URL for an example computer specification ......................................................................... 273
Equation 43 conditional formatting for numeric cut-offs ........................................................................... 273
Equation 44 conditional formatting for ranked specifications ................................................................... 274
Equation 45 identifying backward compatibility ........................................................................................ 274
Equation 46 EndNote bibliography template for a concordance file ......................................................... 275
Equation 47 MS Excel formula for an Index style concordance file ......................................................... 276
Equation 48 Selecting addresses from Business Data Manager ............................................................. 279
Equation 49 Discriminating records by date ............................................................................................. 279
Equation 50 Discriminating contacts by category ..................................................................................... 280
Geocomputing Management 29
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Equation 51 mail merging in Microsoft Publisher ......................................................................................280
Equation 52 mail merging in Microsoft Word.............................................................................................280
Equation 53 Multiple copies in Microsoft publisher ...................................................................................281
Equation 54 a business note for several contacts .....................................................................................281
Equation 55 commands for making a search centre .................................................................................288
Equation 56 structure of the EndNote proprietary XML format .................................................................295
Equation 57 making an HTML catalogue file.............................................................................................299
Equation 58 Microsoft Excel macros for the sheet tally used to convert the Journal entries ...................306
Equation 59 making a plan in MapViewer .................................................................................................316
Equation 60 the initial lines of world.kml showing the table of contents given in the
<kml><Document><description></description><Document></kml> element. ..........................317
Equation 61 extract of world.kml showing the first <Placemark></Placemark> immediately below the
<Style></Style> definitions .............................................................................................................318
Equation 62 KML entry using the geographic coordinates for Lyon .........................................................319
Equation 63 sharing the folder om2008 in Windows XP as http://localhost/om2008 ...............................321
Equation 64 commands to run Microsoft Explorer in a MS-DOS bat file ..................................................323
Equation 65 changing the folder om2008/Jacquie008325 to be viewed as thumbnails in Microsoft
Explorer (Windows XP edition) .......................................................................................................323
Equation 66 the <description></description> with a reference to oman2008.bat .....................................324
Equation 67 making a context plan in MapViewer ....................................................................................327
Equation 68 URL for Department of Primary Industries, Victoria..............................................................327
Equation 69 adding Hobart to the cities database ....................................................................................329
Equation 70 selecting Australian cities ......................................................................................................329
Equation 71 setting capital city pins ..........................................................................................................329
Equation 72 MapViewer commands to scale an A6 location plan into a A4 full-screen summary for your
Intranet ............................................................................................................................................330
Equation 73 MapViewer commands to put little yellow pin icons on your areas of research map ...........333
Equation 74 coordinates for suprm01.bna ................................................................................................337
Equation 75 Loading an Atlas boundary file ..............................................................................................338
Equation 76 producing a company rankings report ...................................................................................339
Equation 77 Student exercises in Microsoft Excel ....................................................................................342
Equation 78 Formulae for a simple cash flow model ................................................................................343
Equation 79 Making Libraries to speed up searches for documents in MS Windows 7 ...........................351
Equation 80 configuring Microsoft Outlook ................................................................................................359
Equation 81 Setting up the Business Contacts Manager and removing the supplied business database
........................................................................................................................................................360
Equation 82 URL for the apology for leaving Businaess Contact Manager out of Microsoft Office
Professional 2010, and the download instructions .........................................................................361
Equation 83 importing a personal mail folder and then renaming it ..........................................................361
Equation 84 mounting an archive folder in MS Outlook ............................................................................362
Equation 85 restoring your Personal Folder into MS Outlook ...................................................................362
Equation 86 initiating Microsoft IIS (Internet Information Service) in Windows XP ..................................366
Equation 87 initiating Microsoft IIS in Windows 7 .....................................................................................367
Equation 88 specifying the base directory for Microsoft IIS in Windows 7 ...............................................367
Equation 89 mounting a directory on the Intranet in Windows XP ............................................................367
Equation 90 mounting a directory on the Intranet in Windows 7...............................................................368
Equation 91 creating a MIME type for bat in Windows 7 ..........................................................................368
Equation 92 converting geotimes4.mdb databse (Access 2000 format) to a geotimes5.accdb (Access
2010 format) ...................................................................................................................................369
Equation 93 creating a splash page for the Intranet .................................................................................370
Equation 94 MS-DOS batch file for project management .........................................................................406
Equation 95 an XSL script to compile a table of references hyperlinked to digital files............................409


Geocomputing Management 30

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Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter deals with those broad questions that I get asked at
Geological Society of Australia drinks and always make a hash of
answering in twenty five words or less:
- Why does the computing have to be geological?
- Why not just buy the software?
- What are the key concepts?
- Where can I get a computer?
- How can I use a computer safely?
- How do I not blow my money?
Geocomputing Management 32
Why does the computing have to be geological?
In commerce mistakes are paid for. In practice in the physical world
mistakes lead to more severe consequences. Information about the
physical world needs to be good as or better than that in the
financial realm. I have various coroners reports in mind but in
explaining the crash of the Air New Zealand DC-10 into Mount
Erebus in 1979, Stewart wrote in 2009
q
:
Fourteen months earlier, a staff member in Air New
Zealands navigation department had made a typing error
when inputting navigation co-ordinates for Antarctic flights
into the airlines new computerised system
This tourist flight was exploiting the geology for commercial gain,
and while this use is not as dusty as most, I think the management
of computing for geology is different and is not well done by the
average clerk who runs the IT department. In a way that is similar to
the difference between classical statistics and geo-statistics: the
problems stem from not being able to get around the subject in the
same way you can a human body. Mackie
r
also adds that even in the
seemingly arms-length case of drilling for oil, you cannot afford to
fail because the consequences are so expensive. Mackies example is
a level down from the Air New Zealand example, but there are other
geological situations such as building high dams and footings for
nuclear power plants, where the cost of failure is greater again.
Jahshan (2009
s
), just looking at the mapping side alone, enunciated
my fears with:
It would seem that custodians of spatial data and
practictioners of spatial technology inhabit a different world
from the managers of enterprise data most organisations
do not see spatial applications as mission-critical they are
considered to be fourth or fifth in line after core business
systems, email, asset management and document

q
Cameron Stewart, 'Sightseers doomed before take-off,' in The Weekend Australian (Adelaide: News
Corporation, 2009).
r
S I Mackie et al., 'Real-world decision making in the upstream oil and gas industryprescriptions for
improvement', APPEA Journal vol. 48 (2008).
s
Anthony Jahshan, 'Changing corporate philosophy', Position Magazine no. 42 (2009), pp. 72-73.
Geocomputing Management 33
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managementWhy do organisations wait until they are
experiencing a crisis before they turn to spatial applications
for the answer all we can do is pray for change.
However, geological computing may not be a valid concept and so to
examine it further I have found some themes in the literature which
I continue in the sub-sections below. This book really isnt about
philosophy [well not the un-natural kind]. It is about building a
computer system for yourself that works, but I included these
sections to help you justify any proposals for stand-alone systems:
- It is all big bamboozle and I should just get on with it
- It really is surveying information and not a big deal, it
has all been done before
- Yes you can never be certain about what you measure
in the field, so why bother.
- The birds and the dinosaurs; variation of scale is
common in geology
There is one thing that is definitely the same with other computing
systems. Computing has become laden with ridiculous jargon and
geological computing is no different. I am not being ironic, having
just spent three paragraphs on statistical formula (actually Equation
3 and Equation 4), as there is a difference between the confabulated
verbage of the computer salesman and the universal language of
mathematics. In this grimoire the jargon has been kept to a
minimum but some terms should be defined and will assist the
reader with further research and these can be found in the Glossary
of Geocomputing in the Appendix. But one more quote from
Williamson: Spatial data is a special type of data it requires a
dedicated commitment and strategy to capitalize upon its
advantages. If you are still not convinced you may like to read
Bettenay
t
, or Case et. al.
u
or for scientific analysis of geological
decision-making try Mackie
r
.

t
Leigh F. Bettenay, 'An overview of the use of computers in exploration in Western Australia. ,' in
Computers in Exploration, Australian Institute of Geoscientists Bulletin No 9 (Australian Institute of
Geoscientists, 1989).
u
M. P. Case et al., 'Decision support capabilities for future technology requirements,' ed. Corps of
Engineers U.S. Army Technical Report ERDC (CERL, Champaign, Illinois, 2001).
Geocomputing Management 34
A big bamboozle
So, some of the things, which I think scare or bamboozle the clerk
working for the first time in the agricultural, mining or construction
industries:
- the massive size of the data sets (Yacopetti and Mundell
v

quote doubling in size every 12 to 18 months),
- the great inter-dependence of the measurements
- the great uncertainty of any analysis
- the subsequent cost of an error in processing (perhaps
deaths)
- the requirement for continually having to improve the
methods of discovery, and subsequent purchases of new
software
- the role of the Crown in retaining the data
- the very high cost of acquisition of data
- the inter-disciplinary need for the data
- the long currency or shelf life of the data
- the high latency in our data sets
- general misunderstanding of the earth
- the small differences between a valid and an invalid data
set
Yacopetti and Mundell
w
are more prosaic, making a simile of
geological information with a living organism that grows, replicates
and mutates with time; as compared to the static information of
conventional IT. That is why I needed this book, to write down all
the little tips I have picked up from the other geologists listed in the
Acknowledgement, which the information technology texts dont
cover. However, I am also careful to return quickly to regular
practice where I can. I take care to do this because if too
bamboozled the clerk managing the organisations computing will
begin to believe that geology is a rogue and random science, and
refuse to accept any kind of earth logic, just like a drilling contractor
who subscribes to pattern drilling after spending too much time
around second-rate field geologists.

v Matt Yacopetti and Stephen Mundell, 'Improving the quality of geoscientific information,' in Bowen Basin
Symposium 2010 (2010).
w Ibid.
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Surely it is just spatial information
Geological computing also has a spatial, geographical or land
surveying component and Williamson
x
points that this introduces
further peculiarities which he lists as:
- spatial data is scale-dependent
- spatial queries are inherently complex
- all spatial data is dependent on data models, which have
many and varied dimensions
- integrating spatial data with other data other data types
is particularly difficult, due to different data structures
Williamson also stresses the importance of the data because humans
think spatially and he sees an 8400 year development, with images
overcoming language difficulties:
i. primitive hunter gatherer societies using
topologically-correct mappings, to convey critical
spatial-dependent issues of survival, just as with
Aboriginal cave paintings
ii. property ownership
iii. infrastructure development
iv. trade and defence
I disagree with him, I think the critical issue to the cave paintings
and early maps is not that it has spatial information or are language
independent but rather they act as prototypes to allow people to
practice hunting or keep taboos or test a group endeavour before
actually putting the community or any resources at risk. Jahshan
(2009
y
) stresses the need for something that is spatial + for the
modern corporate world with:
Spatial applications lack the intimate integration with
mission critical systems would a paradigm shift in thinking
and planning. the heart of any accounting system is the
general ledger the single most mission-critical application
for any organisation

x
Ian Williamson, 'Is spatial special', Position no. 21 (2006), p. 17.
y
Jahshan, 'Changing corporate philosophy', no.
Geocomputing Management 36
Support for my view has come from Mackie
r
who found empirically
that the modelling activity dominates the oil/gas sector decision
process, and perhaps this is a modern reflection of that primal
instinct. Also Spencer in 2011
z
stresses that the introduction of web
technologies has side-lined the bland application of geographical
information systems and the specialist now needs to provide
geographic projections, generalisation, symbolisation and heavy
spatial analysis which curiously for me could be called setting,
methods, results and discussion the work of any earth scientist.
However, Williamson hasnt overlooked this concept totally, he also
has found problems with the implementation of technology by
bureaucrats where there hasnt been due consideration to what we
know of the logic of nature as in his quote of Figure 1.
All too often, governments have responded to this complexity
by creating massive, replicated databases, largely ignoring the
capacity of spatial information to establish relationships
between datasets.
Figure 1 ignoring the logic of the earth causes computing
problems
Winter
aa
dissects spatial information again in 2008, this time
specifically mentioning field phenomena of elevation, soil,
temperature, wind or humidity. In that article he examines the
definitions from different surveying groups which I have summarised
into Table 2.
Table 2 definitions of spatial information sourced by Winter
(2008)
group spatial information definition.
ANZLIC Any information about a location space or time
Association of Geographic
Information
Information about objects or phenomena that are associated with a
location relative to the surface of the earth
The value of spatial
information study
SI describes the physical location of objects and the metric
relationships between objects

z
Brad Spencer, 'Spatial is not so special', Position no. 48 (2011), pp.
54-55.
aa
Stephan Winter, 'What is the Value of Spatial Information?', Position Magazine no. 35 (2008), pp. 54-
55.
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He claims that the study definition is the least useful from a business
sense and makes these points about what are missing from that
definition, which I think have resonance with the kind of problems
overlooked by clerk-designed systems:
1. It neglects field phenomena of elevation, soil, temperature,
wind or humidity.
2. it neglects all non-metric spatial information (Winter asks you
to think of the London Underground Transport map) pointing
out that place descriptions are hierarchic and purely
topological which makes them effective in communication
3. time is missing
4. scale is neglected
He feels that indications of connectedness, nearness, size and
tardiness may even be more important than the measured distance,
especially when you are catching a bus. It is a bit hard to argue
against that as who takes shortcuts to the bus stop when they know
the next bus will have no spare seats. He does seem to address our
problems but immediately throws in the disclaimer microbiological
or astronomical problems are often very spatial, but outside our
[surveyors] realm. He then goes on to puts some computer aided
design (CAD) outside of the realm as well. Conversely, in the same
magazine in 2009 Kinne
bb
argues that bringing CAD and GIS data
together, as pioneered by architects for the using shade effects in
the design of air conditioning, is a requirement of planning for
development, citing for that situation that:
- it provides an alternative decision path to making
conservative decisions where understanding is
incomplete
- it reduces conflict where developments of a large value
- it handles the increased complexity of compliance
requirements for large developments
- it provides realism for decision-making by a general
population
Again we have echoes of the principles of loss of opportunity
[missing the gold strike], the problem is too massive, the problem is

bb
Peter Kinne, 'The Digital World', Position Magazine no. 38 (2009), pp. 65-66.
Geocomputing Management 38
too complex, the problem is too arcane and yet the development has
a high impact on the people involved. For me that demonstrates it
depends on the individual surveyor whether they will take on, or
leave your particular scientific computing requirements.
Variation of scale is common in geology
Often the first introduction a person has to geology is primary school
classes on dinosaurs. Dinosaurs are to geology, what Vikings are to
history, a guaranteed crowd pleaser. After terrifying children for ten
minutes, you can put them to sleep by the pleasant notion that these
ferocious ground tremblers evolved into the peaceful and delicate
honey-eaters (the Australian equivalent of humming birds). So how
does this relate to measurement, a recent article by Smith gives the
example of Egyptologists, who as practising a sub-branch of
archaeology are required to think geologically [remember that the
first classical geologists were Anglican ministers speculating on
Noahs flood]. Smith
cc
points out that
Archaeologists are the most meticulous and versatile of
explorers. They may cover vast distances in a few days or
mere inches in a month. Their discoveries can range from
massive temples or burial sites to tiny shards of pottery
scattered across an endless desert plain
Surveyors are very uncomfortable with variance of scale, both
Williamson
x
and Winter
aa
mention the recognition of scale as critical
in the distinction of spatial information systems for other computing
systems. How do surveyors cope? Well they dont, they make do.
Their methods developed from well-populated and flat England,
require the selection of evenly spaced points to mark up the
geography. These points must be spread into a network of regularly
sized cells, which are then used to distribute an error in
measurement around the boundaries of each cell. The size of the cell
decides the relative accuracy of the points taken in that area, the
largest cell in the network decides the absolute accuracy of all the
measurements taken.
I can now recall many times when working on the pod-like basins of
the Leigh Creek Coalfield, that surveyors would put a temporary
benchmark, take sights on my instruments and then bring that mark
Geocomputing Management 39
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in later after I had packed up. What they did was then make up a
series of temporary marks to close on that bench mark and extend
the mine grid. I can think of three exercises where I didnt pay
enough attention to keeping the cells of the surveying network
similar and then puzzling over why I couldnt close the grid to the
satisfaction of my supervisors. One was at South Australian Institute
of Technology when we surveyed an urban park and one of the
marks was at the irregular narrow end of the park, which caused an
elongated cell in the network. It was the trap for young players,
which I never picked up on even though I can also remember being
told to make those cells regular by my surveying lecturer, Mr Tan,
we should have slipped into the work some temporary marks. The
other example was when I was working for Ken Bampton at the
Mutooroo solution copper mine, then leased to Adelaide Wallaroo
Fertilisers., It is located near the state border the states of South
Australia and New South Wales. The Muteroo deposit is associated
with the passage of copper rich fluids along a sheared zone, linear in
extent, so the mine workings are not placed together but strung out.
Well I just shot from corner of building to corner of building, not
bothering to make nice cells and all these years I have wondered
how I could have made so many errors of transcription that the
resulting drawing in the Adelaide office was so obviously wrong. The
third example was picking up drill holes with compass and pacing
along the road and fire break outside of the mine fence at the
Nabarlek uranium mine in Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory. I
can even remember the surveyors later taking the trouble to work
inside the fence to make more regular cells. I have heard this
anisotropy in distribution of measurements, called sampling bias, but
that is from the view of the technology provider, and not the
scientist doing the work, and funding the budget.
The unsuitability of conventional surveying has even resulted in the
totally alternative methods such as those for archaeology described
in Smith
cc
, resulting in tedious narratives of where finds were made
along roads and in the passing to the major archaeological site,
which may take years to reconstruct into a useable map. Often the
site would be surveyed during excavation but its absolute position
would not be known well and Smith gives examples of where
complete digs have been lost and could not be relocated for follow
up work. The good news as Smith emphasises is that GPS (Global

cc
Jason Smith, 'Mapping Ancient Sites', Position Magazine no. 39 (2009), pp. 53-55.
Geocomputing Management 40
Positioning System) has been very popular with natural historians of
all types because it does in practice allow for variations in scale.
Widely spaced points along a traverse can be surveyed quickly and
their accuracy is not the best but it is effective in that context. When
you do get to a site of significance which requires close
measurement and intensive activity, you just leave the GPS turned
on for longer to use additional transits of satellites and the accuracy
improves, also effective as the archaeologist are flat out digging
anyhow and wont be moving for a while.
And there is even more hope for the future, because when data is
transformed from the geographical domain to the space-time
continuum (introduced in the next section), the variations of scale
are reduced, there is no anisotropy in the distribution of
measurements, and the conventional surveying techniques become
accurate without adaption. This is what is done graphically in a
geological block diagram; some of the best I have seen are in Table
3. Taken to the theoretical extent there is the oddity of the
Tetrahedral Hypothesis resurrected recently in The Australian
Geologist
dd
where, before the general acceptance of continental drift
theory, a gentleman, Lothian Green, was reported to argue that the
distribution of the continents on the earth could be explained by
considering the oceans as a series of facets with the continents
occupying the intersections of planes. This hypothesis is the basis of
the block modelling in The logic processing sub-system, where the
facets are the surfaces of the block diagrams produced out of Golden
Softwares Surfer. In more grounded sense, the worlds most used
mining software Datamine has the Folded Geostatistics option in the
Studio 3 software
ee
which demonstrates this principle.


dd
Tor Mentor, 'A few more teasers to exercise the brain in 2009', The Australian Geologist no. 151
(2009), pp. 34, 44.
ee
'Studio 3 and Folded Orebody Data ', 2009 (Datamine LLC, 2009).
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Table 3 Geological cartoon by terrain class and use with type
of development (after Berkman)
Terrain class
(and when it is relevant to development)
1

Province
(mineral exploration, deep underground work, first estimates of rock properties)
Terrain pattern
(transport specification, topographic survey for hydropower dams)

Terrain unit
(location of transport, buildings, open cut mines and major dams)

Terrain component
(flooding, trafficability, pavements, foundations, portals and farm dams)

geological cartoon

your situation:

Rift Basins part 1 and 2 by Kirk 2011
ff,gg
X X
Origins series of the Weekend Australian
hh
X X
Basin Floor Fans part 1 to 4 by Kirk 2010
ii,jj,kk
and 2011
ll
X X
Source Rocks Part 1 to 2 by Kirk 2011
mm
,
nn
X X
Slopes Part 1 to 2 by Kirk 2010
oo,pp
X
DHI Seismic facies by Kirk 2009
qq
X X
Cryogenian Reef Complexes by Wallace et.al.
rr
X X
Sesimic Facies Mapping Part 1 of Kirk 2011
ss
X
7.4.2 Classification of Landslides in Berkman 1989
i
X
LEGEND
X : this cartoon is confined to the context of this terrain class.


ff
Rob Kirk, 'Rift Basins - Part 1', PESA News Resources no. 110 (2011), pp. 52-54.
gg
Rob Kirk, 'Rift Basins - Part 2', PESA News Resources no. 111 (2011), pp. 60-62.
hh Leigh Dayton, 'The red heart,' in The Weekend Australian (Sydney: 2005)Leigh Dayton, 'From black
rocks to red gums,' in The Weekend Australian (Sydney: 2005)Leigh Dayton, 'Before the dreamtime,' in
The Weekend Australian (Sydney: 2005).
ii
Rob Kirk, 'Basin Floor Fans - Part 1 of 4', PESA News no. (2010), pp. 76,78 & 80.
jj
Rob Kirk, 'Basin Floor Fans - Part 3 of 4', PESA News no. (2010), pp. 68-71.
kk
Rob Kirk, 'Basin Floor Fans - Part 2 of 4', PESA News no. 107 (2010), pp. 64-66.
ll
Rob Kirk, 'Basin Floor Fans - Part 4 of 4', PESA News Resources no. 109 (2011), pp. 62,63,64,65.
mm
Rob Kirk, 'Source Rocks - Part 2', PESA News Resources no. 113 (2011), pp. 60-62.
nn
Rob Kirk, 'Source Rocks - Part 1', PESA News Resources no. 112 (2011), pp. 45-46.
oo Rob Kirk, 'Slopes - Part 1 of 2', PESA News no. 104 (2010), pp. 61-63.
pp
Rob Kirk, 'Slopes - Part 2 of 2', PESA News no. 105 (2010), pp. 24-30.
qq Rob Kirk, 'DHI seismic facies', PESA News no. 100 (2009), pp. 57-61.
rr
Malcolm Wallace et al., 'Cryogenian Reef Complexes of the northern Flinders Ranges,' in 6th Sprigg
Symposium: Unravelling the northern Flinders and beyond, ed. Caroline J. Forbes, Abstracts 100
(Adelaide: Geological Society of Australia, 2011).
ss
Rob Kirk, 'Seismic Facies mapping: Part 1', PESA News Resources no. 114 (2011), pp. 69-71.
Geocomputing Management 42
NOTES
1
7.9 Stages of engineering construction in relation to the terrain classes, page 291 of Berkman 1989
i

Perhaps it is the uncertainty of it all
Jon Fairall was the editor of the GIS User, which became Position
Magazine, for 20 years. In his interview reported there in 2010
tt
he
spoke how the enduring issue was the quality of the data. He next
mentions how this develops into a fixation with database integrity
and custodians controlling and owning data, without allowing access
by others. People are constantly worrying about the quality of their
data for the purposes that other people want to use it for. His advice
is that timeliness is essential, allowing end-users opportunity to
adjust that data, to speed the process. So thirdly, with some data in
time as the only practical outcome, expressed as a mathematical
basis, there is an emphasis on uncertainty of the data, even to the
extent that the uncertainty is more important than the value.
Though, the uncertainty should also be a value as Griffiths (2011
uu
)
finds that the debate about man-induced climate change to be arm-
waving instead of the quantitative contribution to forecasting
required for the International Panel on Climate Change.
When I first started consulting, colleagues would tease me with the
words All I need is a program which will tell me where to drill.
Similar to the concerns of Griffiths, I am not sure that meets the
policy from departments of mines, nor the JORC code for the ASX
stock exchange. Those parties would prefer some knowledge of the
health and safety aspects at least, but I did recently realise what an
algorithm for that would look like. Mathematically it would give the
uncertainty that the cut-off for commercial grade of ore was below
at mineable depth, and so the nearer to zero, the more likely is you
should drill, you dont need anything else to be plotted. Does this
have a real impact? Lamont
vv
, in paper on geophysical modelling for
oil drilling concedes that it does.
Different information has value on its own, but independent

tt
Paul Kelly, 'The final view', Position Magazine no. 46 (2010), p. 10.
uu Cedric Griffiths, 'Geological community arm-waving on Climate Change', PESA News Resources no.
(2011), p. 17.
vv
Matthew Lamont, 'A discussion of seismic amplitude analysis in the new millenium', PESA News no.
100 (2009), pp. 52-55.
Geocomputing Management 43
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information adds non-linearly. That is if two bits of
independent information say the same thing, then the whole is
more valuable than the sum of its parts, one plus one can
equal four and vice versa. Therefore it is very important to
anlyze prospects from every meaningful way possible.
How this works, is that geology is really about telling a story linking
facts together with one or more of the twenty laws found in the
Dictionary of Geological Termsww In contrast say geophysics will
exploit one equation such as determining the resistance of the rock
mass in (a) of Equation 2. The uncertainty involves the product of
the probabilities of true readings of the current and the voltage, no
mean feat if you have thick, conducting soils like we do in Australia.
Equation 2 resistance as a function of current and voltage,
and the uncertainty for that value
}
=
=
=
=
=
n
i
p(i) - U
-p(I.R)) ( U
) -p(I).p(R) ( U
V
I
R
1
1
(b) 1
1
(a)

Conversely, for a geochemical system the reactions are related to
proximity and the early work of Krig in 1930s on gold sampling has
given his name to the uncertainty principles, very roughly
paraphrased from Knudsen 1987
xx
in Equation 3.
Equation 3 uncertainty function for geochemistry
( ) ( ) |
.
|

\
|
=

=

n
i
i y y x x z c f U
1
2
0 1
2
0 1
.

ww
William H Matthews, III and Robert E. Boyer (eds.), Dictionary of geological terms (Garden City, New
York, 1976).
xx
H. Peter Knudsen, 'A capsule view of Geostatistics', in Ernest Y. Baafi (ed.), Geostatisitics - theory and
practice. A 4 day short course July 7,8,9,10, 1987 (Wollongong, New South Wales, 1987).
Geocomputing Management 44
Alternatively, in a geological story of diverse, numerous facts, the
probabilities of the different observations are additive as per the
generalised case of Equation 4. Though this does assume that there
will be a large number of cases or sites, and the occurrence of the
event will be unlikely, and roughly the same uncertainty for each
observation. This may seem a particularly onerous set of
circumstances, but this is very typical of fossicking, exploration
drilling or extreme weather.
Geocomputing Management 45
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Equation 4 an uncertainty function for a geological story of n
facts

}
}

=
=

=
=
=
+ =
+
+
=
=
=

+
=

+
+ + =

+
+ + =
+ + =
=
n
i
i
n
n
i
i
n n n n n n n
n
i
i
n
i
i
n
i
i
n
i
i
z p U
) p(z z p U
) p(z ) p(z ) p(z ) p(z ) p(z ) p(z ) p(z
z p U
) p(z ) p(z ) p(z ) p(z ) p(z ) p(z ) p(z ) p(z
z p
z p
) p(z ) p(z ) p(z ) p(z ) p(z ) p(z
z p U
) p(z ) p(z ) p(z
) p(z ) p(z ) p(z ) p(z ) p(z ) p(z
) p(z ) p(z ) p(z U
) p(z ) p(z ) p(z
) p(z ) p(z ) p(z ) p(z
) p(z ) p(z ) p(z ) p(z U
)) p(z )) p(z ) p(z ) p(z ) p(z U
)) p(z )) p(z ) p(z ( U
1
1
1 2 3 1 2 1
1
2 3 2 3 1 3 1 2
2 3 1 3 1 2
1
1 2 3
2 3 1 3 1 2
3 2 1
1 2 3
2 1 3 3
1 2 2 1
3 1 2 2 1
3 2 1
) ( 1
0 0 ) ( 1
0
) (
) ( 1
) ( 0
) (
) ( 1
) ( 1
) (
) ( 1
1 ( ) ( 1 (
1 ( 1 ( ) 1
All these uncertainty functions are mathematically equivalent under
certain conditions; this is what we expect from practice as the
disciplines of geology, geochemistry and geophysics are not
Geocomputing Management 46
exclusive of each other. But once you start examining uncertainties
you can demonstrate a geological system from a geophysical or a
geochemical system, and the most important thing to take from
Equation 4 is a geological computer system will reduce uncertainty
by associating diverse facts.
Geocomputing Management 47
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What are the key concepts?
In considering geological computing from a classical context, I did
not want to abandon the years of research into the theoretical logic
of computing, called systems analysis, but at the same time I
wanted to focus immediately on the rocks and not the computers. I
liked the approach of White (1987
yy
) where he quickly maps
management principles onto exploration activities, to gain his
readers interest. In my case I see the steps in database design from
McFadden & Hoffer (1991
zz
) mapping across to the earth scientists
thinking as in Table 4. This gives a framework to explain each of the
geological computing concepts, and the conjoining specifications,
mixing in systems analysis and geology as I need.
Table 4 mapping database design steps to geological
computing concepts
steps in database design
1
GEOLOGICAL COMPUTING
specification (geological equivalent)
Step 1 - requirements definition STRATIGRAPHY
requirements specification (stratigraphic systems)
Step 2 - conceptual design EARTH MODEL
information architecture (mathematical context)
Step 3 - implementation design ORE SYSTEM
application program specifications (application of geological computing)
Step 4 - physical design NATURAL HISTORY COMPUTING SYSTEM
NOTES
1
From page 168 of McFadden & Hoffer (1991
zz
)
stratigraphy
Stratigraphy, the logical arrangement of layers of rock in the earths
crust, is the most important tool in dividing measurements into
statistically coherent subsets. Brown (2011
aaa
) gives that
International Subcommission on Stratigraphic Classification (ISSC)
considers multiple stratigraphies including multiple bio-, chemo-,
sequence-, cyclo- and magneto-stratigraphy. In Table 5, there are
several types of these systems of classifying rocks into packages or

yy
Andrew. H. White, Management of mineral exploration (Moggill, Qld.: Glenside, S. Aust., 1997).
zz
Fred R. McFadden and Jeffrey A. Hoffer, Data base management (Redwood City, California, 1991).
aaa
Cathy Brown, 'International connections - current activities and future opportunities', The Australian
Geologist no. 158 (2011), p. 12.
Geocomputing Management 48
groups in the ground. The only system which reflects events from
kilometres down to the smallest size is the litho-stratigraphy that is
the classical concept of a formation introduced many years ago by
William Smith in the first geological map of Britain. Therefore while
geochemists are more than happy to divide their analysis by rock
type or lithology, and generate for themselves statistically reliable
results, the geologist requires when the whole story of all the earth
processes involved including those which act at a kilometre scale,
then the results should be rendered on the basis of formation. The
recognition of the primary importance of the concept of a formation
in computer modelling is the single most important step for any
computer geologist to progress from theory and the laboratory to
working with clients for money in the field. The other elements of
stratigraphy also have significant use in practical observation and are
summarised in Table 5.

Geocomputing Management 49
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Table 5 stratigraphic systems
stratigraphic system (rock package) specific property of change
litho-stratigraphy
sequence stratigraphy
2
(system tract) depositional trend
1

chrono-stratigraphy
bio-stratigraphy
3,
fossil content
1

chemo-stratigraphy
(synthem)
5
conformity
magneto-stratigraphy
5
(magnetosomes) magnetic polarity
1

characteristics
Time indicators
Iso-chronous Y n P
influence radius (of the surrounding rock)
in excess of kilometres - ? n n n Y Y
kilometres - P n n n Y Y
decametres - P n P Y Y Y
metres - Y P Y - - Y
centimetres P Y Y Y - - Y
millimetres Y Y Y Y - - Y
LEGEND
Y YES, n : no; P perhaps, partially or nearly; - beyond the limits of detection
NOTES
1
from Embry (2003)
bbb
:The importance of stratigraphy for computer modelling stems from what Embry
calls recognition and correlation of changes in a specific property of the strata which is the basis of all
stratigraphy and equally the goal of any computer modelling.
2
Embry refers to sequence stratigraphy as quasi-chrono-stratigraphy for constraining facies and
interpreting depositional history:
sub-aerial unconformity
maximum flooding surface
maximum regressive surface
shore face ravinement
3
Embry remarks that bio-stratigraphy is harder and more costly to obtain than sequence stratigraphy
4
Embry suggests that chemo-stratigraphy and magneto-stratigraphy are very rare, especially for
subsurface investigation.
5
Embry defines a synthem as a package of strata bounded by unconformities.
6
The rationale behind magneto-stratigraphy is discussed in detail in Brakel 2006
ccc
.
mathematical context
There could be as many approaches to geological computing as
geologists, each with quite subtle differences that even to the

bbb
Aston Embry, 'Coming to grips with sequence stratigraphy', The Australian Geologist no. 128 (2003),
pp. 21-22.
ccc
Albert Brakel, 'Magnetosomes: a new kind of rock unit', The Australian Geologist no. 141 (2006), p. 1.
Geocomputing Management 50
experienced reviewer are not apparent. However, in Table 9 I have
put forward that there are three distinct types of earth modelling
mathematics. Hirsinger (2008
ddd
) supports these thoughts providing
equivalent descriptions of physical implementations for the
application level, though differentiates the use of thesauri
(Knowledge Based Linking) and graphical searching (Spatial Linking),
though both applications use keywords and are mathematically
equivalent [co-ordinates and geographic names are just digital codes
to be sorted as far as the computer is concerned].
Table 6 relating three broad regimes of mathematics to
geoscience application
mathematics application level
1

universal context Search Based Linking
spatial context Knowledge Based Linking
Spatial Linking
spatio-historic context Direct Linking
NOTES
1
Taken from the themes of Hirsinger (2008
ddd
)
The first is the approach where no earth logic is used and the field
measurements are considered to be equally significant and a fully
empirical approach is taken. When considering two outcomes
produced from these techniques, such as two drilling proposals, or
two flood mitigation schemes, or two business plans, they are
compared in a universal context that is all aspects are considered
equally. This approach features in Table 7.
Table 7 geological modelling in a universal context
computing
techniques
data mining
multi-variate analysis
Google searches
1

strengths No geologists needed for data analysis
No geologists needed for data preparation.
Superficial text based search links can be established without any extra
data management
1

May 'discover' new relationships and information
1

weaknesses Very slow with large volumes of data
Gives all measurement techniques equal significance
As it is fully empirical it cannot predict new deposit/event styles. Can only

ddd
Volker Hirsinger, 'Just give me the well completion report,' (Adelaide: Petrosys Pty Ltd, 2008).
Geocomputing Management 51
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find overlooked deposits/events
Further data collection does not necessarily reduce the uncertainty.
Data preparation must be finished before start of analysis
May 'obscure' important connections through 'noise' from irrelevant
information
1

No guarantee that a given link will be presented when data is sought.
1

Enthusiasm for spatial searches and metadata may create a whole new
and costly - layer of data management
1

general use insurance companies
financial institutions
strategic analysis for government
materials laboratories
case study least squares regression in Sutherland (2005)
eee

NOTES
1
These are provided in a comparison of Direct Linking to Search Linking in Hirsinger (2008
fff
)


eee
F. L. Sutherland et al., 'Belmore Volcanic Province, northeastern New South Wales, and some
implications for plume variations along Cenozoic migratory trails.', Australian Journal of Earth Sciences
vol. 52, no. 6 (2005).
fff
Hirsinger, 'Just give me the well completion report.'
Geocomputing Management 52
In the second approach where, an attempt has been made through
maps or a GIS to ensure that the model is spatially competent, any
comparison between two proposals derived from that model is being
considered in a predominantly spatial context. This approach
features in Table 8.
Table 8 geological modelling in a spatial context
computing
techniques
weights of evidence
GIS
ggg

strengths No geologists needed for data preparation.
can predict unknown deposit/event styles
Further data collection reduces uncertainty on specified outcome.
weaknesses Geologist needed for data analysis
need to ignore some data
Is cumbersome for very large amounts of data.
Can only be used for a single outcome
Data preparation must be finished before start of analysis
Cannot predict missing components (mineralogy, freak or collateral
events etc), where there is no empirical evidence.
general use geological surveys (exploration initiatives)
academic institutions
some exploration-only companies
land managers
emergency services
case study Fractal-dimension analysis
1
in Hodkiewitcz (2005)
hhh

1
This case study may be a cross-over between the two approaches of Table 8 and Table 9 and this is
also recognised by the author who concludes the abstract with Fractal-dimension analysis thus provides
a link between empirical map features and the processes that have enhanced hydrothermal fluid flow and
resulted in the formation of larger orogenic-gold deposits.
However, geologists make comparisons of two areas on the basis of
their geological history. A geological history considers both the
position and timeliness of events or processes and so two proposals
are compared in a spatial-historical context. Before computers was
summarised in the geological cartoons like those of Table 3 in the
previous section. This approach features in Table 9.
Table 9 geological modelling in a spatial-historical context
computing geological history

ggg
Joseph K. Berry, Beyond mapping : concepts, algorithms, and issues in GIS (1993).
hhh
P. F. Hodkiewitcz et al., 'Complexity gradients in the Yilgarn Craton: fundamental controls on crustal-
scale fluid flow and the formation of world-class orogenic-gold deposits.', Australian Journal of Earth
Sciences vol. 52, no. 6 (2005).
Geocomputing Management 53
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techniques holistic approach
whole-of-earth model
true 4D GIS
strengths integrates very large volumes of data
Analysis can begin while data is still being prepared.
Predicts unconsidered deposit/event styles.
model can be used for many activities, by many disciplines
further data collection reduces uncertainty for all activities
Are reproducible
1

Provide a confident way of exposing a known view of information
1

Encourage quality control and expose potential errors
1

weaknesses Geologist needed for data preparation and analysis
greatest cost and time lag in setting up
requires planning
Require significant investment in rigorous data management
1

Only present the relationships that the data managers know about
1

Are not good at dealing with vaguely defined information
1

general use companies involved in both exploration & production
engineering geology consultants
case study Climate proxies in Appleyard (2005)
iii

Thermodynamic modelling in Mason (2004)
jjj

Quantifying fault movement in Quigley et. al. (2006)
kkk

NOTES
1
. These are provided in a comparison of Direct Linking to Search Linking in Hirsinger (2008
lll
)
The computing for techniques used in a universal context, are well
defined and documented by mathematicians. Similarly, geographers
and surveyors have done a large amount of work on comparison in
the spatial context, but there is very little on preparing computers for
techniques working in a spatio-historical context, Geologists do use
the other styles of modelling but the most successful, versatile and
safe outcomes are achieved taking the spatio-historical approach.
They are consistently used by the field geologist, whether working
on a mine, for United Nations flood mitigation, or a drainage plan for
a sub-division and the rest of this guide will focus on this style of
work.

iii
S. J. Appleyard, 'Late Holocene temperature record from southwestern Australia: evidence of global
warming from deep boreholes ', Australian Journal of Earth Science vol. 52 no. 1 (2005 ).
jjj
D. R. Mason, 'Thermodynamic modelling of lode gold deposits in Archaen granitoids: Woodcutters and
Lady Bountiful mines, Kalgoorlie region, Western Australia.', Australian Journal of Earth Sciences vol. 51,
no. 3 (2004).
kkk
M. C. Quigley, M. L. Cupper, and M. Sandiford, 'Quaternary faults of south-central Australia;
palaeoseismicity, slip rates and origin', Australian Journal of Earth Sciences vol. 53, no. 2 (2006).
lll
Hirsinger, 'Just give me the well completion report.'
Geocomputing Management 54
earth model
In Anonymous (2011
mmm
) the concept of a shared earth model was
well known, but I will go through it here anyhow. The earth model
in a geological sense is a collection (that is it is organised) of
measurements (numerical description in Anonymous 2011) and
represents the processes of the earth. It derives from the role of any
professional geologist to make an assemblage of field observations
that comply with the constraints (abstractions of Anonymous 2011)
listed in Figure 2.

Figure 2 the compliance pyramid
I think of the items in Figure 2 as business rules, as they include
both natural and man-made controls to the best extent that we
understand or can interpret them. When implemented on a
computer with the data loaded, and databases commissioned the
earth model would be considered a computer system by computing
professionals. This happens already in your thoughts and the
organised data types given as examples in Table 10 will be familiar
to you as documents, and illustrate the features of an earth model.

mmm
'RokDoc's role in facilitating innovation in exploration and
production', PESA News Resources no. 109 (2011), pp. 57-60.
GEOLOGY MAPS
COMMON-SENSE AND FREE ADVICE
GOVT GUIDELINES
AS/NZS STANDARDS
ACTS
REGULATIONS
WWW.GRANTJACQUIER.INFO/GRIMOIRE.PDF

Table 10 components of a computer system used for natural history
module earth model
before draft 18 after draft 18 Example of documents Example of standards
LOGIC
contains understanding
LOGIC GIS, species chart,
stratigraphic column
Table 40 geodetic monitoring networks after
Featherstone
CARTOGRAPHIC
presents the data
GEOMETRY CAD, plan, map. Table 37 suggested projections by
geographical context
HISTORIC
contain the observations
ASTRONOMY database, project
management, mineral
production, journal
Table 50 recommendation for time axes
versus action examples
ANALYTIC
process the data
ALGEBRA Geostatistics, graphs, cross-
section plots and
interpretation.
Table 51 mathematics for geological
problems after Berkman
MUSIC Remote sensing,
geophysical image, finite
difference model.
Table 52 official height data.
RHETORIC.or
REPORTING
summarise the data
GRAMMAR Internal report., open file
report., initial prospectus
offering (IPO.), archive
Table 82 checks for the basic structure of an
XML file
RHETORIC Talk, poster Table 76 popular IT management phrases
and where you can find formal definitions
WWW.GRANTJACQUIER.INFO/GRIMOIRE.PDF

natural history computing system
Computer systems used for natural history when considered as a lot
are very diverse. Natural history can encompass at least history,
geography, geology, biology and archaeology. Possibly, they could
encompass every bit of software written. However, to the user,
successful, well-used systems for these disciplines are different to
commercial or engineering systems, distinguished by the the
features in Table 10 to give a matrix of software like Table 11.
Table 11 a matrix of software for Computers in Geology
before the introduction of Google Earth prior to 2005

Initially I confined my thinking to just logic, cartographic, historic,
analytic and rhetoric, which we had empirically found but this did
remind me of the seven liberal arts and sciences introduced to me in
masonic ritual, and in that ritual those seven themes are chained to
the researches into the hidden mysteries of nature and science in
the second degree working
a
. The most obvious was that written
reports were done in Microsoft Word which had a grammar checker
and talks using Microsoft PowerPoint, including speaker notes
narrowly defined the two arts of GRAMMAR and RHETORIC. In
principle, seismic processing and sonic geophysical tools are
associated with MUSIC given the large amount of signal processing
used, but some of the other practices are not so obvious, such as
where does the rock records recovered from a drillcore sit. By the
18
th
draft of this Grimoire I felt I could distinguish at least some

a
Page 139 part of the S.E. Corner address in The ritual of the three degrees of craft masonry and
investiture addresses, (Adelaide, 2004).
Geocomputing Management 57
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applications which matched all the traditional divides of classical
learning. In practice I found that a field geologist had to be a jack-
of-all-trades and I found myself integrating the work from other
disciplines and being an interpreter between workers of those
disciplines. This may reflect your own experience as the breadth of
subjects in the Field Geologists Manual by Berkman
i
, suggest my
career is not unique.
WWW.GRANTJACQUIER.INFO/GRIMOIRE.PDF

Table 12 natural history computing system for Computers in Geology circa 2010
APPLICATION GEO-COMPUTING MODULE
(outcome & activity) logic historic algebraic cartographic reporting
I. Reconnaissance
(research & cataloguing)
DM
CinG search
centre
MS Excel Google Earth
ISI R.
EndNote
II. Field work
(field data and verification)
CinG feldbuch.xls MS Outlook
III. Preparation of results
(analyses & processing)
GS Mapper MS Excel GS Surfer MS Word
IV. Project review
(corporate information & data sharing)
CinG Tau
model
CinG
GeoTime3
CinG Intranet G. FreeView 9 MS Outlook
V. Proposal for further work
(summary and presentation)
MS Powerpoint
VI. Reporting
(archive & reporting)
ISI R. EndNote
MS Word

WWW.GRANTJACQUIER.INFO/GRIMOIRE.PDF
ore system
Similar to an earth model the ore system in a geological sense is a
collection (that is a systematic agglomeration) of processes that
represent ore genesis (reservoir simulation model of Anonymous
2011
a
). Again when implemented on a computer with the algorithms
approximating those processes and the controlling conditions
estimated then the ore system is considered a physical model by
computing professionals.
The data for a geological system must necessarily be physical
measurements but there are thousands of different devices and
techniques and Berkman
b
uses nine groupings: physical properties;
gravity survey; magnetic survey; electromagnetic, resistivity and
induced polarisation survey; radiometric survey; seismic survey;
down-hole survey; airborne survey methods; and earthquake
magnitude and intensity. To help decide what combination of
components you want for any particular use, I have been keeping a
record of archetypical applications I have come across, the seires of
case studies follows.
A. is the entropy analysis in Mason
iii

B. is a treatment of Holocene surface temperatures in Western Australia with MATRIX 1.6 as
per Appleyard
jjj

C. is an amalgam of mobile mapping from GIS User with three references: Fairall (2001)
a
, GIS
User: mobile computing hardware
c
and GIS User: mobile computing software
d
.
D. is a discussion of aerial digital surveys by Fairall in 2004
Error! Bookmark not defined.
E. is monitoring Holocene coastal change in New Zealand with Halliday
Error! Bookmark not defined.
F. is where luminescence and ASTER images are used to quantify fault displacement in
Quigley et. al
Error! Bookmark not defined.
G. is predicting sand drift with Thomas
Error! Bookmark not defined.
H. is a discussion of three bases for terrestrial scanning. Given examples of time of flight
scanners are Callidus, I-SiTE, Leica, MDL, Optech, Reigl and Trimble. For modulated i.e.
phase-shift scanners are Iqvolution, Quantapoint and Z+F. No examples of triangulation
scanners are given. The reference is Grieves (2004)
Error! Bookmark not defined.

I. Discussion of seismic and sonic techniques for modelling noise

affecting marine animals in
Hughes 2011
e


a
'RokDoc's role in facilitating innovation in exploration and
production', no.
b
See Chapter 9 Geophysics of Berkman, Field geologist's manual.
c
'Hardware for mobile mapping', GIS User no. 47 (2001), pp. 32-36.
d
'Software for mobile mapping', GIS User no. 47 (2001), pp. 32-36.
e
John Hughes, 'Seismic surveys and marine life: Why does the 'noise' mask the science and the
industry experience?', PESA News Resources no. 113 (2011), pp. 36-41.
Geocomputing Management 60
J. Discussion of the evolution of the dipmeter into the borehole imager in Prosser 2011f

application of geological computing
Geological computing, as specified by Long
g
for any information
system, combines hardware, software, procedures and data. Long
writing in 1988 also adds people, but in geological computing you
dont always have computer operators, examples being digital
weather stations, satellites and rock-fall alarms. These basic
components can be amalgamated in to other terms, such as the
computer system (hardware + software as in Curtin
h
), and the
computer application from McFadden and Hoffer
i
, which includes all
other parts plus a use. A computer application will also utilise
different instruments, which are continuously being invented so I
dont have a nice categorisation of those, though Long gives broad
categories of input, output, processing, storage, and data
communications. As adjunct to that I will just list the phrases
annotated with any papers that review that use.
- borehole imager
k

- digitiser
j

- dipmeter
k

- geophysical borehole logs
- global positioning system (GPS)
- laser scanner, phase difference
- laser scanner, timed pulse
- laser scanner, triangulation
- mobile phone
- personal digital assistant/PDA
l

- printer
m


f
Lawrence Bourke Jeremy Prosser, 'Early dipmeters and new tricks
with old dips - part 1', PESA News Resources no. 113 (2011), pp. 26-
29.
g
Page 14 of Larry Long, Introduction to computers & information processing, 2nd edition (Englewood
Cliffs, New Jersey, 1988).
h
See Figure 1-1 of Dennis P. Curtin, Application software with Wordstar, TWIN/1-2-3, and dBase III Plus
(Eaglewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1988).
i
McFadden and Hoffer, Data base management.
j
'Peripherals survey', GIS User no. 28 (1998), pp. 46-47.
k
Jeremy Prosser, 'Early dipmeters and new tricks with old dips - part 1', no.
l
Jon Fairall, 'Mobile mapping: What is it good for?', GIS User no. 47 (2001), pp. 27-31.
Geocomputing Management 61
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- seabed acoustic loggers
n

- synthetic aperture radar/SAR
4

- towed passive acoustic monitoring
n

- tablet computer
The case studies from the ore system section are given in
Table 13 along with reviews of categories of algorithm and
hardware, and referenced against the data group used. This ready-
reckoner in
Table 13 came out of demonstrating at the University of Melbourne
in 2001 where I found many of the Victorian Institute of Earth and
Planetary Science graduate students were struggling to find
processing to match up with what little data they had available to
support their particular research topic.

m
'Peripherals survey', no.
n
Hughes, 'Seismic surveys and marine life: Why does the 'noise' mask the science and the industry
experience?', no.
WWW.GRANTJACQUIER.INFO/GRIMOIRE.PDF

Table 13 review of algorithm against geophysical measurement, processing and hardware
geophysical measurement (after, Berkman, 1989)
1

9.9 Earthquake magnitude and density
9.8 Airborne survey
9.7 Down-hole survey
9.6 Seismic survey
9.5 Radiometric survey
9.4 Electromagnetic, resistivity & induced polarisation
9.3 Magnetic survey
9.2 Gravity survey
9.1 Physical properties
your situation
tick the available data:
Description of hardware used C, F, G B E,H
Hardware
3
tick
INPUT J I J D,I
PROCESSING J I D,I
OUTPUT J I I
STORAGE
DATA COMMUNICATIONS I I
airborne laser scanner
4
E
geophysical borehole logs B
global positioning system(GPS) G X X X X X X X
laser scanner, phase diff. H
Geocomputing Management 63
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geophysical measurement (after, Berkman, 1989)
1

9.9 Earthquake magnitude and density
9.8 Airborne survey
9.7 Down-hole survey
9.6 Seismic survey
9.5 Radiometric survey
9.4 Electromagnetic, resistivity & induced polarisation
9.3 Magnetic survey
9.2 Gravity survey
9.1 Physical properties
your situation
tick the available data:
laser scanner, timed pulse H
mobile phone F
personal digital assistant/PDA
a
C
tablet computer C
processing category
2

Fundamentals
Sorting Algorithms
Searching Algorithms
String processing
Geometric Algorithms C,G J J D
Graph Algorithms
Mathematical Algorithms E

a
Fairall, 'Mobile mapping: What is it good for?', no.
Geocomputing Management 64
geophysical measurement (after, Berkman, 1989)
1

9.9 Earthquake magnitude and density
9.8 Airborne survey
9.7 Down-hole survey
9.6 Seismic survey
9.5 Radiometric survey
9.4 Electromagnetic, resistivity & induced polarisation
9.3 Magnetic survey
9.2 Gravity survey
9.1 Physical properties
your situation
tick the available data:
Advanced Topics A J A B,J F
LEGEND
X : generic application to this component
A - H : particular case study (application)
NOTES
1
These divisions are used by Berkman

for his Chapter 9, Geophysics


2
These divisions are used by Sedgewick

for his eight major parts


3
These divisions are used by Long
d
for parts of a computer system

b
Berkman, Field geologist's manual.
c
Robert Sedgewick, Algorithms (Reading, Massachusetts, 1988).
d
Long, Introduction to computers & information processing, 2nd edition.
WWW.GRANTJACQUIER.INFO/GRIMOIRE.PDF
Why not just buy the software?
Geological computing is a great opportunity because for years
accountants have controlled outdoor activity in terms of unnatural
accounts, but if we could find some digital representation of the rock
record we could put it together into one computer with all the
business issues and against that put in all the relevant events in
history and let it crank away to give really wise answers. Most
recently, Mackie
r
(from surveys of oil exploration companies) has
found empirically that the correct tools to judge these variables,
which he labels Fit-for-purpose tools, will aid decision-making. I am
not surprised; divination has been an ongoing interest to leaders in
all societies.
I think Figure 3, is a count of the software titles I have surveyed
a
to
see if they can demonstrate the standard laws of geology. It
suggests to me that there isnt a single program to do this work,
perhaps we can expect that in the next fifty years, and that is shown
by the ideal geological software. For the time being you will have
to cobble together several pieces to get the full coverage of all the
laws of nature and produce sensible estimates for your design

a
The survey is available on my web-site at http://www.grantjacquier.info/home_files/softinfo.htm
Geocomputing Management 66

These laws are taken from the entry for law in American Geological Institute Dictionary of geological
terms, 1976
b
. The survey is recorded in full on the Computers in Geology web site
c
.
Figure 3 count of software demonstrating the laws of
geology


b
Matthews and Boyer (eds.), Dictionary of geological terms.
c
http://www.grantjacquier.info/home/softinfo.htm
0 10 20
law of constancy of interfacial angles
law of crosscutting relationships
law of equal declivities
law of faunal assemblages
law of faunal succession
law of original continuity
law of original horizontality
law of reflection
law of refraction
law of stream gradients
law of superposition
law of universal gravitation
law of homonymy
law of priority
ideal geological software
count of software demonstrating this law
13 geocomputing software titles in survey
law of nature other law
Geocomputing Management 67
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How do I not blow my money?
When I first became involved with computing I was surpised not only
by how quickly new products were available as in Figure 4 but also
the open deceit practised in the information technology (IT)
industry. I was informed of the adage that the difference between a
used car salesman and computer salesman is that the used car
salesman knows when he is lying. However, I learnt that the
changing technology could be used to step around problems and
that the IT in the mining industry, worked on a basis of friendship
and trust. The need for trust has been higlighteded recently in the
empirical work of Mackie
r
on decision-making for geological
situations. Unfortunately, I have developed some inappropriate
national prejudice in analysing the information provided by vendors
and now see the marketing in several styles, which have to be
examined in the context of different weaknesses:
American marketing style
Australian marketing style
Nordic marketing style
British marketing style
WWW.GRANTJACQUIER.INFO/GRIMOIRE.PDF



Figure 4 a geological computer system marked with the date when components were integrated
Geol. system
S/W science S/W suppl. H/W obs.
2005
MRSPOTS
1999
LUMINIERE
screen
1996
COGSTH
CD-ROM
1992
SARAH
modem
Backup
device
Key board
Track
ball
modem Fax machine Ext. drive hub printer
2008
scanner 1999
Colour
print
1992
B/W print
Photo copier
H/W field
computer
WWW.GRANTJACQUIER.INFO/GRIMOIRE.PDF

Understanding the weaknesses of the American marketing style
Australian mining software marketing will generally be based around
the principle of mutual obligation and friendship. This philosophy is
in contrast to American software/services majors who are much
more aggressive. For example a colleague brought to my attention
the statement in Figure 5 from the web site listed as the first case
study in Table 14, where the particular method of disseminating
information is compared to other methods from other suppliers.
Curiously, less than a year later from when I read Figure 5, Google
Earth was released onto the market, which did achieve some of
those objectives, but I never saw any similar blather, perhaps the
hyperbole is itself a signal about the quality of the product.
ESRI has been selected by the Department of the Interior to
develop the full implementation of the Geospatial One-Stop
Operational Portal (GOS 2). This next generation technology
represents a dramatic advance not only for geographic information
system (GIS) on the Internet but also for the entire geospatial field.
It will provide new ways of sharing geospatial information that will
help improve the business of government and decision making
processes
Figure 5 an example of hyperbole from an American
software developer
This over-bearing attitude actually provides Australian developers
with an advantage in that developing countries where most mining
takes place are very sensitive to imperialistic attitudes and the
friendly, straightforward Australian approach is more appealing and
this may be one of the reasons that Australian mining software
dominates the international market. However, I suggest a caveat
that the Australian innovation ritual is only superior where resources
are limited. This is supported by Gouldie
a
, who in petroleum
exploration and development, proposes a co-operative approach with
service companies when there are very few companies who can do

a
T A Gouldie, 'To tender, re-negotiate or partner: Strategies for contracting service companies. ,' in
APOGC 94 SPE 28745 (Houston, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers, 1994).
Geocomputing Management 70
the work. Mackie
r
also backs him up from another direction by
stressing the need for a team-based decision, or at least
authentication (the reduction of bias), among diverse technical
specialists.
Table 14 marketing examples and commercial risk in
geological computing
case study
1

http://www.esriaustralia.com.au/company/pages/news/press/
http://www.smartconference.com.au/industryUpdate.php?id=142
Microsoft Excel 2003 Help Notes
Golden Software Voxler trial disk
'It's about trust, Oracle' by Michael S. Malone.
commercial hazard
Insufficient documentation available 5 4 1 3 2
Software requires massive data preparation 5 1 2 4 3
Software cant be used without extensive customisation 5 1 2 3 4
Target governments to adopt software to control standards 3 1 4 2 5
Promise improvements when not available 5 1 2 3 4
Government to government influence 4 3 1 2 5
Suggest software will replace all other software 5 1 2 3 4
rating, sum of ranks (low is less risk, high is more risk) 32 12 14 20 27
NOTES
1
All these case studies refer to software companies which have their head office in the United States of
America.
RANK
1 : The software mentioned in the case study is least affected by this commercial hazard
5 : The software mentioned in the case study is most affected by this commercial hazard
The second URL in Table 14 is also another example of the
marketing of a structured query language (SQL) database developer.
The web articles in Table 14 are typical of the marketing style of the
corporate software houses that target the more centralisation-
friendly government departments in order to influence standards and
lock in mining companies and other smaller organisations into their
products. Malones is the only article I have come across discussing
marketing tactics used to frustrate computer system development
and is general, not Australian or geo-science specific. However, I
have encountered several cases myself but they all are "Commercial
and in Confidence" and cant be discussed here but Malone's paper
reflected the dissatisfaction that my clients exploration computing
staff had at that time with those products.
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In reflection the frustration with this type of marketing is a clash of
cultures rather than anything illegal. I work with Ben Moretti who
assigns an adage to his father (Franco Moretti, a former principal of
Kinhill, CEO of the Alice Springs to Darwin railway construction,
director of Beach Petroleum etc) that 'Australians do business as if
they are at a barbecue, Americans do business as if going to war,
and the English as if business were a public school'. The case of
Golden Software in Table 14 illustrates an exception and it is also my
feeling that Microsoft is far more even-handed and supportive, with
customers and competitors who have become suppliers, than they
are given credit for in the newspapers.
Understanding the weaknesses of the Australian marketing style
I attended the Software Marketing 97 course put on by the
University of South Australia, which brought out professors Vijay
Mahajan and Rajendra Srivastava, both associated with the
'hothouse' at the University of Texas used to develop ideas of
researchers into start-up businesses. From what they described
about the hot-house method, innovators with a new idea are
supported by best-in-breed materials from established suppliers: HP,
Texas Instruments, National Silicon etc; who are looking to expand
their application base and increase their economy of scale.
Perhaps, where this D-Day style of build up comes unstuck in
Australia is that we don't have the range of these suppliers, and so
they don't compete against each other to make the best use of an
innovation introduced into the hothouse. What happens in Australia
is the prime contractor takes over in a "she'll be right" attitude and
they inevitably don't have the depth of technology to complete the
expectations of the customers. Surprisingly to me with such
wonderful companies on hand, Mahajan and Srivastava were openly
critical of the American model deteriorating in this way, and preach
'love your customer' as a general remedy. They are supported in
their prejudice by research discussing the limitations of American
practice such as 'Loyalty and the Renaissance of Marketing'
b
and this
follows the tradition established at least by 1912 with Dale Carnegie
and his book How to make friends and influence people.

b
'Loyalty and the Renaissance of Marketing', Marketing Management vol. 2, no. 4.
Geocomputing Management 72
A particular and well published Australian case is the privatised
telecommunications supplier Telstra and this situation was
summarised by Fairall in 2009
c
. He states that Telstra is effectively
a monopoly because it has control of what telecoms engineers refer
to as the last mile: the physical cable between the box in the street
and the box on the wall inside your house. Commenting on the
companys technical effectiveness Telstras network is functional,
but it is also obsolete. It will eventually make the Australian
economy uncompetitive.every year that passes is a year of
monopolistic rents, so Telstras strategy is to slow down any
replacement process, using whatever means available. Of course
there is an American precedent for this when the Supreme Court
broke up the Bell Corporation. Fairall does comment that interests
of Telstras shareholders are not the nations yet the share price
was reduced 25% when the Telstra management derided the
National Broadband Network initiative of the Commonwealth
government because I think it is, to those shareholders [including
myself], not good business to treat your customers [also myself]
with contempt. The American remedy of Love your customer rings
out loud and clear.
The only other article I have come across on the Australian
innovation ritual being superior to the British model but
unfortunately again with a military example is "Diggers learned their
way to glory" by Stephen Matchett in The Weekend Australian, which
describes how Monash harvested the innovation talent within the AIF
to break through on the Western Front.
d
These men were in
competition both against the Germans but just as much against the
prejudice of Europeans for colonial volunteers. So I can see that
where Australian organisations abandon the quest for a monopoly
and enjoy the competition, embracing their own qualities, the
customer is well serviced.
Understanding the weaknesses in the British marketing style
A published case study on Australian innovation which discusses the
underhand marketing of overseas companies, and also the friendly,
mutual obligation between Australian developers and their customers

c
Jon Fairall, 'The Trouble with Telstra', Position Magazine no. 39 (2009), p. 7.
d
Stephen Matchett, 'Diggers learned their way to glory,' in The Weekend Australian (Sydney: 2004).
Geocomputing Management 73
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(engendering niche development), is the history of the
Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation Pty Ltd [a private enterprise
which is often confused with the Government Aircraft Factory, but
there was only a fence between them at Fishermans Bend, Victoria]
by Brian L. Hill.
e
Hill gives several examples where British
bureaucrats influenced, via Australian counterparts, the
specifications for Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) airframes and
engines, which resulted in planes that were not quite the best
available technology at the time. In contrast Hill describes that the
RAAF had a very trusting and successful friendship with Wackett, the
original general manager of the Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation
[Wackett was an ex-RAAF fighter and test pilot, so he had their
confidence from the start] that lead to several innovative aircraft
particularly suited to Australian circumstances, but which also found
sales overseas. Similarly, Neville Shute in his autobiography Slide
Rule places the responsibility for the destruction of the R101 airship
and the loss of the crew, to this bureaucratic interference culture,
and contrasts it to the supportive, traditional shop-floor culture used
to build the R102. I dont think that either of these authors are being
unfair, as I saw for myself at the Harley Davidson centenary road-
show in Melbourne the pre-World War II letter from the
commissioner of the South Australian Police, requesting an
exemption from the federal government requirement to use BSA
motor bicycles which the police found inferior to the Harley
Davidsons they had been using.
I can see the parallels to the IT situation but I don't think it would be
clear to anyone else. I am confident that the mining industry has
enough money and the construction industry has enough experience
with the standards associations, to step around this kind of
government to government interference, but I dont think the
Landcare groups are going to be able to disperse their environmental
effort to keep the bureaucrats from enforcing an unsuitable IT
regime. With my work on National Heritage Trust funding, I got the
strong impression from reading the research briefs, that IT and data
collection issues were being used as a way to enthral the catchment
management authorities, without primary consideration being given

e
Brian L. Hill, Wirraway to Hornet, a history of the Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation Pty Ltd
(Melbourne, 1998).
Geocomputing Management 74
to those councils. Jon Fairall, a former editor of Position Magazine,
gave these points in his final editorial 2010
f
:
The spatial software and data products are being used more,
and more widely.
Software companies and bureaucrats will be brought to
account for the weaknesses of their product (he gives the
example of Department of Sustainability and Environment
(New South Wales) and Spatial Vision and faulty information
in bushfire maps in February 2010).
Need improved ways of getting information that is speedier
and correct. Perhaps a domestic satellite monitoring service
is the answer. Perhaps crowd-sourcing of information [GJ : it
works really well for family history software just look at
www.ancestry.com and associated products including the TV
series Who do you think you are?]
The poor supply of information by government to car-
navigation software manuafacturers. However, he does
expect these to improve quickly as the suppliers are all in
competition.
Public enterprises with big companies dominate the
Australian market, money is wasted, and not enough money
is given to small firms who can accommodate the
customer/public more quickly. On the future he sees
Treasury officials being more aware of what is required and
cosy-relationships will be broken down.
It is now harder than ever for small start-up firms to make
new products and break these technical log-jams. Even in
practice, the price of full featured computer systems is
driving out innovative smaller companies, despite that the
surveyor and geologist are expecting to be independent.
Professional training has improved and will get better, with
more opportunities for life-long careers in GIS and
cartography, though people come and go too often.
Jon Fairall also often commented obliquely on the aggressive
marketing by American software companies. In an earlier 2007
g


f
Jon Fairall, 'So long, and thanks for all the fish', Position Magazine no. 46 (2010), p. 9.
g
Jon Fairall, 'The Way Forward', Position Magazine no. 26 (2007), p. 7.
Geocomputing Management 75
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editorial he gives this prediction, regarding bureaucratic interference
both in public and private realms:
Partnerships are indeed the way forward. But the industry is
littered with attempts at partnerships between IT departments and
spatial scientists and the results are not pretty. For every happy-
ever-after story there are a dozen dysfunctional workplaces where a
multi-million dollar IT system simply does not work.
He is critical of his own role and perhaps gives us an insight to what
he really thinks (he reinforces this with his final editorial in May
2010
h
):
Search as you might, you will never find an article in Position
entitled The 20 Great Mistakes of Corporate Computing. And of
course, you will never find the sub-title of that article either: What I
learned from them.
He implied that he is doing the best job of communicating; even
given he had to pay the rent from software advertising revenues.
Jon was very supportive of Australian industry and I think he did a
good job too, though he may have been too pessimistic in the quote
below, because I found to be trustworthy, the methods of Microsoft
and Golden Software shown in Table 14:
There is no mechanism for sharing knowledge, and thus no
mechanism for advancing it except perhaps in some dusty
academic tomb where the information can be safely sanitised and
kept from the children.
A little experience with the Nordic style of marketing
There is also, in geo-computing, use of a Scandinavian model for
innovation. The Western Australian Government is conducting an
investigation into establishing a centralised Norway-style petroleum
data bank. I haven't had a chance to look on their web site to see if
they have produced any reports yet, to see how it is all going.

h
Fairall, 'So long, and thanks for all the fish', no.
Geocomputing Management 76
I did have a visit from a Norwegian professor, a very long way for
him to come, who invited me for a drink and was discussing very
competent software in which he has an interest, and was generally
low key in his discussions. This may be the case of extreme
marketing, you actually get to speak to the development manager
face-to-face, but if Norwegian programs are as effective as Nokia
phones, Volvo cars and Ikea furniture then we are in for some
treats. The weakness of this approach was that I had to rely on a tip
from a colleague, and I then wrote a formal letter to the company,
so dont expect in-your-face advertising, you have to tell these
people why you want their product.
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How can I use a computer safely?
There are a series of hazards involved in geological computing and
dealt with in Table 15, my risk reduction check list, and the groups
of hazards discussed here in order of seriousness:
0. Mine/field accidents (rockfall, vehicle roll-overs) while
collecting detailed information for the database and other
physical injuries. I also include repetive strain injuries and
Legionellosis (Legionaires disease) in this category.
1. You become unemployed in a cyclic downturn, depression
and other marital hazards
2. equipment failure or destruction
3. Computer viruses and other malicious activity including theft.
I throw into this the white collar crimes of copyright violation
and plagiarism.
For most of those listed I have a paragraph on each to try and
suggest directions to ameliorate the problem in the context of
computer use. I originally thought that computing would be
independent of mine and field accidents, but I have found there are
often computing-related errors involved, such as:
1. The Air New Zealand crash on Mt Erebus, Antartica, where a
clerk instead of a pilot typed the flight course into the
computer (Stewart 2009
i
).
2. the 2010 Deepwater Horizon catastrophe reported by Caesar
2010
j
, which he describes as a direct analogue of the Piper
Alpha disaster in 1988, with a whole series of problems,
one of which was the engineers inability to read a pressure
test correctly (PESA resource News 2011
k
gives 11 men
killed, 17 injured, 4.9MM barrels of oil lost).
I think these are a subset of problems as discussed by Stapledon (in
1996
l
he also gives a computing example) where engineers dont

i
Stewart, 'Sightseers doomed before take-off.'
j
Ed Caesar, 'Blood, Oil & Money', The Weekend Australian Magazine no. (2010), pp. 10-18.
k
'US Regulator's Verdict in on Macondo', PESA News Resources no. 114 (2011), pp. 30-31.
l
D.H. Stapledon, 'Keeping the "Geo"; Why and How,' in 7th Australia New Zealand Conference on
Geomechanics: Geomechanics ina Changing World, ed. M.B. Jaksa, W.S. Kaggwa, and D.A. Cameron
Geocomputing Management 78
take the necessary care in working with natural materials. I dont
treat these catastrophes here because better advice is available at
the reception desk of your nearest department of mines. However I
have had opportunity to research and write up separate sections on
hazards peculiar to computing:
- intellectual property issues and data confidentiality
- a special sealed section on becoming so seriously boring
you can never get married.
- Data theft
- Identity crime
- Legionellosis temperature and humidity stress
Also I have put together a few aids. A diagram summarising the
hazards, incidents and the overall risk is shown in Figure 6. The
riskiest incidents are over-use injury (sometimes called RSI repetive
strain injury) and vehicles damaging equipment, which corresponds
to indoor and outdoor, respectively. The risk analysis in this graph,
Risk Assessment, is found in the sheet hazards of the StudEx.xls
spreadsheet available on my web-site. Other odd things are that I
attach all warning and warranty stickers to the lid of a notebook. I
know this makes it ugly but it helps when I am in a panic and
anything you do to make your notebook distinctive and ugly will
discourage someone stealing it. At some later date you should get
your drivers licence number (pre-fixed by the first letter of your
state) engraved on the body and the screen of the laptop to
discourage thieves further and assist the police with recovering your
goods.

(Adelaide, South Australia: New Zealand Geotechnical Society / Australian Geomechanics Society,
1996).
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Figure 6 plot of risks, for geological computing, by hazard
and incident
Occasionally the geologist is confronted with a dangerous situation,
in particular working on hazardous mines like the King Island
scheelite mine, the Moura coal mine or Long near Kambalda. Of
course the more hazardous the more there is a requirement for
detailed information to put into the computer to try and work out
solutions. The exercise A capital gains calculator gives guidance on
how to prepare a fact sheet for the writing of a will. The same fact
sheet doubles as documentation for applying for the dole (Newstart
etc), a much more common and less permanent occurrence. If you
do use the same form at least you get the social security department
to desk check your will for nothing. The documentation has three
parts:
- A statement of expected capital gains for your investments
in shares and projects
- A statement of liquidity, that is current amounts of any bank
accounts
- Balance sheet of profit and loss for any business dealings

a
g
g
r
e
i
v
e
d

p
e
r
s
o
n
h
e
a
v
y

e
q
u
i
p
m
e
n
t
l
i
g
h
t
n
i
n
g

s
t
r
i
k
e
w
a
t
e
r

i
n

a
/
c

d
u
c
t
s
m
o
v
i
n
g

v
e
h
i
c
l
e
equipment damaged
Legionellosis
strike a person
fire
injury, lifting
injury, over-use
20.5-25.5
15.5-20.5
10.5-15.5
5.5-10.5
0.5-5.5
-4.5-0.5
amelioration none
Max of risk
hazard
incident
Geocomputing Management 80
Table 15 check list of system-design measures against
hazard category
HAZARD

your hazard



data theft


Table 16 general data theft measures

accidental death or injury


Copyright and plagiarism


Marital stress and unemployment etc.


equipment failure or destruction


0 PREVENTION TYPE


method tick

I HARDWARE



your purchase:





- X - - -

laptop/screen blocks

n X n X X

use laptops instead of desk tops

- X - X X

power surge protectors

X X X n X

lockable filing cabinet

X - X - -

reports to clients not on display

X n X n X

laptop leash

- X - - -

separate full-size keyboard

- X - - X

laptop cooling pad

II SOFTWARE



your program:





X - X X -

use separate logins

X - X X X

Table 26 anti-virus software

III PROCESS



your process:





- - - n X

use dust sheets

X X X - X

lock your doors and windows

X X - - -

use copyright banners in scripts

X X - - -

use copyright declarations on web-sites

- - - X X

computer advice to friends & family

X - X X X

Table 29 backup policy

n - X X X

Table 73 recovery plan

n - - X -

Table 83 financial facts
Geocomputing Management 81
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HAZARD

your hazard



data theft


Table 16 general data theft measures

accidental death or injury


Copyright and plagiarism


Marital stress and unemployment etc.


equipment failure or destruction


0 PREVENTION TYPE


method tick
LEGEND
X : this method is useful against this hazard
- : this method is no obvious affect on this hazard
n : this method increases this hazard
I : this is the primary method of protection
III : this is the least satisfactory method of protection

Intellectual property hazards
About 2006, I had to get hold of the Geological Society of Australias
Code of Ethics
m
for a careers night we were participating in at
Norwood-Morialta High School, and as you do I had a quick read
because I hadnt looked at them for twenty years. I was struck by
how relevant they were to the current computing situation. The
usual thing: Article I.3 has Honesty, integrity etc which I have
found essential for consulting and the expectation that you will be
dealing with other peoples data. However, they got even more
specific to geological computing, take Article II.2 which is a very
current topic about re-use of data on the World-Wide-Web (consider
Yahoo Pipes
n
if you want to understand more):
A geologist shall not knowingly permit the publication of
his/her reports, maps, or other documents, for any
unsound or illegitimate undertaking.

m
'Code of Ethics for Geologists,' ed. Geological Society of Australia Incorporated (Sydney: Geological
Society of Australia).
n
To learn more about re-use of data on the World Wide Web, try the URL http://pipes.yahoo.com/pipes/
Geocomputing Management 82
The counterpoint to this, such as cutting and pasting blocks of text
from an Adobe PDF (portable document format) file into your own
Microsoft Word document is mentioned specifically in Article IV 2:
A geologist shall freely give credit for work done by others
to whom the credit is due and shall refrain from plagiarism
in oral and written communications, and not knowingly
accept credit rightfully due to another geologist.
When I talk to my solicitor I label these two issues as copyright and
plagiarism. With copyright and plagiarism, it is not just a case of not
doing it and keeping things confidential. Scientists want their ideas
reviewed, so you have balance providing your ideas for discussion
and publicising the worthy ideas of others, it really is our job. The
tips I have found so far in order of usefulness:
1. Talk about your own situation with your lawyer
2. Ask him to write you a copyright notice that encourages
readers to re-use your material and get your ideas out and
about
3. Use a banner in your scripts giving copyright to your client if
they paid for the time
4. Rather than use third-party web-sites like Panaramio to
show your photographs in Google Earth, use KML files to link
your photographs and keep both on your web-site, for which
you have paid a monthly fee for the storage of your work,
and your copyright is acknowleded in the agreement.
5. Keep a watchful eye on government departments as they
feel they have a right to all material written about the earth
under whatever act they feel gives them this right.
I like to put banners on the top of scripts I have written for clients
and Equation 95 has my usual banner. I did this out of routine and
an opportunity to advertise but when questioned the other day
about it I had a look at Copyright in Regan 1990
o
which deals
principally with the result of the Commonwealth Copyright Act 1968
under which this book is published, and which he prefaces with
The interest that vests the exclusive right to publish and gives:

o
Regan, 'Copyright.'
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Copyright subsists for unpublished original literary, dramatic,
musical or artistic works of an author; literary works include
written tables, compilations and dramatic works, scripts
including those for films; a painting, sculpture, drawing, or
photograph; computer programs, sound recordings, television
and radio broadcasts. Where an original work is published
copyright continues to subsist in the work.
I noticed that that some other workers dont put banners on their
stuff and I thought oh dear just another example of my pedantry.
However, in 2008 when Commander Communications Limited went
into receivership they on-sold my contract to Peoplebank, and I
realised for the first time the affect of the confidentiality clause as I
was not to show the new managers what the old contract was
about. If I had to demonstrate those scripts I had written under that
contract belonged to my client it would be untidy because I couldnt
use the clause in the contract about passing the copyright without
breaking the contract. So much easier to use the banner and
demonstrate that I am meeting that requirement.
Regan does emphasise the exclusive right of the author, but does
this remain when dealing with the crown outside the commercial
sphere. Position Magazine found in October-November 2008
p
that in
August of 2008, the High Court of Australia ruled that surveyors
own copyright of their works, and that governments do not have an
implied licence to use their material for free. The article does finish
with Despite the court ruling, there is still a way to go before
surveyors will receive any payment for use of their work, so I am
waiting to see what the practical results are. It was in this frame-of-
mind that I reviewed another article in Position Magazine, where it
described the efforts of the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain to
prevent their data compilations being used in Google Maps because
the Google Corporation was adopting the copyright. I am sorry I did
not record the article, assuming it was more propaganda to defend
the dominance of bureaucratic interests, as I had just read the
Google conditions-of-use for my own purposes and did not consider
what the OSGB were reported saying was a fair appreciation. Several
months later The Weekend Australian
q
reported something similar

p
'Surveyors Win Copyright', Position Magazine no. 37 (2008), p. 74.
q
Michaela Boland, 'Google assumes a right to all books,' in The Weekend Australia (Adelaide: The News
Corporation, 2009).
Geocomputing Management 84
for literary authors and the Google Books project. In this case
Google Corporation was reported as requiring the onus to be on the
authors to request the retention of their copyright, the reverse of
what Regan outlined. So the debate continues.
Marital hazards
It is my belief that all geologists have the personality and charm that
echo Trollopes eulogy to the Bendigo gold miners (circa 1873)
r
:
However the boom/bust cycle of work, long absences, and artistic
frustration can sour any relationship.
intelligent, manly and independent altogether free from
that subservience which the domination of capital too
often produces in no community are the manners of the
people more courteous or their conduct more decent
Despite my faith, it is a tradition in South Australia for the geologist
to seriously consider the impact of their career choice on their
marital prospects. The bleak and lonely semi-desert requires this and
the song about copper mining in South Australia , Blinman to the
Top, by Gary Atkins contains the lines
take your wife,
if shes prepared,
to give up all,
and venture forth
Despite being 150 years out of date, this verse still sums up the
obligation required of a spouse [though this may be changing Ting
s

in 2009 stressed the cooperation of your employer]. This problem
has been treated by other workers as well. Sprigg
t
devotes a whole
chapter to Should a geologist marry? in which he quotes the advice
he was given in 1937 but still seems relevant with the retrenchment
of field geologists in 2003 [and also 2009] i.e.:

r
Geoffrey Searle, The rush to be rich, a history of the colony of Victoria, 1883-1889, vol. 1883-1889
(Carlton, Victoria, 1970) p. 65.
s
Inga Ting, 'Advance Australia Fair?', Position Magazine no. 43 (2009), pp. 16-17.
t
Reg Sprigg, Geology is fun (recollections) or the anatomy and confessions of a geological addict.
(Flinders Ranges, South Australia, 1989).
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Get it into your skulls that all
heiresses are beautiful
White
i
is more abstract with the chapter on Motivation and
Management but interaction with the spouse is mentioned again. I
also feel of all the occupations for a field geologist, the least
conversational is the study of computers AND rocks. There is the old
fallback of learning to play tennis or joining the bush walking club
but I have found that maintaining a good knowledge of Microsoft
Word, and freely giving of that advice, gives you time with potential
spouses. If you are co-habiting consider setting up a user name for
your friend on your own computer to prevent you spending more
time fixing someone elses machine than doing your own work.
There is an also an old adage that an unskilled user will find the
bugs faster than a knowledgeable user and it is always better to find
these problems at home base rather than in the field.
Data theft
I first researched identity theft, when I was concerned about a
business asking for too much personal information, and read the
alert regarding identity theft on www.police.sa.gov.au, the web-site
of the South Australia Police. On a secondary issue but perhaps an
even more significant business best-practice problem, geo-science
data workers need to be really spot-on with data confidentiality if
they want to provide computing technology to corporations reporting
under the JORC code to the ASX (the Australian Securities Exchange)
with the implications of insider trading (see Figure 7) I have done a
detailed risk analysis on identity theft which I have included here as
a separate sub-section.
Insider trading
A term used to describe securities transactions undertaken
by a person who stands in a particular relationship to the
company in whose securities he or she deals and who has
access to information which if generally available would be
likely to affect the price of those securities (Corporations
Act 1989 s 1002(1)) to the general public or the securities
industry.
Geocomputing Management 86
Insider trading is prohibited under part X of the Securities
Industry Code and under Part 7.11 of the Corporations Act
1989.
Figure 7 definition of Insider Trading from Ryan (1990)
u

I suspect the principles of protection of the two types of data are
similar, the only difference being that trading information remains
valid (that is until it is reported) for a shorter period than credit cards
and passports. If you exchange in your mind a photograph for a
diagram of a drilling intersection (ASX release) or an audited
financial statement (annual report), the work is the same. The
Information Technology Contract & Recruitment Association has a
definition of confidential information in taken from their code of
conduct in ITCRA (2008
v
) with this encompassing view of
confidential data.
Confidential Information refers to any information which
may reasonably be regarded as confidential, or which was
communicated in circumstances implying an obligation of
confidence and, without limiting the generality of the
foregoing, includes information relating to any dealings,
trade secrets, transactions, or affairs of any Candidate or
Client, and to any organisational or operational details.
Figure 8 definition of "Confidential Information" from the
ITCRA Code of Conduct, 2008
Generally you are considering keeping stock exchange reporting
information confidential for months, where identity information will
be current for years. More time to steal things the easier it is.
Therefore, if your business can stop identity crime, it can stop insider
trading. On that basis I have a single list of all the remedies for data
theft in Table 16.


u
Michael Regan, 'Insider Trading,' in Australian Business Dictionary (Melbourne: Australian Business
Library, 1990).
v
ITCRA, 'Code of Conduct, authorised by the
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission
19 February 2008,' (Melbourne: Information Technology Contract & Recruitment Association, 2008).
Geocomputing Management 87
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Table 16 a comparison of risk reduction for data theft
hierarchy of control
1

BEST - eliminate
substitute

engineering/isolation

administration / training

WORST - personal protective equipment

risk reduction activity

your activity



destroy or shred the document when no longer needed
2
X X
dont carry around extra or unnecessary documentation
2, 3
X X
hire a post office box
3
X X
Make sure your letter box is a suitable size
3
X
Never use recycling bins for confidential documents
3
X X
lock up copies of documents X X
Destroy document before putting in the rubbish bin
3
X
reconcile bank and account statements
2
X
be very cautious when giving information out on the phone
2, 3
X
ask questions about the security of the information
2, 3
X
Empty your letter box every day
3
X
Ask Australia Post to hold your mail when you go bush
3
X
lock your letterbox
2, 3
X X
cross the copy of the document you provide X X
NOTES
1
from Mount Isa Mines (2001)
w

2
from 'When bad things happen to your good name'
x

3
from the South Australia Police web-site in 2009
y

Identity Crime
I thought I should write on identity theft in this grimoire, because
geologists are always travelling and using the Internet. The basic
definitions from www.police.sa.gov.au
z
are quoted in Figure 9.

w
Adapted from materials supplied by Mount Isa Mines, Risk Management Study Guide (Rockhampton,
Queensland, 2001).
x
'Identity Crime 'When bad things happen to your good name' a guide to community prevention
', ed. South-Western Pacific region Conference of Commisioners of Police (2003).
y
South Australian Police, 'Safety & Security > Safety & Security Tips > Identity crime ' in Safet
& Security 2009 (Adelaide: Government of South Australia, 2006).
z
Ibid.
Geocomputing Management 88
What is identity fraud?
Identity fraud is the use of a false identity to gain money,
goods, services or other benefits. It can include the
following types of criminal activity: counterfeiting credit
cards, skimming (manually copying numbers or using a
magnetic stripe reader) credit cards, the use of stolen
credit cards or credit card numbers.
False identities
False identities are often established by: creating a
fictitious identity by manufacturing or forging proof of
identity documents, identity theft from an actual person
(living or dead) by using stolen personal information or
forged or stolen identity documents.
What is identity theft?
Identity theft is stealing your name for the purpose of
obtaining money, goods, services or other benefits. This
could include: opening fictitious accounts in your name at
banks, credit card providers or department stores,
accessing your bank accounts and credit cards. Identity
theft often results in fraud by a 'takeover' of the victim's
existing bank accounts or by the fraudulent operation of
new accounts opened in the victim's name.
Figure 9 identity crime definitions from the South Australia
Police
I didn't realise that the police in all the Australian states were so
concerned ( the National Identity Security Strategy was headlined in
Identity Security Branch, 2006
aa
) , though I was thinking the other
day how older people could be tricked by the spam e-mails, I just
hadn't made the connection that they would be getting all the
complaints [Jefferson 2004
bb
uses the phrase seeking assistance
from the police to restore their good name], I sort of thought it was
a Telstra (the major Australian telephone company) issue. In
October 2009, Detective Sergeant Andrew Bolingbroke, of the

aa
Attorney General's Department Identity Security Branch, 'Home > Crime Prevention and Enforcement >
Identity Security,' in Crime Prevention and Enforcement, ed. Attorney General's Department 2009
(Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, 2006).
bb
Judith Jefferson, 'Police and Identity Theft Victims - Preventing Futher Victimisation,' in Research
Publications (Marden, South Australia: Australasian Centre for Policing Research, 2004).
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Commercial & Electronic Crime Branch, kindly spoke to me, over the
phone, about the responsibilities for employers or societies collecting
personal information, and I made these notes.
You probably need to put lines through any images (to
prevent them being used for fraud).
He also commented that banks are sighting the documents
only and not keeping copies because under the Federal anti-
terrorism act: if you have it, you have to hand it over, and
then they can be sued.
Dont put images on un-protected disks and dont send them
through open e-mail
Digital data/images are a concern to the Major Fraud Squad
because they can be so easily sent overseas and out of their
jurisdiction.
Southam (2009
cc
) extended his statement for other businesses as
well with the advice of the Recruitment & Consulting Services
Association (RCSA) to only sight documents with photographs even
for such mundane practice as verifying a drivers licence to use a
work vehicle. After thinking about it, this not much different to any
other hazard that we encounter and I can put together a risk
analysis in the same way. To begin with I can see the magnitude of
consequences differing based on the five types of documents in
Table 18. This is a good practice in itself, Main and Robson (2001
dd
)
list the weighting of documents into categories in their Figure 3
summary of registration and confirmation processes employed.
However, the different approach in Table 17 is taken from the South
Australian identity theft act
hh
where all forms of identification are
treated equally including personal identification numbers and
alternatively the consequences vary if you are a minor, if you are
trying to buy alcohol or enter licensed premises, or if you just
attempt to, rather than produce, distribute or exchange the
prohibited material, separate from actually committing the fraud or
other criminal act. Subsequently this makes sense of why the

cc
Kate Southam, 'Keeping photos not on,' in The Advertiser (Adelaide: Advertiser Newspapers Pty
Limited, 2009).
dd
Geoff Main and Brett Robson, 'Scoping Identity Fraud, an abridged version of a report on identity fraud
risks in Commonwealth agencies.,' ed. Attorney General's Department (Canberra: Commonwealth of
Australia, 2001).
Geocomputing Management 90
Information Technology Contract and Recruitment Association have
their code of conduct to supplement the legislation.
Table 17 risk matrix for identity theft
category of consequence
use identity documents to commit another offence
produce, distribute or exchange identity documents

attempt to produce, distribute or exchange identity documents

use to purchase proscribed drugs or enter a licensed premises

use by minor

document storage method

electronic or digital image 11 16 20 23 25
physical possession 7 12 17 21 24
notated facsimile 4 8 13 18 22
paper facsimile 2 5 9 14 19
sighting 1 3 6 10 15
NOTES
18 to 25 : High level of risk
6 to 17 : Medium level of risk
1 to 5 : Low level of risk
I can also imagine how the likelihood of a theft increases with the
way that data is stored. Until I spoke to Det. Sgt Bolingbroke I would
have put physical possession as being most likely opportunity for
misuse, but the rating of likelihood after his advice is this:
1. sighting
2. paper facsimile (photocopy)
3. notated facsimile
4. physical possession
5. electronic or digital image
Now with hierarchies of consequence and likelihood, the risk matrix,
in Table 17, is straight forward, and matches those found in any
mine or construction site
ee
. Then it is a matter of minimising the risk
factor for any given responsibility.
Table 18 consequences of identity crime
type of consequence

ee
Mines, Risk Management Study Guide.
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process Interruption
financial cost
personal injury, damage .caused to name and reputation
1

RATING CATEGORY
consequence
1 USE BY A MINOR
embarrassment in the work place X
2 USE TO BUY ALCOHOL OR ENTER A LICENSED PREMISES
exclusion from membership
2
X
suspension from membership
2
X
maximum fine AUD 5000
2
X
reprimand or severe reprimand
2
X
directed to obtain advice
2
? X
attend education courses
2
? X
pay expenses of investigation and disciplinary action
2
X
publicise name and details of breach
2
X
3 ATTEMPT TO PRODUCE, DISTRIBUTE OR EXCHANGE
as above X X X
4 PRODUCE, DISTRIBUTE OR EXCHANGE ID DATA
as above X X X
maximum imprisonment of 3 years
3
X
5 USE TO COMMIT ANOTHER OFFENCE
credit card, bank or utility account
as above X X X
difficulty in restoring your credit rating
1
X X
regain the trust of financial institutions
1
X
valid passport especially a biometric one
as above X X X
LEGEND
X : this type involves this particular consequence
? : this type may involve this particular consequence
NOTES
1
these consequences given in When bad things happen to your good name
ff

2
these consequences from ITCRA Code of Conduct (2008
gg
)
3
these consequences from Criminal Law Consolidation (Identity Theft) Amendment Act 2003 (2004
hh
)
Consequences may be further sorted by these types of documents:
i. personal identification number
ii. birth extract/ birth certificate

ff
'Identity Crime 'When bad things happen to your good name' a guide to community prevention
'.
gg
ITCRA, 'Code of Conduct, authorised by the
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission
19 February 2008.'
hh
'Criminal Law Consolidation (Identity Theft) Amendment Act 2003,' (South Australia: South Australian
Legislation, 2003).
Geocomputing Management 92
iii. drivers licence with photograph
iv. credit card, bank or utility account
v. valid passport especially a biometric one
Legionellosis, temperature and humidity stress
In 2011, the year of the floods in Queensland and Victoria, increased
water flow into the River Murray and the re-opening of the mouth in
South Australia, my land lady arranged for the house to be painted,
but first she had to get the leak in the ceiling fixed. It turned out
not to be loose roof iron but water in the air-conditioning duct to my
work room. The increased humidity had caused icing within the
sealed evaporator unit and this was melting into the duct. This
reminded me of the potential of diseases which be can be contracted
by contact with water or soil such as Legionaires disease (or
Legionellosis as used within this category by SA Health
ii
)

Figure 10 occurrences of selected notifiable diseases from
South Australia (after Buckett 2009, Communicable Disease
Control Branch Report
jj
)

ii
'You've Got What?,' (Adelaide: Government of South Australia, SA Health, 2009).
jj
Kevin Buckett, 'Prevention,' in Public Health Bulletin SA 6 (Adelaide: Government of South Australia,
SA Health, 2009).
0.1
1
10
100
1000
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Malaria Meningicoccal disease
Ross River virus infection Tetanus
Gonorrhoea Legionellosis
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What is the likelihood of Legionellosis? An examination of Figure 10
shows that likelihood is in the order of the other water-borne disease
Meningicoccal disease (sometimes contracted from under-chlorinated
tap water) or getting malaria. From the geologists point of view: it is
an order of magnitude less than getting Ross River fever in a wet
year, but several orders of magnitude more likely than getting
tetanus from a rock graze. Against the general background of all
disease it is an order of magnitude less chance than getting
Gonorrhea. So if using a condom every time is your average/medium
likelihood, then there is a low likelihood. A quick check in Wikipedia
kk

shows that bacteria causing Legionellosis breed in the temperature
range for computer operation (Figure 11), but rapid growth is limited
to the 35 to 46 C range which is above operating temperature. I
havent been able to find any guidelines for ducted air-conditioners,
but if we assume the average romance routine is once-a-week, then
once-a-month run the air-conditioner in the reverse cycle or leave
the air-conditioner off in summer for several days, to dry those
ducts. A heat wave should also do the trick as Wikipedia
kk
gives that
at 55 C Legionellae die within 5 to 6 hours. If you dont have the
opportunity to turn off the air-conditoner then operate it at 18 C
which keeps the Legionellae dormant.

Figure 11 temperature tolerances for selected computers
plotted against critical temperatures for Leginellae bacteria

kk
'Legionellosis,' in Wikipedia 2011 (Wikimedia Foundation, Inc, 2011).
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
80
Toshiba, 2005 HP, 2011 netbook, 2010 Legionellae
d
e
g
r
e
e
s

C
e
n
t
i
g
r
a
d
e

make, year
max oper. T
max T
min T
min oper. T
Geocomputing Management 94
Generally, the health and safety warnings you have read in the
leaflets accompanying a new system are straightforward and
obvious. The only doubtful one is in regard to heat stress (see Figure
11) and dust on the computer, which you have to ignore to some
extent. Generally, as suggested by the humidity range increasing in
Figure 12 and the netbook in Figure 11, the tighter the device is put
together the less likely that dust, heat or humidity will affect it: so I
inspect the seams of any computer system I considering buying.

Figure 12 acceptable limits for humidity in computer
operation and storage
0
20
40
60
80
100
Toshiba, 2005 HP, 2011 netbook, 2010
%

w
a
t
e
r

v
a
p
o
u
r

make, year
max oper. humid.
max humid.
min humid
min oper. humid.
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Where can I get a computer?
This section is in the form of a specification for a new computer
system based on my historical requirements, the outcome of which is
shown in Table 19. There are further descriptions of the historical
computers in the Replacing my computer sub-section:
- The MrsPots system, used 2005 to 2011
- The Luminiere system, used 2000 to 2005
Please feel free to suggest any improvements for a geologists
personal computing system as described by the hardware and
software listed in this section. In a number of cases there are graphs
to help predict future capacity and aid the selection of central
processor unit etc.

Geocomputing Management 96
Table 19 previous systems for Computers in Geology
component Luminiere
MrsPots
(AUD 5 300)
Period of use 1999 -2004 2005 -2011
operating system MS Win 98 MS Win XP
computer brand and
model
HP Omnibook 4150 Toshiba Satellite M30
processing chip Pentium II Pentium M
random access memory 128MB RAM 1GB RAM
sound card NeoMagic MagicWave
peripheral HP Deskjet 880C
Floppy Plus card reader
USB Port replicator
trackball
HP Officejet 6500
accessory
S-Notebook backpack
Notebook leash
MS Office 2003 Pro

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Chapter 2 METHOD: an ore system acts on an
earth model
In this chapter I expand on the concept of the earth model
introduced in the previous chapter. To this end I use examples from
the Eastern Goldfields around Ballarat, in Victoria, Australia. The
model corresponds to the Ballart sheet regional geology map
published by the Victorian Government. An earth model may have
five computing components of
- sub-system for processing Logic data
- sub-system for processing Astronomical data
- sub-system for processing Geometric data
- sub-system for processing Algebraic data
- sub-system for processing Rhetoric
- sub-system for processing Grammatical data
So this chapter is about fitting the data for the Ballarat sheet into
these modules ready for the ore system to be applied against it. That
ore system is then examined in the light of the phases of an
exploration cycle.
Geocomputing Management 98
Replacing my computer system
In 1999 I bought a geological computing system based around a
Hewlett Packard Omnibook 4150 laptop computer and an HP Deskjet
880C (the other specifics are given in the section for the Luminiere
system). I then completely depreciated that system and replaced it
with a Toshiba Satellite M30 laptop with several printers. Previous to
those two systems I had two desktop computer based systems
which had the strengths of:
- professional documentation
- secure packaging
- cheap good quality black and white printing from an
Epson LQ-570
- 5.25 and 2.5 drives plus CD-ROM
- the reduced compile time for C programs on the 120
MHz Pentium CPU
The documentation and good packaging are important when you are
going bush. The weaknesses I found were:
- a lack of disk space,
- heat stress affecting the calculations
- having to keep the machine running for receiving faxes
*,
- unable to fax from Windows *,
- relatively primitive visual presentations,
- modem too slow for Internet facilities,
- I could not do colour brochures,
- the backups to Travan tape were not easily browsed and
restored,
- having to limit my presentation files to less than 1.44 Mb
so I could transfer them to the printer to Bridgehead to
be converted to 35 mm slides or to Snap printing to be
printed out as posters.
Subsequently, I bought a standalone fax-answering machine and this
removed those problems marked with *. The Kodak CD-RW writer
was purchased after the tape drive failed and was found more
useful, so I never bothered to get the tape drive repaired. Everything
else has generally been improved by adopting a laptop instead of the
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desktop system and colour inkjet printers instead of dot matrix. We
may be in for another cycle of improvement as in the Hazards
section later in the book, it is discussed that netbooks have greater
environmental tolerances than laptops.
My latest laptop is the HP Envy 1100. I chose it from several that
complied with the minimum specification shown for 2010 in Table 21
because it had a:
- a graphics chip compatible with DirectX
- the large 17.6 inch screen
- the gear was readily available at Officeworks
- the very small Imation USB2.0 Atom Flash Drive
- a full version of Microsoft One Note wrapped in the Office
Professional 2010 software.
- The packing case the best sealed I have seen
- The user manual, including health and safety manuals is on
SD flash card but there is also an option to automatically
install these on the local disk, an option I used.
- The Quick Web application for quickly starting an Internet
browser, rather than having to start up Windows all the way.
- The back-lit keyboard, including a switch to turn it off if you
want to save power.
- The Microsoft Access exports the XML schemas as well as
the data, plus an example XSL(T) template for displaying on
the net, which saves an awful amount of time scripting these
things up.
The things I dont like with the new observatory system are:
- a 2 year warranty instead of 3 years, as a result of it being
reduced in price on clearance sale.,
- not getting Microsoft InfoPath, special data loading software
in the Microsoft Office Professional package, the most
upgraded package I could get.
- The CD/DVD driver cant handle 8 cm compact disks
- The battery needs to be activated by turning on the
computer with the power on even after fully charging it as
per the instructions. This was not mentioned in those
instructions.
Geocomputing Management 100
- The Microsoft Office 2010 suite is quite radical compared to
previous versions and I spend a lot of time converting
existing documents which get corrupted when saving to the
new version formats, and finding how things work in detail.
- The videos for as part of the help system, rather than
properly laid out help files that can you can speed read.
- The mirror affect on the display screen. In some light
conditions I end up looking at myself not the open
document.
The intention from the desktop days was that there was to be a field
computer linked to the observatory computer. I have trialled a
number of machines: Canon personal organizer, HP Ipaq, a Samsung
mobile phone, and a Digital portable computer. Most recently, 2010 I
tried a Dell netbook. The things I liked about the Dell Inspiron
min1012 are:
- It has been set up to delete the supplied operating system
and replace it with an alternative, for example Linux.
- The sim card from the Telstra radio modem can be inserted
directly ino the computer.
- Video camera
- LiIon battery technology allows recharging without having to
discharge completely.
- The screen very good in daylight conditions
Things that I thought were weaknesses for this application:
- 19V charger system
- Difficult recovery disk generation
- Difficult updates for the BIOS
- 65C maximum temperature for batteries
- Not very clearly defined keyboard
- Pointing device was imprecise
- Screen was glary under electric light
From the experience with desktop, laptop and now netbook
computers, I have generalised a shopping list of components in
Table 20. Each of the components is described in further detail in the
sections that follow discussion of environment of use.
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Geocomputing Management 102
Table 20 shopping list for a geological computer system
0 COMPONENT
specification need no. tick
A LAPTOP OR NETBOOK
your item:

central processing unit as per Table 28 I 2
multimedia components as per Table 28 I 2
secondary storage as per Table 28 I 2
modem as per Table 28 I 2
Table 30 connection ports
B SOFTWARE
Table 27 software to be supplied with the hardware
Table 25 utility software against function
Table 26 computer virus-protection for a laptop
Table 22 special software
C PERIPHERALS
Table 29 current backup policy
your item:

3g modem I 1
USB hub with ports as per Table 30 I 1
WiFi Hub (Ethernet capability) 11g/n as in Table 30 I 1
Table 31 check list for an observatory printer I 1
D MISCELLANEOUS
your item:

8 GB USB drive for recovery disk I 2
security cable as per Table 15 I 2
notebook colling stand as per Table 15 II 1
notebook back-pack II 2
Uninterruptible Power Supply
1
III 1
Dr PC service III 1
LEGEND
I : must be present
II : should be present
III : could be present as it is nice to have
NOTES
1
Please see my 2004 reviews of unterruptible power supplies (UPS) for the Australian Geoscience
Technology web-site
ll

2
Please see my website www.grantjacquier.info/develop.htm

ll
Grant L Jacquier, 'Uninterruptible Power Supplies,' 2004 (Jacquier, Grant Leslie, 2004).
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The MrsPots system, used 2005 to 2011
The computer hardware I am using at the moment is from
Officeworks but previously I had a custom-built system from Logi-
Tech in Adelaide, see the section on Luminiere and listed in Table
1, and who will still do a nice multi-computer network for individual
contractors/consultants. You can see my review of potential systems
in the worksheet Comparison in the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet
StudEx.xsl [student examples] loaded on this web site. I bought the
stuff from Officeworks, rather than a boutique supplier like LogiTech
(who provided the previous system), because I was keen to see if I
could do an off-the-shelf system: a complete geo-computer for
around AUD 10 000, that anyone in Australia could purchase and
setup. The accounting for this design, including the subscription
costs excluded from that initial cost, are shown in parts and
reckoning worksheets also in StudEx.xsl
Some problems from the MrsPots system:
- The IOmega Floppy Plus drive and the Targus USB2.0 port
replicator gives security warnings when installing the device
drivers. This is mentioned in the Targus manual so I knew to
over-ride it.
- The IOmega Floppy Plus, floppy drive does not work if
connected to the port replicator, it has to be connected
directly to the PC (also suggested in the IOmega manual).
- the automatic installation from CD of the Business Contact
Manager (Office 2003) stalled, but was successfully installed
when I went the through the Add or Remove programs
function in the Control Panel.

The Luminiere system, used 2000 to 2005
The system that first replaced the desktop systems I used in the late
20
th
Century was comprised of:
- HP Notebook 4150 PII 300,
- 32 MB SDRAM,
- 6.4 Gigabyte HDD,
Geocomputing Management 104
- 1.44 Mb FDD, 32 speed CD ROM,
- 14.1TFT Screen,
- Xircom 56Kbps fax/modem,
- PS2 two button Microsoft Mouse,
- MS Office professional,
- HP 880C Colour inkjet printer (12 months RTD Warranty),
- Warranty: 36 months return to base for notebook,
- backup Exec software with Seagate Travan TR-1 cartridge
(400/800 Mb) ,
- and other software of the time as suggested from the
spreadsheet www.grantjacquier.info/develop.htm
The things I liked about the Hewlett Packard system:
- The 3-year warranty and service in each Australian state and
the two and half day turnaround to get a motherboard
replaced, when I was in Melbourne.
- The ease of moving the laptop computer from office to
home to university, it was even better than the Apple
Macintosh 512, I had in the late 80s.
- Being able to use the computer while travelling on the
Overland train.
- The excellent printer drivers for the HP Deskjet 880C
- The LCD screen reduced eye strain
- I found Microsoft Wordpad superior to Microsoft Notepad for
editing text files
- Being able to use the CD backup disks as archives or as data
transfer disks as well.
- being able to let my girlfriend use the HP 880C with
Macintosh Blueberry.
- The infrared connection to the universitys HP laser printers,
saved lots of time having to set up network connections or
hook up a parallel cable, when I did need to do a printed
draft of a thesis.
- Being able to configure a separate simplified environment
when my girlfriend wanted to borrow my computer.
Things I found I didnt like:
- the flat keyboard made typing more difficult
- unplugging all the different cables from the array of ports
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- the sound card was not recommended for the Parrot headset
I got with the Dragon Naturally Speaking 5 software.
- Re-writable CDs were not worth the trouble of loading the
Adaptec DirectCD software. They could only have a couple
of backups before they were exhausted and couldnt be used
on any other machine except thatwhich had DirectCD loaded
and running.
- The USB Kodak CD-Writer stopping on me mid backup
- Problems reading Microsoft Write files in either Microsft
Word 2000 or Microsoft Wordpad
- The big stack of backup CDs that I have ended up with.
- Not being able to upgrade the ISI ResearchSoft EndNote
because the Microsoft Windows 98 operating system was not
longer supported.
- Not being able to read my girlfriends USB2 thumb drive
- the intolerance to warmer office temperatures where there is
no air conditioning, such as the university.
Environment of use
My business is providing special computing services to the mineral
and petroleum industries. This includes system and program
development in Microsoft Windows, as well as site investigation and
research. The laptop PC to for this work will be used to do:
- software development
- general office administration
- client database and report archive
- maintaining financial accounts
- writing reports and theses
- creating presentations and posters
- demonstrating software
- desktop publishing of newsletter and advertising pamphlets
- maintaining a web page
The laptop PC will be situated in an office, hotel room, train carriage
or convention centre with mains power but not necessarily air-
conditioning. Temperature and humidity limitations are treated in
Figure 11 and Figure 12 of the Hazards section, later in the book. To
complete the usual nominated environmental constraints, I have
altitude in Figure 13, which hasnt ever been a consideration in my
Geocomputing Management 106
work, but other geologists conducting air surveys may be interested.
I think Figure 13 does indicate that computer manufacturers are
making computers more suitable for carrying in the holds of aircraft
by improving the maximum altitude at which they can be carried.

Figure 13 laptop computer air pressure tolerances
The minimum computing specifications for the computer are in
Table 21. These are determined by considering the requirements for
software being used at that time. My web-site has a page dedicated
to the calculations at www.grantjacquier.info/develop.htm .

-1000
1000
3000
5000
7000
9000
11000
13000
15000
Toshiba, 2005 HP, 2010 HP, 2011
m
e
t
r
e
s

a
b
o
v
e

s
e
a

l
e
v
e
l

make, year
max oper. alt.
max alt.
min alt.
min oper. alt.
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Table 21 minimum specification for a new computer system

RESTRICTION

Your requirement tick



my options year

OPERATING SYSTEM

your requirement:



Microsoft Windows XP 2010

Microsoft Windows ME 2005

DISK SPACE

your requirement:



12 Gigabytes 2010

9 Gigabytes 2005

PROCESSOR CAPACITY

your requirement:



Intel Pentium III 800 Mhz 2010

Intel Pentium III 500 Mhz 2005

your requirement:



512 Megabytes of RAM 2010

128 Megabytes of RAM 2005

VIDEO CARD

your requirement:



32 MB DirectX compatible 2010

1024768, 16 bit color 2005

Software modules
The application software used in the omputers in Geology
computing system is based around the concepts in Table 22. You
may be surprised but this table was only filled in with the addition of
Google Earth in December 2007. Up until then the slot occupied by
that software was listed as by hand on mylar over photos & maps. The
introduction of Google Earth is a good example of the adage of an
Geocomputing Management 108
applied scientist of twice the cost, ten times the functionality. With
Google Earth the same marked up photograph can be displayed at
ten (or more) different scales and there is even algorithms built-in to
make sure your pin marks dont overcrowd, as well as your photo is
endless from one side of the earth to the other. Also from time to
time the photography is updated all without disturbing your plotted
marks.
The following sections are the three lots of software which need to
be considered with every purchase of a computer:
- operating system software
- Software for finding computer viruses
- software required to be supplied

Table 22 software for the Computers in Geology computing
system
APPLICATION GEO-COMPUTING MODULE
(activity) logic historic algebraic cartographic rhetoric
Reconnaissance
(research &
cataloguing)
DM
CinG search
centre
MS Excel Google Earth
ISI R.
EndNote
Field work
(field data and
verification)
CinG feldbuch.xls MS Outlook
Preparation of
results
(analyses &
processing)
GS
MapViewer
MS Excel GS Surfer MS Word
Project review
(corporate
information &
data sharing)
CinG Tau
model
CinG
GeoTime3
CinG Intranet G. FreeView 9 MS Outlook
Proposal for
further work
(summary and
presentation)
MS Powerpoint / MS Publisher
Reporting
(archive &
reporting)
ISI R.
EndNote
MS Excel ISI R. EndNote MS Word

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The vendors for Table 22 are given in Table 23, but this itself is only
a summary of the full list of software employed. The full list can be
found on the Computers in Geology website
mm
.
Table 23 major vendors and key to Table 22
Principal vendors
CinG
Computers in Geology
DM
Data Metallogenica (web site)
GS
Golden Software
Google
Google
ISI R.
ISI Researchsoft
MS
Microsoft
G.
Geomatica

operating system software
The minimum acceptable operating system is Microsoft Windows ME,
or preferably better. This is also true for anti-virus software which
comes bundled including a free update licence but I prefer to buy my
own and I discuss this in following section on anti-virus software.
Other optional operating system software is covered in utility
software.In summary any computer package should also include the
graphical, machine and application interface software namely:
i. Microsoft Windows
ii. An HTML and Java browser for Internet applications.
iii. Drivers for the peripherals

Recommendations for device drivers are given Table 24.


mm
http://grantjacquier.info/develop.htm#software
Geocomputing Management 110
Table 24 drivers for additional devices
category response tick
question mine yours
universal serial bus (USB) Floppy disk drive
Model Iomega Floppy Plus
Driver name: CITIZEN X1-USB Floppy
Driver date: 1/07/2002
Driver version: 1.0.01
universal serial bus (USB) hub
Model USB Composite Device
Driver name: CITIZEN X1-USB Floppy
Driver date: 1/07/2001
Driver version: 5.1.2600.0
Digital Signer Microsoft Windows Publisher
Printer
Name Deskjet 880C
description: HP Deskjet 880C
version: 5.1.2600.2180
manufacturer: HP

Optional utility software
Apart from the basic operating system Barnes 1989qq gives five
features of additional utility software plus some examples required
for a geologist as given in Table 25. Barnes only allocates Microsoft
Windows to one category, but gradually over the years it has taken
up many of the functions he employed other software for.
Additionally software accompanying or bundled with Microsoft
purchased products such as Microsoft Internet Explorer, Microsoft
Active Sync and Microsoft Script Editor, while maintaining the theme,
have greater functionality than the software specially purchased by
Barnes in his time.

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Table 25 utility software against function
functionality of utility software
1

Operating system organisers
File managers

backup and archiving software

communication software

menu system software

your need:


software name

Adobe Quicktime (on making of Australia CD-ROM)

X
Le Menu
1


n
Microsoft Internet Explorer
2


- -
Microsoft Active Sync
2


X
Dragon Naturally Speaking
3


X
Fastwire II
1


n
Laplink
1


n
Procomm
1


n
Microsoft Windows (XT and later)

- - - - -
Alloy/Novell
1


n
PKARC
1


n
Sytos
1


n
Lister
1


n
Microsoft Word
1


X
Norton Utilities
1


X X
Table 35 script editors
1, 2
X

X n
Table 26 anti-computer-virus software

X
LEGEND
X still superior to the Microsoft Windows offering
- the standard, usually Microsoft Windows
n was good in its time but now superseded by modern Microsoft Windows
NOTES
1
from Barnes, 1989
nn

2
this software comes bundled with Microsoft Office or other valid Microsoft licence
3
I reviewed this software for the Australian Geoscience Technologies web-site
oo
, though I have gone
back to the Microsoft offering

nn
Julian F. H. Barnes, 'Exploration computing in a small company environment. ,' in Computers in
Exploration - Where we are now and where we are going, Seminar No. 7, Australian Institute of
Geoscientists Bulletin No 9 (Perth: Australian Institute of Geoscientists, 1989).
oo
Grant L Jacquier, 'Dragon Naturally Speaking 5 - Preferred Edition,' (Parkside, South Australia:
Computers in Geology, 2003).
Ibid.

Geocomputing Management 112

Software for finding computer viruses
Barnes states that software utilities comprise,in general, a group of
programs which are designed to make the MS-DOS environment as
efficient as possible and this is very true of anti-virus software. A
these are conventional hazards associated with computing: computer
viruses, Trojan horses, identity phishing etc. etc; I have found that
subscription to a virus checking service has been adequate but I
have developed some buying preferences which I have given in
Table 26, an assessment form, but introduce here.
My favourite anti-virus software was the original Vet software which
provided rescue disk and software on a monthly basis, just drop
them in the box with your backups and that is your disaster
management plan. The Symantec product featured all the utilities
from the Norton utilities program, plus a web-site for rescuing your
computer; it would do the scans from there. Norton Internet Security
(netbook) software with a licence code for a years updates, available
off-the-shelf at Officeworks, is on provided a USB thumb-drive which
made it very easy to install on a netbook, (and later on my
notebook, when the AVG subscription runs out) and can be stuffed
into the documentation folder for that computer.
So it is not all the fancy detection algorithms that influence me when
selecting virus-checking software but rather the features I like are:
- Provided software disk for reloading when your system does
go down
- Routines to generate Rescue disks
- Extra utilities to fix files and handle corruption
- Nominating a file or folder to be checked when I need it
The annoying disadvantages I have found is interference with the
running of software (Trend Micro and Norton 360), interfering
scheduled disk scans (AVG), requiring registration on the web-site
with passwords and e-mail addresses even though you have paid the
money, have a license number and loaded the software which knows
where to look for the files (both Symantec products and Trend
Micro) and abusing the automatic update by sending advertising
Geocomputing Management 113
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(Trend Micro).
I dont understand why the updating on the Internet has to be so
intrusive, when you consider that the time signal from
time.microsoft.com does something similar and a lot of people
wouldnt even know that their calendar and clock are being updated.
I think it has been slowly improving after the backward step from
mailed disks, and I found that I couldnt notice the updates from
Norton Internet Security (netbook) edition which features intelligent
downloading for people on the move in airports and the like, so it is
superior to the disks system of Vet.
On data going the reverse way I was surprised that in the 2009
upgrade of the AVG software that the conditions of use included a
clause allowing for automatic sampling of files from your hard disk
and return the virus centre. This may go down well in eastern
European countries, but this undermines your data theft procedures
for research (intellectual property), society (identity theft) and JORC
reporting (insider trading) businesses. I retained the old version of
AVG and wont be renewing the license until their work method
changes. After it was looking like things were getting worse, I felt
there was a general improvement with Norton Internet Security, the
netbook edition. This still required file sampling, in the license they
wrote in the licence
4. Privacy Data Protection
From time to time, the Software may collect certain
information from the computer on which it is installed, which
may include: Portable executable files that are identified as
potential malware Such Automatic submission function may
be deactivated after installtion by following the instructions in
the documentation for applicable products.

In summary the things I dont like in a virus checking software are:
- Unauthorised file sampling
- Password registration
- e-mail marketing
- intrusive processing and messaging
- not coping with disconnection from the Internet
Geocomputing Management 114


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Table 26 satisfaction matrix for virus-protection for a laptop
Date: software

Minimising interference during the day while you are working
Rigmarole in updating the virus patterns

More obscure product so not deliberately targeted by hackers

Supplying a rescue disk and clean-up utilities

Supplying software on disk for disaster management

submission of sample files to the vendor

Your criteria:



Virus checking service name rating

a perfect score: 49

Your service



Vet by Vet 75% 6 7 6 7 5 7
Vet by Computer Associates 50% 5 3 5 5 1 5
Trend Micro PC-cillin 50% 7 5 3 4 3 2
Norton 360 by Symantec 40% 4 2 7 2 2 1
Norton Internet Security (netbook) 60% 3 6 4 3 7 6
McAfees
2
25% 1 1 1 1 4 4
AVG via Laser IT (here in Adelaide) 45% 2 4 2 6 6 3
2
this software comes bundled with Microsoft Windows

software required to be supplied
There is software that will be re-used for the new system, so there is
no need to get a quote on it, and is mentioned here for
completeness only. If you think there is a conflict with the other
parts of the specification, please let me know. The list and system
requirements for all software are listed on the Computers in Geology
web-site
pp
. The software to be supplied is Microsoft Office including
MS Word, MS Excel, MS Outlook and MS Access as per Table 27.


pp
http://www.grantjacquier.info/develop.htm#software
Geocomputing Management 116
Table 27 software to be supplied with the hardware
computer: date:

SOFTWARE CATEGORY
item need
1
quotation
2
OK
incl. sep.
m y m y m y
0 SOFTWARE THAT IS ASSUMED TO BE SUPPLIED NORMALLY
operating system I X
utilities I X
image editing software II -
Internet Browser I ?
1 PRODUCTIVITY SOFTWARE TO BE PURCHASED
Microsoft Word I X
Microsoft Excel I X
Microsoft Outlook (O+) I X
Microsoft Publisher (B+) II
Microsoft PowerPoint I X
M. Business Contact Manager (B+) II
Microsoft Access (P+) II
Microsoft OneNote (H+) III
Microsoft InfoPath (U only) III
2 UTILITY SOFTWARE TO BE PURCHASED
computer virus checker as per Table 26 I X
version Microsoft Office suite, most modules at top:
2003 Office Ultimate (U)
2007 Office Professional (P)
2010 Office Small Business (B)
other: Office Standard / Office Home and Business (O)
Office Home and Student (H)
1

NOTES
1
Microsoft Office Home and Student is not available for commercial work

System Hardware
I choose a Microsoft Windows based machine because most
engineering, most surveying and a good deal of specialist geo-
scientific software runs on it. Also Microsoft Windows machines are
supported more widely in rural Australia, so if I need maintenance or
assistance while working in the bush it is more likely to be available.
Alternatively, running on an Apple Macintosh (Mac) just isolates you
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from the best software, because if the Mac software is any good the
software developers can afford to port the code to the Microsoft
Windows environment and cash in on the economies of scale. Some
of the heavy weight processing software still runs best on Unix or
Linux but each year the major developers are porting more of their
modules to the Microsoft Windows environment, to leave just the
processing and data management core on the Unix server.
As for any concerns of Microsoft hegemony, any scientist should be
concentrating on the scientific issues of his data and application, not
worrying about networks, printers, screen selection, disk
management or even the usability of, or fatigue from the screen
interface. If there is a need to change in the future the accountants,
engineers and bank clerks will be changing as well, so do whatever
they do.
The modems come in two types, one for around the office use
making a local area network (LAN) and the other for connecting
outside the office making a wide-area network (WAN).
1. 1 x modem for WAN use. This modem must be suitable for
connecting to an Internet service provider, as well as third
party bulletin boards. It would be of benefit if I could also
connect to the modems (+2400 baud) of my clients
mainframe computers. It would be nice if the modem was also
able to send faxes.
2. 1 x modem for LAN use to access a Siemans Speedstream
9671 WiFi , 100/10baseT Ethernet hub.
The hardware in Table 28 must run the above software effectively.
Where possible I have given indication of the minimum requirement
but please give advice on the suitability.
One integrated visual display unit is required including video card to
be able to support at least 1024768, 16 bit color (SVGA?) mode.
The PC should also have a Windows compatible sound card and
integrated speakers. A VGA port for attaching a second creen or
projector is required. A nice to have is the digital TV receiver, as this
gives you access to local weather and entertainment without
increasing the amount of gear you take into the field. The other
components discussed are:
Geocomputing Management 118
- Chip set
- Secondary storage
- Data backup device
- Ports local-area-networks (LAN)
- Modem and wide-area-networks (WAN)
- printer



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Table 28 computer components (central processing unit)
0 COMPONENT
specification need no. tick
A COMPUTER CHIP SET
your item:

additional RAM III 1
DirectX compatible graphics chip II 1
nVIDEA graphics compatibility III 1
mathematics logic chip III 1
B MULTIMEDIA COMPONENTS
your item:

external microphone port I 1
integrated speakers I 1
external speaker port I 1
web-cam I 1
digital television tuner III 1
C SECONDARY STORAGE
description min. size min. speed need no. tick
hard drive 12 GB I 1
CD-ROM compatible drive 640 MB 16x I 1
DVD R/W compatible drive 4 GB 4.7 GB I 1
D MODEM
your item:

Table 30 connection ports I ?
fax capability V90 modem & facsimile II 1
inbuilt 3G modem III 1
E OTHER
your item:

security cable connector (Kensington lock) I 1
2 year service guarantee I 1
5 year service guarantee II 1
sub 12V charging III 1
LEGEND
I : must be present
II : should be present
III : could be present as it is nice to have
Geocomputing Management 120
The chip set for the computer
Barnes in 1989
qq
, explained that for a geology office there should be
one or two computers, with the highest clock speed affordable, and
at that time that was at least 16 MHz, he preferred the Intel 80386
16-bit processor; plus an arithmetic chip [actually built into that
model, but before the 386 it had been an expansion option, that is
why he mentioned it]. The random access memory or RAM was to
be calculated by examination of the software, there were to be as
many ports as possible (a minimum of two parallel and two serial).
To this specification I would add: check the power supply. The
Toshiba Satellite M30 laptop computer has a 15V DC power supply,
and I think all Toshiba models have this specification. It would be
better for a field geologist if the computer could be run on 12V
power supply from the cigarette lighter connection in a Land Cruiser.
Lesser voltages are no worry as there are plenty of adaptors around
to step down the voltage to 9, 6 or 5 volts, but I have only seen one
to step it up to 15V and that was at the stand of specialist marine
electrics stall at a boat show. Also I am not concerned that the
current supplied from the car battery would have to be higher,
because you can either install a heavier duty battery or add another
battery in parallel as often is done for two-way radios. As we often
have to drive such long distances to get to site, there will not be a
problem recharging the car batteries at the end of the day.
In short form the update of the specification I used in 2005 for
selection of the Toshiba Satellite M30 and then later for the Dell Mini
10 netbook is:
a minimum of 128 Megabytes of RAM
1x CPU with at least an Intel Pentium III, 500 Megahertz
microprocessor or better. The prediction from Figure 14
suggests between 2 and 4 Gigahertz.
The serial/parallel port capability either directly as had been
the case in the previous HP OmniBook, or as a USB hub.
12 V or less internal battery power supply and the Li-Ion
typeallows to recharge without first discharging the battery
completely.

qq
Barnes, 'Exploration computing in a small company environment. .'
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The operating system and application interface should also
be supplied.
y = 9E-186x
41.116
0.1
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
Jan-80 Jan-90 Jan-00 Jan-10
time (years)
p
r
o
c
e
s
s
o
r

f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

(
M
H
z
)

previous chip netbook Power (previous chip)

Figure 14 the increasing speed of the micro-processor chip
for geo-computing
There must be a minimum of 128 Megabytes of RAM as per the
items listed on the Computers in Geology web-site
pp
. However, the
MS Office software is probably the most demanding and if necessary
requirements should be modified upwards to account for the latest
versions of the productivity software. For the Toshiba Satellite M30
system in 2005 the additional Legend RAM was installed in-store, but
there is a trick, you have to put it in at forty five degrees and then
push the board flat. This component also failed under heat stress in
2007.
Geocomputing Management 122
y = 1E-196x
43.383
0.1
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
Jan-80 Jan-85 Jan-90 Jan-95 Jan-00 Jan-05 Jan-10
time (years)
R
A
M

c
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

(
M
e
g
a
b
i
t
s
)

previous chip netbook Power (previous chip)

Figure 15 random access memory capacity for geo-
computing
secondary storage
Barnes in 1989
rr
, explained that for a geology office there should be
one or two computers, with 5.25 and 3.5 floppy disk drives, and
for the hard disk he asked for the largest affordable (at least 60
megabytes). He noted that you should check for fast response time
as the hard/disk/operating system interface is main cause of slow
computer response. At that stage he recommended asking for a
voice coil type, but nowadays you would be hard pressed to find one
that wasnt of that type and the continuing development of optical
disk drives for recording and playing movies has pushed the
specification of disk drive motors beyond what I need to care about.
Disk capacity still needs to be considered with the minimum of 9
Gigabytes, as the sum of the capacity for the software items from
Table 22, plus data storage of 3 components:
- c:/archive1, 639 MB, 323 files, 8 folders
- c:/archive2, 641 MB, 729 files, 37 folders

rr
Ibid.
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- c:/data, 338 MB, 3105 files, 217 folders
This suggests the minimums shown in Table 28. As a check, just
consider the measurements of disk capacity taken from previous
specifications in Figure 16, which suggests that the system will
require in total 30 Gigabytes (10 000 MB for data, 20 000 MB for
software) by 2009.
0.1
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
1000000
Jan-80 Jan-85 Jan-90 Jan-95 Jan-00 Jan-05 Jan-10
time (years)
d
i
s
k

c
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

(
M
e
g
a
b
y
t
e
s
)

working data software
music Power (working data)
Power (software)

Figure 16 previous disk capacity specifications
data backup device
This device must be able to backup large portions of the hard disk
without repeated changing of the media. Appropriate software must
be supplied that enables restoration of data in full, by individual
directories, or selected files. It must have the capacity of at least 150
MB. I have used in the past a Seagate Travan TR-1 cartridge drive
(400/800MB) with Backup Exec. After problems with the drive I
replaced this with a Kodak CD-R/W writer, which I currently use with
CD-R disks with the policy shown in Table 29. This policy is less
intensive than the one that Barnes (1989)
ss
gives in his Table 4,

ss
Ibid.
Geocomputing Management 124
which is a schedule for daily backups to a set of 9 tapes and would
suit an active multi-geologist office. Unfortunately with my scheme,
the number of disks I am holding in total is about 50, but I multiplex
my time between projects and it could be years before I detect an
error for which I wish to restore an alternative.
Table 29 current backup policy using a range of materials
backup name sequence location
1

week 2 weeks work folders USB drive on key ring
week 3 c:\DATA 2 GB USB drive in packet
week 4 weeks work folders 2 x USB drives on black string
monthly (week 1) 1 month on-site CD-ROM tray
bi-monthly 2 month in transit or offsite storage
2

- 3, 4 & 5 month on-site CD-ROM tray
half-yearly 6 month offsite storage
2

- 7, 8, 9, 10 & 11 month on-site CD-ROM tray
annual 12 month offsite storage
2

- 13, 14, 15, & 16 month on-site CD-ROM tray
- 17, 18, 23 month boxed on-site
bi-annual 24 month offsite storage
2

- 25, 26, etc boxed on-site
half-decade 60 month offsite storage
2, 3

decade 120 month offsite storage
2, 4

1
All these disks have indefinite retention policies, except the Travan tapes and floppy disks. Since 2007
DVDs have been used in preference to CDs.
2
I currently use a Commonwealth Bank safe deposit A- size tray.
3
Travan tape.
4
3 floppy disks.
I initially thought that a Zip-Disk or Syquest drive system would be
considered an advantage as it can be used to transfer image files to
a printing bureau as well. However, I tried using CD-RW disks but I
found that there wasnt enough disk space for more than two passes
and the inconvenience of only using them with Adaptec DirectCD
software, rather than on any PC, discouraged me from further use.
By 2007 I had switched to burning DVDs as the amount of material
had grown especially with my flat-mates audio files. Potentially, USB
thumb drives may provide a better solution but at 2005 the price of
a full backup series was prohibitive. I thought the following sequence
may replace that shown in Table 29. This would reduce the number
of disks stored by 80% and increase the frequency of backups:
Geocomputing Management 125
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One larger drive to take, week1, week2, week3 backups to
be kept on-site
Five smaller drives to take month 1, month 2, month 3,
month 4, month 5 backups, which would be rotated off-site.
six-monthly backups would be to CD-R to provide the half-
yearly, annual, bi-annual, half-decade and decade backups.
Where I did find that thumb drives came into their own is carrying
data with you. In 2001 I had a credit-sized CD-ROM with medical
details in my wallet. I found that it cracked even faster than my
credit cards, so for that purpose I switched to USB thumb drive on
my key-ring. The one medical file changed to the whole
administration folder, then additional folders of work I had been
doing, and in July 2009 I was able to put the whole data tree onto a
single 2 megabyte drive that had been given to me as a promotion
by Paradigm Geotechnology. The additional advantage is I always
have curriculum vitae and other critical files with me. I am particular
about the design of the cap because I have found pocket fluff in the
plug cavity where the cap falls off or it is one of those types which
swing around on a frame. I have adjusted Table 29 to show the use
of these.
Computer ports and a local-area-network (LAN)
The equipment in this section is for connecting things around the
site, making a local area network (LAN). Barnes 1989
tt
addresses the
requirements for this equipment, which at that time included switch
boxes and cable communication as separate items:
Check if it is telecom approved
Essential - allow linking of two computers to one plotter
Preferably serial connectors
For my current system this is principally done via WiFi transceiver
and modem to access a Siemans Speedstream 9671 WiFi,
100/10baseT Ethernet hub. Though there are the simpler port based
alternatives The LAN connections I have used have been, in order of
improvement (though this is utility rather than speed as you can see
from Figure 17):

tt
Ibid.
Geocomputing Management 126
I. Floppy disks
II. Null-modem cables and like (Barnes 1989 gives
Fastwire II, Laplink)
III. IEEE1394 iLink port, infrared port
IV. Taurus USB (universal serial bus) hub
V. Intel PROset for Wireless, an internal card in the
Toshiba Satellite notepad, for 801.11b/g WiFi (2.4
Ghz) to match the Siemens Speedstream 9671
VI. 100/10 Base PC-MCIA card Ethernet
VII. 100/10 Base T internal Ethernet card
Table 30 ports for a hub, computer or printer
A GENERAL ITEMS
description min. size min. speed need no. tick
USB port 1.0 I 3
WiFi transceiver IEEE 803.11 g ( 2.4Ghz ) I 1
WiFi transceiver IEEE 803.11 n II 1
SD/MMC photo card slot 2 GB I 1
SD/MMC photo card slot 8 GB II 1
Ethernet port RJ45 100 BaseT II 1
Ethernet port co-axial 100/10 III 1
3 floppy disk drive 1.44 MB II 1
5 floppy disk drive 1.2 MB III 1
B SPECIFICALLY FOR A NOTEBOOK/NETBOOK OR HUB
specification need no. tick
Television co-axial port II 1
serial port wired III 1
parallel port wired III 1
Blue-Tooth transmitter II 1
infra-red port wired III 1
C COMPUTER ONLY
specification need no. tick
IEEE port for video camera II 1
HDMI port II 1
VGA port for an external computer screen I 1
USB 2.0 port, powered port for 3G modem I 2
LEGEND
I : must be present
II : should be present
III : could be present as it is nice to have

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More than just ports
For the LAN, Barnes quoted Fastwire II, Laplink but I held off on any
special intra-office connections until 2000. I then had the
opportunity of using the University College Ethernet network for
printing and Internet browsing, at the cost of a PC-MIA card. This is
still the ultimate solution, but is only suitable for a formal office or
bachelor pad where you can leave the cables lying around. As for the
home/office or rental situation: in 2007 I purchased a Siemens
Speedstream hub with 801.11g WiFi capability. This was supported
by the replacement of the previous printer with a Hewlett Packard
Photosmart printer which also supports 11g.

Figure 17 modem speeds for LAN: Ethernet, WiFi (or
Bluetooth)
Modem and wide-area-network (WAN)
The modem is for connecting outside the office making a wide-area
network (WAN). Current equipment includes:
1 x modem for WAN use. This modem must be suitable for
connecting to an Internet service provider, as well as third party
bulletin boards. It would be of benefit if I could also connect to the
0.1
10
1000
100000
k
b
a
u
d

(
1
0
0
0

b
y
t
e
s

p
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r

s
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c
o
n
d
)

Ethernet WiFi/Bluetooth
Geocomputing Management 128
modems (+2400 baud) of my clients mainframe computers. It
would be nice if the modem was also able to send faxes.
Barnes 1989
uu
addresses the requirements for this equipment as
Check it is Telecom approved. At that time this category included
switch boxes and cable communication as separate items.
In contrast to delays for the internal networking I bought into the
external networking by 1992. Initially I used the PSTN dial-up
recommended by Barnes but in 2007 moved into Broadband with the
purchase of the Siemens Speedstream with ADSL2+ capability. On
occasions in the early 1990s I did dial-in into my clients computers
with the PSTN, but in 2007 I began using a web interface (via the
PSTN service overlain with TCP/IP software) to Santos limiteds
network, with Citrix Metaframe to optimise the screen refresh, and I
would be surprised now if I had a client who did require direct dial-
in, but it remained my auxiliary service. By 2009, the poor service
record of Telstra required not only ADSL2+ but also a NextG/3G
radio connections, such as Telstra MF626, wireless modem. At that
time, a falling gum tree removed the cable connecting the Telstra
service and the work to replace it took over two weeks. A pay-as-
you-go system got me back on-line to service my client. I heard from
David Sebastyan at Saros Pty Ltd that they too had experienced such
a break in service, along with others in their building, when a an
optical fibre cable was cut. Now with the HP Photosmart C7280
multi-function printer having facsimile capacity via WiFi, with the
convenience of not having to disconnect the telephone line every
time I move the notebook, the modem/fax card is no longer a must-
have component. Purchases have been, again in order of improving
capability (but not speed as you can see from Figure 18 ):
I. Maestro 9642XR fax/data modem; from the Maestro Fact
Sheet
vv
: Group III facsimile utilities; for data Bell 103 (300
baud), 212A (1200 baud), CCITT V.22 (1200 baud), V.22bis
(2400 baud), V.29 (9600/7200 baud) V.27ter (4800/2400
baud), V4.2 error correction, MNP class 2-4 error correction,
MNP 5 data compression.
II. Xircom credit card modem 56, PC-MIA fax/modem

uu
Ibid.
vv
'Maestro 9642XR fax/data modem,' ed. Maestro Communications Pty Ltd (Fyshwyck, Australian Capital
Territory: Maestro Communications Pty Ltd, 1992).
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III. Toshiba internal card, international V90 modem + fax
IV. Telstra MF626, USB wireless modem, WCDMA (3G):
HSDPA/UMTS 850/1900/2100 MHz; 2G: GSM/GPRS/EDGE
850, 900, 1800, 1900 MHz. HSDPA mode (download) up to
3.6 megabits per second, UMTS mode (upload) up to 384
kilobits per second, EDGE mode up to 236.8 kilobits per
second, GPRS mode up to 57.6 kilobits per second.

Figure 18 modem speeds for WAN connections: PSTN, 3G,
ADSL2+
printer
As late as 1989, Barnes
qq
was recommending that separate plotters
for maps and printers for reports were required. He reckoned that a
plotter should be capable of ISO A1 or A0 size paper, use Hewlett
Packard Graphics language (HPGL) for compatibility with exploration
software. Problems to test for included slow pen speeds which would
slow down drill hole labelling. A printer should feature fast dot
matrix, wide carriage, graphics compatible and ideally have colour
printing. Since that time I have found the portability; the ease of
purchase of colour A4 printers, the supplies and maintenance for
them; outweigh the benefit of the convenience of broad paper
formats. The software program Microsoft Publisher 2003 allows you
0.1
1
10
100
1000
k
b
a
u
d

(
1
0
0
0

b
y
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p
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s
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)

PSTN (dialup) 3G upload 3G download ADSL2 up ADSL down
Geocomputing Management 130
to make a A0 poster and then print it off on a A4 colour sheets
complete with crop lines to re-assemble it, a technique I used for a
poster at the 2006 Australian Geological Convention and I was more
fascinated by the construction than the contents. However, if you do
have a relationship with a computer aided drafting (CAD) supply
company, the modern Hewlett Packard Designjet series, which use
sophisticated ink-jet technology, have overcome all the problems of
wet ink and pens and are a delight to use.
The requirements that I expect for a printer are in Table 31. Some of
my experiences with individual models are below that with:
HP Deskjet 880C
HP Photosmart C2780 mulit-function
Canon Bubblejet


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Table 31 check list for an observatory printer
0 NECESSITY

capability tick
I MUST HAVE
colour graphics printing
better than 360 dpi printing
separate colour and black cartridges
Microsoft Windows drivers
A4 report printing
II SHOULD HAVE
in-built flat-bed scanner/photocopier
InkJet printing technology
double-sided printing
HP graphics language capability
SD/MMC photo card slot
III NICE TO HAVE
in-built facsimile transmitter
35mm film and slide scanner
CD printer
wireless networking
photograph quality printing
> ISO A4 map printing
wide-paper printing for data dumps
Hewlett Packard Deskjet 880C
The Hewlett Packard (HP) Deskjet 880C printer I purchased in 2000
proved ideal for the work I undertake and I held off replacing it. Any
replacement had to have at least 360 dpi printing, do graphics,
mailing labels and be cheap to run. Previous to the 880C I had an
EPSON LQ-570 bought in 1992, which was very rugged, is still
running, and ideal for taking into dusty field offices. However, the
quality of the printing was less than average and I wanted be able to
do colour brochures direct from the printer, hence the 880C.
In 2008, the HP880C stripped the teeth off the timing band. I
replaced it with a HP Photosmart C2780 All-in-one printer, fax, copier
and scanner.
Geocomputing Management 132
Hewlett Packard Photosmart C2780 Multi-
function printer
As well as the specifications below the HP Photosmart C2780 printer,
purchased in 2008, has the benefit of 11g wireless networking;
double-sided printing; and making photographs using a universal
serial bus (USB) cable direct to a digital camera or plugging in 6
different format camera memory cards (CF, XD, SD, MMC, MS/DUO).
The printer lasted just over a year and 800 pages, with a failure of
the HP2 type printer head (Error 0xc19a0013 Ink system has
failed).
The print specifications from the manual are:
Up to 1200 x 1200 rendered dpi black when printing from a
computer
Up to 4800 x 1200 optimized dpi color when printing from a
computer and 1200-input dpi
Print speeds vary according to the complexity of the document
Panorama-size printing
Method: drop-on-demand thermal inkjet
Language: PCL3 GUI
Duty cycle: Up to 3000 printed pages per month
The photocopier specifications from the manual are:
Copy resolution up to 4800 x 4800
Digital image processing
Up to 99 copies from original (varies by model)
Zoom to 400%, fit to page (varies by model)
Copy speeds vary according to the complexity of the document
The specifications for the scanner function of the printer are:
- Image editor included
- Integrated OCR software automatically converts scanned
text to editable text (if installed)
- Twain-compliant interface
- Resolution: up to 4800 x 9600 dpi optical (varies by model);
19200 dpi enhanced (software)
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- Color: 48-bit color, 8-bit grayscale (256 levels of gray)
- Maximum scan size from glass: 21.6 x 29.7 cm (8.5 x 11.7
inches)
The specifications for the facsimile function of the printer are:
- Walk-up black-and-white and color fax capability.
- Up to 110 speed dials (varies by model).
- Up to 120-page memory (varies by model, based on ITU-T
Test Image #1 at standard resolution). More complicated
pages or higher resolution takes longer and uses more
memory.
- Manual fax send and receive.
- Automatic busy redial up to five times (varies by model).
- Automatic no-answer redial one time (varies by model).
- Confirmation and activity reports.
- CCITT/ITU Group 3 fax with Error Correction Mode.
- 33.6 Kbps transmission.
- 3 seconds per page speed at 33.6 Kbps (based on ITU-T
Test Image #1 at standard resolution). More complicated
pages or higher resolution take longer and use more
memory.
- Ring detect with automatic fax/answering machine
switching.
Table 32 resolution for the HP Photosmart printer

Photo (dpi) Very Fine (dpi) Fine (dpi) Standard (dpi)
Black 200 x 200 (8-bit grayscale) 300 x 300 200 x 200 200 x 100
Color 200 x 200 200 x 200 200 x 200 200 x 200
Cannon Bubblejet
In contrast to my own preference for Hewlett Packard inkjet
technology my family have a predilection for the Canon BubbleJet
series. They are much lighter, smaller and can sit on the desk with
the computer. They found the ink canisters dry up too quickly in a
semi-arid climate, and also the reservoirs are too small, needing
replacement too often, which in both cases required a journey of an
hour or so to Port Augusta. The drivers that come with the software
arent as customised for the Canon system as for the HP or Epson
printers, so often the quality of graphics is not as nice. They
Geocomputing Management 134
eventually bought other printers and I now have both a colour and a
black Canon BubbleJet but they sit in my shed unused.
Manuals, servicing and maintenance support
Hardware drivers, such as in Table 24, should be supplied on CD-
ROM or 3.5 disks as well as the hard drive. A full manual set is
required including: a system user guide, MS-DOS manuals, MS
Windows manuals, modem documentation, printer manuals, monitor
and video card documentation and any hardware driver
documentation. This should allways arrive in the first case but later
when you dispose of the computer, transport into the field or send it
in for service you may vary the packing list as per Table 33.

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Table 33 packing lists for different activities

action


Moving the observatory or receiving the equipment


Travelling to a conference or site


Sending the computer for maintenance


Disposing of a computer

0 CATEGORY



item

tick
1 DOCUMENTS (from your folder)

old, expired licence agreements n n n Y

Promotional brochure Y n n Y

Printer instructions n n n Y

Safety instructions Y ? n Y

Safety manual and addendums Y ? n Y

Computer manual and addendums Y ? n Y

Warranty statements Y n ? Y

Kenwood lock instructions n n Y Y

Mouse or trackball instructions n ? n Y

ADSL cable instructions n ? n Y

Joystick instructions n ? n Y

USB hub user guide n ? n Y

Panic sheet n n Y ?

2 CABLES

Modular RSJ45 modem cable Y n Y Y

Power cord Y Y Y Y

Power transformer Y Y Y Y

Monitor-in cable ( R, Y, W BNC pins to 2.5mm phone jack) Y ? ? Y

3 SOFTWARE ITEMS

Rescue disk USB drive Y ? n ?

Recovery DVD-ROM set Y ? n Y

Express Media Player Recovery CD Y ? n Y

Windows 2003 software box and disks Y n n Y

Microsoft office Professional edition 2003 Y n n Y

4 PERIPHERALS

3G modem n ? Y ?

3G modem USB extension n ? Y ?

modem n ? Y ?

modem cable n ? Y ?

Serial cable D9-D25 n ? Y ?

Modem RSJ45 modem computer cable n ? Y ?

Geocomputing Management 136
USB mouse n n n n

USB mouse transmitter n n n n

earphones n n n n

Wireless Hub n n n n

Ethernet RSJ patch cable n n n n

USB-A to USB-B n n n n

LEGEND
n : this should not be in the package
Y : this should be in the package
? : this may or may not be in the package
NOTES
1 This for displaying video from digital camcorder or video record on the in-built LCD screen, using the
monitor-in port
Comparison and delivery
Once you have received quotes you may like to rank them with
Microsoft Excel as discussed in the example A comparison of vendor
quotes. Then when you have decided the best one do a final check
against your full needs as in Table 34. You can reuse the same table
to check off your delivery when it arrives. Additional peripheral
devices are shown in Table 34. Also required are all necessary cables
and connectors for the above. As from 2007, the main method of
interfacing computer to printer is WIFI, minimum of 11g standard. A
serial port and interface is required for potentially connecting to field
equipment and downloading data or uploading programs. A USB port
replication box such as the Targus model PA075 would be a suitable
alternative. The pack list for a laptop computer, when either
unpacking, travelling or disposing of it into its original packing would
include:
- The laptop computer
- The power cord
- The power transformer
- The manual
- An Ethernet connector
- A phone/modem cable
- The device drivers excluding those of Table 24
The system must be assembled, configured and tested before
purchase. Any maintenance or support packages are of great
interest. If possible I would like a 5-year warranty.
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Table 34 checklist for the premier quote and delivery
EQUIPMENT CATEGORY
item need
1
quotation
2
OK
incl. sep.
m y m y m y
SOFTWARE MODULES
Microsoft Office as per Table 27 I X X
Virus Checker as per Table 26 I X X
SYSTEM HARDWARE
central processing unit I X
big LCD/Plasma screen II X
3 floppy disk drive II X
5 floppy disk drive III -
alternate backup drive/card III X
expansion box III X
modem I X
colour printer III -
AC Adaptor I X
1x mouse II -
1x PC keyboard, QWERTY layout I X
security cable I X
necessary cables and connectors I X
notebook carry bag I X
8 G USB drive for recovery disk I X
SERVICE
assembled, configured and tested I X
configuration is reported separately I X
System manual I X
drivers on CD-ROM (Table 34) I X
3 year warranty II X
5 year warranty III -
1
Key to need is: I, must be present; II, should be present; III, could be present.
2
Key to quotation is: X, specified in quote; ?, should ask the vendor about this; -, not specified but
doesnt matter; Items that are bundled with the computer are given in the incl. columns, whereas the
sep. columns are for additional purchases.
m: is my requirements and the example given in this section.
y: is your requirement and situation.

Geocomputing Management 138
Why use an earth model?
There are currently five practical reasons why we should be using an
earth model as the basis for any geological work. The reasons in
order of importance are:
1. Optimise the return on difficult, expensive fieldwork (under-
sampling is institutionalised in our management practices.)
2. Multi-disciplinary studies
3. Data currency (1998 Newcastle colliery disaster)
4. Data is not independent (i.e. it is part of the story)
5. Trend to holistic facies-based studies
Some of my colleagues and I think that all endeavour involving
nature and studying nature will eventually be modelled by similar
computer systems. This generalised natural history computer system
will be used to contain a whole-of-earth model that will be available
to answer all questions regarding geology, biology, astronomy and
perhaps even history. It wont necessarily be the same system, but
we suspect the many systems with many collections of data,
providing those answers, will eventually have a similar structure.
Currently, we think that structure will have several sub-systems:
a. There will be LOGIC sub-system that contains a GIS, a
species chart, or stratigraphic column to convey
understanding of the earth and expedite the
organisation of the data.
b. There will be a GEOMETRIC sub-system to draw maps
and graphs of the data in time and space.
c. There will be a RHETORIC sub-system to generate
picture based publications for the general public
d. The GRAMMAR sub-system to make reports for other
disciplines such as lawyers, accountants and engineers
who feel uncomfortable with maps.
e. There will be an ASTRONOMY sub-system to handle the
increasingly extensive databases of time-referenced data
from telemetry (include satellites and probes here) and
system control and data acquisition (SCADA) devices.
This history system can also be expected to handle the
Geocomputing Management 139
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project management and planning that is so critical to
field work.
f. There will be an ALGEBRA sub-system to process and
apply algorithms to the data.
Not all of these proposed sub-systems are complete fallacies, family
history software Legacy Family Tree not only recognises a more
extensive set of calendar dates it nearly replaces all other software
for the astronomy sub-system, with incorporated tools for reports,
data verification, catalogues and place name gazettes. The sections
in the chapter discuss how the more evident sub-systems have been
developed in recent times.
The Ballarat sheet earth model
This exercise uses real data from the region around Ballarat, Victoria,
and because this is an historic mining province there is data of all
types suitable for all disciplines. Hence it is ideal to demonstrate the
earth model approach. The data set is provided straight from the
Geological Survey of Victoria Ballarat GIS Data. This a 2 CD-ROM set
and these can be copied to a common drive as: Ballarat GIS Data
DISC 1 and Ballarat GIS Data DISC 2. There should also be a data
catalogue (for example j2000080.xls ) and a local work area, such as
c:\convert, to improve the performance of your personal computer
and prevent any overwriting of the source data.
The spatial extent of the earth model has been determined by the
Geological Survey of Victoria (GSV) and is formally the Ballarat 1:100
000 sheet (ANZLIC code 7623 ). The temporal extent is from the
year 1852, when the GSV was formed, to February 2001, when the
last of the data sets on the CD were compiled. As we are working
with a geological model there are at least also limits to the
stratigraphy, and the depths investigated. However, these are not as
readily apparent or defined in a GIS and this is why this type of
software is not as readily accepted into oil exploration as say gold
exploration.
The logic processing sub-system
The earliest reference I have found to some program being used to
record the bits and pieces that would make up a technical
Geocomputing Management 140
memorandum but not just typed up in a word processor is in Barnes
1989
ww
where he mentions XT Pro has a simple but very useful
word processing program. Traditionally in mineral exploration,
prospectors develop their ideas of what the ground in the lease is
like, through a series of field trips and synthesis of their field data
when they return. In the Ballarat case study we can rely on
provided data to establish our logic of the earth model, the
specifics of which are in the sub-section Establishing the logic of the
Ballarat earth model. The CSIRO in 2010
xx
were working on a
parser to give a tool to organise this formulation and put geological
realism to the large number of computer-generated statistical
models used by petroleum engineers. The features of a parser
which they have identified to document their geological thinking
include:
- Incorporate geological patterns into facies models.
- Reproduce the complex shapes of channel fill bodies,
including the vertical patterns such as nested or migrating
[en echelon?] channels.
- Show the correct spatial relationships between the various
sedimentological entities
- Be computationally feasible
- Computer readable (vertical sections, 3D layers) and intuitive
to the geologist
- Precise description in a compact format
- Probabalistic description of each rule and geometry to
display the variation inherent in a sedimentary system.
The CSIRO adopted an encoded, probabalistic grammar in their
GeoSyntax development after discarding:
- Training images
- Grid-based models
What can we do without a supercomputing budget? Well like Barnes
I also preferred XPPro for jotting down my ideas, and in Table 35 his

ww
Barnes, 'Exploration computing in a small company environment.
.'
xx
June Hill, 'Facies modelling with GeoSyntax', PESA News no. 107
(2010), p. 67.
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concept has been interpolated to the CSIRO acme, with scripting
languages used to record those jottings. Of special note is the
Norton Editor which led the charge with smart text editors, but its
strength lay but for programmers by reading binary files and
showing their layout. Golden Software and Paradigm are the only
two geoscience software companies with their own smart editors,
and nothing which is a stand-alone purchase for geoscience.
Table 35 script editors for capturing logic
SCRIPTING LANGUAGES
BAT, MS-DOS and other text files


CSS


HTML


JavaScript, ECMA script


SAX Basic, references object libraries of all Golden Software products


Visual Basic for Applications (including Microsft Jet SQL)


XML


XSL(T)


PURCHASE BASIS


editor tick

BUNDLED WITH OPERATING SYSTEM

B B B B B B B B

Microsoft IE Develoment Tools

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Microsoft Notepad

A A A A A A A A

Microsoft Write



BUNDLED WITH OTHER SOFTWARE

B B B B 4 2 B B

Golden Software Scripter version 4

1 3 3 3 0 4 3 1

Microsoft Script Editor

2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Norton Editor

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Paradigm mui_text

2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

XP Pro

Legend to capabilities
4 automatically indents and saves structure of file as typed
3 provides keywords and attributes
2 highlights keywords
1 word processing capability: upper casing function etc
0 straight text editor
A reformats file on save
B mistakenly recognizes the key words and changes them
The logic module encapsulates the geological or environmental
UNDERSTANDING of the computer system. I use both Golden
Geocomputing Management 142
Software Surfer and MapViewer and I would use Strater too but I
don't have any well/drillhole information at this stage [I could also
use Golden Software Grapher but I wrote my own ternary diagram
software in Microsoft Excel but if I require a special graph it will be
first place I look, see the algebraic module for further explanation].
I dont use them separately but as part the rational approach to
computing described in this Grimoire. I see Surfer as a processor in
stratigraphic-time space (i.e the geology block diagrams) and
MapViewer for working in cartographic or real space. I used
MapViewer for making up research asset inventories (described in
the Grimoire) but I am definitely enamoured with KML in Google
Earth now, as this allows use of relative or topological placement
(recently an article in Position Magazine
yy
described this as non-
metric spatial information) and is an analogue to the air-photos I
would mark-up in the field with wax pencils.
If you are looking for a cheap mapping package that can input GIS
files and do contouring, gridding and image rectification, I I
generally recommend (at least for the entry level) and use Golden
Software Surfer. At approx. AUD 800 (see
www.goldensoftware.com), it will help further define your
requirements and give you mock-ups of your basic data flows. It
loads a lot more formats than more expensive packages, comes with
some basic GIS files to start your cartographic database, and has
every contouring and general kriging algorithm I can think of. It runs
on Microsoft Windows so doesn't require a Unix system, and has a
macro language similar to Visual Basic to enable your first batch
processing.
In effect I use the Golden Software modules to develop prototypes
suitable for research into geological problems. So far a
statratigraphic column. a simple petroleum model for the Cooper
Basin, a kriging of distance between major ports to demonstrate
numerically why Australia is isolated, an urban sprawl monitor for
the western side of Melbourne, heritage site management of the
Broadview Freemasons Centre, and integration of various
archaeological web-sites. I publish my stuff mainly to the Microsoft

yy
Winter, 'What is the Value of Spatial Information?', no.
Geocomputing Management 143
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IIS intranet or ftp to a website from an internet service provider
(that is only application-side scripting, no server-side scripts).
MapViewer is now tending to be my cartographic tool but previously
I used it for research asset inventories (I have a presentation on why
I think Google Earth is superior for this should you be passing
through Adelaide, the fly-through of the Greece 2001 expedition
zz

gives you a taste of this kind of thing ), but still MapViewer is
supreme for location maps (the capability page on my web-site
aaa
),
and formal cartography (such as site plans
bbb
). I also use MapViewer
as a general computer-aided drafting (CAD) package not only for
plans but stratigraphic columns, which also summarise the geological
understanding. The geological benefit is that:
1. MapViewer treats cartographic space, and Surfer a
theoretical space (geological block diagrams),
2. and both with algorithmic rigour, so I can trust that
whatever I have to do, the algorithm will be there
somewhere;
3. and the supplied data is consistent and clean and shared
4. The loading mechanisms are straight forward with a
preference to ASCII, Microsoft Excel and with Surfer version
9, Microsft Access.
5. An ethical commitment to education, whereas I feel ESRI is
trying to lock schools into their software (there is more on
that in the section Understanding the weaknesses of the
American marketing style).
6. The confidence that I can program any repetitive work as a
macro, very important in development geology where a time
series or different commercial factors are involved
Surfer was my first choice of the suite because I loved the way the
kriging has been done. I used MapViewer as a replacement for ESRI
ArcView that I used at the University of Melbourne because it is in
my price range, I liked the Surfer interface and so wanted to

zz
The fly-through to the 2001 Greece expedition was last found at:
http://www.grantjacquier.info/greece.kml
aaa
The capability statement page for Computers in geology was last located at:
http://www.grantjacquier.info/home_files/cingfld.htm
bbb
site plans made with MapViewer are shown at
http://www.grantjacquier.info/bfmc_files/bfc.htm
Geocomputing Management 144
continue with the brand, and I enjoyed how they provided data files
on the CD-ROM which saved me writing away for polygons. The
commercial benefits for me are:
the strongest integration with Windows that I have
experienced outside the Microsoft Office suite. Downtime is
a problem for me as I charge by the hour, that is my only
income. So from this outline descends a good installation
routine, good updates (a Google disadvantage), and general
good quality workmanship with the programming.
the low commercial price, I am not continuously asking
whether I have to upgrade the version to meet licensing
requirements (The Google Map problem),
consistent interface reducing my leaning time, geology is
about integration of widely diverse facts into a widely
imaginative story, the last thing I need is a technical college
learning curve to throw out one figure.
I reduce down the margins of Europe, say just down to
Greece looks good on the MapViewer, then I export it as
web-page. A massive amount of white space results, as the
boundaries of the HTML extract are set on the data set, not
the plotted area, therefore I have to cut the polygons first
and make sub-set of the polygons. (I haven't checked if this
is still the case in version 7)
The export of Atlas boundary files in BLN format is
compatible with Vector Markup Language, if I remove any
decimal places manual (change the cale option to give
integers rather than real numbers). It would be nice to have
an integer export button there for more complex shapes,
save me doing the editing manually.
But I am thankful for the PDF output in the latest
MapViewer, I had to redo those seating plans for the
Freemasons Centre ( to allow caterers to write down the
guests names), so I haven't re-published in PDF as yet.
To use Surfer you do have to do a lot of work for example to
produce a true geological block diagram with dip directions indicated
by bedding traces: These steps are also a template for producing a
geological map, from your own measurements, over your area of
interest.
Geocomputing Management 145
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1. Create a 3D surface for each unit, and generate the Golden
Surfer block (surveyor/engineer) model
2. Create a structure layer and contour the dip and strike
measurements to give bedding traces for each unit, then
blank this layer just for the outcrop
3. Repeat step 2 for the two sides of the block model and
output as JPEG files
4. Overly the surface bedding traces on the top layer of the
block model.
5. Add your cultural annotation such as map symbols for land
use and output the annotated block model as a JPEG file
6. Combine the three JPEGs using the Vector Markup Language
(VML) <imagedata> element
ccc
to give you a very basic
geological block diagram in an HTML page.
I am looking forward to the Microsoft SilverLight improvement on
VML because perhaps each side and top of the block can be treated
as a flat orthogonal surface. In some of the examples of Silverlight I
have seen on the web, there appears to be an angle of orientation
adjustment of the pixels, whereas with VML you have to arrange the
layers into a mosaic with the block top-layer overlapping the two
side layers. If you have image editing software it may be easier to
matt the three surfaces there.
Finally if you really want to get serious about geological block
models, Ligno3D Designer (www.ligno3d.com), written by Dr Rod
Ryburn, (formerly of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation),
can present your block surface, or even more complex shapes, and
then print out construction plans for a carpenter to assemble it. In
version 3.53 there is a template for a split frame geodesic dome
which you could use to make a portable cavern display for school
children. Currently the display view is limited to using bitmap files on
the faces which add a further level of processing, but see the
Veneer Texture command (Decor Menu) in the on-line help file
(http://www.ligno3d.com/HTMLhelp/index.html) for the example of a
photo cube. There is auto-option which generates the solid texture
from a face bitmap, which may give a quick 3D model from some
geological maps

ccc
'World Wide Web Consortium', 'Vector Markup Language (VML),' in Advanced Properties
of Shapes NOTE-VML-19980513 (World Wide Web Consortium, 1998).
Geocomputing Management 146
Establishing the logic of the Ballarat earth model
In the example of the Ballarat sheet Earth Model the logic is
contained in the interpreted layers of the 1: 100 000 Geology of
Victoria layers. The GSV Geology 100 is from a formal geological
map with many elements but for this exercise we only use the
formations and the faults interpreted for the Ballarat region:
- .\mapinfo_export\geol100\ball_geology
- .\mapinfo_export\geol100\ball_structure
These can then be presented in the software ESRI ArcView (or
Golden Software MapViewer.Usually the loading and then verification
of the data is in two stages. Initially the data must be exported from
the source database into an intermediate file format and then in the
second stage the export file is loaded and verified in the software
you are using. In this particular example, the exporting of the data
has already been done by the GSV and the intermediate files are on
the CD.
You need to convert from a proprietary application format to one,
which can either be loaded or converted to another application
format. In a good data set such as the Ballarat GIS Data this will be
done for you! The MapInfo export (MIF/MID) files can be found on
CD-ROM 2 at:
- g:\ballarat_GIS\ballarat_GIS2\gis\mapinfo_export
In this case the export files in MIF/MID format need to be first
converted to a format SHP/DBF that can be read by the software.
Check type of data by running the conversion program with the
information parameter INFO as in Figure 19.

Start | Programs | Applications | Command prompt
cd g:\ballarat_GIS\ballarat_GIS2\gis\mapinfo_export\geol100
c:\ESRI\AV_GIS30\ARCVIEW\BIN32\MIFSHAPE INFO ball_geology
Figure 19 checking MapInfo export files
The computer hard drives can be setup by: My Computer | Tools |
Mount network drive. The result of the procedure gives you the type of
GIS vector element i.e. either:
Geocomputing Management 147
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- polygon (POLY)
- line (LINE)
- point (POINT)
Create a working folder with ONLY the data you are interested in:
mkdir c:\convert
copy .\mapinfo_export\bores c:\convert\.
Run the conversion program for the theme (POINT, LINE, POLY) of
interest.
Start | Programs | Applications | Command prompt
cd c:\convert
c:\ESRI\AV_GIS30\ARCVIEW\BIN32\MIFSHAPE POLY bores mybores
Load the Shape files (SHP) into ESRI ArcView then present and
overlay files from the same set.
The geometry processing sub-system
The geometry sub-system usually involves software in the category
of Computer Aided Drafting (CAD), but traditionally included shared
cartographic data files for example Figure 20. Because maps and
much CAD work is a two-dimensional expression of a three
dimensional observations the geometry module usually has some
facility for managing this projection of 3-dimensional data onto a 2-
dimensional plane.
../World Miscellany/Africa
../World Miscellany/Antarcal
../World Miscellany/Antarcll
../World Miscellany/Asia
../World Miscellany/Camerica
../World Miscellany/Namerica
../World Miscellany/Russia
../World Miscellany/Russia-proj
../World Miscellany/Samerica
../World Miscellany/World
../World Miscellany/Worldcap
Figure 20 some of the mapping files provided with Golden
Surfer MapViewer
Geocomputing Management 148
Paul Maconochie explained that he bought a Surpac license and
found it immensely useful, although expensive as he does not use it
for all work. One programme that he noticed that I dont treat here
and Paul is constantly using is Canvas. He was introduced to
Canvas by the mining engineer Kevin Rosengren and then
abandoned CorelDraw which he had used for over 20 years since
version 2. Pauls strengths of Canvas are:
- A technical drawing package that handles both bitmaps and
vectors and has a GIS add-on.
- It has to be good at georeferenced and scaled maps,
sections and drawings.
- It has to a whole heap easier to use than a CAD package.
- One of the things Paul does use it for, is to trace over scaled
bitmaps, he can then select the table showing the
coordinates of the line has just traced and copy and paste
that into his slope stability software.
I find Pauls procedure is very similar to what I have used the Golden
Software products in the demonstration A training or emergency
plan in Chapter 3. However, in this section I deal further with the
issues of:
1. The use of maps for business requires recognition of public
mapping standards.
2. Recommended cartographic projections, data sets and scales
in Table 36. This pick list matches the MapViewer files
against case studies.
3. Other projections in general use
4. Some notes on the cartographic module for the Ballarat
earth model
WWW.GRANTJACQUIER.INFO/GRIMOIRE.PDF

Table 36 pick list of MapViewer files for maps
document scale: date
1:

general specification pick

large size bureau printed poster, A0 plan size map


Medium size bureau printed poster, A2 plan size map


Two page report spread, A3 plan size map


Single page for report, A4 plan size map


Report figure A6 plan size map


Pinboard compatible D5 plan size map


Map projection journal number
1
5 4 5 3 6 2 1 7 8


Landscape (L) or portrait (P) orientation L L L L L P L L L


Case study given below I II I III,VI VII IV V VIII IX

DATA SET


data file


GS MapViewer


../World Administrative/Australia - - - c X - -


../World Miscellany/EUROPE - X - - - X X -


../World Miscellany/Oceania - - - c c - c X


../World Miscellany/Pacificn - - - X c - -


../World Miscellany/Pacificp - - - X c - -

Geocomputing Management 150

../World Miscellany/WORLD - c - c c c c


../World Miscellany/World-proj - - - - - - - - X

NOTES
1
The projection journal number refers to the table projections found at www.grantjacquier.info/develop.htm
LEGEND
- This set of digital boundaries has no use with this case study
X This set of digital boundaries can be used for adding texture to the map
c This set of digital boundaries can be used to cut the boundaries and for general divisions
CASE STUDIES
I emergency plan for Broadview Freemasons Centre, 1:72 scale, orthogonal projection with an unscaled evacuation plaque.
II 1:10 million scale Greece context map using Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection
III 1:48 million scale Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection for The Pacific Ocean on p. 134 of The Times Concise Atlas
a

IV 1:100 mile scale Equidistant conic projection for The Balkan States on p. 45 of Newnes
b

V 1:3 million scale Equidistant conic projection for S. YUGOSLAVIA: GREECE: BULGARIA: W. TURKEY on pp 46-47 of The Times
Concise Atlas
Error! Bookmark not defined.

VI 1:50 million scale Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection for Pacific Ocean on p. 86-87 of Newnes
Error! Bookmark not defined.

VII Bonne projection (scale 1:20 million, central meridian 138E, standard parallel 25S?) is used for Australia on page 88 of Newnes
b

VIII The Bonne projection, scale 1:15 million, is used for Australia: S.W. Pacific on page 137 of The Times Concise Atlas
a

IX The VanDerGrinten projection (central meridian 0, width 360, scale 1:23 million) is used for Petroconsultants World Sedimentary
Basins and also for National Geographic.

a
"The Times" atlas of the world, (London, 1994).
b
Newnes International World Atlas, (London, 1967).
WWW.GRANTJACQUIER.INFO/GRIMOIRE.PDF

Public mapping standards
In converting geographic coordinates for plotting on paper, the
correct cartographic projection has to be set. Some examples of
these are shown in Table 37. Where this projection is a standard
projection in use by others or government there are additional
conventions required to build a standard. Initially, the sphere was
used to represent the mathematical shape of the earth. Later the
sphere equation was distorted by algorithmic manipulation to better
match the surface of the earth to produce what is known as a
spheroid.

spheroid
eg: ANS, GRS80, Clarke 1866
sets of reference coordinates
eg: AFN, ANN, IGS(ITRF),
geodetic datum
e.g. GDA94, AGD84, ITRF92, WGS84
projection
e.g.: UTM, TM, Albers Equal Area
height datum
e.g.: AHD
mapping grid
e.g. AMG, MGA

Figure 21 hierarchy of public mapping projection standards
The projection: Clarkes of 1866, was the basis of the Australian and
New Zealand projection systems. If an origin for counting out
coordinates is decided for that spheroid that then provides a
geodetic datum. In practice, this origin is defined by reference
coordinates or datum and so the basis for the term geodetic datum.
As an example, the coordinates used in AGD66 were recalculated
using more sophisticated equipment to produce the datum for
AGD84 but both were based on the same Australian National
Geocomputing Management 152
Spheroid (ANS). The geodetic datum can then be applied to a
projection to produce a flat map or screen display and then all that is
required to complete the mapping grid system is a height datum to
standardize the elevations shown on the map. This hierarchy is
shown diagrammatically in Figure 21. Various combinations of
spheroids and control coordinates give different mapping systems
examples of this are shown in Table 49. In the check lists of Table
37 are some of the files supplied with mapViwer and Table 36 gives
case studies of matching these files with appropriate projections.
Geocomputing Management 153
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Table 37 suggested projections by terrain class
SCOPE
(see 7.9 Stages of engineering construction in relation to the terrain classes, page 291 of
Berkman 1989)
boundary file suggested projection
0 TERRAIN CLASS = NaN, CONTINENTAL CONTEXT PLAN
../World Administrative/Afghanistan

../World Administrative/Australia Times
3
, Bonne
6


../World Administrative/Zimbabwe
1 TERRAIN CLASS = PROVINCE, CONTEXT PLAN
South Australia Lambert Conformal Conic
4

Victoria VICGRID
5

2 TERRAIN CLASS = TERRAIN PATTERN, CONTEXT PLAN
-
Victoria VICMAP
5

1
Supplied files from the program, Golden Software MapViewer version 6
3
Encom Permits of Australia
4
South Australia Atlas, as per Table 39
5
VICMAP used in Victoria before 1998, VICGRID since 1998, see page 165 or Table 39.
Recommended projections
Projection problems such as in Figure 22 require the field geologist
to have close supervision of the spatial framework for the earth
model.

Figure 22 displacement of boundaries after reprojecting
Geocomputing Management 154
In general the projections in Table 38 should be used in the
following way: Base data like transits, and borehole trajectory should
be plotted on flat orthogonal planes for small areas less than 1
kilometre diameter, but beyond this you should use a universal
transverse Mercator (UTM) projection. With ore reserves it is
important maintain the area correctly. In UTM projection based maps
regions of the same area will appear differently depending on where
they are placed with respect to the central meridian. Where the ore
reserves, or even a hydrological model, are being modelled as a
finite difference grid then an orthogonal flat projection would be
easiest especially if this is already available with the local mine grid.
For resource estimation on a regional scale there are projections,
which give equal areas, and one such, Albers Equal Area Conic, is
used routinely for the Geology of Victoria. Just as when doing it by
hand, aerial photographs and satellite images need to be joined on a
flat surface on the computer. The UTM projection has a slight
curvature and so is not always suitable for producing a mosaic. A
simple transverse Mercator projection doesnt have that curvature
and can be used.
Table 38 general guide for use of map projections
base
data
ore
reserve
province

1

image
montage
well
sites
projection type
YES YES equidistant conic
1

YES YES universal transverse Mercator
4

YES YES YES orthogonal flat plane
3

YES YES Albers Equal Area Conic
YES YES Bonne
1

YES
2
YES Lambert Conformal Conic
YES YES transverse Mercator
YES Van der Grinten
1

YES WGS84 geographic
1
for examples of projections into maps see Table 37
2
particularly useful for provinces extending across multiple UTM zones.
3
Useful for regions of a kilometre or so across, as by 10 km the curvature of the surface of the earth has
an impact.
4
A better solution for regions of more than several kilometres or so across, as the projection has been
adjusted for the curvature of the surface of the earth.
Special maps for whole provinces, such as a state or country often
require special projections to show all the necessary detail. Examples
used by geologists are given in the introduction in Table 37. The
Lambert Conformal Conic projection is of particular use for
Geocomputing Management 155
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provinces, which stretch across several Universal Transverse
Mercator zones. This is the case with the Australian states of South
Australia and Victoria; and the official specifications for these
projections, the South Australia Atlas and VICGRID (previously
VICMAP) are shown in Table 39.
Table 39 Lambert Conformal Conic projections
parameter South Australia Atlas VICMAP / VICGRID
1
st
parallel -28 -36
2
nd
parallel -36 -38
central meridian 135E 145E
latitude of origin -32 -37?
false easting 1 000 000
false northing 2 000 000
scale 1 : 2 million
1 : 4 million
I like using Google Earth and the coordinates presented there are in
WGS84, which is the default one used for the Global Positioning
System or GPS. The World Geodetic System (WGS84) is the spheroid
and reference coordinates used for the native GPS calculations. The
spheroid used is centred on the earths core and re-aligned regularly,
making it ideal for global navigation. Where the coordinate system is
re-aligned regularly against control points it is called a dynamic
datum, for GPS it is the ITRF as shown in Table 40. As it is great for
navigation, most marine seismic geophysics is collected against
WGS84 coordinates, which will need to be reprocessed into the local
mapping grid. Similarly, handheld GPS receivers will need to have
conversion algorithms loaded or selected from pre-existing functions
using fixed datum transformation functions, to convert these
coordinates to the local mapping grid. For quality control and first
inspection of the data, especially browsing with Google Earth, it may
be better to just use the WGS84 coordinates as they are. For more
detailed work Stanaway (2009)
a
feels that the fixed parameter
methods such as NGA will be inappropriate as WGS84 and GDA94
diverge with time. For tectonically active areas like Indonesia, Papua
New Guinea and New Zealand he suggests you accept the concept of
a dynamic datum, and expand your database to includes the time of
the measurement. This time indicator is called the epoch and will

a
Richard Stanaway, 'When the Earth moves?', Position Magazine no. 39 (2009), pp. 41-42.
Geocomputing Management 156
look something like 1994.0 ITRF1992, which is the epoch of the
GDA94, the Geocentric Datum of Australia used for MGA. He prefers
other correction techniques in continental Australia, where the stiffer
tectonic plate doesnt distort relative distance to the same extent as
for New Zealand. For this situation he gives the examples of Auspos
GPS service by Geoscience Australia, or plate tectonic movement
models such as the Actual Plate Kinematic Model or NNR-Nuvel-1A.
Finally the rest of this chapter is special sub-sections with more
information on the subjects below. Each section tries to give a
history and technical description as well as illustrating advantages to
using the particular projection system.
universal transverse Mercator (UTM)
Mapping Grid of Australia (MGA)
Australian Map Grid (AMG)
Albers Equal Area Conic
VICMAP
VICMAP-TM
VICGRID

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Table 40 geodetic monitoring networks after Featherstone
2

CODE, network of reference coordinates
counts (space, time)
date scope tied to
ITRF, IERS Terrestrial Reference Frame
1

origin 1992 Earth ?, > 3

-
WGS, World Geodetic System
4, 5

origin 1984 Earth ?, 1 xxxx.x ITRF1992
CTRF, Chinese Terrestrial Reference Framework
origin < 2010 China 28, 1 xxxx.x ITRF1992
CORS
origin < 2010 China 2500,1 CTRF
IGS, International GPS Service for geodynamics
origin 1992 Earth ?,1 1994.0 ITRF1992
AFN, Australian Fiducial Network
origin 1992 Austl. 8,1 IGS
1

ANN, Australian National Network
origin 1994 Austl. >8,1 AFN
Auspos GPS service by Geoscience Australia (GA)
origin <2010 Austl. >8,>1 ANN
SunPos
origin <2010 Q/WA ??? ANN??
CORSNet (also starting the AusCORS with GA & L.P.M.A.
8
)
origin <2009 N.S.W 28,>1 ANN
VicMap Position by Department of Sustainability and Environment
origin <2010 Vic. + ??? ANN??
GDA94, Geocentric Datum of Australia
origin 1994 Austl >8,1 AFN
NZGD2000 New Zealand geodetic datum 2000
6

origin 2000 NZ ?,>1 IGS
1

Australian differential GPS services
5

origin 2000 Earth ?, >1 ITRF2000
origin 2005 Earth ?, >1 ITRF2005
Johnson Geodetic Station, near Alice Springs, Northern Territory
origin 1966 Austl. 1,1 1
st
order
3

ATN, Australian. Trigonometric Network
origin 1966 Austl. >1,2 Johnson
AGD66, Australian Geodetic Datum 1996
origin 1966 Austl. >1,1 ATN
AGD84, Australian Geodetic Datum 1984
origin 1984 Austl. >1,1 ATN
NA, North America
origin 1927 N.A ?,1 ?
Geocomputing Management 158
CODE, network of reference coordinates
counts (space, time)
date scope tied to
NAD27
origin 1927 N.A. ?,1 NA
NAD83
origin 1983 N.A. ?,1 NA
Greenwich Observatory
origin ? G.B. 1, 1 1
st
order
3

OSGB, Ordnance Survey Great Britain
origin 1936 G.B. ?, 1 Greenwich
OSGB36, Ordnance Survey of Great Britain 1936
origin 1936 G.B. >1,1 OSGB
OS(SN)80, Ordnance Survey of Great Britain 1980
origin 1980 G.B. >1,1 OSGB
LEGEND FOR SCOPE
Austl. : the Australian continent, islands and the island of Papua New Guinea. .
AU : Australia the nation (including Antartarctic territories and seabed claims)
Earth : surface of the Earth
G.B. : Great Britain
N.A. : North America .
N.S.W. : New South Wales
Q/WA : The Australian states of Queensland and Western Australia
Vic + Gibbs (2010)
b
explains that this extends across the state of Victoria to the Barossa Valley in
South Australia.
NOTES
1
An epoch (epoch 1994.0 ITRF1992) is required for ITRF1992 because we think continental drift
changes the coordinates with time.
2
data from Featherstone
c

3
1
st
order: Primary astronomical observation.
4
Stanaway and Dawson
d
point out that WGS, unlike GDA94, takes the latest calculation (e.g.
epoch 2000.0 ITRF1992) of ITRF.
5
Stanaway (2009)
e
clarifies the divergence of GDA94 and differential GPS systems commonly
used in Australia.
6
Pearse 2003
f
introduces the New Zealand dynamic datum
7
Position Magazine
g
gives the reference framework to be used with the Republic of Chinas
Compass GNSS (global navigation satellite system)
8
Janssen, 2010
h
explains how the first AusCORS site was constructed.

b
William Gibbs, 'The Networks are coming', Position Magazine no. 44 (2010), pp. 71-72.
c
William Featherstone, 'An updated explanation of the Geocentric Datum of Australia (GDA) and its
effects upon future mapping', The Australian Surveyor (1996).
d
Richard Stanaway and John Dawson, 'The Divorce of Two Datums', Position no. 20 (2005), p. 78.
e
Stanaway, 'When the Earth moves?', no.
f
Merrin Pearse, 'The Third Dimension', Position no. 6 (2003), pp. 75-77.
g
'Towards Multi-GNSS', Position Magazine no. 45 (2010), p. 16.
h
Volker Janssen, 'Precision Rules!', Position Magazine no. 44 (2010), pp. 77-78.
Geocomputing Management 159
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universal transverse Mercator
The universal transverse Mercator (UTM) projection is a system of
sixty zones spread over the whole earth. The zones numbers for the
western hemisphere are 1 to 30 as in Table 41 and those for the
eastern hemisphere 31 to 60 (Table 42). Each zone is six degrees of
longitude wide and is specified by a central meridian and a standard
factor of curvature of the surface away from that meridian.
Table 41 central meridian
2
for western hemisphere UTM
zones
1

1 177W
2 171W
3 165W
4 159W
5 153W
6 147W
7 141W
8 135W
9 129W
10 123W
11 117W
12 111W
13 105W
14 099W
15 093W
16 087W
17 081W
18 075W
19 069W
20 063W
21 057W
22 051W
23 045W
24 039W
25 033W
26 027W
27 021W
28 015W
29 009W
30 003W
Table 42 central meridian
2
for eastern hemisphere UTM
zones
1
.
31 003E
32 009E
33 015E
34 021E
35 027E
36 033E
37 039E
38 045E
39 051E
40 057E
41 063E
42 069E
43 075E
44 081E
45 087E
46 093E
47 099E
48 105E
49 111E
50 117E
51 123E
52 129E
53 135E
54 141E
55 147E
56 153E
57 159E
58 165E
59 171E
60 177E
1
Zones are 6 degrees of longitude

wide, which limits the amount of distortion on the edges of the zones.
2
From pages 146-147 of Berkman, 1989
a

Mapping Grid of Australia
The Mapping Grid of Australia (MGA) is the combination of the
Geocentric Datum of Australia (GDA94), Australian Height Datum
(AHD) and UTM projections for zones 49 to at least 56 (see Table
42); whereas the Australian Map Grid (AMG) is based on the

a
Berkman, Field geologist's manual.
Geocomputing Management 160
universal transverse Mercator projection but with the Australian
National Spheroid (ANS) it was known as the Australian Geodetic
Datum 1984 (AGD84) or AGD66 depending on the state as in Table
43. As with its replacement MGA it was used for UTM zones 49 to
56. MGA was in use from 1996 onwards. The recommendations in
Table 43, give first pass corrections to coordinate data sets existing
before this time, with this effect also applying to the corresponding
latitude and longitude.
Table 43 estimates of offset from the MGA (Mapping Grid of
Australia) coordinates for the old AMG (Australian Mapping
Grid) and other datum
other geodetic datum
3

instance Easting Northing precision
AGD66, Australian Geodetic Datum 1966; AMG for ACT, NSW, NT, TAS, VIC
New South Wales
1
+ 113 m + 184 m
AGD84, Australian Geodetic Datum 1984; AMG for QLD, SA, WA
South Australia
2
+ 125 m + 175 15 m
WGS84. World Geodetic System
1994 ITRF1994 0.01 m
2009 ITRF1994 1 m
NOTES
1
from Zahra 1995
b
,
2
Sandford 2001
c
,
3
Featherstone 1996
d
and Stanaway 2009
e

This effect is less significant at greater scale maps, and can be
ignored in scales greater than 1: 500 000. This practical cut-off can
be recognised from Figure 23, a plot of point displacement between
AMG and MGA plots of the same co-ordinate values in a region in
central New South Wales, and for comparison a range of similar
corrections for bringing WGS84 points to GDA94. It also
demonstrates that including GDA94 and AMG data in a single plot is
a problem of greater magnitude than just using the coordinates of a
GPS directly without adjustment.

b
Charles Zahra, 'Background report on GDA - impact on paper maps,' (Paihia, New Zealand:
Intergovernmental Committee Surveying and Mapping, 1995).
c
Geoffrey R. Sandford, 'The new mapping datum for Australia, Geocentric Datum of Australia 1994
(GDA94), notes for recreational users when using maps.,' (Adelaide: Department of Environment and
Heritage, 2001).
d
Featherstone, 'An updated explanation of the Geocentric Datum of Australia (GDA) and its effects upon
future mapping'.
e
Stanaway, 'When the Earth moves?', no.
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- AMG data from Zahra 1995
f
, WGS data from Stanaway 2009
g
(in purple epoch 2009; and blue, epoch
1994)
Figure 23 point displacement between AMG, WGS84 and
MGA plots.
However, the UTM projection based mapping grids are good for
maps of around 1:100 000. For larger regions the states and
territories have adopted other projections which are summarised in
Table 44. Also in Table 44 are the appropriate height datum and
geodetic datum to be used with each grid. The height datum would
be important for groundwater monitoring but the geodetic networks,
which are getting more precise each year as new measurement
technology is implemented, will in the future, be important in
measuring deformation of the Earths crust.
Table 44 official mapping grids used by Australian
governments, sorted by projection used.
projection
geodetic datum (see Table 45 )
height datum (see Table 52)
Height datum epoch is assumed from adoption date.




f
Zahra, 'Background report on GDA - impact on paper maps.'
g
Stanaway, 'When the Earth moves?', no.
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
1 100 10000 1000000
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
m
m

o
n

l
o
g

s
c
a
l
e
)

map scale ( 1: x on log scale)
Geocomputing Management 162
OFFICIAL MAPPING GRID
UTM Universal Transverse Mercator
AMG66 AHD66 AGD66
AMG84 AHD71 AGD84
MGA AHD71 GDA94
Lambert Conformal Conic
South Australia Atlas AHD71 GDA94
VICGRID AHD71 GDA94
VICMAP AHD66 AGD66
The specifications of the different geodetic data are summarized in
Table 45. The table is ordered by year of commission to make it easy
to choose the more precise geodetic datum if there is more than one
available, thus giving you a more sensitive baseline for tectonic
studies.
Table 45 increasing precision of geodetic data
GEODETIC DATUM
spheroid
(see Table 48)
reference coordinate network
(see Table 40)
measuring technology
NZGD2000
2
GRS80 GPS
GDA94
1
GRS80 AFN GPS
WGS84
1
WGS spheroid WGS GPS + adjustments
ITRF92
1
GRS80 ITRF Laser / Interferometry / GPS
WGS84
1
WGS spheroid WGS GPS (+/- 200 ppb)
AGD84
1
ANS ATN Tellurometer, land and satellite
NAD83
1
WGS spheroid? NA GPS
OS(SN)80
1
Airy 1830 OSGB Tellurometer, land and satellite?
AGD66
1
ANS ATN Tellurometer, (+/- 2 ppm)
OSGB36
1
Airy 1830 OSGB theodolite?
NAD27
1
theodolite?
1
after Featherstone
h
,
2
after Pearse
i

The geodetic data in Table 45 are maintained by monitoring the
distance of control points in the networks in Table 40 and to the GPS
satellites. Where coordinates have been taken directly from a GPS
receiver the height measurement is not the elevation as you would
expect from the local height datum such as Australian Height Datum

h
Featherstone, 'An updated explanation of the Geocentric Datum of Australia (GDA) and its effects upon
future mapping'.
i
Pearse, 'The Third Dimension', no.
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(AHD). Rather it is a theoretical elevation derived from the spheroid
used for the WGS80 coordinates. This is because the satellites
spinning around the Earth, measure their position with respect to the
centre of gravity, not the designated local political standard usually
derived from mean sea levels at the nearest port. These heights can
be adjusted to match local mean sea level measurements by using a
model of the local surface assuming input coordinates from a
geocentric spheroid such as WGS80. Any examples I have come
across are in Table 46.
Table 46 geoid models
geoid model scope date accuracy
EGM96
1
Earth 1996 +- 1 m
AusGeoid98
1
Australia 1998
1
from Pearse 2003
j

Albers Equal Area Conic
The Regional Geology of Victoria, 1:500 000 series and the
associated data set code-named GEOL250 are presented in an Albers
Equal Area Conic projection. This has the advantage of presenting all
regions as the correct area though not necessarily the correct shape.
This makes the projection Ideal for regional ore reserve calculations,
dry land salinity or agricultural yield forecasts. The technical
specification for presenting the GEOL250 data is given in Table 47.
Table 47 Albers Equal Area Conic projection for VICMAP
parameter VICMAP-GEOL250
False origin easting 4 500 000 m W
False origin northing 2 500 000 m S
standard parallel 1 36 S
standard parallel 2 38 S
Lambda 0 145 E
spheroid ANS, 1996
VICMAP-TM (Transverse Mercator)

j
Ibid.
Geocomputing Management 164
For use with satellite images, Land Victoria developed an absolutely
flat Transverse Mercator projection, VICMAP-TM based on the ANS
spheroid. This allows all satellite images over Victoria to be spliced
together, without wrinkles, to give a continuous satellite image.
The use of the Transverse Mercator suggests to me that where the
region of interest is less than the width of the scan of a satellite,
such as mine, an archaeological dig, a farm, an environmental
cleanup site, it would be easier to match the additional mapping data
to the plane of the image rather than rubber sheeting the image to a
nominal standard map projection. Especially if a three dimensional
model is required anyhow, it can be built assuming the plane of the
image is flat. This makes monitoring where several images may be
used much easier to automate as individual rubber sheeting is not
required.
The strength of the transverse Mercator projection, a cylinder
wrapped around a sphere with the poles of the Earth sitting on the
radius of the cylinder as compared to the Mercator used for nautical
navigation where the equator sits on the radius, is that it roughly
represents the plane occupied by a satellite image where:
data collection is by a line scan device such as the Multiple
Scan Spectrometer (MSS) and Thermal Mapper (TM) carried
on the Landsat series of satellites.
The satellite is in a pole to pole trajectory, also such as the
Landsat series
Further the adjustments to scale for each pixel can be calculated by
assuming the central meridian for the transverse Mercator projection
is the flight path, and that the extreme ends of the image are correct
and the pixels towards the central meridian are magnified. In this
way calculation of the scaling correction becomes a simple ratio of
focal lengths problem. The correction grid can be used for both
weighting, distance scale and area calculation, as the scale is
constant in the direction parallel to the central meridian. Additionally,
this gives a base for the application of a gravity correction to
accommodate the departure of the ellipsoid from a sphere (Bougeur
correction) and local perturbations in the orbit of the satellite
(departure of the geoid from the ellipsoid). These modified
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corrections only need to be applied at the time of integration of area
and the original radiometric signals can be untouched until that time.
For distance calculation each pixel can be assumed to be a vector of
the minimum fraction of a unit (the scale at the central meridian) in
the direction parallel to the meridian and the perpendicular
displacement to be the scale factor. The distance is then a
trigonometric reduction based on those scale factors. Before
applying, to the display, polygons or points from government data,
the longitude of each vector point of the vector file will need to be
adjusted. This adjustment is necessary because the earth spins
below the satellite. The adjustment is the integration of all the lines
from the base of the image, which is south for a southward flying
image, north for a northward flying image. The incremental
adjustment for each line is the cosine of the latitude multiplied by
the side-slip displacement at the equator. The side-slip displacement
at the equator is determined by the time taken to collect a pixel and
the rotation of the earth.
VICMAP and VICGRID
Until 1998, VICGRID was called VICMAP. or VICMAP (ANS). The
Lambert Conformal Conic projection is best for showing elongate
east west regions hundreds of kilometres wide, just like the state of
Victoria. It was used for the Atlas of Victoria, 1:2 million & 1: 4
million scale maps to show roads, towns, state boundaries, rivers,
and catalogues of satellites.
Technical specification
The VICGRID standard has two components, the projection, and
datum. These are:
Lambert Conformal Conic projection
2 standard parallels 36S and 38S latitude
Central meridian 145E longitude
For the spheroid initially Australian National Spheroid (ANS ~
Clarke 1866) was used but since 1998 the spheroid from the
Geocentric Datum Australia (GDA94) will be found.
The use of different spheroids is the technical difference between
VICMAP and VICGRID. In detail there is less than 200 metres real
Geocomputing Management 166
displacement between the same coordinates when plotted on the
two spheroids, so at VICGRID scales (1:2 million and up) there is
effectively no difference.
The geodetic datum GDA94 has been recently introduced so it may
not be present in your computer program definitions. Use GRS80,
the spheroid used for GDA94, or otherwise WGS84 is the next
closest. WGS84 is the geodetic datum used for the satellite Global
Positioning System (GPS) so it should be prevalent. As an example,
most offshore seismic lines are surveyed to this spheroid, no matter
which ocean.
Table 48 cartographic spheroids sorted by geometry.
name spheroid geometry
1
polar radius sub-
equatorial
radius
a
metres
1/f b=(1-f)*a
metres
a
metres
measured
2

- - 6356800 6378200
GRS80
3

6378137 298.257222101 6356752 6378137
spheroid for WGS84
3

6378137 298.257223563 6356752 6378137
ANS 6371160 298.25 6349798 6371160
GRS67
3


1924 International Ellipsoid
3


Clarke 1866
Airey 1830
1

2
page 78 of
3
these global as compared to local or regional spheroids are geocentric: located on the gravitational
center of the Earth, and also specify gravity constants and arc measurements.
The height datum is the same for VICGRID and VICMAP. This is the
Australian Height Datum which gives the reference for elevation
from sea level.
Other projections in general use
Often a geologist will need to incorporate other data, such as tribal
boundaries, political and economic zones from state published maps.
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The government of Victoria uses many projections in publications
and data sets but the main ones are shown in Table 49.
However, in most regions you will find data using coordinates that
have been taken directly from a GPS receiver. This will be especially
the case if you are working directly from someones field notes.
Unless the GPS receiver has been configured otherwise, these
coordinates belong to the WGS84 system.
Table 49 projections for government publications in Victoria
name use definition
official VICGRID Atlas of Victoria page 165
MGA94, zones 54 & 55 topographic series page 159
Albers Equal Area Conic Regional Geology
1:500 000 series
page 163
informal or
obsolete
Albers Equal Area Conic
(WGS84)
salt maps, and working
geology
page 163
AMG zones 54 & 55 topographic series until
1998
page 159
VICMAP-TM satellite image mosaic page 163
geographic (WGS84) GPS-aided data
collection
page 166
Further information can be found at:
VICGRID map projection; (2000) http://www.giconnections.vic.gov.au/content/docs/vicgrid/
VICGRID map projection; 2000. HTML file. Department of Land Information and RMIT University.
Ballarat cartographic module
In this exercise the Layout window of ESRI ArcView acts as the
cartographic module. However, there is an overlay for the 1:10 000
AMG supplied in the Ballarat GIS Data set, which can be very useful
for plotting up old data against the new MGA mapping grid. This is
given at:
.\ballarat_GIS\ballarat_GIS2\gis\mapinfo_export\amggrid
Astronomy processing sub-system for an earth model
The managing of time and events is carried out in the astronomy
processing sub-system. This history module contains the time-based
information and I talk about history because there is usually some
action or process being undertaken. This type of data is not stored
Geocomputing Management 168
particularly well in a GIS and I use Microsoft Excel or paper
principally. In the paper world this is where check lists and work
journals come in. If I am working for a client I spend a bit more time
with the check list so that they are self-explanatory, as I need to
justify my time, so I make them up in Microsoft Word, and Table 50
is an example and there are many others in this document. The idea
is you print them off, use them, stick a date on them and file them in
your work journal - a large two-ring folder.
However for myself, I like the speed of an adjustable work
programme, or at least keeping all the actions together, so I use a
column of actions against some kind of date selection across the
rows in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. There is some variation to
how you use the date, and I have given some examples in Table 50.
There is the straight column of action and column for date which is
the bank book format and I still use this for share transactions. The
series of month and day only columns are of course representing
the Solar cycle, ideal for working bees where you have annual tasks
depending on the season, and you mark off those tasks in the
appropriate season column, you can even simplify it by using months
or quarters. The Latitude axis is a little bit more cryptic but the
assumption is the field season is only at certain times in the year and
you can use the latitude of the field site as a unique indicator of
what you should take, one column per latitude, marking which
latitudes require that clothing as per the example spreadsheet
StudEx.xls . The use of day, that is day 1, day 2 and so on, is used
for any building exercise, which repeats the steps on every site. And
for those larger developments like mines, you can use a series
columns one for each year either numbered as in net-present-value
budget or calendar as in mining production versus metal (which
generally for a particular mining district equates to a particular
metallurgical process).

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Table 50 recommendation for time axes versus action
examples
Type of time axis

Day, month, year
3


day and month only (or month, or quarter)

Latitude/season

Day 1, 2, 3, etc


Year (either as a span: 1, 2, 3
2
; or named: 2008, 2009 etc)


type of list

tick
Your list type:



Check list for packing field equipment
1
X

Share transaction register

X

net present value budget for a mine X

Mining production for a district X

Schedule for a water-bore work-over rig X

Check list for working bees X

The type of your time axis:



NOTES
1
The example of a check list for field equipment packing is available on the Computers in Geology
website in the file StudEx.xls
k

2
Brown in 2010
l
tells that a year is being discussed by the International Subcommission on Stratigraphic
Classification as a unit for a span of time exactly 31 556 925.445 seconds.
3
Labels for days dont necessarily have to be complex names, Richards 1998
m
, recommends and uses
the astronomical day, a signed real number, of the precise number of rotations of the Earth. I have put a
calculator, based on his formulas, on my web site at the URL:
www.grantjacquier.info/heritage.html#toy
We wont be physically working on the goldfields around Ballarat
goldfields, as much as we would like to, but there is production data
from people who have and we can use a similar spreadsheet to show
this, and how to do that is described in the following section Historic
processing module for the Ballarat earth model.

k
http://www.grantjacquier.info/StudEx.xls
l
Cathy Brown, 'Geological time units - definition of the 'year'', The Australian Geologist no. 154 (2010), p.
8.
m
E G Richards, Mapping time, the calendar and its history (Oxford, United Kingdom, 1998).
Geocomputing Management 170
Astronomy processing module for the Ballarat earth model
As mentioned above time-based data is not stored particularly well in
a GIS, so we will use the spreadsheet Microsoft Excel which has
quite a few in-built functions and arithmetic for the processing of
time. We will match hat with mine production data provided from the
Geological Survey Victoria.
Geological Survey Victoria VICMINE database
The GSV VICMINE database contains firstly the location, name and
unique code for Victorian mines in the master.txt file and secondly
the gold production versus unique Victorian mine code in the
prodtot.txt file. Both these files can be found on the Ballarat GIS
Data at:
- .\ballarat_GIS\ballarat_GIS2\VicMine\master.txt
- .\ballarat_GIS\ballarat_GIS2\VicMine\prodtot.txt
Load the VicMine data and then link it in Microsoft Excel. Equation 5
summarises the commands to do this. After laoding and linking the
data, in the sheet mines far left column put a lookup equation, and
then follow up with the menu items for a pivot table to create the
analysis sheet
Equation 5 using VicMine data in Microsoft Excel
File | Open | *.txt
gaia\gis\ballarat_GIS\ballarat_GIS2\VicMine\master.txt
Delimited
Other |
Edit | Copy
Sheet1!J2002072.xls
Rename
mines
File | Open | *.xls
C:\convert\j2002072.xls
VLOOKUP(A2, production!A:E,3)
Data | Pivot table
Sheet3!A1
sum of prodn for deposit sub-type vs mines size
Rename
analysis

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The algebraic processing sub-system
The algebraic module is what is usually associated with remote
sensing, geophysical or geo-chemical processing as with the
examples in Table 51. This corresponds to the old work done on
paper cross-sections and often at this stage the depth component of
geological computer systems becomes important.
Table 51 mathematics for geological problems after
Berkman
measurement basis
mathematical analogue from Berkman
m l t I T L M
6.1 Formulae for solution of triangles
Kirk 2010
n
7 6 7
6.2 Formulae for area, perimeter, etc of planar figures & surface area for solids
Fahey & Foley 1987
o
7 7 7
6.3 Apparent dip in a direction
Bailey et.al. 2010
p
7 7 6
6.4 Tables of slope angles
Kirk 2009
q
6 6
6.5 Field grid spacing and elevation conversion table
image kriging in Scarmana 2010
r
5 5
6.6 Stadia
VMO analysis 6 6 6
6.7 Airphoto scale nomogram
6.8 Determination of the line of intersection
6.9 Graphical solution of the three point problem
6.10 Orthographic and Wulf.
base units of measurement
length l, mass m, time t, current I, temperature T, luminous intensity L, amount M, as well as the
supplementary units of plane and solid angles .
: dimension analysis from page 39 of Tennant, 1971
s
.
Data source from Chapter 9. Geophysics of Berkman
1 : Physical properties and conversion factors
5 : radiometric survey methods and tables

n
Kirk, 'Slopes - Part 1 of 2', no.
o
M Fahey and P. A. Foley, 'In situ measurement of the coefficient of consolidation,' in European
Conference on Soil mechanics and Foundation Engineering 9th (Dublin: 1987).
p
Brad Bailey et al., 'Prospect identification using AVO inversion and lithology prediction', PESA News no.
104 (2010), pp. 22-24.
q
Kirk, 'DHI seismic facies', no.
r
Gabriel Scarmana, 'Super-resolution Imagery', Position Magazine no. 45 (2010), pp. 42-44.
s
R. M. Tennant (ed.), Science data book (Edinburgh, 1971).
Geocomputing Management 172
6. seismic survey methods
7. down-hole survey methods
Once depth is considered the requirement for an elevation datum
becomes more critical. Generally you will be relating your depths
back to the locally established height datum, examples are given in
Table 52, but you could also use your own benchmark and this was
often the case for older more remote mines.
Table 52 official height data.
height datum scope establish. method
AHD71
2
Australia 1971 mean sea level
AHD66
1
Australia 1966 mean sea level
Auckland 1946 Datum
1
Auckland (New
Zealand)
1946 mean sea level
1
see
2
AHD71 can be out in the order of a metre from local mean sea level in remote locations as reported in.
While, drilling or geophysical logging it is quite unusual to have
surveyors come in and pick up the top of casing for you and relate it
to the nearest official benchmark, so often the ground surface is
used. The ground surface is undulating and the relationship to mean
seal level or temporary benchmark is not obvious and therefore must
also be modelled. This is currently done most easily with digital
elevation models or DEMs with some of the more extensive given in
Table 53.
Table 53 digital elevation models in order of sophistication.
DEM
(extent, epoch)
resolution basis vendor
ACE
1

(global, 1999)
<4km satellite radar altimeter. www.cse.dmu.ac.uk
GLOBE v1
1

(global, 1999)
30 arc sec. digital terrain elevation
data;
+ national DEMs
www.ngdc.noaa.gov
GTOPO30
1

(global, 1997)
30 arc sec. digital terrain elevation
data;
+ 8 national DEMs
edcdaac.usgs.gov
GEODATA
1

(Australia, 1996)
9 arc sec. spot heights;
gravity survey
elevations.
www.auslig.gov.au
JGP95E
1

(global, 1996)
5 arc min. topographic data;
bathymetric data;
U.S. National Imagery and
Mapping.
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DEM
(extent, epoch)
resolution basis vendor
digital terrain elevation
data.
TerrainBase
1

(global, 1995)
5 arc min. topographic data;
bathymetric data.
www.ngdc.noaa.gov
ETOPO5
1

(global,1987)
5 arc min. topographic data;
bathymetric data.
www.ngdc.noaa.gov
1
This description is taken from Hilton et. al. (2003)
t

Also at this stage you you reconsider the radius of influence of the
themes that you use and in multi-spectral work, the bands of the
images you have collected The chart in Figure 24 gives comparisons
of detectors for which I have encountered specifications such as
Geoimage 2009
u
.

t
R. D. Hilton et al., 'Comparison of digital elevation models over Australia and external validation using
ERS-1 satellite radar altimetry.', Australian Journal of Earth Sciences vol. 50, no. 2 (2003).
u
'Geoimage Celebrating 21 Years,' (Geoimage, 2009).
Geocomputing Management 174

Figure 24 comparison of spectral frequency and average
equivalent distance of a pixel for several remote sensors
analytic module for the Ballarat earth model
The analytical module for our example of the Ballarat map sheet
consists of the the themes shown in Table 54.
0.1
1
10
300 500 700 900 1100 1300
p
i
x
e
l

(
m
e
t
r
e
s
)

wavelength (nanometres)
Quickbird panchromatic Quickbird Band 1
Quickbird Band 2 Quickbird Band 3
Quickbird Band 4 Worldview-1
Worldview-2 panchromatic Worldview-2 Band 1
Worldview-2 Band 2 Worldview-2 Band 3
Worldview-2 Band 4 Worldview-2 Band 5
Worldview-2 Band 6 Worldview-2 Band 7
Worldview-2 Band 8
Geocomputing Management 175
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Table 54 pick list of the analytical data themes for the
Ballarat sheet earth model
theme type data set tick
digital terrain model .\ballarat_GIS1\mapinfo\dtm.*
Air (Bouguer) gravity survey .\ballarat_GIS1\mapinfo\gravity.*
site data any Microsoft Excel spreadsheet in columns
NOTES
These themes wwere from Ballarat GIS Data
v
and would be located on a mounted disk such as:
gaia\gis\ballarat_GIS
The steps in the work include:
1. Going to use ArcView Image Analyst (File | Extensions |
Image Analyst )
2. Reprojecting the images with a world file
3. Load DTM (raster) data as per Equation 6.
4. Load your raster (Bouger gravity) data also in Equation 6.
Equation 6 loading raster heights and Bougeur gravity in
ArcView
Start ArcView
File | Extensions | Spatial Analyst
File | Import | TAB
table
Version 3.00
Charset Windows Latin 1

Definition table
File dtm.tif
Type RASTER
File | Extensions | Spatial Analyst
View |Add theme | Grid
ncols 480
nrows 450
xllcorner 378923
yllcorner 4072345
cellsize 30
nodata_value 32768
43 3 45 7 56 2 5 23
35 45 65 34 2 6 78
5. Loading field data from Microsoft Excel as per Equation 7.

v
'Ballarat GIS Data,' ed. Natural Resources and Environment (Melbourne: Crown (State of Victoria),
2001).
Geocomputing Management 176
Equation 7 adding site measurements to the raster image in
ArcInfo
start Microsoft Excel with field data spreadsheet
File | Save As | *.dbf
start ArcView with your project (myproject.apr)
Project | Add | Table
View | Add Event Theme
The only tricky thing is making the world file to keep all three themes in the same
plain.The world file is used with raster data assuming a flat plane, and specifying the
values required in Equation 8.
Equation 8 specifying a flat plane.
x1 = Ax + By + C; where C = top right Easting
y1 = Dx + Ey + F; where F = top right Northing
The values for Equation 8 are implemented in a file given by:
textedit dtm.tfw
31 A
0 D
0 B
-31 E
769830 C
5905800 F

The grammar processing sub-system
Mining companies have tended not to place much store on in-house
presentation; image products, such as annual reports, have been
traditionally contracted out. Routine and technical reports do not
require multiple fonts or mixed text and graphics on the one page.
Considering the sense of perspective and style displayed by the
average geologist in his/her field maps, it is possibly fortunate that
DTP is not more widespread. Bettenay (1989)
As an introduction, it is hard to go past the two paragraphs on
desktop publishing from Bettenay
w
. So image is not important, but
what has happened most recently is that functions now support the

w
Bettenay, 'An overview of the use of computers in exploration in Western Australia. .'
Geocomputing Management 177
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content with grammar checkers (Table 55), bibliographic
databases, custom dictionaries (Table 110) and catalog merging. In
fairness to Bettenay these features dont come from the DTP world
but the programming world and subseqently DTP software is
revisited in the rhetoric section. Evans writing a few years later in
1996Error! Bookmark not defined., gives a whole chapter on
Making Your Word processor Work for You and includes these
sections which are features he finds of assistance:
- Formatting & style sheets
- Spell-checks and grammar-checks
- References
- Tables
- Figures
- Table of contents
- Writing on to the screen
- Structure and the outline views
- Saving and duplicates
- Keeping a master disk
- Joint authorship
As a definition: the grammar sub-system of geological computer
system is used to convey critical issues to others outside your
immediate science community. The software market is dominated by
the Microsoft Office suite of applications, and I am no different, but I
also use an add-in Thompson EndNote, a bibliographic index (
Reference in the Evans book). The weaknesses I have found with
Thompson EndNote include that I tend to get confused when I adapt
an existing template. For example I box up my Australian Journal of
Earth Science into wine-bottle cartons and store it in the roof, using
an EndNote database to summarise the contents. There is no
specific template for a Journal, only a Journal Article where the
Editor is left out, and I am not confident to edit the provided
template, because I tend to lose the caption from the records as I
move them around between revisions.

Geocomputing Management 178

Table 55 grammar and style rules for Microsoft Office
proofing tools against report type
Account: File: Date:





TYPE OF REPORT
From names (with Microsoft Publisher templates) in published reports with
contributions by different mineral surveying occupations
5



(HYPO)THESIS: Thesis writing

EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN:
Writing for an experimental procedure or field observation

CATEGORY
1




Proofing option tick
Microsoft General



Ignore word in UPPERCASE Y n


Ignore word that contain numbers Y n


Ignore Internet and file addresses Y n

Microsoft Word specific


Writing Style: Grammar & Style: Grammar Y Y


Fragments and Run-on (page 16)
4
n Y


Subject-verb Agreement
2
Y Y


Writing Style: Grammar & Style :Style Y Y


Use of first person (pg 49 of Evans 1996Error! Bookmark not
defined.)
n Y

Test words for dictionary selection



Facies, geology Y Y


Syndrome, medical only
3
Y Y


PRESCRIPTION

Table 35 script editors for capturing logic

NOTES
1
try the menu commands File > Options > Proofing.
2
Subject-Verb agreements are required for all geology reports as per page 17 of Glover .
3
Syndrome in anything but medical use is jargon as described on page 51 of Evans 1996
4
The grammar requirements for a thesis are given in the section Plain English of Leach-Paholski 1995
5
The table published reports with contributions by different mineral surveying occupations was at
http://www.grantjacquier.info/biography.html#table1
Geocomputing Management 179
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The rhetoric processing sub-system
However Ho and Rocket (1989
x
), suggest that there are three
categories of desktop publishing: word-processing, enhanced word
processing and dedicated desk-top publishing as shown in Table 56.
They thought at the time that differences between the capabilities
were lessening, but what I have found is that the lower end word-
processing has been transferred into other applications like
Thompson EndNote amd Microsoft Script editor, which do other
things entirely; and the high end dedicated desktop publishing
software like Microsoft Office Publisher, does new forms of output
such as business cards, posters, banners and Internet web-sites. The
middle ground is being characterised by Microsoft PowerPoint
replacing internal memoranda typed up in Microsoft Office. The
capabilities they gave in 1989 still seem relevant to the new
software.
Table 56 desktop-publishing software categories
date software


category and capability after Ho and Rockett (1989)

dedicated desktop publishing
custom type sizes and line spacings; automatic hyphenation, full control over positioning and text
block size, text wrapping around irregular graphics, import of special graphics formats like EPS,
TIFF, and PICT; image modification; spot colour, page overlays and registration marks

enhanced word processing
character spacing (kerning); discretionary hyphenation; tailored formatting commands;
columns; facing pages, margin controls and headers, moderate control over positioning and
text block size; graphics resizing; boxes, shading and line styles; templates


word-processing
multiple typefaces (fonts), type styles (bold etc), type sizes and line spacing, limited
control over positioning and text block size, cut-and-paste of graphics; document zoom

software suite

component


Microsoft Office 2003


Microsoft Office Word X X


Microsoft Office Publisher X X X

Microsoft Office PowerPoint X X


Microsoft Script Editor X


x
Susan E. Ho and Gina M.I. Rockett, 'Desktop Publishing in Exploration. ,' in Computers in Exploration -
Where we are now and where we are going, Seminar No. 7, Australian Institute of Geoscientists Bulletin
No 9 (Perth: Australian Institute of Geoscientists, 1989).
Geocomputing Management 180

Thomson EndNote


desktop version X


Pocket PC version X


used by Ho & Rockett


MacWrite 4.5 X


Microsoft Word 4 X X

PageMaker 3.0 X X X
NOTES
Desktop publishing system
Ho & Rockett saw the benefits of a desktop publishing system as
control, security, convenience and cost. Control because it is used by
a scientist for his own needs. Security because confidential work is
carried out by the scientist and this also prevents plagiarism.
Convenience is because there are no delays of transport, or
misunderstandings with commercial printers. Cost is because
changes are a matter of time, and cost penalties are not applied.
Apart from the ease of the inserting a bibliographic reference into a
document, that comes from being a Microsoft Word add-on; I see
the strengths of the bibliographic software Thompson EndNote as:
there are provided templates for publications with each field labelled
with a specific and informative caption, and the customised editing
functions allow you to change things such as publication date in a
block of references.
In the mindset of Ho and Rockett, the alternative to a desktop-
publishing system was getting publications typeset and they used
professionals when they were worried about appearance, or
eonomics. Appearance was critical, because professionals have more
typefaces, styles and graphical elements to transfer the message to
perhaps an inattentive reader. For economy they saw the craftsmen
able to employ denser materials and design with less paper and less
transport costs.
Microsoft PowerPoint
The predominance of Microsoft Office applications doesnt mean
Geocomputing Management 181
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there arent serious critics, for instance Collins (2005)
y
quotes
comments from Edward Tufte on the misuse of Microsoft PowerPoint
by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the report
into the Columbia space shuttle explosion. But their finding is to
have a technical report in the place of the Powerpoint presentations
used, again which can be written in Microsoft Word, perhaps with a
Thompson EndNote add-in bibliographic database as this book has
been written.
Collins on advice from Tufte saw the critical issue with PowerPoint is
to substitute a few bullet points for more intensive data summaries,
that is graphs and diagrams with plenty of data. All this is available
in Microsoft Power Point object inserts, so once again it is a case of
how you use it, not what you are using.
Also beware of the ex-teachers who swear you should have no more
than seven points on a page. This is advice is in the context of
teaching children who would rather being playing outside or bored
salesman who would rather be seducing their secretaries. The work
of the cartographic research unit at the Defence Science and
Technology Organisation as outlined in a talk by the units leader
Major Bob Edwards at the University of Melbourne in 2001, that
trained observers can handle and expect or feel more comfortable
with higher densities of graphical information.
This principle has been proved in battle with the units mobile
cartography being employed in the second East Timor crisis which
lead to independence, and the Australian Army soldiers being able to
detect differences in interpretations of borders with the Indonesians
(they were using old Dutch colonial data, the Australians used official
Indonesian data) and prevented a war with Indonesia.

y
Luke Collins, 'The presentation tool Powerpoint is killing our capacity for conceptual thinking, says it
nemesis, Edward Tufte', AFR Boss no. (2005).
Geocomputing Management 182
More about an ore system
Perhaps the key precept that distinguishes geology from other earth
science disciplines is the thought that there is some innate logic to
earth processes and the resulting substance. It has probably
descended to modern geologists from the early theologians who took
a practical approach to supporting their belief in the flood myth. The
principle is still current, and scientists in the 1990s turned their
attention to the geological processes that occurred in the history of
mineral deposits. This particular type of geological history has been
labelled an ore system, examples of which are given in Table 57. An
ore system commonly has the components: ore fluid generation, ore
fluid transport, ore fluid trapping and ore concentration. It is equally
applicable to oil and gas exploration with the components being
labelled hydrocarbon generation, hydrocarbon transport,
hydrocarbon trap, integrity of the cap and reservoir quality.
Table 57 possible Pangaea/Gondwana/Australia ore
systems
1

yield ore system
Au Orogenic gold systems
1

Au Porphyry associated gold (copper, silver) systems
1

Fe BIF-hosted iron ores
1

Cu Iron oxide copper-gold systems
1

Cu Metamorphic copper systems
1

diamonds Kimberlite-lamproite pipes
1

heat Geo-pressured brines
2

heat Hot dry rock (HDR)
2

heat Hydrothermal
2

heat Magma associated with active volcanoes
2

Ni Komatiite-hosted nickel systems
1

Ni Mafic-ultramafic intrusion associated Ni-Cu ( PGE) systems
1

Sn, W Felsic intrusion-related Sn, W and rare metals
1

Ta Tantalum (-lithium) pegmatite systems
1

U Unconformity related Uranium deposits
1

Zn, Pb Proterozoic sediment-hosted, stratiform Pb-Zn-Ag systems
1

Zn, Pb Carbonate-hosted, strata-bound lead-zinc (MVT) deposits
1

Zn, Pb Volcanic (felsic intrusive)-associated massive sulfide (Cu-Pb-Zn-
Ag-Au) deposits
1

Zn, Pb Syndeformational, sediment-hosted, Au-Cu-Ag-Pb-Zn deposits
(Cobar-type)
1

Geocomputing Management 183
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1
from Jacques (2002)
z

2
from Alexander (2005)
aa

I like the concept, because you can have several scenarios, a
complex history can be built up from cycles, and the metaphor of a
fluid interacting with a mineral resource can be used for human
activity, and an ore system is distinguished from traditional
geological history by the emphasis on quantitative estimation to
allow economic evaluation at the end of the investigation. Even so, I
was surprised how well the planning of my mothers Alzheimers
treatment (fitted within a multiple stage, multiple phase, multiple
scenario ore system) was represented in a spreadsheet at
www.grantjacquier.info/development_files/sheet006.htm.
In terms of computing, while you can do it in a single spreadsheet,
the ore system will likely be a suite of computer programs, which are
applied to the earth model data. However, unlike many computing
applications in commerce, where the methods of banking havent
altered in hundreds of years, the processes described by the
computer algorithm needs to be altered, as more knowledge is
gained and opinions change on the underlying geological system.
The scientists thoughts about the ore system and subsequently the
associated computing applications will pass through the classic
exploration life cycle shown in Table 58. Also shown in this table, are
the key data management issues addressed by the computing
application at each stage. If you manage your computing correctly it
should improve in capability at the same time as your investigation
changes.
The first section of this chapter discusses each of the six phases of
information and technology management and how they apply to
building up the ore system. The second section gives example
computer applications for an ore system in the region of Ballarat in
Victoria.


z
A. L. Jaques, S. Jaireth, and J. L. Walshe, 'Mineral systems of Australia: an overview of resources,
settings and processes', Australian Journal of Earth Science vol. 49, no. 4 (2002).
aa
Elinor Alexander, 'Geothermal energy exploration in South Australia', PESA News no. 73 (2005), pp.
39-52.
Geocomputing Management 184
Table 58 the exploration/computing life cycle
Exploration management
1
Information & Technology Management
regional research reference & indexing
field work field data & validation
preparation of results analyses & processing
project review corporate information & data sharing
proposal for further work summary & presentation
statutory reporting archive & reporting
1
from White (1997)
bb

The development phases of a Ballarat ore system
The section discusses the different phases of the exploration life-
cycle (Table 58) for the case study of the Ballarat map sheet region.
The exception is field data and validation which is covered in the
Why use an earth model? section. The example used here involves
a bit of role-play to dress out the problem. Consider that you are
working for a:
Gold exploration company
You have experience in the Eastern Goldfields, W. Australia.
Prospects are exhausted there and you are looking
elsewhere

bb
White, Management of mineral exploration.
Geocomputing Management 185
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The reference & indexing phase
The reference and indexing development phase of an ore system
corresponds to regional reconnaissance work in exploration. Probably
the most obvious information aspect of this work is the use of a
thesaurus of key words as per the sample for Computers in Geology
in Table 59. Essential the use of common or approved words in
labelling your documents as you create them, means they will sort
together when it comes time for reporting and review. The several
issues or questions to be considered when considering establishing a
thesaurus for geology use are:
- scale
- projection
- time
- stratigraphy
- cost
- format
- extent
- geological history
Digital tools available for the work, and some broad objectives that
will apply in most cases are given the sub-sections below:
1. Electronic reference and indexing
2. Reference and indexing for a Ballarat ore system
Table 59 sample conversion of key words into project codes
category (from Keyword field on File > Properties) project
1 unallocated
Affinity Contracting & Search Perentie
AGIA societies
applied mathematics;civil engineering;geology;statistics Perentie
Australian Geoscience Information Association societies
Computers in Geology administration
geology societies
Geological Society of Australia societies
GSA societies
investment investment
Geocomputing Management 186
Pembroke School private
private private
Project Numbat Numbat
Project Perentie Perentie
Project Wombat Wombat
Santos Santos
Specialist Group in Computing societies
The Regency Lodge private
The University of Melbourne Numbat
zzz unallocated
Electronic reference and indexing
The general tools available to meet the issues for using a geology
thesaurus with documents are:
- readme file
- data dictionary
- browser
- catalogue
The objectives for a reference algorithm to work are
- read meta-data
- run browser
- make catalogue
Reading the meta-data is basically appreciating the contents of a
data file or database that is available to you. Twenty years ago this
was perhaps just a sensible naming convention for data files in
directories but increasingly complex descriptions are now available in
the headers of these files. In Table 60 are some of the more specific
geological standards available for indexing but it does illustrate that
contents descriptions can vary from key words in a thesaurus to a
process description that indicates the topology or inter-relationship
of blocks of data both in time and space.
The next step browsing of the meta-data is allowing the scientist to
make comparisons between the data sets once the contents of each
file have been read. And finally the catalogue, is the list of the of the
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best available data sets to be used for the work ahead, ignoring any
data from the data collection that is not quite relevant, making a
subset that can be used efficiently by the whole team.
Geocomputing Management 188
Table 60 electronic file indexing schemes for geology
THESAURUS
meta-data schema basis
Dublin Core XML
AGCRC
1
Dublin Core
Geography Markup Language(GML)
3
XML
CGI Geology Data Model (GeoSciML
4
) GML
Extensible Markup Language (XML)
5
SGML
Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)
5
ISO standard
Extensible HTML (XHTML)
5
XML, HTML
Exploration and Mining Markup Language(XMML)
3
GML
Hypertext Markup Language(HTML)
5
SGML
Virtual Reality Markup Language(VRML)
2
MapScript
Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG)
3

TOPOLOGY
1
introduced in Price & Stoker
cc

2
introduced in Pullar
dd

3
outlined in Ackland & Cox
ee

4
announced in Cox & Simons
ff
from the work by the Commision for the Management of Geoscience
Information (CGI) of the International Union of Geological Sciences
5
differences between XML, HTML, XHTML and SGML are given on pp4-7 of Ray & Ray
gg

Reference and indexing for a Ballarat ore system
The outcome of this section is a strategic report to a shareholders
meeting summarising your regional reconnaissance. We have to get
our facts straight so we can answer their questions. First we
summarise our geological thinking, then make some approximations
to extrapolate a mathematical model from which we can derive some
numbers to table at that meeting (recorded in a Microsotf Excel
spreadsheet tagged with appropriate key words for the project).
In establishing a regional geology model let us believe the Eastern
Goldfields, and Victorian Goldfields are cratons caused by identical
continental island arc collisions. However, if we trust Bierlein et. al.

cc
G. P. Price and P. Stoker, 'Australian Geodynamics Cooperative Research Centre's integrated
research program delivers a new minerals exploration strategy for industry', Australian Journal of Earth
Sciences vol. 49, no. 4 (2002).
dd
D. Pullar, 'Using VRML to visualise landscape change and process', Cartography vol. 31, no. 1 (2002).
ee
Ross Ackland and Simon Cox, 'Markup mapping.', GIS User no. 47 (2001), pp. 28-31.
ff
Simon Cox and Bruce Simons, 'CGI Geology Data Model Working Group', The Australian Geologist no.
137 (2005), pp. 25-26.
gg
Deborah S. Ray and Eric J. Ray, Mastering HTML and XHTML (Alameda, CA, USA., 2002).
Geocomputing Management 189
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(2001)
hh
, in the Eastern Goldfields the majority (>51%) production is
from orogenic deposits, whereas in the Victorian Goldfields this is
mainly placer and alluvial deposits. Let us assume:
- Company finding rate is 1:200
- all non-orogenic deposits discovered
- most orogenic deposits hidden by soil cover and not
discovered .
- In 1999, Victorian Government financed state-wide air
geophysics.
To put numbers on the regional model, to geive us a maths model,
you open the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet as per Equation 9, and
then apply the following columns:
- Total production of all subtypes (P
D
)
- fault hosted production (P
O
)
- non-orogenic production (P
N
= P
D
- P
O
)
- potential production (P
P
> P
N
/ 49%)
- undiscovered production (P
U
> P
P
- P
D
)
- Return to shareholders (P
f
> P
U
x 1/200)
Equation 9 using Microsoft Excel for a regional maths model
start | All Programs | Microsoft Office 2003 | Microsoft Excel
File | Open | j2002072.xls

hh
BIERLEIN, F. P., ARNE, D. C., KEAY, S. M. and NAUGHTON, N. J. 2001 Timing relationships
between felsic magmatism and mineralisation in the Central Victorian gold province, southeast Australia.
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 48, 883-899.
Geocomputing Management 190
The loading data & verification phase
This section could be entitled Field data & validation, especially if
working directly in the field but for a lot of the time the computer
geologist is concerned with historical or legacy data. Subsequently,
the preparation of the earth model (especially the logic sub-system)
covers this quite well for the legacy data, though you will want to
use the suggestions in the sub-section Statistics for field data to
validate that old data. With that caveat explained, the rest of this
section will deal predominantly with data collection.
The data collected can be analogue measurements, digital readings,
narratives, or illustrations. Essentially, different number bases, such
as base 2 or binary, can represent a number. In computing there is
also base 8 (octal), base 10 (decimal) or base 16 (hexa-decimal).
Alternatively a symbol can be associated with each number such as
HTML and ASCII. Translation can go both ways from symbol to
number or number to symbol which leads to the hybrid
representation of Binary Coded Decimal or BCD. On the Computers
in Geology table server you will find a table to translate between
different codes at the Internet address in Equation 10.
Equation 10 URL for code translation
http://www.grantjacquier.info/develop.htm#translate
I still prefer paper for field work, and in 1996 I put those thoughts
into the Autumn 1996 Computers in Geology newsletter
ii
, which
David Stapledon summarised in the section 4.4 Equipment and
Programs Suitable for Logging of his keynote address
jj
, later that
year. Nevertheless computers are used in the field, Dentith in 2008
gave a primer
kk
, with other papers I have come across but not yet
integrated into this narrative are:
- Gasmier (1987)
- Holloway (1999)

ii
Grant Jacquier, 'Computers in Geology,' in PESA News (Computers in Geology, 1996).
jj
Stapledon, 'Keeping the "Geo"; Why and How.'
kk
Dentith, 'Introducing digital geological mapping into a 3rd-year field unit: experiences at the University
of Western Australia', no.
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- Waltho (1999)
From my perspective a lot of what is required for data collection can
be seen in surveying systems for engineering at site scale, cadastral
surveying for terrain and basin scale, with geodetic work for
geophysics and regional mapping at continent scale. However, I
expect there are some special characteristics and I interpreted these
constraints from a critique of the Mangocreations iGeolog software
by Cockbain in 2011
ll
which basically consists of a geological section
editor:
- Good on-line help is required.
- Setting precise bed thicknesses is very difficult if you have to
rely only on graphical means such as a slider. This echoes
comments made by Bettenay in 1989
mm
with it is the
inherent design and interface that determines the practical
effectiveness of a software package for exploration, not the
range of features it offers.
- Accessing catalogues of fossil marks has to to be easy,
prefereably with some kind of automatic assistance, that
doesnt require practice. Curiously Stapledon in 1996 is more
scathing of the actual codes for shading in geotechnical logs
as proscribed in the Australian Standard of the time, than of
the actual computer being used. So probably the future of
geological data collection software will be that it will handle
the log annotations and artefacts better than we can do
currently with pencil.
- There needs to be transfer utility and destination for the
information once you have made the section. A screen shot
to JPEG file is not good enough especially when you have a
section which exceeds the screen size. Previously had
celebrated Micromine where all data files are ASCII
(American Standard Code of Interface and Interchange) and
can be re-used, even in an algebraic sense with labels such
as NS and Stope being treated as missing values (he
uses the term logical null).
- There is a trade off of weight versus the size of the screen
which makes the application more useful.

ll
Tony Cockbain, 'iGeolog, Mangocreations', The Australian Geologist no. 158 (2011), p. 40.
mm
Bettenay, 'An overview of the use of computers in exploration in Western Australia. .'
Geocomputing Management 192
Statistics for field data
This sub-section is a ready reference of Microsoft Excel formulas for
setting up statistical calciulations in a worksheet based on what you
know about how the data was collected. I find it useful when I am
bringing data together from different sources into an earth model.
Each set has different assumptions, and so requires different
statistics.
The sub-section is in two parts, the first dealing with integer values,
or more precisely discrete distributions, where all the permutations
are known; and the second is for real numbers, or again more
precisely continuous distributions, where obviously the values are
samples and having the complete collection is impossible.
Discrete distributions:
1. Equation 11 binomial distribution of a population
2. Equation 12 binomial distribution of samples by a Normal
model
3. Equation 13 discrete geometric distribution
4. Equation 14 uniform distribution
5. Equation 15 Poisson distribution of elapsed time
6. Equation 16 Poisson distribution of counts per second
7. Equation 17 Gaussian distribution
Continuous distributions:
8. Equation 18 uniform distribution of a continuous variable
9. Equation 19 Poisson distribution of a continuous variable
10. Equation 20 Standard Normal distribution of a continuous
variable
11. Equation 21 Normal distribution of a continuous variable
Discrete distribution of variables
Most geological measurements are samples from a continuum but if
the sampling is without bias, the sample population will be a discrete
model honouring the continuous distribution, and then Equation 11
to Equation 17 can be used.
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For a practical example, based of the approach outlined in the
introduction to this chapter, please consider the uncertainty
estimates used in the companion Feldbuch product available on the
CD-ROM Grants Geological Toolkit (enquiries as per my website
www.grantjacquier.info). However, firstly, Table 61 gives the legend
of the parameters in these tables.
Table 61 general notes to the discrete distribution functions
Expectation (X) First moment of random variable X about origin 0
BASIC programs relevant to this include: nn
Variance(X) Second moment of random variable X about the Expectation (X). BASIC
programs which calculate this are : nn.
probability function This gives the probability of a value occuring. BASIC programs referenced
include: oo and pp
cumulative probability
function
This gives the probability of any value occurring that is less than the
prescribed maximum. BASIC programs referenced include: pp
binomial distribution Assumes true and false are represented by the integers 1 and 0. BASIC
programs which deal with this include: oo and nn.
number of iterations The 1st (replacement) case assumes all outcomes will be available on
iteration.
The 2nd (non-replacement) case assumes that once an outcome is selected
it is excluded from further iteration.

1
A 90% confidence interval is used in the example to determine the number
of iterations to achieve that confidence interval..
WARNING: POPULATION A1:C10 MUST INCLUDE ALL OUTCOMES.
These BASIC programs will manufacture the permutations and combinations:
qq

The equivalent BASIC programs follow:


nn
Mean, Variance, Standard Deviation; pages 121-123 of Lon Poole and Mary Borchers, Some common
BASIC programs (Berkeley, California, 1979).
oo
Binomial Distribution, pages 125-6 of ibid.
pp
Normal Distribution, pages 128-129 of ibid.
qq
Permutations and Combinations, pages 116-117 of ibid.
Geocomputing Management 194
Equation 11 binomial distribution of a population
parameter
BASIC program
Microsoft Excel formula
discrete random variable X
qq
=COLUMN(A1:C10)
first value of X =row(A1:C1)
count of population n=COUNT(A1:A10)
absolute minimum abs_min=0
absolute maximum abs_max=1
Expectation (X)
nn
xbar=COUNTIF(A1:C10,1)/n
Variance(X)
nn
sigma_sq=COLUMNS(A1:C10)*xbar*(1-xbar)
Skewness(X)
Kurtosis(X)
inverse of X $M1=IF(A1=1,0,1)
probability function
oo
$N1=BINOMDIST(COUNTIF(A1:C1,1),COLUMNS(A1:C10),xbar,F
ALSE)
cumulative probability function
oo
$O1=BINOMDIST(COUNTIF(A1:C1,1),COLUMNS(A1:C10),xbar,T
RUE)
number of iterations
1
$P1=n*LOG(1-0.9)/LOG(1-$N1)
NOTES
binomial distribution Assumes true and false are represented by the integers 1 and 0.
WARNING:
POPULATION A1:C10 MUST INCLUDE ALL OUTCOMES


Binomial distribution
probability density
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
x
P
(
X
<
=
x
)
Binomial distribution of
probability
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
X
P
(
X
)
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Equation 12 binomial distribution of samples by a Normal
model
parameter
BASIC program
Microsoft Excel formula
discrete random variable X
qq
=COLUMN(A1:C10)
first value of X =row(A1:C1)
count of population n=COUNT(A1:C1)
absolute minimum abs_min=0
absolute maximum abs_max=1
Expectation (X)
nn
mu=n*A$21
Variance(X)
nn
sigma_sq=mu*$A$20
Skewness(X)
Kurtosis(X)
inverse of X A$20=1-A$21
probability function
Error! Bookmark not
defined.

A$21=COUNTIF(A1:A10,1)/COUNT(A1:A10)
cumulative probability function
Error!
Bookmark not defined.

A$22=NORMDIST(COLUMN($C$1:$C$10)-
COLUMN(A$1:A$10)+0.5,mu,sigma_sq,TRUE)
number of iterations
1
A$23=LOG(1-0.9)/(n-1/n)
NOTES
binomial distribution Assumes true and false are represented by the integers 1 and 0.
number of iterations 1st (replacement) case assumes all outcomes will be available on iteration.
The second (non-replacement) case assumes that once an outcome is
selected it is excluded from further iterations.
confidence interval
1
A 90% confidence interval is used in the example.
WARNING:
POPULATION A1:C10 MUST INCLUDE ALL OUTCOMES
Geocomputing Management 196
Equation 13 discrete geometric distribution
parameter
BASIC program
Microsoft Excel formula
discrete random variable X
qq

=COLUMN(A1:A10)
first value of X
=INDEX(A1:A10,1,1)
count of population
n=COUNT(A1:A10)
absolute minimum
abs_min=MIN(A1:A10)
absolute maximum
abs_max=MAX(A1:A10)
Expectation (X)
xbar=AVERAGE(A1:A10)
Variance(X)
sigma_sq=VARP(A1:A10)
Skewness(X)
skewness=SKEW(A1:A10)
Kurtosis(X)

inverse of X
M1=1/A1
probability function
N1=NORMDIST(A1,xbar,STDDEVP(A1:A10),FALSE)
cumulative probability function
O1=NORMDIST(A1,xbar,STDDEVP(A1:A10),TRUE)
number of iterations
1

NOTES
WARNING:
POPULATION A1:A10 MUST INCLUDE ALL OUTCOMES

geometric distribution
probability density
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
x
P
(
X
<
=
x
)
geometric distribution of
probability
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
X
P
(
X
)
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Equation 14 uniform distribution
parameter
BASIC program
Microsoft Excel formula
discrete random variable X
qq

=COLUMN(A1:A10)
first value of X
=INDEX(A1:A10,1,1)
count of population
n=COUNT(A1:A10)
absolute minimum
abs_min=MIN(A1:A10)
absolute maximum
abs_max=MAX(A1:A10)
Expectation (X)
xbar=MAX(A1:A10)/2
Variance(X)
sigma_sq=VARP(A1:A10)
inverse of X
M1=1/A1
probability function
=xbar
cumulative probability function O1=COUNT(A$1:A2)*xbar
NOTES

continuous
distributions
Most geological measurements are samples from a continuum but if the sampling is
without bias, the sample population will be a discrete model honouring the continuous
distribution and this table may be used.




Geocomputing Management 198
Equation 15 Poisson distribution of elapsed time
parameter
BASIC program
Microsoft Excel formula
discrete random variable X
qq
=COLUMN(A1:A10)
first value of X =INDEX(A1:A10,1,1)
count of population n=COUNT(A1:A10)
absolute minimum abs_min=MIN(A1:A10)
absolute maximum abs_max=MAX(A1:A10)
Expectation (X) 1/lambda=1/AVERAGE(M1:M10)
Variance(X) sigma_sq=VARP(A1:A10)
inverse of X M1=1/A1
probability function N1=lambda*EXP(-lambda*A1)
cumulative probability function M2=SUM(C$1:C2)
NOTES
continuous distributions Most geological measurements are samples from a continuum but if the
sampling is without bias, the sample population will be a discrete model honouring the continuous
distribution and this table may be used.
Expectation (X) First moment of random variable X about origin 0
Variance(X) Second moment of random variable X about the Expectation (X)
WARNING: POPULATION A1:A10 MUST INCLUDE ALL OUTCOMES

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Equation 16 Poisson distribution of counts per second
parameter
BASIC program
Microsoft Excel formula
discrete random variable X
qq
=COLUMN(A1:A10)
first value of X =INDEX(A1:A10,1,1)
count of population n=COUNT(A1:A10)
absolute minimum abs_min=MIN(A1:A10)
absolute maximum abs_max=MAX(A1:A10)
Expectation (X) 1/lambda=1/AVERAGE(M1:M10)
Variance(X) sigma_sq=VARP(A1:A10)
inverse of X M1=1/A1
probability function N1=POISSON(A1,1/lambda,FALSE)
cumulative probability function M2=POISSON(A1,1/lambda,TRUE)
NOTES
continuous distributions Most geological measurements are samples from a continuum but if the
sampling is without bias, the sample population will be a discrete model honouring the continuous
distribution and this table may be used.
Expectation (X) First moment of random variable X about origin 0
Variance(X) Second moment of random variable X about the Expectation (X),
Geocomputing Management 200
Equation 17 Gaussian distribution
parameter
BASIC program
Microsoft Excel formula
discrete random variable X
qq

=COLUMN(A1:A10)
first value of X
=INDEX(A1:A10,1,1)
count of population
n=COUNT(A1:A10)
absolute minimum
abs_min=MIN(A1:A10)
absolute maximum
abs_max=MAX(A1:A10)
Expectation (X)
xbar=AVERAGE(A1:A10)
Variance(X)
sigma_sq=VARP(A1:A10)
inverse of X
M1=1/A1
probability function
N1=NORMDIST(A1,xbar,STDDEVP(A1:A10),FALSE)
cumulative probability function
O1=NORMDIST(A1,xbar,STDDEVP(A1:A10),TRUE)
NOTES
continuous
distributions
Most geological measurements are samples from a continuum but if the sampling
is without bias, the sample population will be a discrete model honouring the
continuous distribution and this table may be used.
Expectation (X) First moment of random variable X about origin 0
Variance(X) Second moment of random variable X about the Expectation (X)
WARNING: POPULATION A1:A10 MUST INCLUDE ALL OUTCOMES


Gaussian distribution
probability density
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
x
P
(
X
<
=
x
)
Gaussian distribution of
probability
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
X
P
(
X
)
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Continuous distributions of variables
Equation 18 uniform distribution of a continuous variable
Selective, truncated, biased or incomplete sampling

samples of continuous random variable X =COLUMN(A1:A10)

first sample value of X =INDEX(A1:A10,1,1)

count of samples =COUNT(A1:A10)

arithmetic mean of samples xbar=AVERAGE(A1:A10)

standard deviation of samples s=STDDEV(A1:A10)
Continuous distribution parameters/estimates
absolute minimum value abs_min=
absolute maximum value abs_max=

Expectation (X) mu=MAX(A1:A10)/2

Variance(X) sigma_sq=0

inverse of X M1=1/A1

probability density function N1=mu

cumulative probability function O1=mu*A1-abs_minimum

predicted value of X P1=RANDBETWEEN(abs_min,abs_max)
sampling If you suspect that your sampling is unbiased and produces a complete, but
discrete representation of the continuous distribution, then please use a discrete distribution.
Expectation (X) First moment of random variable X about origin 0
Variance(X) Second moment of random variable X about the mean/average

Geocomputing Management 202
Equation 19 Poisson distribution of a continuous variable
Selective, truncated, biased or incomplete sampling

samples of continuous random variable X =COLUMN(A1:A10)

first sample value of X =INDEX(A1:A10,1,1)

count of samples =COUNT(A1:A10)

arithmetic mean of samples xbar=AVERAGE(A1:A10)

standard deviation of samples s=STDDEV(A1:A10)
Continuous distribution parameters/estimates
absolute minimum value abs_min=0
absolute maximum value abs_min=infinity

Expectation (X) 1/lambda=1/AVERAGE(M1:M10)

Variance(X) sigma_sq=

inverse of X M1=1/A1

probability density function N1=lambda*EXP(-lambda*A1)

cumulative probability function O1=1-EXP(-lambda*A1)

predicted value of X
sampling If you suspect that your sampling is unbiased and produces a complete, but
discrete representation of the continuous distribution, then please use a discrete distribution.
Expectation (X) First moment of random variable X about origin 0
Variance(X) Second moment of random variable X about the mean/average
lambda This is an approximation only

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Equation 20 Standard Normal distribution of a continuous
variable
Selective, truncated, biased or incomplete sampling

samples of continuous random variable X =COLUMN(A1:A10)

first sample value of X =INDEX(A1:A10,1,1)

count of samples n=COUNT(A1:A10)

arithmetic mean of samples xbar=AVERAGE(A1:A10)

standard deviation of samples s=STDDEV(A1:A10)

Difference of sample mean and distribution
mean (90% confidence)
delta=CONFIDENCE(1-0.9,1,n)
Continuous distribution parameters/estimates
absolute minimum value abs_min=NORMSINV(0)
absolute maximum value abs_max=NORMSINV(1)

Expectation (X) mu=0

Variance(X) sigma_sq=1

inverse of X M1=1/A1

probability density function N1=NORMSDIST(A1)

cumulative probability function O1=NORMDIST(A1,0,1,TRUE)

predicted value of X P1=NORMSINV(O1)
sampling If you suspect that your sampling is unbiased and produces a complete, but
discrete representation of the continuous distribution, then please use a discrete distribution.
Expectation (X) First moment of random variable X about origin 0
Variance(X) Second moment of random variable X about the mean/average
delta For demonstration purposes 90% confidence interval is assumed.

Geocomputing Management 204
Equation 21 Normal distribution of a continuous variable
Selective, truncated, biased or incomplete sampling

samples of continuous random
variable X
=COLUMN(A1:A10)

first sample value of X =INDEX(A1:A10,1,1)

count of samples n=COUNT(A1:A10)

arithmetic mean of samples xbar=AVERAGE(A1:A10)

standard deviation of samples s=STDDEV(A1:A10)

Difference of sample mean and
distribution mean (90% confidence)
delta=CONFIDENCE(1-0.9,STDDEVP(A1:A10),n)
Continuous distribution parameters/estimates
absolute minimum value abs_min=NORMINV(0,mu,STDDEVP(A1:A10))
absolute maximum value abs_max=NORMINV(1,mu,STDDEVP(A1:A10))

Expectation (X) mu=RANDBETWEEN("xbar-delta","xbar+delta")

Variance(X) sigma_sq=

inverse of X M1=1/A1

probability density function N1=NORMDIST(A1,mu,STDDEVP(A1:A10),FALSE)

cumulative probability function O1=NORMDIST(A1,mu,STDDEVP(A1:A10),TRUE)

predicted value of X P1=NORMINV(O1,mu,STDDEVP(A1:A10))
sampling If you suspect that your sampling is unbiased and produces a complete, but
discrete representation of the continuous distribution, then please use a discrete distribution.
Expectation (X) First moment of random variable X about origin 0.
Variance(X) Second moment of random variable X about the mean/average.
delta For demonstration purposes 90% confidence interval is assumed.
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The analysis & processing phase
The analysis and processing development phase of an ore system
corresponds to the preparation of results in exploration. Statistics
play a great part in this and the spreadsheet at Equation 22 suggests
the spectrum of statistical techniques, which may come into use.
One of the really exciting aspects for mathematicians working in
earth science is the great range of probability distributions that can
be found. Some of these are shown in Equation 11 to Equation 21 in
the previous section Statistics for field data, but for ease of use they
have been divided into those distributions that cover only
discontinuous or integer values and those continuous distributions,
which can have any real number.
Equation 22 reference to the continuum of statistics
http://www.grantjacquier.info/stud.xls#probability
Whatever formulas you do reduce the data with just keep in mind
the accuracy and precision of your measurements. An interesting
toungue-in-cheek quote appeared in Position magazine on
measuring Mount Everest
rr
, reminds me that whatever the answer
returned by an algorithm you should modify the answer to account
for the precision. In the case of Figure 25 perhaps an estimate of
8840 10 metres would have conveyed better meaning, and the
conclusion that there was no change in the measured height of
Mount Everest would have been more responsible.
Chinese authorities say Mount Everest is now 3.7 metres
shorter than it was in 1975, the last time they measured it.
The director general of the Chinese State Bureau of Surveying
and Mapping, Chen Bangzhu, says the height at the summit is
8844.43 metres, with a precision of 10.21 metres. Chinese
surveyors, armed with GPS and radar measuring equipment,
spent 40 minutes at the summit to take the measurements.
Figure 25 the height of Mount Everest

rr
'News', Position no. 21 (2006), p. 29.
Geocomputing Management 206
A problem that often confronts me when dealing with large data sets
is whether to rely on individual scientists to do calculations on
demand or batch process a collection of data or set a crawler loose
to process it at several convenient times. The situation where a
batch process may be used is:
- the job takes less than an hour and can be run before work
- the job can be scheduled
- almost every database file is to be affected by daily changes
- the job does not overload the computer being used by
scientists
If these conditions are not met, and you cannot rely on your
colleagues to do their calculations as required, you may consider
using a crawler script to do the work. I consider that there are two
types of crawler scripts. The first, which I call the Fuzzy Logic model,
is where the data may be changed by scientists during the day and
you have to consider recalculation of all elements every time and this
is effectively the replacement model from statistics. By elements I
am using as a general term, which could be wells, prospects, sites,
or pumps just depending on your situation. In the Fuzzy Logic
situation the full list of elements is used each time but whether any
item on that list is used is determined by applying Fuzzy Logic. That
is a certain fraction usually less than 0.1 is nominated, which in
effect says that only 10% of the elements examined will be
processed.
The second type of crawler script, which I call the Bayesian, is where
the scientists probably wont change the data during the day and
there is no point recalculating an element once it has been
calculated.
Equation 23 iterations required for a Bayesian crawler
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
n
n
P
i
c
1
log
) 1 log(

n : the number of elements in the collection
i : the number of iterations required to preserve the specified confidence P
c
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The key factor for the both types of crawler, to get the database as
a whole up to the quality needed, is just how many times should the
script be run? Well, I try to get my clients to express their
expectation of quality as a confidence that matches the confidence
of the rest of the data. So you ask, how good in percentage terms
is your data?, and then convert that into a decimal fraction and this
gives you the confidence of the data set and there is no point in
specifying your crawler to go beyond that because the data is
already limited by that confidence. As you would expect because
there is replacement in the Fuzzy Logic model, you can see by
comparing Equation 23 and Equation 24 that there are slight
differences between the numbers of iterations required for the same
population.
Equation 24 iterations required for a Fuzzy Logic crawler
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
'

=
f
c
P
P
n i
log
) 1 log(

n : the number of elements in the collection
i : the number of iterations required to preserve the specified confidence P
c
P
f
: the nominal Fuzzy Logic chance of NOT processing an element

Analysis & processing for a Ballarat ore system
The analysis and processing stage is the guts of what geologists do
but with geological computing of any sort including remote sensing
getting to the truth is not straightforward or in most cases possible.
In Table 62 the processing or analysis stage is one among others,
but it is also important to note that how far distant the ANSWER
returned to the client is from the TRUTH. A computer geologist
should never confuse their advice with the truth. If your client wants
to believe an answer then they should go to church, because you
can only ever give an estimate.
Table 62 remote sensing and geological computing stages
remote sensing
1
geological computing
The Earth with the TRUTH
problem geological model
target mathematical model
sensor input
Geocomputing Management 208
analysis processing
report output
The client with the ANSWER
1

Geological model - facts
In deciding what to use for a geological model probably the easiest
is to select a stereotype from somewhere else that you can apply in
the area of interest. I use the word stereotype in preference to
archetype because an archetype is the classic example, which is fully
understood, whereas the stereotype is an over-generalised model.
Consistent with the warning in the previous section against believing
in geology, in the 21
st
century when we have so little geological
knowledge, we can expect more stereotypes than archetypes.
orogenic gold mineralisation
The target ore system according to Polito et. al. (2001), based on a
stereotypical orogenic gold mineralisation at the Junction Deposit,
Western Australia is shown in Table 63.
Table 63 - checklist for an ore system
MINERALISATION TYPE: orogenic gold mineralisation
stereotype: Junction Deposit, Western Australia
1

part component
source intra-crustal basin fluid in Black Flag Grp shales
transport fault
cap hydraulic hydrothermal waters (70-440 MPa)
trap fluid-wall rock interaction with iron-rich host (Junction Dolerite)
references
1
POLITO, P. A., BONE, Y., CLARKE, J. D. A. and MERNAGH, T. P. 2001 Compositional zoning of fluid
inclusions in the Archaean Junction gold deposit, Western Australia: a process of fluid-wall-rock
interaction? Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 48, 833-855.

Geological model - fiction
Let us consider a version of orogenic gold mineralization for a
deposit type not previously found at Ballarat, Victoria, but based on
an ore system after Polito et. al. (2001) where:
Geocomputing Management 209
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source: intra-crustal basin fluid in Ordovician turbodites
transport: mapped fault
cap: hydrothermal waters (< 500m true thickness from
Gellibrand Marl)
trap: fluid-wall rock interaction with iron-rich host (Mt Bute
Adamellite). See Table 64 for petrological sequence

Table 64 Feldspar and quartz mineralogy of some igneous
rocks
OROGENIC GOLD MINERALISATION

unknown Ballarat deposits, Victoria (after Polito et. Al. 2001)
K-feldspar rich plagioclase rich
less quartz syenite monzonite diorite
more quartz adamellite

Mathematical model
Assumptions
dip is 5-10 degrees*
GIS model
Find intersections of faults and Mount Bute Adamellite.Select those
intersections within 50 km (500m true thickness*) of the Gellibrand
Marl.
Select the input data
Start the geographical information system with a new data base
(Project) and the first fons of the same scale and projection (View).
The load a single layer (theme) to the first fons. The commands to
do this in ArcView are shown in Equation 25.
Equation 25 - selecting input data in ESRI ArcView
c:\ESRI\Av_gis30\Arcview\Bin32\Arcview
File | New | Project
View | Add Theme
Processing
Geocomputing Management 210
Intersections of faults and host rock
Start ArcView
ball_geology | Theme | Properties | Tools
FORMNAME = Mount Bute Adamellite
View | Save as shapefile | j2002077.shp
ball_structure | Theme | Properties | Tools
structure_sub-type = faults
Ball_structure | Theme | Select by theme | j2002077.shp
View | Save as shapefile | j2002078.shp
Select fault intersections within hydrothermal influence
Start ArcView
ball_geology | Theme | Properties | Tools
FORMNAME = Gellibrand Marl
Theme | Select by buffer
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Corporate information & data sharing phase
The corporate information and data sharing development phase of
an ore system corresponds to the project review in exploration. This
is where ore systems must be compared to allocate further funding.
This phase often requires the application of standards to project data
and the back loading of that data into a database that is common
with other projects. Even if you have the smallest consultancy, you
still need to send around e-mails, keep track of client requests so the
minimalist system is a series of Folders in Microsft Outlook and I sue
those shown in Table 65.
Wit this as the basis, you should consider the following sections and
see if you need more:
1. The Head Office syndrome
2. Some theory of database design
3. A good bet: the Extranet
4. The Ballarat demonstration
5. The future

Geocomputing Management 212
Table 65 check list for the General Folder in Microsoft
Outlook
1 CHECK WORKING FOLDERS
The General folder should contain the following folders
1

Archive folder
Calendar
Journal
Sent items
Calendar item
Contacts folder
Change of Address
Family and friends
SGiC vendors
Correspondence
2

Drafts
Helen
Inbox
Journal
Lists
Pending
Sent Items

The Head Office syndrome
Done properly, the introduction of data for a new target or problem
into the corporate data set, will build up the earth model, and all
projects will benefit by the expanded scope of the data set.
However, as this work is a corporate responsibility, clerks with
predominantly commercial computing experience will usually carry it
out, and so the issues from Yacopetti and Mundell
ss
that the scientist
should plan to control are:
- Capture of original observations and measurements to
reduce error at the point of origin
- Discovery and access to the captured data
- Differentiation of original data from derivative data
- Identification of metadata (or data about the data)

ss
Yacopetti and Mundell, 'Improving the quality of geoscientific information.'
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- Data interoperability providing the data in variety of
standard formats
- Delivery of select data sets to required client systems
- Aggregation and abstraction of data and delivery in desired
formats
- Internal data quality alerts and measures.
The golden rule is that once data is in any type of electronic format
it is quite easy to map it to another. The structure of a new database
can be daunting but there are some rough translations as shown in
Table 66.
Table 66 equivalent data structures.
Codd SQL FORTRAN MS Excel GIS Geolog
database database program template - site
- instance run workbook project project
- schema report collection algorithm well
relation table file range set set
tuple row record row aoi
1
frame
attribute column field column layer log
1
aoi: area of interest
Some theory of database design
If you do have some time [or permission] for planning how your
data will be loaded up, give some thought to the geological
relationships between the data. For instance the scientific
significance of nominating relationship cardinality in a database
design and the impact on display of the associated measurements is
shown in Table 67.
Table 67 the alignment of database design and presentation.

relationship
cardinality
1

mathematical
significance
e.g. best display
method
geological


to

biological
many - many non-linear

cumulative
frequency
many histogram
mandatory linear

cross-plot optional - one chaotic

optional-many random

Geocomputing Management 214
1
defined on page 106 of McFadden and Hoffer (1991)
tt

A good bet: the Extranet
As we are on the move in the field we will always have the problem
of communicating with the head office, clients or supervisors. I
suppose originally it started with the post and then later in the more
remote cases there really was a postal drop from an aeroplane. In
the early eighties a colleague thought the greatest invention was the
fax machine because you could send diagrams not just text, you
could do away with your answering service, at that time a
receptionist working at secretarial bureau, and you didnt have to get
up in the middle of the night to talk to colleagues in the United
States, just leave the machine on. I can understand the feelings of
that fax lover, because I feel similarly about the World Wide Web
(www) and hypertext markup language (HTML) files. Having a
website means I dont:
- Spend a day a month updating various copies of user
manuals and tip-sheets for my client.
- Leave the particular folder at my office when I need it with a
client.
- Have a pile of enquires requiring short but detailed answers
when I get back from the field.
- Have two or three lists of websites which I have to update in
multiple places every time a client or supplier changes their
address or location of technical data on the Internet.
- Forget where all the files for a particular project are,
especially when I am using different software and the files
are in several different folders or even on different systems.
From the clients perspective I liked these things from the Eagle
Resource Advisory web-site (Jacquier 2011
uu
):
- easily read document format (Adobe Portable Document
format);
- a mixture of text and good figures;

tt
McFadden and Hoffer, Data base management.
uu
Grant L Jacquier, 'Eagle Research Advisory www.eagleres.com.au', The Great Australian Byte no. 4
(2011), pp. 17-18.
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- a modern but simple design that doesnt detract from the
content;
- uses companies in the same state as the business so that
any misuse can be dealt within the local jurisdiction
[quickly];
- reports are indexed, and in a common format giving a single
data set;
- the indexing method quickly shows the scope of the
material, in this case by a single image of keywords (date,
company name, exchange company code), the size
indicating the occurrence in the reports;
- the material is stored off-site from the Eagle Research
Advisory office adding to the security as an archive.
Originally, I used my clients internal web site or intranet, then I
began to use HTML files with Javascript forms, on my laptop to
catalogue the various files in a project, but when Telstra Bigpond set
up the universal number for home users, where you can ring the
same number (0198 308 888) right across Australia, I moved a lot of
the non-confidential material on the Telstra Bigpond site to make an
extranet, that I can access it from my own office, a client office, or a
motel room, and my clients can make use of, if I am not around.
I have considered setting up my own web server on Linux especially
as I could also run on the same server, the geographical information
system (GIS) and image processing software, GRASS, which is a
shareware product, but this would require a lot of my time to set it
up and do the system administration. I also found, when I tried to
run a computer as a fax machine that running a computer 24 hours
in the home is a little bit impractical, with the machine getting hot,
the disk drive and fans wearing out, and just the inconvenience of a
big box near the phone connection. It was much easier to use a
modern stand-alone, disk-less fax machine.
The Ballarat demonstration
On the 1
st
disk of the Ballarat GIS Data, there is the directory
exploration_summary. This a series of reports, each with a serial
number for various prospects. They are in Adobe PDF format, so you
can make an HTML file to index and describe these, as your own
corporate database. The expectation is that you add your new
Geocomputing Management 216
prospects at a later time, maintaining the same style and file format.
There are 289 files in that directory, but you could use variations of
these examples to make indexes in HTML or KML file suitable for an
extranet:
- Making a catalogue of document files
- Make an asset catalogue for the natural environment
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The presentation & mapping phase
I feel the presentation and mapping component is the most
important component of all. Very rarely does a scientist work without
patronage whether it is shareholders, the Australian Research
Council or a posse of concerned citizens. It doesnt take much
imagination to exhaust your own money and this is where you can
generate further funds by presenting your work well and
encouraging people to assist you or alternatively publicising your
findings and getting society to change. For me it is what I feel I do
the worst but anyhow I will persevere with some suggestions in
Table 68. The discussion of how this fits with the Ballarat data model
is given in the section following that table.
Table 68 browsing software for presenting data
date: Compute name:

0 CATEGORY
Computer program version
1 SCIENCE SPECIFIC BROWSERS (remove on disposal)
Required for batch processing
Thomson EndNote
Oxford English Dictionary
Golden Software Surfer
X Golden Software Scripter
X Golden Software MapViewer libraries
Golden Software MapViewer
A+ French
2 ALTERNATIVE BROWSERS
Was used for batch processing
OpenWave Simulator ( WML browser for phone simulation)
X img2tif.pif or IMG2TIF.PIF
1

Geomatica Freeview (used for browsing Imagine img format)
Blaxxun Contact (used for 3D models)
3 GENERAL BROWSERS (leave these installed)
Is used for batch processing and needs to be present
Microsoft Internet Explorer
Google Earth
Apple iTunes
4 TEMPLATES (rescue these to C:\DATA\C_IN_G\templates)
Is used for batch processing and needs to be present at usual path
Geocomputing Management 218
program template file tick
ClickN Design 3D C-n_g.dtp
Golden Software Surfer TBLOCK.srf
Microsoft Publisher DVDcover.pub
cing.potx
Microsoft Publisher DVDcover.pub
Microsoft Word Book.dot
letterhd.wmf
NOTES
1
The img2tif.pif was previously found on the Luminiere system at:
C:\PROGRAMS\GRASS\translat\img2tif.pif
Presentation & mapping for a Ballarat ore sytem
The report on the prospects is often portrayed as a prospect map. In
information technology jargon a map is a Decision Support System.
The work of Case et al (2001)
vv
; and Feeney and Williamson
(2000)
ww
suggest that any decision support system must have three
components in the layout of knowledge data, understanding data
and information data.
- prospects (KNOWLEDGE DATA ie interpretation)
- Roads (UNDERSTANDING DATA ie situation)
- DTM (INFORMATION DATA ie location)

vv
CASE, M. P., GORAN, W. D., GUNTHER, T. A., HOLLAND, J. P., JOHNSTON, D. M., LESSARD, G.
and SCHMIDT, W. J. 2001 Decision support capabilities for future technology requirements. Technical
Report ERDC TR-01-2; U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, CERL, Champaign, Illinois
.
ww
FEENEY, M.-E. and WILLIAMSON, I. P. 2000 Researching frameworks for evolving spatial data
infrastructure. Proceedings of The 12th annual colloquium of the spatial information research centre-
,University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
ww
FEENEY, M.-E. and WILLIAMSON, I. P. 2000 Researching frameworks for evolving spatial data
infrastructure. Proceedings of The 12th annual colloquium of the spatial information research centre-
,University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
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The archive & reporting phase
Reporting of your work to others and then wrapping it up into
packages for storage is a special part of geological computing. In
Table 69 I give how I send out my reports, by e-mail, and where I
store the replies in correspondence files (Microsoft Outlook uses a
file suffixed .pst) and the report document files in the adjacent
folder. The ideas covered in these sub-sections:
1. The layout of directories
2. Running your archive and reporting system
3. hardware considerations
Plus these authors found in the bibliography have thoughts on
archiving and reporting:
- Abercrombie (1989)
- Anonymous (1996)
- Anonymous (1999c)
- Bolt (1992)
- Heymink (1988)
- DAngelo & Troy (2000)
In other professions such as law or accountancy there are limitations
to the time that you have to keep records. However, in geology
todays problem or commodity can become of no interest the next
day. In computing terms geological data has high latency in that it is
not used much but long currency in that it is still relevant for many
tens of years. The way to keep track of all the different projects that
have been put away, even if it is just until the next drilling season, is
to summarise the basic data into reports. These reports are more
easily digested and can be kept in mind. Some of the types of
reports that are treated in this grimoire are: time and expense
allocation, prospect report, thesis, footing or foundation report. That
is not an extensive list and in the table on my web-site
xx
I show that
each type of geologist has special standard reports. As the data will
be left for a time without use, how and what the detail is, become

xx
Table 1 published reports with contributions by different mineral surveying occupations found on
http://www.grantjacquier.info/biography.html
Geocomputing Management 220
quite critical. Facts to use in this kind of work can be found in the
check lists:
Table 28 secondary storage
Table 29 Current backup policy
Table 60 electronic file indexing schemes for geology
Table 74 abbreviations and conversion of disk capacity
Table 71 service levels versus document management
Table 72 backup system versus archive system
Table 73 emergency recovery plan
Table 80 check list of file documentation
Table 95 alphabetical list of fields from EndNote with
equivalent start tag from the EndNote proprietary XML
Table 96 check list for making a catalogue of files
Table 97 expenses incurred by geologists
Table 99 check list for calculating project hours
Error! Reference source not found. check list for manual
adjustment of the journal
Table 59 conversion of key words into project codes
Table 100 convert project code into expense type
Table 101 summary table for work time allocation
Table 109 the Computers in Geology recovery plan
Table 113 checklist for setting up an intranet
Table 122 restoring your documents
Table 123 checklist for recovering critical data from the
default folders
Doing the report well, from a publishing perspective, is not always
straight forward. In 2010, Primary Industries South Australia
released the DVD Geological Monuments of SA and it had a few
quirks with accessing Adobe PDF files which I investigated
yy
. Anita
Andrew in 2011
zz
, emphasised that software is there to get over
those tiresome tasks like formatting references, and gave the
features that she liked about the Thompson EndNote software she
uses as:
- Manages reference databases
- Input is directly from databases or typed in

yy
Grant L Jacquier, 'Review of the implementation of the 'Geological Monuments in South Australia'
DVD', The Great Australian Byte no. 3 (2010), pp. 6-11.
zz
Anita Andrew, 'From the AJES Hon Editor's Desk', The Australian Geologist no. 158 (2011), p. 40.
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- Used in conjunction with a word processor including
Microsoft Word, open office and Macintosh Pages. However
it is a benefit if it works best with Microsoft Word.
- Should use styles and templates for automatic reformatting
of references, preferably with a web library of those styles
(EndNote has styles for over 4000 journals)
- Example Documents and tutorials which you can download.
- Trial copies or site licences where you can introduce
colleagues to the software.
I have included quite a few exercises in Chapter 4 METHODS:
improving your capability which deal with practical aspects of
archiving and reporting. Some of them use Thompson EndNote, the
very software recommended by Andrew:
1. XML provides versatility in data handling
2. The future: dedicated catalogue applications
3. Make an asset catalogue for the built environment
4. Make an asset catalogue for the natural environment
5. Use photographs as the background
6. Share the folders of your digital photographs on your
intranet
7. Showing thumbnails with Microsoft Internet Explorer
8. Mount the photographs in Google Earth
Geocomputing Management 222

Table 69 check list of reporting against archive for
Computers in Geology
REPORTING
Report stream
e-mail address; account
name, company
Computers in Geology
gljacquier@bigpond.com; gljacquier
ADSL account; Computers in Geology
Education SG
SGiC.gsaustl@bigpond.com; sgic.gsaustl
Education Specialist Group, Geological Society of Australia

Grant Jacquier
Grant.JACQUIER@bigpond.com; grant.jacquier
Grant JACQUIER, Computers in Geology

Helen Rice
Helen.RICE@bigpond.com; helen.rice
Helen RICE, Parkside

CompsInGeology
CompsInGeology@bigpond.com; compsingeology
enquiries, Computers in Geology

grantjacquier
grantjacquier@bigpond.com; grantjacquier
post-master, Computers in Geology


ARCHIVE (file directory)


FILE (folder title) tick

GENERAL (C:\DATA\Profiles\default\Outlook\.)


corresp.pst (General)

X X - X Y X

archive.pst (2006/3-1999/12)

Y Y - Y - Y

archive1.pst (2006/3-2009/9)

Y Y - Y - -

archive2.pst ( 2009/9-2011)

Y Y - Y - Y




REPORTS (C:\DATA\REPORTS\.)


agia/Outlook.pst (AGIA)

- Y - Y - -

AMS/Affinity.pst (Affinity)

- Y - - - -

IMC/Personal Folders/*.pst (IMC)

- Y - - - -

pbank/.. (Peoplebank)

- Y - - - -

regency/regency233.pst (Regency)

- - - Y - -

sgic//Personal Folders(1).pst (GSA)

- - - Y X -

unimelb\Personal Folders.pst (U. Of Melb)

- - - Y - -

workpac\Personal Folders.pst (Workpac)

- Y - - - -
SPECIAL (C:\DATA\.)

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REPORTING
Report stream
e-mail address; account
name, company
Computers in Geology
gljacquier@bigpond.com; gljacquier
ADSL account; Computers in Geology
Education SG
SGiC.gsaustl@bigpond.com; sgic.gsaustl
Education Specialist Group, Geological Society of Australia

Grant Jacquier
Grant.JACQUIER@bigpond.com; grant.jacquier
Grant JACQUIER, Computers in Geology

Helen Rice
Helen.RICE@bigpond.com; helen.rice
Helen RICE, Parkside

CompsInGeology
CompsInGeology@bigpond.com; compsingeology
enquiries, Computers in Geology

grantjacquier
grantjacquier@bigpond.com; grantjacquier
post-master, Computers in Geology


ARCHIVE (file directory)


FILE (folder title) tick


FAMILY\bday.pst (Birthdays)

- - - Y - -

FAMILY\Family.pst (FAMILY)

- - - Y - -

HRICE\Outlook Express\Outlook.pst (Helen)

- - X - - -
LEGEND
X : default file for this data
Y : you may find this data present in this file
- : Usually you will not find data of this type archived in this file


Mapping the layout of your directories to projects
If keywords, such as those in Table 59 have not been allocated to a
research project for time allocation, I use the chart of directories in
Table 70 as default allocations to projects for Computers in Geology.
Files which are just associated by the batch file but not given any
keywords or journalled, for example all Golden Software files are left
out of the calculations for time allocation. The sections from Chapers
4 and Chapter 5 which relate to this activity are:
1. Using a Microsoft Batch file for project management
2. Making an HTML file to run a batch file
3. Export an HTML catalogue direct from Thomson EndNote
4. Making a catalogue of document files
5. The use of Thompson EndNote in preference to Microsoft
Excel as a catch-all document database
6. Methods of making a catalogue file
7. Using Microsoft Excel for editing of the catalogue
8. Time and expense allocation

Table 70 is also referenced by Table 99 a check list for calculating
project hours.

Table 70 hierarchy of allocating documents to research
projects
start: 1
st
July end: 30
th
June Excel file: End row:
20 20
TECHNIQUE IN ORDER OF EFFECTIVENESS
components tick
1 KEYWORDS PLACED IN CATEGORY AT TIME OF WORK
1

Table 59 has samples of keywords for the files
2 ALTER CATEGORY OF JOURNAL EXTRACTS BY DIRECTORY
1

file path element in subject column category keyword use
\BILBY\ Project Bilby
\C_IN_G\HOME\ Project Fruit Bat
\C_IN_G\LETTERS\ administration
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\C_IN_G\templates\ administration
\DATA\PICTURES\jacquier\ private
\DATA\PICTURES\ private
\DATA\REPORTS\AGIA\ AGIA
\DATA\REPORTS\AMS\ Affinity IT Recruitment
\DATA\REPORTS\GSA\ GSA
\DATA\REPORTS\regency\ The Regency Lodge
\DATA\REPORTS\SGIC\ GSA-SGiC
\DATA\REPORTS\ administration
\DATA\templates\ general
\extranet\. Project Numbat
\FAMILY\ Project Quoll
\goanna\ Project Goanna
\GTOOLKIT\ Project Kookaburra
\HRICE\GREECE\ Project Kookaburra
\HRICE\ private
\KITBITS\ Project Kookaburra
\NUMBAT\ Project Numbat
\perentie\ Project Perentie
\quoll\ Project Quoll
\unimelb\ Project Numbat
3 EXPLICIT ASSOCIATION IN A CATALOGUE
For example poster.bat in Equation 94
4 IMPLICIT ASSOCIATION IN A CATALOGUE
For example Thompson EndNote in Table 96
EXAMPLE REPORTS
1
Time and Expense allocation report as per check list in Table 99
Managing your archive and reporting system
An archiving system is a result of your data management thoughts
(or policy if you have employees), but as it is not directly involved
with current projects and therefore current cash stream, it is based
around your thoughts on backing up your computer, which you can
charge as operating cost against your current income. Again if you
have employees, partners or colleagues you may call this the IT
disaster recovery plan and have it written down and stuck on the
cupboard door where you keep the backup disks. In principle an
archive system differs from a backup system because the backup
system is about keeping your computers running (or maintaining the
service level agreement if you have outsourced your information
Geocomputing Management 226
technology support) whereas the archive system is about preserving
the information. To summarise this I like the diagram in Figure 26.
service level agreement document management policy
BACKUP / RESTORE SYSTEM ARCHIVE / RETRIEVE SYSTEM
disaster recovery plan
Figure 26 policy for archive versus backup systems
I have had several integrated archive and backup systems, each one
taking advantage of improvements in the basic computing system.
The one I have used from 2002, based on the template in Figure 26,
is shown in Table 71, Table 72and Table 73.
Table 71 service levels versus document management
service level agreement
- I can lose a days work on a
document
- I never work on a document
on more than one day a
week.
- I can do without a computer
for a week or so.
- I will leave important copies
of e-mail in Microsoft
Outlook (c:/windows/profiles)
- I will leave important
templates from Microsoft
Office in the Windows
directory
(c:/windows/application
data).
- I dont care about re-loading
my software as this gives me
a chance to fine tune the
configuration further
- I keep all original software
disks in my office.
document management policy
- All client reports will have a j number as the
file name.
1

- All AGIA letters will have an a number as the
file name and be stored in the subdirectory of
/data/reports/agia/letters.
1

- All SGiC letters will have an s number as the
file name and be stored in the subdirectory of
/data/reports/sgic/letters.
1

- All Computers in Geology business will have a
c number as the file name and be stored in
the subdirectory of /data/c_in_g/letters.
1

- All j number files for a period will be in one
and one only client directory.
- For financial records I only need the latest
revisions, so they have constant file names like
shares.xls, backreg.xls, bal0304.xls etc and are
stored in the c:/data/admin directory.
- All document files will be kept indefinitely
except taxation and computer maintenance
records.
- Until 2001, j files were catalogued in monthly
reports, stored in the client directories. Since
2001 the j files have been catalogued in
EndNote.
1
The letter file names are composed of a letter prefix followed by a four-digit year then a folio number
and then the suffix denoting the software used on the file for example j2004003.doc is the third client
report of 2004, composed in Microsoft Word format. Each version of a report has a unique file name to
make snap shots of the work.
I think the key aspect in the two policies in Table 72 is that reports
with versions are handled by issuing a new name, allowing the
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previously numbered file to be a snapshot suitable for archiving.
Everything else is treated as the latest available version and is
supported by the backup system.
Table 72 backup system versus archive system
BACKUP / RESTORE SYSTEM
i. Store all working data in /data
directory tree
ii. Every one to 4 weeks, depending on
how much writing I have been doing,
write to CD ROM the directories
c:/data/ c:/windows/profiles, and
c:/windows/application data/.
1

iii. When these three directories start to
get near 640 Megabytes in total, move
older not-used data to a new archive
directory tree.
iv. Restoring is by reading the CD-ROM
previous to the problem
ARCHIVE / RETRIEVE SYSTEM
i. Put archive files in a separate
directory tree (/archive1 , archive2
etc), max 640 Megabytes per
directory tree.
ii. Every time I open a new box of CD-
ROMS I spin off copies of each of the
archive directories.
1, 2

iii. Primary retrieval is from the read only
directories on the c: drive.
iv. Secondary retrieval or transporting
documents to a clients office is by
getting the CD-ROM and just reading
it in the drive. DO NOT USE multiple
write CDs as this needs special
software.
3

1
The CD-ROMs are written with Adaptec Easy CD Writer.
2
By using different brands and packs of CDs you are reducing the opportunity of being inconvenienced
by a bad batch of CDs, which fail in a short time.
3
The multiple-write CD-ROMs are made and read with Adaptec DirectCD software.

To plug into the disaster recovery plan of Table 73 the two data
streams are brought together by the catalogue in backreg.xls. It is
also useful for making sure that you have enough copies of each
archive directory, (you can even check that they are on different
brands/batches of media by the different sequence of serial
numbers). This spreadsheet contains a single sheet with the
following columns:
location: the place where the CD-ROM is stored, values = home,
vault, bag, retrieve
type: The directory tree on the media, also whether it is backup or
archive, values = archive1, archive2, data/windows
role (months): The role a particular CD is playing in the backup or
archive schedule (one complete schedule for each type), values = -
, 1, 2, 6, 12, 24, 60, 120
Geocomputing Management 228
check: This generates an index from the current date and the given
date to indicate the appropriateness of the role. The closer to 0 the
better suited the particular CD-ROM is to that role. These can be
summed to give an overall indication of the suitability of the
selection. It has the formula in Equation 26.
Machine: the computer that the data was taken from value =
luminiere:, cogsworth, sarah, geocadasta, mrspotts
label: the volume label for the media. This is often backup software
dependent, Adaptec Easy CD Writer uses a format of
YYMMDD_HHMM for example 040810_1443 for the CD written 10
August 2004 at 2.43 pm.
date: the date, in Microsoft Excel format, of the archive/backup
description: the details of the directories archived, because these
vary from computer to computer.
media serial number: The serial number imprinted on the tape or
disk.
Equation 26 Microsoft Excel formula to calculate the
check field.
=IF(ISBLANK($C24),"-",ABS((ABS((NOW()-G24))/(31*C24))-1))
Table 73 emergency recovery plan
emergency recovery plan
i. Backup and archive register in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet backreg.xls
ii. Boxes of backup and archive disks in date order in office cupboard
iii. Selected disks are put in my bag and dropped off at the bank every couple of weeks.
Sometimes they may sit in my bag for a couple of days but they are offsite, except on the
weekends.
iv. Safe-deposit box at the bank, containing 1, 2, 6, 12, 24 and 60 month backup disks/tapes
and 5 to 6 copies of the archive directories.
v. 5 year Australia-wide service agreement with Hewlett Packard paid up-front
vi. Emergency cash fund ($6 000) for replacement of stolen/ burnt / destroyed equipment and
software.

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The hardware considerations
In the exercise section Time and expense allocation to different
projects you will find an example of how to produce a time and
expense report for your own consulting activities. Once the reports
have been done you have to give some thought to preserving them.
The long currency and large amount of data, usually measured in
Terabytes as in Table 74, which then means you have to consider
the way you arrange the data on the disk.
Table 74 abbreviations and conversion of disk capacity
bit ASCII 7
byte
ASCII 8
byte
kilo-
byte
Mega-
byte
Gigabyte Terabyte
- 1 7 8 8192 8388608 8589934592 8796093022208
- - 1 - 1024 1048576 1073741824 1099511627776
- - - 1 1024 1048576 1073741824 1099511627776
KB - - - 1 1024 1048576 1073741824
MB - - - - 1 1024 1048576
GB - - - - - 1 1024
TB - - - - - - 1
For archive purposes there are two types of data. The first is
streaming data, such as geophysical data stored in Log ASCII
Standard (LAS), SEG-Y formats or historian files from a
programmable logic converter (PLC). The conventional archive is to
use tape storage library and Figure 27 gives you a calculator to
convert the number of tapes of one physical format into the
equivalent number of another.
Geocomputing Management 230

Figure 27 equivalent number of archive tapes
For accessing data in a random way, like for geographic information
systems (GIS), structured query language (SQL) databases, or
Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, you would be better off with a disk for
archiving, as you can run your program against the write protected
archive disk directly. Except for some special cases such as the
Schlumberger LIS format, you can also put your streaming data on
here as well, but the capacity of these disks is still two orders of
magnitude smaller than the capacity of tapes, and you may end up
with more disks than you care for if you convert your current tape
libraries. With formats that have been created especially for tape,
such as LIS, there are utilities such as tape2dsk, are provided in the
1
10
100
1000
1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
e
q
u
i
v
a
l
e
n
t

t
a
p
e
s

(
p
c
s
)

estimated introduction date
Travan cartridge (400 Mbyte) Travan cartridge (800 Mbyte)
Exabyte (2 Gbyte) Exabyte (5 Gbyte)
DLT II (20 Gbyte) DLT III (40 Gbyte)
DLT IV (80 GByte) LTO (200 Gbyte)
Geocomputing Management 231
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software Paradigm Geolog, which can write the original tape to disk
and embed tape markers in that file so it behaves like a tape file,
and you can copy this tape image format (TIF) file to the archive
disk like any other file. In Figure 28 there is a graph for calculating
how many disks of one type a disk of another physical format can
replace.

Figure 28 equivalent numbers of disks
1.E+00
1.E+01
1.E+02
1.E+03
1.E+04
1.E+05
1.E+06
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
e
q
u
i
v
a
l
e
n
t

d
i
s
k
s

(
p
c
s
)

introduction date
single sided 5 floppy disk (360 KByte)
double sided 5 floppy disk (720 KByte)
high-density 5 floppy disk (1.2 MByte)
2.5" floppy disk (1.44 MByte)
CD-ROM (650 MByte)
DVD (5 GByte)
single-layer high definition DVD (15 GByte)
double-layer high definition DVD (30 GByte)
Geocomputing Management 232
Further reading for IT management?
This grimoire is an attempt at providing a rational approach to
geological computing or perhaps even a toolkit of Mackies
r
fit for
purpose tools. However, in computing there are formal philosophies,
which can either be forced to your attention by clerks attempting to
subjugate your budget, or used as the basis for a particular solution.
The name-dropping philosophies are given in Table 75. Critical points
in considering these stories are what I call the concepts of versatility,
timeliness, and scalability.
Table 75 geological assessment of data-related philosophies
date: client:



criteria

scalability

timeliness


versatility


philosophy rate


name:




D HyperText Transfer Protocols 8 4 1 3
C Extreme Programming 7 2 3 2
B ISO 9001 7 1 2 4
A MS Document Object Model 8 3 4 1

Scalability [Scale-ability] is the ability of the philosophy to handle
increasing amounts of activity, data and values of data. This has a
metaphor in the natural world where geological hazards can get
quickly out of control and increase in size geometrically, a feature
which is sometimes called a fractal. Practically this means a two
metre breach in a concrete dam wall will kill ten times as many
people as a one metre crack. The problem is not always as obvious
as a flood, geochemists when contouring their goldfield results must
be able to recognise a value of nil that is a measured value of 0,
from where the value was below detection limit, and also compared
to where there was no measurements taken Some of the adages you
may hear quoted in the work place that refer to this capability of
scale-ability are:
Geocomputing Management 233
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It was raining cats and dogs
Related to scale-ability is timeliness: geological events tend to move
at a glacial pace, and early intervention in flooding or ground
movement will reduce the scale of the damage. A better
management philosophy from the geological perspective is one
which allows you to fire-fight, muliplex or multi-task the problem. A
poorer philosophy is one which requires you to remain on the
journey regardless of the circumstances changing; such as the
availability of fresh water [this is a realistic situation for software
used to plan drilling programmes in Australia], to maintain the
metaphor. Some of the adages you may hear quoted in the work
place that refer to this capability of timeliness are:
A stitch in time saves nine
Versatility is the ability of the philosophy to accommodate data from
several provinces, and generations of different equipment. An
example of the first aspect is that while SQL databases, such as
Microsoft SQL Server, are like geological maps and they store data in
an application independent manner, the time and expense to set
them up is long. Also your application software needs to be able to
access the data in your custom databases. To get around this the
Finder database was purchased by Schlumberger Corporation in the
1990s to provide customers with a pre-formed general database and
the links to the Schlumberger software already built. This design was
developed in Texas, and like much of the United States oil patch the
stratigraphy is so well defined it is actually a tourist attraction, with
kids hanging out the windows of cars watching the geological
formations continue for miles on end. When Finder now called
GeoFrame was bought by Santos Limited at the early in the twenty-
first century, it was intended to be used for the North West Shelf, an
area submerged by the Indian Ocean and a relatively unknown
region with mysterious shipwrecks like the Batavia, Sydney and the
Emden. Consequently, there is a lot of work done by micro-
paleontologists identifying the stratigraphy of the sea bed to find the
ideal drilling targets. The Finder data model relies greatly on
downhole geophysical surveys, Schlumbergers speciality, and stores
paleontology as a comment. It is impossible to load the full range of
the micro-paleontologists work and generate the necessary
information. Santos had to maintain a split system with the more
Geocomputing Management 234
versatile Paradigm EposData being used to store the bio-
stratigraphic work. Conversely both GeoFrame and EposData had
from the start been written at time of great innovation in geophysical
down-hole devices and both had been designed to accommodate
measurements from old tools as well as those that hadnt even been
designed yet, and were versatile in terms of taking data from
different periods of activity. Some of the adages you may hear
quoted that refer to this capability of versatility are:
KISS, keep it simple stupid
This is segueing to those buzz-word philosophies that really can
mean anything and are just introduced into the debate to obfuscate.
They have real meanings (see Table 76) which have been
prostituted to sell particular software, and not-so surprisingly a lot
have acronyms. A little cynical perhaps, but Bettenay (1989)
a

explains none of us allows a fax machine to interpret data, and
the same should apply to a computer. Evaluating and interpreting
data are the role of the geologist; By and large, geologists have
never been welcome among the cognoscenti of mainframe computer
installations. We are notoriously innumerate and prone to disappear
for long periods into the bush so our computer experience is
interrupted. Worst of all, geologists seem to believe that they can set
priorities and deadlines on data manipulation


a
Bettenay, 'An overview of the use of computers in exploration in Western Australia. .'
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Table 76 popular IT management phrases and where you
can find formal definitions
references (use the index to find the phrase)
for a cheap general IT dictionary try something like:
KENNEDY J. (ed) 1993 PC Dictionary. Federal Publishing Company, Alexandria, NSW.

Wikipedia, en.wikipedia.org

Introduction to computers and information processing, Long 1988
b


phrase (acronym)

decision support systems (DSS) X

expert system X

extreme programming X

information resource management (IRM) X

knowledge base X

management information system (MIS) X

LEGEND
X an explanation of this phrase is present here
Ironically, I find more useful the buzz-word free rational approaches
of hard-core theoretical authors like Sedgewick
c
. It is his breakdown
of processing algorithms that I used in
Table 13 to categorise the case studies. Also mentioned on
Table 13 is Berkman
d
who has many rational approaches on the
pages of his Field Geologists Handbook, many from approved
standards which give it extra credit in court, if you find your methods
being tried. In using those and bringing them into the digital world I
have also tried to tie it all together with the exploration management
philosophy from White
bb
. Most recently just like IT derived
philosophies, there are now also computer and data management
philosophies from the geoscience side. It is no longer a matter of
nay saying what IT managers put forward, there is also an
opportunity to suggest something different. In Table 77 there are
other rational approaches put against the same measuring stick of
White. Not everything fits into the framework of White, there are
variations to the theme, and for example I havent encompassed the
examination of computer-assisted-learning by Winship (1989)
e
,

b
Long, Introduction to computers & information processing, 2nd edition.
c
Sedgewick, Algorithms.
d
Berkman, Field geologist's manual.
e
John Winship, 'Computer-assisted learning in education,' in Computers in Exploration, Australian
Institute of Geoscientists Bulletin No 9 (Australian Institute of Geoscientists, 1989).
Geocomputing Management 236
though you would expect that learning from field work would be
assumed in Whites plan. The authors below that table address other
alternative philosophies than those shown in Table 75 and Table 77,
which I havent had a chance to categorise yet
Table 77 a check list for a rational approach to geoscience
data management
descriptions of phases in geoscience data management
your approach:

Data Quality Framework from Gregory & Cho, 2009
f

Leachs stages of a remote sensing investigation
g

sub-modules of the VicGCS project
from OBrien,2009
h


exploration cycle

1


regional research Build Sensor Phase 3: Act
field work Integrate Phase 4: Operate
preparation of results Analysis Phase 1 : Assess
project review Model Report
proposal for further work Manage Problem Phase 2: Plan
statutory reporting Target Phase 3: Act
NOTES
1
The exploration cycle are the general exploration work phases from White (1997)
i


f
Paul Gregory and Tammy Cho, 'Anticipating the E&P data quality explosion - a case study on a well
drilling data conversion', PESA News no. 102 (2009), pp. 26-28.
g
Joseph Leach, 'Stages of a remote sensing investigation,' ed. Grant Leslie Jacquier (Parkville, Victoria:
2001).
h
Geoffrey O'Brien, 'The VicGCS Project: Assessing the CO2 Geological Carbon Storage Potential of the
Gippsland Basin', Victorian Supplement 2009 no. (2009), pp. 15-16.
i
White, Management of mineral exploration.

Anonymous (1999a)
Anonymous (1999b)
Bennet (1988)
Britten (1994)
Chimblo et al (1992)
Eggo & Harvey (1989)
McCormack (1994)
Pearson (1999)
Peebler (1996)
Ruttan (1994)
Waltho (1999)
Yourdon (1996)
DAngelo & Troy (2000)
Geocomputing Management 238

Further reading regarding Reference & indexing
BETTENAY L. F. 1989. An overview of the use of computers in
exploration in Western Australia. In: Computers in exploration, pp 9-
16. Australian Institute of Geoscientists Bulletin No. 9.
BETTENAY L. F. & CARROLL G. W. 1989. Selected computer resources for geologists
in Western Australia. In: Computers in exploration, pp 9-16. Australian Institute of
Geoscientists Bulletin No. 9.
Mitchell (1989)
Whitfield (1993)
Laughton (1994)
Sugden (1999)
Further reading regarding Analyses & processing
Bowler (1987)
Gasmier (1987)
Jones (1988)
Miller (1988)
Morris (1988)
BETTENAY L. F. 1989. An overview of the use of computers in
exploration in Western Australia. In: Computers in exploration, pp 9-
16. Australian Institute of Geoscientists Bulletin No. 9.
Morris et al. (1989)

Rock (1989)
Snowden (1989)
Wheatley (1989)
Bolt (1992)
Downey (1998)
The future for corporate information & data sharing
Yacopetti and Mundell
a
do give guidance on what your aim should be
with what they call a Geoscience Information Management System
(GIMS) which features:
Professionally designed, developed and maintained

a Yacopetti and Mundell, 'Improving the quality of geoscientific information.'
Geocomputing Management 239
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Database hosted by a server based Enterprise Level RDBMS
(e.g. Microsoft SQL Server)
User friendly graphical user interfaces
Open and persistent data models
Support for geoscientific data types and interoperability with
client systems
Built-in technology redundancy
However, they are writing from the point-of-view of a software
providor (acQuire Technology Solutions Pty Ltd) to a corporate
mining company. In particular scathing of spreadsheet based
solutions to sharing data. I did try the Data Entry module of acQuire
in 2005, and I would still prefer to use printed forms as the
arguments I gave in the Computers in Geology newsletter many
years ago. However, the acQuire Solution modules are
comprehensive and cover the full range of geological laws as shown
on my web-site
b
, but the problem is the cost. To achieve this for
more modest work you may prefer the assistance of the following
authors. If you are thinking of do-it-yourself, I have continued with
the ELASTIC data model
c
beyond the Microsoft Excel prototype
outlined in my 1998 paper
d
with an implementation in Microsoft
Access that may reduce your development time.
BETTENAY L. F. 1989. An overview of the use of computers in exploration in Western
Australia. In: Computers in exploration, pp 9-16. Australian Institute of
Geoscientists Bulletin No. 9.
Bolt (1992)

Ryburn (1994)
West (1999)
Pearson (1999)
Further reading regarding Mapping & presentation
Anonymous (1999)

b See the table of geological software at http://www.grantjacquier.info/home_files/softinfo.htm
c Grant L Jacquier, 'Enigmatic, long and skinny tables increase
comprehensiveness in the ELASTIC data model for an electronic field
book. ', The Great Australian Byte no. 4 (1997), pp. 2-6.
d
Grant L Jacquier, 'Microsoft Excel proves the best prototyping tool for
investigation software based on the ELASTIC data model,' in 14th Australian
Geological Convention No 49 (Townsville: Geological Society of Australia, 1998).
Geocomputing Management 240
BETTENAY L. F. 1989. An overview of the use of computers in exploration in Western
Australia. In: Computers in exploration, pp 9-16. Australian Institute of
Geoscientists Bulletin No. 9.
Ho & Rockett (1989)

Mitchell (1989)
Geocomputing Management 241
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Chapter 3 RESULTS: improving your capability
These exercises are given in order of difficulty, so that an
inexperienced computer user can ramp up their skills. A geologist
building their system as they do their investigation would be better
to follow the order given in the narrative of the previous chapters.
The work does assume a level of competence beyond your basic
introduction to Microsoft Office, that you can take at the community
college for example you should know how to:
- Make a check list in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, including
inserting a symbol for a check box in a cell and using the
Data Filter to control the checks shown when printing the
check list out;

Geocomputing Management 242
A glossary of your special words with dictionary files
If you are using this grimoire you are a specialist of some sort and
specialists use special language. Some of those terms may be
verbiage but there are other terms you simply must spell correctly
and explain. These are some I have come across myself:
- geographic names
- Surnames of key personnel
- Botanical names for weeds and protected flora
- Company names involved in your business
- Software names
It does not hurt to have a running database of descriptions. It is also
a convenient place for storing short curriculum vitae of historical
figures (as they are never at hand when you need them for a
presentation). What I find is really useful is to generate dictionary
files, a list of the head words, so that Microsoft Word, and since
Office 2010, the other programs in the suite, recognise the names. I
use the several dictionary files summarised in Table 78 and I have
found I save time by not having to push the ignore button of the
spell-checker, then late in proof-reading find I was missing the odd
letter from a typing error. Eventually, when you have most of your
own special words in the dictionary the red wriggly line will become
a reminder to add that new special word to the glossary, and the
cycle of work will be complete and it will be more effective to extend
the data set than put off documenting new terms. In a later section I
show you how to print out the glossary and attach it to a document
say for a submission to a parliamentary committee.
The key for me to this work is bit of software I find I am using more
and more: Thomson EndNote but you could use Microsoft Excel or
Microsoft Access in its place, if you are prepared to do the design
and setting up of the database yourself. EndNote is described by
Thomson as the complete reference solution but I find its use as a
bibliographic database, to store catalogues of other files and
documents, the most critical. In effect our glossary is a bibliographic
database with many of the headword descriptions just abstracts of
other documents and in EndNote you can make a direct link to these
source documents if you have them on your web-site. The work to
Geocomputing Management 243
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make the glossary database and extract the dictionary files has
several steps:
1. When you are typing your work add some of the special
words that are highlighted to your CUSTOM dictionary.
2. Set up your database if you are not using the prepared
template MSdic in Thomson EndNote.
3. Identify any terms for the glossary by examing the words
you have listed in your C:\Users\...Proofing\CUSTOM.DIC file
against the Concise Oxford Dictionary. Similarly, any proper
nouns can be added to contacts in Microsoft Outlook.
4. Use the undefined terms from the CUSTOM.dic file to make
entries in your glossary database. Repeat as often as you
like. Remove the words from the CUSTOM.DIC once you
have recorded them so that there is only one authority.
5. Set up the format for writing the dictionary format (*.DIC)
files and extract the headwords from your glossary
6. Import the dictionary files into Thomson EndNote and
Microsoft Office
7. Use Microsoft Word for writing prose and find a special word
that is underlined in red and spelt properly
8. Begin again at step 1.
The commands used to make the dictionary for Microsoft Office are
given in Equation 27. This assumes that you have made a directory
to keep your custom proofing tools, and in my case it is the directory
.\Profiles\Proof\ in the DATA folder on my C: drive of my laptop.
Once you have made the dictionary file you can load it into the
different editing software as per the section Adding your custom
dictionaries to Microsoft Office and Thompson EndNote.
Equation 27 commands to make a dictionary from a
Thomson EndNote database
File | Open | c2008011.enl
Edit | Output Styles | New style
Bibliography | Templates | Insert Field
Title
File | Close Style
File Save As: MSdic
Yes
File | Export
File: C:\DATA\Profiles\Proof\glossary.DIC
File Type: Text (*.txt)
Output Style: MSdic
Geocomputing Management 244
OK
When I moved from Windows XP (machine name: MRSPOTS) to 64-
bit Windows 7 (machine name: MITZI) I found that the previous
dictionary files for Microsoft Word 2003 were incompatible with
Microsoft Word 2010 and when I attempted to load them during the
set up of MITZI it returned the message Files without Unicode
encoding cant be added to the dictionary list. Save the file as a
Unicode file to add it to the dictionary list. I converted the ANSI
coded dictionary files to the new standard required for 64-bit
Windows 7 by using the Microsoft Windows commands in Equation
28.
Equation 28 converting an ANSI coded glossary.DIC file to
the Unicode standard used with Microsoft Word 2010
Rename
Temp
OK
Open with
Notepad
File | Save As
File name: glossary.DIC
Save as type: Text Documents(*.txt)
Encoding: Unicode
Save

Table 78 custom dictionary files for Computers in Geology
HEAD WORD SPECIFICATION
Present in the Concise Oxford Dictionary
Directory and file name Source program
1

C:\DATA\Profiles\Proof\glossary.DIC N Thompson EndNote
C:\DATA\Profiles\Proof\propnoms.DIC N Microsoft Outlook
C:\DATA\Profiles\Proof\c_in_g.DIC Y no source program
2

NOTES
1
If you dont have these programs on your computer, you can just keep separate text files with Microsoft
Notepad or use a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and export the text files with Unicode encoding.
2
I keep the c_in_g.DIC file for terms absent from the supplied Microsoft dictionary but given in the
Concise Oxford Dictionary and so do not need to be in the glossary.

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Adding your custom dictionaries to Microsoft Office and
Thompson EndNote
You will need to adjust Microsoft Office to indicate where to find the
custom dictionary you have made, then delete the old entries in the
default so that there is only one authority. The commands for
Microsoft Office 2010 (at least Microsoft Word and Microsoft
PowerPoint) are in Equation 29. You will need to do this for everyone
who has an account on your computer as each user account needs
to be setup to point to the new file.
Equation 29 modifying the dictionary in Microsoft Office
2010
File | Options | Proofing
Custom Dictionaries
Add
C:\DATA\profiles\Proof\glossary.txt
OK
Edit Word List
CUSTOM.DIC(Default)
Delete All
OK
In Microsoft Office 2003 I couldnt work out how to set Microsoft
PowerPoint to use the dictionary, I was just hoping that the
Microsoft Word option in in Equation 30 would change the options
generally.
Equation 30 Adding your glossary to the custom dictionaries
in Microsoft Word
Tools | Options | Spelling & Grammar
Custom Dictionaries
Add
C:\DATA\Profiles\Proof\glossary.DIC
OK
OK
OK
Also you can use the Microsoft DIC file you just made to, load back
into Thomson EndNote as a EndNote custom dictionary, the
commands are given in Equation 31. If nothing else, it will correct
the cross-referencing of headwords in the glossary narrative, just
save you that little bit of embarrassment from the hecklers at your
next public meeting. The commands in Equation 31 follow on after
Geocomputing Management 246
you have opened Thomson EndNote, loaded a library (*.enl file) and
clicked on a reference to open it up. If you are concerned about
which dictionaries supplied by Thomson, there are quite a few
supplied and mentioned in the help, I use sscebr.tlx (British English),
accent.tlx (slang words), and correct.tlx (mis-spellings of words and
their corrections).
Equation 31 adding your glossary to the custom dictionaries
in Thomson EndNote
Tools | Spell Check
Dictionaries
New File
Browse
C:\DATA\Profiles\Proof\glossary.tlx
Language: British English
OK
Import
Files of type: All files (*.*)
File name: C:\DATA\Profiles\Proof\glossary.DIC
OK
Close

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A convention poster in Microsoft Publisher
Microsoft Publisher is included with the Professional Edition of
Microsoft Office. At Christmas time my mother was always showing
me letters, cards and certificates generated by her friends on this
desktop publishing software and at family reunions there are
banners printed from laser printers over the marshalling points, but
it also has features for the scientist and builder:
- general business stationery templates
- mailing labels of different types and sizes
- CD-ROM labels and cover insert templates
- do the livery for your web-site and maintain it
afterwards
- making posters from mosaics of prints from standard
printers
If you are working in the bush, you dont always have time to drive
down and print out drafts of your map or poster at a printer bureau.
Similarly when I was doing a poster for a convention of the
Geological Society of Australia, the Australian Earth Science
Convention 2006 in Melbourne, I was funding the work myself and
bureau printing was too expensive for drafts. Therefore, this feature
to use an ordinary printer for these drafts was ideal for me.
Each of the templates are available in Microsoft Publisher has a
range of styles, and there are also web page, business card and
other business forms designed ready for your use, in a consistent
business-like format and style. For example my formal web pages on
the www.grantjacquier.info/home.htm site, reflect the "Blends" style
with "Wildflowers" colour palette that I use for 'Computers in
Geology' business documentation. I find the templates generally
good with the exception of a bookplate for a presentation gift, when
I wanted something more sincere. I used Microsoft Word with a one-
cell table within a one-cell table, dashed border on the outer table
for the cut-line, rope-border on the inner; the inscription (centred
Corsivo Mono font) and border in indigo , the names in Arial black;
close down the table boundries to the size you want and it looked
really good.
Geocomputing Management 248

Table 79 check list to layout a poster in Microsft Publisher
Document number, short title:

Background image size: Date:
cm x cm
MS Publisher templates and themes (your set up is from Table 110):
Blends Wildflower CAPITAL Perpetua Titling Poster template
other: other: other: Flyer template

Mounting board :Publisher page size: template
Officeworks 72 x 47 cm (available) : ANSI D 86.36 x 55.88 cm (5 x 2 A4 pages)
Free poster : default Poster size (3 x 3 A4 pages)
STAGE
milestone tick
1 SELECT AN ORDINARY TEMPLATE IN MICROSOFT PUBLISHER
Template has space for the main graphics to be added (e.g. Flyer template)
Select the options for your companys theme as per Table 110 MS Office configuration
Adjusted the Personal Information setting
change the page size to poster and selct size (e.g. ANSI D 5 x 2 A4 pages)
3 MODIFY A BACKGROUND
Imported picture (xxxx.PNG) expanded to available size for board e.g. 72 x 47mm
Alternatively image is tiled across page (for poster)
25% transparent white layer added on top
Shaded picture saved as file (xxxx.BMP)
4 PLACE MARGINALIA AND DETAILS ON PAGE
For each draft version
Saved as new file name
For each item (e.g results of Table 36)
Original scale not altered
25% white transparent backing added for a clear layer
File saved
Summary of changes added to Properties
File saved
Print previewed to show segmenting and count of sheets
5 PRINT, CUT AND PIECE TOGETHER POSTER
Sheets of paper to be re-used have blank backs facing the same way
Wiggled the sheets to make sure there are none stuck together
Blank side is facing the right way in the printer cartridge
All pages printed out
For each sheet
Geocomputing Management 249
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Document number, short title:

Background image size: Date:
cm x cm
MS Publisher templates and themes (your set up is from Table 110):
Blends Wildflower CAPITAL Perpetua Titling Poster template
other: other: other: Flyer template

Mounting board :Publisher page size: template
Officeworks 72 x 47 cm (available) : ANSI D 86.36 x 55.88 cm (5 x 2 A4 pages)
Free poster : default Poster size (3 x 3 A4 pages)
STAGE
milestone tick
Cut the outside sheets on the cut line (first mark-up line)
Fold on second mark-up line
Glued on second mark-up line
6 REVIEW THE POSTER
For each text box/picture
Original scale not altered
transparent backing intense enough to read text
Background not too dark
Adjust your project file poster.bat for new filenames
Adding extra figures to the poster
Microsoft Publisher is where you bring everything together and
prepare the final printout as per the check list in Table 79. This is the
area of the destop bublisher and graphic designer so I dont find
Microsoft Publisher always that intuitive, the following paragraphs
discuss things I didnt really understand.
To make a background lighter do the commands in Equation 32,
being careful to scale the original picture file c2006029.png to cover
as much of the poster as possible, and then overlay the rectangle of
colour with just a little bit showing at the top of c2006029.png for
you to select and group the two layers into one new picture
c2006030.png. Dont forget to use the Help menu for further
explanation, if any of the menu commands in Equation 32 are new
to you.
Geocomputing Management 250
Equation 32 making the poster background lighter
Start > All Programs > Microsoft Office > Microsoft Office
Publisher 2003
File > Open > c2006028.pub
Insert > Picture > From File > c2006029.png
Insert > Picture > Autoshapes > Basic Shapes >
Format > Picture > Colors and Lines
Fill/Color: White
Fill/Transparency: 75%
OK
Arrange > Group
Save as Picture > c2006030.png
Edit > Delete
Format > Background > More backgrounds > Picture
Select Picture > c2006030.png
OK
File > Save
File > Exit
Notice that in Equation 32, I keep the different versions of the
background in separate files: c2006029.png and c2006030.png; so I
can change between them if I feel I am still not sure which one to
choose.
Equation 33 adding a snapshot to the poster
Start > All Programs > Microsoft Office > Microsoft Office
Publisher 2003
File > Open > c2006028.pub
Start > All Programs > Microsoft Office > Microsoft Office Word
2003
File > Open > c2006014.pub
File > Print > Microsoft Office Document Image Writer
OK
c2006014.MDI
OK
Edit > Copy Image
at this stage you go back to the poster window
Edit > Paste Special > Device Independent Bitmap
OK
Format > Picture > Colors and Lines
Fill/Color: White
OK
Format > Picture > Size > 30%
OK
File > Save
File > Exit
In June 2006 when I was making my first poster, I also wanted to
advertise that I had done the whole poster using this book. The year
before I had for the first time got the complete system under
Geocomputing Management 251
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$10 000 and I had added to the front cover, a WordArt logo stating
that and giving a list of potential readers (the same list I use in the
Preface). You could use the <Ctrl><Alt><PrtSc> combination of
buttons to get a screen dump of the window, as I did for Figure 29
below, but I have trouble getting all the page in the frame and then
having to cut it down to size in Microsoft Paint, I just find it very
fiddly. However, I have put the book on my website in Microsoft
Office Document Image format, a poor mans version of Adobe
Portable Document format, and in Microsoft Office Document
Imaging software I can cut a nice snapshot in one command after
selecting the front page. In Equation 33 there are the commands to
publish a Word document (in your situation it may be the
frontispiece of your thesis, report or a business brochure) to MDI
format and then do the snapshot, finally pasting it into the poster.


Figure 29 a print preview of a poster showing cut and
pasting lines
When cutting the sheets use an art knife, ruler and cutting board:
cutting the left and top sides at the first (cut) marks to glue onto the
bottom and right sides at the second (join) marks. I cut the outside
last, using a pair scissors and following the outline of the poster. All
three types of guides are shown in Figure 29. I also find that you can
Geocomputing Management 252
use recycled paper because, with the background, the print doesnt
generally show through, though try and sort paper of the same type
because different surfaces will absorb more or less or the inkjet ink
and appear as different shades.
Geocomputing Management 253
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A Microsoft batch file for project management
When I work to a deadline for a conference or meeting I get a little
edgy. I like to start early with something rough and then have lots of
iterations, changing and improving the pictures as I have time and
come across the data or just change my mind. It may be many
weeks between versions so I keep a project file like Equation 94 in
the appendix where poster.bat is listed in full. This file can be used
from the MS-DOS command prompt with the commands in Equation
34.
Equation 34 starting poster.bat from Microsoft Windows
start | All Programs | Accessories | Command Prompt
cd c:\DATA\BAT
poster
There are only six statements used in this type of batch file and
these are shown with examples in Equation 35. Statement i., and v.
in Equation 35, utilise the two forms of the ECHO statement.
Statement i. is to turn off the screen reporting (or on if parameter
ON is used), and the statement vi. is to report text to the screen.
The statements iii. and iv. are for starting programs with particular
files, the latter form holds the batch file in statsis unitl that particular
application in this case Microsoft Word is closed. By using the START
statement, a file like poster.bat can open all the different documents
from a single command. The statement iii. is for keeping a running
list of the different files versions that have been used. As a new
poster version is created, the new file is listed against the SET
statement and the old file documented by prefixing it with the
comment statement REM, shown in statement ii. Finally, I use the
poster.bat command to add to my research web page in a way
similar to Equation 36 in the section Making an HTML file to run a
batch file.
Equation 35 statements used for project management in a
batch file
i. ECHO OFF
ii. REM MyDraft=C:\DATA\LETTERS\c2006030.pub
iii. SET MyDraft=C:\DATA\LETTERS\c2006031.pub
iv. START "C:\Program Files \ MSPUB.EXE " %MyDraft%
v. "C:\Program Files \WINWORD.EXE" %MyLetter%
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vi. ECHO "Poster alterations complete!"
The most important statement from Equation 35 for our purposes is
the REM statement which allows us to add comments about the
project. I find computing people are loathe to use comments, but I
think you when you start to apply the data there becomes no such
thing as too much comment and I have put together Table 80as a
minimum, all of which are shown in the full example of Equation 94
in the appendix. The check list in Table 80 is also used as part of the
work detailed in:
- Table 81 check list for when writing an XML file
Geocomputing Management 255
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Table 80 check list of file documentation
Project code name: date:

URL of the file (tick if examining the load not the carrier): examining load file

Comment delimiters (tick those used):
<! > HTML files (*.HTM)
2, 3
/* */ SQL file (*.sql)
2

--, JavaScript (*.js) # standard shell (*.sh, *.csh)
//, JScript (*.js)
3
* Visual Basic (*.vbs)
3

<!-- --> KML file (*.kml)
2, 3
<!-- --> XHTML file (*.htm)
2, 3

REM, MS-DOS batch file (*.bat) <!-- --> XML file (*.htm)
2, 3

REMARK, SQL file (*.sql) other:
--, SQL file (*.sql)
STAGE
milestone tick
1 TYPE IN THE INITIAL SECTION
file name
Date the file was created
Author, Affiliation or company of the author
Copyright notice naming the client
Narrative with assumptions and usage (test, interactive, batch)
reference
Sign off remark (e.g ====== code begins ======)
2 BODY (OR SUBROUTINE OR FUNCTION) COMMENTS
Start of code mark (e.g. <html )
Script declarations (unavailable to script) and constants (available)
main routine marker (e.g. </head><body >
Initialisation of script variables with estimates
Script logic or rhetoric
Closing clause of the script component
3 END-OF-SCRIPT SECTION
End of code marker (e.g. </body>
End of code remark (e.g. ====== code ends ====== )
For each revision
date
author
affiliation
For each change
revision note (e.g. - )
End of script mark (e.g. </html>)
Notes:
Geocomputing Management 256
Librarians often cite Keywords (categories) typed into a key field
(see the help in Thomson EndNote, or below the abstract in any
article of the Journal of Earth Science published by the Geological
Society of Australia). However you need a search thesaurus to go
with that and I have never been that keen. Also supposed the
<meta> </meta> elements ar used at least in XHTML yet apart
from Mozilla which shows them as properties I havent found
anything which will use them and I really wonder if they are worth
the trouble when you can read free text more easily. At the start of
there is a ready-reckoner of delimiters for remarks and comments,
depending on the script type. Some which require a start-of-line and
an end-of-line delimiter are separated there by an ellipsis
representing the comment. If you are using Microsoft Script Editor
and you using the delimiters in HTML, XHTML, Visual Basic, Jscript or
XML, will result in the comments being displayed in green text.
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An HTML file to keep track of your projects
A Hyper Text Markup Language page displayed in Microsoft Internet
Explorer is an ideal way of showing off project documents as you
can post it on your own web site. This example assumes you have a
batch file poster.bat (and the section Making a poster for a
convention shows you how to do this). This poster.bat file can also
be used to open the different documents from a single command,
and that command I add to my research web page in a way similar
to Equation 36. In doing so, there is a computing advantage in that I
dont have to mount all the folders, where I keep my Microsoft Office
files for clients, on the Intranet and this stops anyone accidentally
browsing say confidential client reports.
Equation 36 XHTML extract showing a link to the project file
poster.bat
<a name="workinprogress"></a>
<h3>Need to invest in research?</h3>
Grant Jacquier is working on these prototypes:
<table align="CENTER" border="0" cellspacing="0"
cellpadding="5">
<tr>
<td valign="TOP" align="LEFT">
<ul>
<li><a href="http://localhost/cgi-bin/poster.bat"
title="The working copy of the AESC2006 poster from the
Numbat project"
>West Gippsland catchment monitoring</a></li>
<li><a href="#toy"
title="Web display of images"
>JPEG display page for delivering images.</a></li>
<li><a href="#numbat"
title="The old display of projects which hasn't yet be
transferred to the Intranet web page"
>Index of minor research.</a></li>
</ul></td>
</tr>
</table>
This is good if you already have an HTML (or an XHTML) file to bolt
this bit of code into. If you dont, you will need to make one and the
components you will need are.
1. Basic structure with documentation and script elements
2. Special elements for that particular file
Geocomputing Management 258
The check list in Table 81 gives some milestones in preparing an
XML file that is an Extensible Markup Language file. This would make
an XHTML file that is the tags will be lowercase for example <title>
instead of HTML file where the tags are uppercase, that is <TITLE>.
There are some other differences as well, see the section XML
provides versatility in data handling below, but if you follow the
check list it will still display in your browser. Other check lists
required for this work are:
- Table 80 check list of file documentation
- Table 82 check list of basic XML structure
The check list in Table 81 is also used as part of the work detailed
in:
- Table 96 check list for making a catalogue of files
- The section Making a GIS for an investigation site
Finally, when writing scripts it is easier if you know what the
continuation characters are, so you can lay out your script more
clearly. So far I have collected:
- Microsoft Visual Basic _<cr><lf>


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Table 81 check list when writing an XML file
Project code name: date:

URL of the carrier or base file:

STAGE
milestone tick
1 PREPARE THE STANDARD DOCUMENT
XML banner present (<?xml version=1.0 encoding="UTF-8" ?>)
Table 82 check list of basic XML structure
1

File reads in Microsoft Explorer
Table 80 check list of file documentation
File loads into Internet Explorer without errors
Altered the JavaScript elements
File loads into Internet Explorer without errors
2 ADD THE SPECIAL ELEMENTS (choose one or more)
Table 82 check list of basic XML structure
1

Choose the special sections as below
For each bit do
Section marked below
File loads into Internet Explorer without errors
Example sections used ( tick one or more):
Equation 36 XHTML extract showing a link to the project file poster.bat
Equation 37 DTD (Document Type Definition) statements for various XML
Figure 30 essential elements for an HTML file
Equation 56 structure of the EndNote proprietary XML format
Equation 60 the initial lines of world.kml
Equation 61 extract of world.kml <Placemark>
Equation 62 KML entry using the geographic coords
Equation 66 the <description></description> from oman2008.bat
Other (please specify):

URL of the load or output file ()

Notes:
1
The essentials for XHTML can be found in Figure 30.
XML provides versatility in data handling
In the check list of Table 81 I assume you will implement the
particular sub-set of XML with a namespace. This is called the XML
Geocomputing Management 260
Schema method of validation as compared to a DTD (Document
Type Definition). The use of namespaces allows me to include VML
and XML inserts in web pages for diagrams and tables. In Ray
e
it is
explained that the alternative DTD files, the original validation
protocol for XML files, are easier to build than XML Schemas, so I
would expect any industry-specific DTD to appear before the
equivalent schema, and I keep track of those in the Equation 37, in
readiness for a special load file. For example I havent been able to
find an XML schema equivalent for the DTD for WML (Wireless
Markup Language), that you would use for information you wanted
to show on mobile phones, say if you were setting up a documented
trail in a marine park or a sacred site, where you didnt want to leave
placards or have brochures blowing around.
Equation 37 DTD (Document Type Definition) statements for
various XML subsets
- <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01
Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
- <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD XHTML
Mobile 1.0//EN" "http://www.wapforum.org/DTD/xhtml-
mobile10.dtd">
- <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0
Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-
strict.dtd" >
- <!DOCTYPE wml PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD WML
1.2//EN""http://www.wapforum.org/DTD/wml_1.1.xml">
These are other XML Schema namespaces, additional to the ones
shown in the check list in Table 81, which I have used. Usually if it is
HTML, the prefix is not used that is xmlns is equivalent to
xmlns:html where there are more than one namespace
implemented in the document, such as when putting in geological
sketches using VML, where xmlns:v is used, and all VML tags are
prefaced with v; for example <v:group></v:group>, while XHTML
tags are the usual such as <body></body>.
Equation 38 XML Schema namespaces
- xmlns="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40"

e
See the section XML Schemas versus DTDs pp 658-659, in Ray and Ray, Mastering HTML and
XHTML.
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- xmlns:kml="http://earth.google.com/kml/2.2
- xmlns:maths=http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML
- xmlns:v =urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml
- xmlns:xsl=http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform
- xmlns:xsl=http://www.w3.org/TR/WD-xsl
- xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml
Figure 30 gives the specifics for an XHTML file, the most commonly
used sub-set of XML which displays as HyperText Markup Language
(HTML) in a browser such as Microsoft Internet Explorer or Mozilla
Navigator.
<?xml version=1.0 encoding="UTF-8"?>
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40">
<head>
<title>Computers in Geology
| 2008 expedition to Oman
| KML template
</title>
<meta name="keywords"
content="wombat.vbs; Thompson EndNote; Google Earth"
>
<meta http-equiv="Script-Content-Type"
content="text/javascript"
>
<meta HTTP-EQUIV="Content-Type"
CONTENT="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"
>
<meta name=vs_targetSchema
content="HTML 4.0"
>
<meta name=vs_defaultClientScript
content="JavaScript"
>
<link rel="stylesheet"
type="text/css"
href="../extranet/gateway.css"
>
<script
src="../extranet/gateway.js"
type="text/javascript"
language="javascript"
></script>
</head>
<body>
</body>
</html>
Figure 30 essential elements for an HTML file
Geocomputing Management 262
Each type of XML format has some necessary extra elements before
you get to your special customisation. Some like those marked in the
<meta></meta> fields of Figure 30 instruct Microsoft Script Editor
[the special editor that comes with Microsoft Office] to use a
different dictionary when checking your code. I cannot remember all
the different variations and nuances so I think this editor and this
feature are essential. This isnt 100% compliant XHTML, but I expect
it will be handled reasonably well by most browsers and editors, in
particular I have found that Microsoft Script Editor doesnt recognise
strict XHTML, such as <meta name=vs_targetSchema
content="HTML 4.0" /> and marks as an error the /> which as it is
an empty tag, ( in that it has no text enclosed by tags , the
converse is an example like <title>Computers in Geology</title> ) is
required under strict XHTML. Then again, if anyone is writing their
geological reports as Shakespearean sonnets, e-mail me, and I will
happily write them a conforming XHTML script to match.

Table 82 checks for the basic structure of an XML file
Project code name: date:

URL of the carrier or base file:

STAGE
milestone tick
1 SET UP THE XML FRAMEWORK
Decide your base format XSL, XML etc. (tick 0 column)
initial elements present as below
Altered the heading field and other essentials
1

2 CONSIDER THE CONTENT
Nominate the output type (item 1)
Output URL written below
Opening elements (tick those used): 0 1
CSS (*.css)
2
<html vo=><head><style></style></head></html>
JavaScript (*.js) function () { }
KML (*.kml) <kml xmlns="http://earth.google.com/kml/2.2></kml>
VML (*.htm) <html xmlns:v ="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml"></html>
VML (*.htm) <style>v\:* { behavior: url(#default#VML); }</style>
WML (*.wml) wml></wml>
XHTML(*.htm) <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40"></html>
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proprietary XML (*.xml) <xml ></xml>
XSL (*.xsl)
2
<xsl:stylesheet version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="></xsl>
other:

URL of the final file (i.e .listings for 1) Tick if not required

Notes:
1
The essentials for XHTML can be found in Figure 30.
2
For namespaces see Equation 38 XML Schema namespaces

Geocomputing Management 264
A quotation for work
In this example I use a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to calculate the
rate or fee for doing work from known costs. There are two
approaches, the first for calculating a consultants charge out rate for
the year, and the background to these calculations is given by
Tonge
f
. The second is to check the feasibility of a project which
includes mobilisation and field expenses. The comments below give
the background to the second.
To begin you will need a fresh Microsoft Excel workbook and you can
do this with the instructions in Equation 39.
Equation 39 - making a new worksheet
Start > All Programs > Microsoft Office > Microsoft Office
Excel
File > New > Blank worksheet
File > Save As > feecalc.wks
Calculations for a campaign of field work
Before starting the calculations we need to set up a worksheet, in
this example called notes, with some basic facts of our financial
position. The values for this example are shown in Table 83.
Table 83 basic financial facts
constant value note
taxable_income 62952 from (b)
tax_on_taxable_income 16394 item A from (b)
medicare_levy 1573.8 item O from (b)
effective_tax_rate for MS Excel equation see
1

(b) From notice of assessment NOR 250061/012, of 1 October 2004.
1
=(tax_on_taxable_income+medicare_levy)/taxable_income
Note that these facts are set out in a list of three columns of
spreadsheet cells, with the name of the constant on one side, the
value in the middle and the explanation to the right. You can use the
cell naming function in Microsoft Excel by highlighting the name and

f
Tonge, How to become a successful consultant in your own field.
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value pairs and then selecting the command in Equation 40.
Equation 40 Creating named cells
Insert > Name > Create > Left column > OK
The return from a campaign of field work is calculated from the
hourly rate, the number of hours per day to be worked, the number
of days in a working fortnight and the number of months of the
campaign assuming 2 fortnights per month. On a separate sheet to
notes perhaps called Campaign using the equations in Table 84 to
add the income to your Microsoft Excel workbook feecalc.xls.
Table 84 net income calculation

B C D E
3
rate per hour 25
4
hours per day @ hours worked = 10 =C3*C4
5
per fortnight, with days worked = 10 =C3*C5*C4
6
months of contract 3
7
Gross return =C3*C4*C5*C6*2
8
Estimated tax =D7*effective_tax_rate
1

9
NET INCOME =D7-D8
1
Table 83 gives the calculation of the effective_tax_rate constant
In the example of Table 84, for work at the Beta-Hunt mine in
Kambalda, Western Australia, there are 10 hour days, with a 10 days
on and 4 days off cycle. As an aside, if you want to check your own
Microsoft equations against this table, use the <Ctrl><`> keys in
combination to switch between value and algorithm view in Microsoft
Excel.
Now some consideration needs to be given to the costs of the field
work. This at least should include mobilisation, demobilisation, board
and lodgings. In the example of Table 85, again for work at the
Beta-Hunt mine, I am mobilising from Adelaide using the Motorail
service of the Indian-Pacific railway. This reduces the amount of
travel, without having to make special arrangements, and is the
most reliable and safest way to get there. The accommodation is at
the single person quarters at Kambalda, run by the Eurest
corporation, which is accommodation in dongas (transportable huts)
and full board including crib (a cut lunch). This is particularly suitable
Geocomputing Management 266
for the situation of Beta-Hunt where the ten hour work days
underground will leave no time or energy for housework. Notably
there is no allowance for salaries, fuel, or the cost of money (interest
on cash outlayed) and other suggestions of items missing can be
found on pages 290 to 291 of White
g
.
Table 85 Campaign costs
C D E
Mobilisation costs
12 Motorail car to Perth 569
13 Motorail car to Adelaide 340
14 Gold kangaroo to Perth 1250
15 Gold kangaroo to Adelaide 1250
16 =SUM(C12:C15)
Accommodation costs
18 Kambalda @ Eurest =54.55*14 =$C$6*2*$C18
19 =SUM(D18:D18)
Total venture cost =SUM(E16:E19)
An analysis is done on a break even basis with an additional factor of
30% included for contingency costs, which could be things like
replacement of equipment, breakdown of equipment, increased cost
of board because you have moved into an en-suite unit and so on.
The layout in Microsoft Excel with the appropriate equations is given
in Table 86.
Table 86 Venture profit/loss analysis

B C D E
22
Estimated real cost (+ 30% contingency) =E20/7*10
23

24
Profit/Loss from this venture =E9-E22
Finally you have to consider how this will affect your business as a
whole including your immutable costs such as office rent or
mortgage, advertising, depreciation and personal living expenses.
There are also benefits of being involved in the venture such as the
tax relief on the operating costs and reductions in home base

g
White, Management of mineral exploration.
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expenditure. These assets and liabilities are shown, along with
appropriate Microsoft Excel equations in Table 87.
Table 87 integrating the venture costs into balance
statement
B C D E
26 Assets
27
benefit of deduction of
venture costs =E20*effective_tax_rate
28
minus food @ weekly
basis 100 =C6*4*C28
29 =SUM(D26:D29)
30 Liabilities
31 Adelaide rent 360 =$C$6*2*$C31
32 B/C @ $1000 per month 1000 =C6*C32
33 =SUM(D30:D33)
34 OVERALL GAIN OR LOSS FROM THIS PERIOD =E24+E29-E33
To make variations on this calculator, such as increasing the number
of months worked or substituting driving to Kambalda from Adelaide
you can use the inbuilt scenario feature of Microsoft Excel (Tools >
Scenarios > Add) will give the window in Figure 31. For more
information on scenarios see the Microsoft Excel Help under Scenario
(Help > Microsoft Excel Help)
Geocomputing Management 268

Figure 31 Scenario window
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A capital gains calculator
This calculator created in Microsoft Excel documents capital
expenditure such as purchase of shares or research expenditure and
summarises the return on these purchases to show if there would be
a profit or a loss if they were sold out. It also demonstrates Microsoft
Excel basic algorithms and the simplest statistical functions of sum,
maximum, minimum and mean.
This kind of analysis would be required for where you intend to sell
your business, but it is also for convenient for a data sheet for a will,
for an asset test with social security when applying for the dole, or
counting your travellers cheques. The key concepts from the
Australian Tax Office are that there is capital gains tax (CGT) to be
paid, either a rebate for a loss or a surcharge for a gain, when a
CGT event occurs on an event date after the record date when
the initial value was recorded.
Making the spreadsheet starts with a fresh worksheet, such as
gains.xslx, as per Equation 39 of the example Generating a
quotation for work. This spreadsheet then requires several parts:
- The CGT report in the summary sheet,
- the sheet shares for profit or loss from shares,
- the sheet foreign for foreign exchange profits or loss,
- the worksheet cheques for tracking the serial numbers of
travellers cheques in foreign currency,
- and the sheet wallet for compositing the denominations of
the travellers cheques from cheques into values for the
foreign sheet.
The columns used are shown in Table 88, the cell is where the title is
placed and the data starts on the next row immediately underneath.
Where you dont enter data but use a calculated value for the cell,
the Microsoft Excel algorithm is shown. You dont have to complete
the whole table just the bits for what you need (not shaded in the
tick box), but later it will fit in with the other purposes, and save you
re-typing the data.

Geocomputing Management 270
Table 88 key cells for making a capital gains calculator
Purpose: CGT event date: CGT record date:
end-of-year (1) asset test (2) Other as in notes (3)
TOPIC [gains.xslx sheet]
cell column title description tick
STOCKS AND BONDS [shares] 1 2 3
A4:K4 shares Marks the line of the share summary
A5:A ASX Share The current share code
B5:B tranche
A single buy of shares
C5:C count
The number of shares involved
D5:D purchase date
The date the tranche was purchased
E5:D purchase expense
The share cost plus fees
F5:F current share price
The share price at the time of audit
G5:G current value =F9*C9
H5:H profit/loss =G9-E9
I5:I estimated return per annum - min =($G9-$E9)*365.25/($E9*($D$4-MIN($D10:$D12)))
J5:J estimated return per annum - mean =($G9-$E9)*365.25/($E9*($D$4-AVERAGE($D10:$D12)))
K5:K estimated return per annum - max =($G9-$E9)*365.25/($E9*($D$4-MAX($D10:$D12)))
ACCOUNT BALANCES [accounts] 1 2 3
C3 record date Date of CGT event
D3 record date Date of asset survey
C5 Totals, event date =SUM(C7:C17)
D5 Totals, record date =SUM(D7:D13)
D8:D Event date balances Balances from your account summaries
E8:E Record date balances Balances from yopur account summaries
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Purpose: CGT event date: CGT record date:
end-of-year (1) asset test (2) Other as in notes (3)
TOPIC [gains.xslx sheet]
cell column title description tick
FOREIGN EXCHANGE [foreign] 1 2 3
E3 Event date Date of the event
D3 Record date Date of the record of the survey
C5 event date totals =SUM(C7:C18)
D5 record date totals =SUM(D7:D18)
C8:C Event date =F8*$E8
D8:D Record date =G8*$E8
E8 Exchange rate 0.75
F8:F Event date Amount of currency at CGT event
G8:G Record date Amount of currency at record date
TRAVELLERS CHEQUES [cheques] 1 2 3
D2 number Set custom format to 000
TOTALISING [summary] 1 2 3
B36:B9 Audit date The dates being used for current
C6:C9 total current value =SUM(shares!G5:G19)
D6:D9 Total profit/loss =SUM(shares!H5:H19)
E6:E9 estimated potential gain per annum - min =($D6*365.25/(($C6-$D6)*($B$6-MIN(shares!$D19:$D34))))
F6:F9 estimated potential gain per annum - mean =($D6*365.25/(($C6-$D6)*($B$6-AVERAGE(shares!$D19:$D34))))
G6:G9 estimated potential gain per annum - min =($D6*365.25/(($C6-$D6)*($B$6-MAX(shares!$D19:$D34))))
NOTES
Geocomputing Management 272
A comparison of vendor quotes
This exercise is to make a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet for
comparisons of several computers before you purchase one. I
assume there is a base specification, which each quote must meet. If
you dont have an existing computer specification yourself the
section Where can I get a computer? discusses the one I use. The
advantage to the geologist is that the spreadsheet summarises
incoming quotes, weeds out the non-conforming ones, allows
quantitative and qualitative analysis and in the format of a simple
table to be cut and pasted into your letter of recommendation to
your chief scientist.
Equation 41 URL for a comparison spreadsheet
ftp://users.bigpond.com/grantjacquier/StudEx.xls#comparison
The Microsoft Excel formulas used in the spreadsheet are not only
applicable to this particular problem. These can also be used for
sorting and ordering exploration prospects, drilling proposals, or
other equipment and service quotations. A finished example of the
spreadsheet is available on the Computers in Geology website on
the Internet. The complete Internet address is given in Equation 41.
The work takes place in several stages:
1. Identify a minimum specification for the computer system.
2. Obtain quotations either by visiting stores or sending out a
request for tender such as in the section Where can I get a
computer?.
3. Open a blank spreadsheet and type in the minimum
specification
4. Type the quotation data in the row above the parameter
headings
5. Add formulas and format the spreadsheet
Stages 1 to 4 will produce something like Table 89.
Table 89 computer proposals
develop.htm#software 11. Intel Pentium III 500Mhz 9.00
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computer microprocessor
hard disk
(GB)
Toshiba Satellite M30 14. Intel Pentium M 60.00
Sony Vaio PCG-K86P 12. Intel Pentium 4 60.00
Fujitsu Lifebook P5020 14. Intel Pentium M 60.00
Toshiba Portege R100 14. Intel Pentium M 40.00
Toshiba Tecra M2 14. Intel Pentium M 80.00
HP Pavillion ZT3301 14. Intel Pentium M 60.00
Compaq NX9040 13. Intel Celeron M 40.00
Fujitsu Lifebook C1212 14. Intel Pentium M 60.00
Toshiba Satellite A70 12. Intel Pentium 4 40.00
non-conforming dummy 6. Intel 80486 0.02
The remainder of this example covers the last stage but is based on
the specification found on the Computers in Geology website at the
address in Equation 42.
Equation 42 URL for an example computer specification
http://users.bigpond.com/grantjacquier/develop.htm#software
Microsoft Excel can colour cells or text based on values in
surrounding cells. I use this feature to automatically grey out any
non-conforming quotations, say where the quoted microprocessor is
obsolete and or the disk space is less than your specified minimum.
Certain formulas are used in the conditional formatting to grey out
the entries that are below standard. The conditional formatting is
selected from the menus and the formula applied as shown in
Equation 43. The simplest is to use a numeric minimum, such as for
hard disk capacity, and this is the example formula in Equation 43.
Equation 43 conditional formatting for numeric cut-offs
Edit > Go To > G5 > OK
Format > Conditional Formatting > Formula Is
=G5 < G$2
Format > Color:
OK
OK
Slightly more difficult is the formula for rating nomenclature such as
different microprocessor names. This formula, in Equation 44,
Geocomputing Management 274
requires systematic ranked labels such as 11. Intel Pentium III
500Mhz which use the first two numeric characters as ranking.
These are exploited by the Microsoft Excel sub-string function LEFT
as in the example of Equation 44. These entries can also be used to
sort your quotations, but be careful to place one blank character
before any single digit rankings, for example 4. Intel 80486, so that
the sort will occur in the correct order.
Equation 44 conditional formatting for ranked specifications
Edit > Go To > G5 > OK
Format > Conditional Formatting > Formula Is
=LEFT(G5,2)< LEFT(G$2,2)
Format > Color:
OK
OK
A variation on Equation 44 is required if you are trying to maintain
backward compatibility, as for this example where you may have
existing floppy disks or tapes of geophysical logs that you wish to
continue to use with the new computer, and so not have to pay the
service company to rewrite those files to CD-ROM. This variant is
given in Equation 45.
Equation 45 identifying backward compatibility
=LEFT(G5,2)<> LEFT(G$2,2)
The layout used in this example also allows other Microsoft Excel
features to be used. Firstly when entering data you can use the Pick
From List option on the menu caused by the right mouse button
click on a cell. Next there is the sorting under the menu Data > Sort
to prioritise your quotes. Finally, there is the inbuilt database
functionality provided by Data > Filter > AutoFilter which can be
used to systematically hide less than ideal quotes. For the two later
features there are good explanations under the Help menu.
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A minimalist bibliography system
Nearly every practicing scientist, I have talked to, has a list of
favoured references or books, a list of keywords, and some kind of
glossary, to give the precise definitions of those words for their
particular study. They then want to have that cross-referenced. It
doesnt have to be books or journals, it could be type specimens,
slides or samples but eventually at some time in your scientific
career you will need to put together a reference system. Anita
Andrew in Formatting references
a
decries despite that universities,
government and business have free licences for bibliographic
database software, very few of her authors use this tool in getting
the most tiresome of tasks, formatting references, correct.
The following procedure is used for this book. It features a
bibliographic database, a glossary or thesaurus and an index. The
software used is ISI ResearchSoft EndNote and Microsoft Word. If
you dont have EndNote, some universities do, you could substitute a
Microsoft Excel spreadsheet or a Microsoft Access database.
The indexing in Microsoft Word can be done by individually entering
tags or by applying a file, called a concordance file that has a table
of keywords to be found, in the first column, against the appropriate
entry for the index in the second column. In the following example I
apply an output style in EndNote, which I have defined previously as
a template, but is basically the headword in the first column, a tab
key as separator, and what you want in the index in the second
column, usually category:headword as in.
Equation 46.
Equation 46 EndNote bibliography template for a
concordance file
Title Glossary cross-reference:Type of Work:Title
Alternatively you may prefer a simpler index style,
Index:letter:headword, which can be derived from the format of
Equation 46 by using the Microsoft Excel formula in Equation 47.

a
Andrew, 'From the AJES Hon Editor's Desk', no.
Geocomputing Management 276
Equation 47 MS Excel formula for an Index style
concordance file
"Index:"& UPPER(LEFT(delme3!A1,1))&":"& delme3!A1
The only other tricky thing in this example is that I put an EndNote
tag in the source reference field for a glossary entry, which results in
one EndNote database file having a reference within a field to
another EndNote database. EndNote hasnt blown up yet, and this
prevents me from having to reformat glossary entry by glossary
entry every time I find a spelling mistake in my reference list!
Make a concordance file for Microsoft Word.
1. Open your current glossary database, which in my case in
EndNote is File>Open >Open Library > j2002001.enl.
2. Select the concordance file format style. In my EndNote case
the commands are File>Output Styles>concordance.
3. Print out the concordance file in Text Format (*.txt), e.g.
File>Export>c:\temp\delme3.txt.
4. If you would prefer an Index style to a category style cross-
reference, open the file delme3.txt in Microsoft Excel and
convert into two columns using the Tab delimiter option.
5. Replace the second column with the formula in Equation 47
6. Save the file, File > Save As, as Text (Tab delimited) to
file delme3.txt
7. Close Microsoft Excel file delme3.txt
Make a glossary from the glossary database.
8. Select the glossary format style. In my EndNote case the
commands are File>Output Styles>CIGgloss.
9. Print out the glossary in Rich Text Format (*.rtf), eg:
File>Export>c:\temp\delme2.rtf.
Apply the concordance file to make index.
10. Open the glossary in Microsoft Word e.g.
File>Open>c:\temp\delme2.rtf.
11. In Microsoft Word use the concordance file to make the
indexing tags: Insert>Index and Tables >AutoMark
>delme3.txt
12. Save the glossary for the next stage, eg: File>Save
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Format the bibliographic references
13. Open the bibliographic database, which in my case is in
EndNote e.g. File>Open Library>j2001003.enl.
14. In Microsoft Word apply the bibliographic formatting, which
again I have predefined, and this case only to format the
citation and not attach an additional reference:
Tools>Format Bibliography>Rlist
15. Save the glossary as a completed document in Microsoft
Word format, eg: File>Save
As>c:\data\c_in_g\letters\c2003004.doc.)
16. Format the document to match the rest of the report, eg:
File>Page Setup (paper size A5,Margins Top,
Bottom 1.5cm,Margins Inside, Outside 1.0 cm, Margins
Gutter 2 cm, From Edge Header, Footer 0.5 cm, Mirror
Margins).
17. Save the glossary for the next stage, eg: File>Save
Insert the glossary document into the report document
18. Open the report in Microsoft Word e.g.
File>Open>c:\data\c_in_g\letters\c2003001.doc.
19. In Microsoft Word replace the existing glossary subdocument
with the new glossary: View>Outline
20. Save the report for the next stage, eg: File>Save
Update the report index
21. Open the report in Microsoft Word e.g.
File>Open>c:\data\c_in_g\letters\c2003001.doc.
22. In Microsoft Word update the index and then save the
document: File>Save
Geocomputing Management 278
A newsletter mailout
In my own work I mail out an occasional newsletter to clients to
promote recent research and new software that could be useful. The
technology I use is the same as required for a learned society
newsletter, an outreach service bulletin for a land care group, or
reporting drilling progress to joint venture partners. In all cases, text
and pictures are inserted into a standard template and then sent to a
number of addresses.
When I started making newsletters there were only postal addresses
but now in Microsoft Publisher, there are options for posting to a
web site or e-mail as well. The main thing is to get into a write-
publish-distribute rhythm to minimise the time taken and this is the
intent of the MS Publisher software. In this example I will stick with
sending a newsletter to a small number of clients via mail merging to
an address list, but you can easily substitute in e-mail, or web pages,
by reference to the Help in MS Publisher.
The mail merge link between Microsoft Outlook and MS Publisher is
not as versatile as with Microsoft Word (shown in Equation 52, just
in case you havent bought MS Publisher), so additional work is
needed in setting it up. This is because MS Publisher expects to be
able to print both sides of the paper automatically. This is not a
problem in a cartographic office, but I have always had printers
which you have to do one side at a time.
Assumptions
The assumptions for this procedure are:
Your contacts are the Business Data Manager add-in in
Microsoft Outlook.
The template or master for the flyer you are using is two
Microsoft Publisher documents, one for the address side and
one for the advertisement.
Your printer does not print both sides of a page directly, that
is you have to first print one side, reload the paper then
print again.
You have not changed any of the contact records today
(20/01/2004).
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Procedure
The procedure is in parts:
I. Create a separate folder of the target addresses
II. Merge print the Microsoft Publisher address document with
that selected folder
III. Print the backside of the address papers with the flyer
IV. Make a journal entry for the document and add the people
you sent it to.
V. Remove the addresses from the print folder
Making a separate folder for printing purposes is shown in Equation
48.
Equation 48 Selecting addresses from Business Data
Manager
Start > All Programs > Microsoft Office > Microsoft Office
Outlook 2003
Go > Contacts
File > Folder > New Folder
Print
To select the records to be printed in the mail merge you can make
use of the Modified date to leave out any contacts that have had
records sent already using Equation 49, or alternatively you can set
the Hot Contact category.
Equation 49 Discriminating records by date
Go > Business Contacts
View > Arrange By > Current View > Customize Current View
Filter
Advanced
Frequently used Fields >Categories contains subscriber
Add
Contact Fields > Modified before or on 20/01/2005
Find Now > Yes > OK
Edit > Select All
Edit > Categories > Hot Contacts
Edit > Copy to Folder > Print
OK
I find the categories used in Equation 50 are more easily
manipulated in batch and I am continuously updating client records
so the dates dont always match up.
Geocomputing Management 280
Equation 50 Discriminating contacts by category
Go > Business Contacts
View > Arrange By > Custom
Filter > More Choices
Categories > Voluntary Subscriber
Find Now > Yes > OK
Edit > Select All
Edit > Categories > Newsletter 2005
Edit > Copy to Folder > Print
OK
Use this list against the address template as in Equation 51.
Equation 51 mail merging in Microsoft Publisher
Start > All Programs > Microsoft Office > Microsoft Publisher
Tools > Mail and Catalog Merge > Mail and Catalog Merge Wizard
Mail Merge
Next: Select data source
Select from Outlook Contacts
Choose Contacts Folder > Business Data Manager
Next: Create your publication
Next: Preview your publication
Next: Complete the merge
Print
OK
With the flyer template in Microsoft Publisher, the address is on the
back page. The back page is printed in separate print run, so you my
find it easier to do the address page in Microsoft Word as in
Equation 52.
Equation 52 mail merging in Microsoft Word
Go > Business Contacts
Tools > Find > Advanced Find
Frequently used Fields > Categories contains subscriber
Find Now > Yes > OK
Tools > Mail Merge
Only Selected Contacts
Existing document: C:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2005002.pub
Document type: Form Letters
Merge to: Printer
OK
After completing either Equation 51 or Equation 52, Take the
finished papers and discard those with invalid or poorly printed
addresses. Then reverse the remaining good papers, invert and feed
them back into the printer to do the flyer with Equation 53.
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Equation 53 Multiple copies in Microsoft publisher
Start > Programs > Microsoft Office > Microsoft Publisher
File > Open > c2005003.pub
Tools > Mail and Catalog Merge > Cancel Merge
File > Print
Current Page
Number of Copies: 5
Print
After printing is completed delete the copies of the contacts. If you
like to keep a full record of what you have sent you can attach a
journal entry in the Business activities section as per Equation 54.
This is not a replacement for the category entry because
unfortunately MS Outlook 2003 cannot select Contact records based
on business activity entries.
Equation 54 a business note for several contacts
Start > Programs > Microsoft Office > Microsoft Publisher
File > New > Business Note
Results
The result is a series of flyers (coordinated to your Microsoft
Powerpoint presentations) with the addresses on the back that can
be put into windowed envelopes.
The document name can be found in the Activities section of each
contact.
Conclusion
The mail merge check makes sure both Microsoft Publisher and
Microsoft Outlook are talking and the contacts are in the right place.
Geocomputing Management 282
Chapter 4 DISCUSSION: integrating data
In this chapter I assume you have the skills needed for the previous
chapter, and as with that chapter these exercise are from easier to
more difficult. What is different is that these examples extend
beyond one or two programs to make an effective data flow that you
can build on to make a complete process train for your own work.
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A training or emergency plan
This case occurred when I was producing an emergency plan for the
Broadview Freemasons Centre. Rather than agraphics file I needed a
paper plan that could be tabled at the committee meeting and
discussed. I could use the check list in Table 79 for producing a
poster but this time I needed the map to be to scale, so the
background image was first prepared in Golden Software Surfer. I
also needed to make a plaque with a plan of the building, so I used
the check list in Table 36. The generalised procedure, generalised
from all these cases, involves several steps:
1. Make the background image in Google Earth
2. Rectify the image in Golden Software Surfer
3. Make the building plan in Golden Software MapViewer
4. Make up any marginalia, such as an occurrence diagram
using XML files and Internet Explorer.
5. Select an ordinary template (Poster versus Flyer) in MS
Publisher
6. adjust the page settings
7. modify a background
8. place your graphics on the page
9. print, cut and piece together the mosaic
10. review the poster
There quite a few bits of software you will need to be familiar with:
- Google Earth
- Golden Software Surfer with links to Microsoft Excel
- Golden Software MapViewer
- Microsoft Word
- Microsoft Notepad to edit XML files and then viewing them in
Microsoft Internet Explorer
- Microsoft Publisher
I made a few mistakes as I was doing this so I have written a check
list at Table 90. For my own work I use the Microsoft Publisher
blends theme and choose template Flyer for the poster but I use
Poster for a map. Similarly I take the default Poster size that
covers most of a mosaic of 9 A4 pages for a poster, but the
Geocomputing Management 284
emergency plan I use the ANSI D (code-named Banner) which fits
the standard pin-board offering from Officeworks. I could change it
to something large like A0 for all situations, but that means more
scissor work and the larger rolled up poster would be more difficult
to handle/hide on the plane or train. As well as the check list in
Table 90, in the section A poster in Microsoft Publisher there are
example commands to help you do the fiddly bits like:
1. Making the poster background lighter (Equation 32)
2. inserting a snapshot of a Microsoft Word document for any
advertising (Equation 33)
3. cutting up the poster mosaic sheets to give a nice neat look
4. managing different versions of component files with a
project file (Equation 34 in the previous chapter section
Using a Microsoft Batch file for project management)
5. mounting that project file on your own web page for one
click starting of all your component documents (Equation 35
also in the later section Making an HTML file to keep track
of your projects)
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Table 90 check list for making a table map
Annotation spreadsheet: Date:

Poster document number: scale Image bar
1. .kml 4. .png 1:76 10 metres.
2. .jpg 5. png.gsr2 7. .doc 1:144 20 metres
3. .gss 6. .gsi 8. other
STAGE
milestone tick
1 PREPARE THE BACKGROUND IMAGE
Choose the special dimensions of the Google Earth window
Make the KML file for the boundary of the area of interest (tick KML box above)
Turn on the location plan ()
Put Google Earth scale in LH corner of image
Set size (776 x 600 pixels) and match zoom so that 10m or 20m bar (tick box above)
All notices showing
Extract JPEG file and tick jpg box above
Table 80 Adjust your project file poster.bat for new filenames
2 RECTIFY IMAGE IN GOLDEN SOFTWARE SURFER
Map scale in cm
Scale selected and mark above (Map: Properties >Scale >X Scale)
stretching photograph to match scale to scale
Add the symbols from the asset file
Draft annotations added
Add any polygons
Export the PNG file complete with GS Reference version2 file (.png.gr2 file)
Export the Golden Software interchange file (.gsi) for GS MapViewer.
Table 80 Adjust your project file poster.bat for new filenames
4 USE A POSTER MONTAGE TO LAYOUT THE MAP
Make up the handouts (in Microsoft Word) with the legends and scale
Table 81 use XML to make up the marginalia
Table 36 make up the building plan in GS MapViewer
All file boxes except pub ticked above
Table 79 check list to layout a poster in Microsft Publisher
Table 80 Adjust your project file poster.bat for new filenames

Geocomputing Management 286
A Search Centre for web-based research
In about the year 2000, the Society of Professional Well Log Analysts
(SPWLA) put together a list of all the mnemonics used in the data
files by different geophysical wire-line logging contractors. This was
a wonderful authority for my data loading work and I found I was
going to their site regularly and entering a code quite often, to the
extent that I was getting frustrated about how many mouse clicks it
took to return the result. Also there were other specialist search
engines which I wanted to use in preference to the generic Google
and Yahoo! searches because I knew I could trust the results that
were returned. I wanted to keep these favoured search sites
together and organised so I could find specialist work-related stuff in
a hurry.
After several different trials I settled on the Search Centre concept
used on my own web site
b
and maintained by the procedure
discussed here. The application features:
A standard Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) page that
can be used on any clients machine that has Internet
access, without downloading extra software like in the case
of Wikipaedia .
It is a hand written in HTML so it is a relatively small file that
can be downloaded fast for mobile computing.
The text keywords are entered in first before you choose the
engine to be used, so you dont have to write down the
mnemonic, but type it straight in and then have a thought
about which search engine you want to use
The search engine is selected by a single mouse click.
You confirm the search.
The next HTML page you see are the results being returned.
Each listing of the search engine is also a direct link to the
front page of that search engine so you can do advanced
searches if you want to.
The steps in maintaining the page are:

b
http://grantjacquier.info/database.html#searchcentre2
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1. record the specific details of a search engine
2. make an extract for the script file
3. make an extract for the HTML page
4. test the page
5. upload the page to the web site
The particular checks for this work are given in Table 93. A list of
commands is found after this at Equation 55. The only requirements
for this exercise are:
- Spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel
- A text editor, I use Microsoft Script Editor, which comes with
the professional edition of Microsoft Office 2003, because it
has prompts for the correct spelling and syntax of the HTML
tags.
- File Transfer Protocol (ftp) software and in this example I
use the ftp facility built into Microsoft Explorer for Windows
XP.
The spreadsheet, c2006012.xls in this exercise, must be prepared
and has the values of Table 91 and Table 92 defined in the sheet
constant.
Table 91 named values for the insert in database.html
name code
insert_start <table class="gate"><tr><td class="gatepicket">
line_start <input type="radio" name="engine" value="
first_sep " id="RadioB
second_sep " checked onclick="this.form.action='
thrid_sep '" ><nobr><a href="
fourth_sep " title="
fifth_sep ">
tail_row </td><td class="gatepicket">
insert_end </td></tr></table>
numMaxRow 10
numTitleRow 1
Table 91 are the components of the formula to give the lines to be
inserted in database.html, whereas Table 92 is to compose the page
to be saved as engines.js, the database file of the different engines.
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This Javascript file is saved as 'Formatted Text space separated', and
then renamed with the suffix .js added.
Table 92 named formuale for composing engines.js
name code
page_start function buildEngine (nameEngine, namePart) { var stringYes = "1"; switch
(nameEngine) {
id_start case( "
id_end " ):
pair_separator = "
new_param " ;
line_end break;
page_end } switch (namePart) { case( "action" ): stringPart = stringAction; break; case(
"method" ): stringPart = stringMethod; break; case( "nameQuery" ): stringPart
= stringQueryName; break; case( "valid" ): stringPart = stringValid; break;
default: myString = "WARNING: The query element:"; stringAlert =
myString.concat(" ",namePart); myString = stringAlert; stringAlert =
myString.concat(";",stringExcuse); window.alert(stringAlert); } return
stringPart; }
The shorthand of commands for doing the work is given in Equation
55.
Equation 55 commands for making a search centre
"C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\OFFICE11\EXCEL.EXE"
File | Open | C:/DATA/C_IN_G/LETTERS/c2006012.xls
script
Insert | Rows
File | Save
File | Save As
Save in: extranet
File name: engines.js
Save as type: Formatted text (Space delimited)
Save | OK | Yes | Yes
File | Close | OK | Yes
File | Open | C:/DATA/C_IN_G/LETTERS/c2006012.xls
insert
Insert | Rows
File | Save
references
Data | Sort
Expand the selection
OK
Sort by: HTMLname
OK
insert
Edit | Copy
"C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\OFFICE11\MSE7.EXE"
File | Open | File
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/DATA/C_IN_G/extranet/databse.html
Edit Paste as HTML
Geocomputing Management 290
Table 93 checks for making a 'search centre'
spreadsheet name: last engine code: last row:


0. STEP
milestone (verification) tick
1. RECORD THE SPECIFIC DETAILS OF THE SEARCH ENGINE
Spreadsheet name recorded above
All fields filled, in the spreadsheet (eg: c2006012.xls!references)
Last engine code recorded above
Last row recorded above
Adjusted the count per column (InsertMaxRow)
2. WRITE THE SCRIPT FILE
Table 91 named values for the insert in database.html
Table 92 named formulae for composing engines.js
Start line present (=page_start)
Inserted extra rows to row above to return the engine code above
Sorted by engine code column
Last line present (=page_end)
Only single quotes around parameters in engines.js
3. EXTRACT THE WEB PAGE INSERT
Start line present (=insert_start)
Inserted extra rows to row above to return the engine code above
Sorted by HTMLname column
Last line present (=insert_end)

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A catalogue of document files
This procedure deals with trying to put together a list of files, used
to document a project, complete with descriptions. The intent is that
you can use the catalogue to keep track of your project workand
form the basis for any reporting. The two cases used as examples
here are:
You have a number of figures, especially processed satellite
images, that you would like to use but you just cant
remember what and where they all are. You need a central
place to store the figures so you can browse them and
remember which ones you can use in a Microsoft Powerpoint
presentation.
You have a library of electronic documents in Adobe Portable
Document (PDF) format) and Microsoft Word *.doc format
that you have downloaded from the Internet because they
have pertinent information regarding your research and
development. In this case I was setting up my mobile phone
to demonstrate how I could place a land-use map generated
from satellite imagery and output to JPEG format, on a web-
site that could be viewed, live on the Internet, in the field.
To help find a particular reference, such as Telstra (2005)
c
,
which I needed for this job, I like to have a HTML page on
my confidential intranet (see IIS in the Transfer of a
computer system section) with all the project references
listed, a virtual book shelf, that I can browse for the
particular one.
The key difference between the catalogue here and the ones found
in the in other sections is that the documents dont have a unique
geographic (Make an asset catalogue for the natural environment),
electronic (A Search Centre for web-based research) or spatial (An
asset catalogue for the built environment) location, nor a report
where they have been stashed in the bibliography (A minimalist
bibliography system). So the aim of this section is to show you how
to pull descriptions of those files that have been left out of the other

c
'Telstra Mobile Internet setup instruction guide,' (2005).
Geocomputing Management 292
systems into a catalogue that catches-all. The outcome of this
procedure is:
a. Thompson Endnote library database.
b. An HTML book-shelf page for use on your intranet
Also if you do the Microsoft Excel option you will have a:
c. A Microsoft Excel database of figure descriptions
The next sub-sections give you a brief on the assumptions, a history
of the application and the different software used since 2001, the
different ways you can achieve these outcomes, how good is the
application and what improvements can be expected.
Software and assumptions
The software required for this work is:
a. Thompson EndNote version X or later, (formerly ISI-
Researchsoft EndNote).
b. Microsoft Explorer
c. Microsoft Internet Explorer
The bibliographic database is required to have a URL field with files
of .jpg, .tif or .gif endings. If you want to use any of the documents
given in Table 94 you way wish to use the alternative, older
techniques. In which case you will also need:
d. Microsoft Powerpoint
e. Microsoft Excel
f. Microsoft Notepad
Table 94 other types of documents on a computer
Computer name date

recommendations to recover/catalogue/use data
Your recommendation:
What I used in 4/2007
folder system
Documents and settings\?????? s Documents
registered name

Geocomputing Management 293
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Computer name date

recommendations to recover/catalogue/use data
Your recommendation:
What I used in 4/2007
folder system
Fax N
My Data Sources Y
My Digital Editions N
??????s Music
My Playlists N
Sample Music N
Other folders eg: Metropolitan Male Choir of SA Y
MM Jukebox Plus Upgrade N
Other *.mpa (eg jabbin.mpa) Y
??????s Pictures
Adobe Y
Microsoft Clip Organizer Y
*.jpg, *.gif Y
Sample Pictures N
??????s Video
Narration
c200600*.wmv; c2006*.MSWMM X
Delme.* N
*.wmv; *.MSWMM. *.mov Y
My Data Sources Y
My Digital Editions N
My eBooks N
My Notebook
4
N
any subject directories e.g.: Lantana X
Ulead Video Studio N
*.doc X
*.inf
3
N
*.MDI X
LEGEND
N : nothing copied from this folder
: some things copied from this folder
Y : whole folder copied to C:\Documents and Settings\ on rebuilt disk
X : copied to that particular persons data directory e.g. c:\DATA\HRICE\.
NOTES
1
Found only in C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\ folder system
2
Not found only in C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\ folder system
3
Found only in C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\ folder system
4
If you have purchased Microsoft OneNote, to use as an exploration journal, you will need this
directory as it has the OneNote database.
Geocomputing Management 294

The use of Thomson EndNote in preference to Microsoft Excel as
a catch-all document database
Originally, the references to processed images were entered into a
ISI EndNote 4 database, then a work list of figures was printed out
on a single sheet of paper, which was attached to the front of the
work journal to allow easy reference. The table gave:
1 category, called Label in the bibliographic database
2 Accession Number
3 Title
4 Notes
The list was created using the Endnote filter
c:/data/endnote/styles/worklist. The records were then exported
(File >Export) to a text file and an HTML header and footer were
placed on the file before being printed out. The category field
allowed the list to be sorted into rough order such as raw data (in
the case of a satellite image), quality control, etc. This was fine in
the short term, when the data is being actively worked, but after
some time this extra knowledge fades and an aide memoire is
required.
An improvement to this method was begun in 2003 but it wasnt
until June 2004 that a new technique was tried and recorded,
incorporating Microsoft Excel. This was used for creating the links in
the Search Centre on the Computers in Geology website and the
procedure is given in the section Make a Search Centre for web-
based research. The strength of this approach was that it gives you
more control over the HTML tags you use to layout the data (Table
92 in the example of the search engine).
Then in 2006, the X version of Thomson EndNote, the original
product used for this work, had a separate Tools | Subject
Bibliography menu item which overtook the facility of Microsoft
Excel for providing a work list. The full power of the EndNote
formatting allows much better descriptive material to be attached,
and all the additional text, previously stored in Microsoft Excel, are
kept with the original reference in the Notes (fiction?) or Research
Geocomputing Management 295
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Notes (facts?) fields of the EndNote reference record.
Equation 56 structure of the EndNote proprietary XML
format
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<xml>
<records>
<record>
<database
name="c2007013.enl"
path="C:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2007013.enl"
>c2007013.enl</database>
<source-app
name="EndNote"
version="11.0"
>EndNote</source-app>

See Table 95 for entries here

<ref-type
name="Web Page"
>12</ref-type>
<titles>
<title>A search engine for jobs.</title>
</titles>
<dates>
</dates>
<urls>
<related-urls>
<url>http://www.vacancies.sa.gov.au/</url>
</related-urls>
</urls>
<record>
</records>
</xml>
Also in the version X is the introduction of the Endote Proprietary
XML format as in Equation 56, which combined with an XSL style-
sheet, reduced the amount of preparation to import the catalogue
into an HTML file for display in browser. I first used this to exhibit
external references for different projects. You could use something
like projlib.xsl of The projlib.xsl script reformats an EndNote XML
extract to give a catalogue of electronic documents in an HTML
page, see the section Making a catalogue of files.
Equation 95 in the appendix to display references for an external
consultant acting as a competent person (as per the JORC standard
for the Australian Stock Exchange) reviewing your information on a
mining prospect, before authorising a press release to the stock
Geocomputing Management 296
exchange. The XML tags used there are given in Table 95.
Table 95 alphabetical list of fields from EndNote with
equivalent start tag from the EndNote proprietary XML
??????? <rec-no>
Accession Number <accession-num>
Author Address <auth-address>
Call Number <call-num>
????? <contributors>
Edition <edition>
Name of Database <remote-database-name>
Geocomputing Management 297
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For the future versions of EndNote, the order in which the references
can be displayed can also be manipulated which may make this
function useful for data mining your references in order of suitability,
like having your own Google search, but that is in the future, and not
covered here.
Methods of making a catalogue file
The stages in making a catalogue of files are:
1. Write some descriptions of the files
2. Select the files you wish to use
3. Write the file descriptions to the holding file
4. Load the holding file into the browser
These stages are shown in the check list in Table 96 and the raw
menu commands for Thompson EndNote are given in Equation 57.
Below that are further sub-sections giving specifics about alternative
software that could be used, for instance: using Microsoft Excel,
instead of Microsoft Internet Explorer, to browse the HTML file. The
sub-sections are:
- Export an HTML catalogue direct from Thomson EndNote
- Using Microsoft Excel for editing of the catalogue


Geocomputing Management 298
Table 96 check list for making a catalogue of files
Folder or database (*.enl): date:

Project code name: Field for sorting (circle one)
Research Notes | Notes
STAGE
milestone tick
1 MOUNT THE FILES YOU WISH TO USE
Search Whole Library set as option if using detailed search
2 PREPARE THE DESCRIPTIONS
The exchange file recorded above
Written the library file name above
Check each reference and link to the source if available
Copy this file to the default PDF folder is unchecked
URL field entered
Keywords (categories) typed into key field
3 SELECT THE FILES YOU WISH TO USE
Search Whole Library set as option if using detailed search
Select, above, the key field you are going to use
4 ARRANGE THE TEMPLATE FILE
Table 81 key aspects of an HTML file
5 WRITTEN THE FILES YOU WISH TO USE
Selected txt in the Save file type
holding file renamed to correct suffix as below
Recorded the URL to the holding file, both recorded below
6 LOAD THE CATALOGUE FILE INTO THE BROWSER
URL written below
Link from introduction page (world.kml)
Link from index page works
Link from projects page works
Files based on project name (mark the order created):
EndNote XML exchange file (*.xml) HTML load file (*.htm):
Microsoft Excel library (*.xls) EndNote library (*.enl):
XSL(T) selection file (*.xsl) EndNote selection file (*.qry)
Jscript Holding file (*.js) KML holding file (*.xls)
HTML template file (*.HTM) Other:
URL for holding file:

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Export an HTML catalogue direct from
Thomson EndNote
You can export direct to HTML from Thomson EndNote if you prefer.
This system is in use on the Computers in Geology intranet from
October 2006 with the resulting HTML file projlib.htm
a
. The
projlib.htm page at October 2006 does show the URL for the file on
the disk, it isnt embedded as a HTML <a href=></a> tag so
you cannot click on the hyperlink to start Adobe PDF reader to look
at it directly. Some experimentation is required to make a purpose-
built EndNote output format for this application, which at least
should include the hyperlink facility. The raw menu commands, for
using EndNote to do this work are given in Equation 57.
Equation 57 making an HTML catalogue file
File > Open > Open Library > c2006036.enl
Reference > Search References
Search: Project
In: Research Notes Contains And
Search: c2006036
Search
Tools > Subject Bibliography
Selected Fields: Research Notes
OK
Select All
OK
Output Style: Show All
Layout > References
Reference List Title: Computers in Geology\nELECTRONIC DOCUMENT
REFERENCE LIST
OK
Save
Save as type: HyperText Markup Language (HTML) (*.htm)
File name: C_IN_G/HOME/projlib.htm
Yes
Close
File > Exit
You select the figures in Thomson EndNote using References >
Search and then clicking on the Load Search button and perhaps
chosing a pre-defined standard search such as hyland. The list is
then created using the Endnote filter
c:/data/endnote/styles/workdump with the records exported (File

a
The electronic document catalogue file, projlib.htm, was last found at
http://localhost/C_IN_G/HOME/projlib.htm
Geocomputing Management 300
>Export) to a text file and an HTML header and footer placed on
the file.
Using Microsoft Excel for editing of the
catalogue
You may prefer to use Microsoft Excel for the catalogue database
itself, such as providing it to another site whee they dont Thompson
EndNote. If you wish to do so, Open the edited HTML file in
Microsoft Internet Explorer then choose Edit > Select All from the
menu, followed by Edit > Copy. Then with Microsoft Excel open a
blank spreadsheet labelled Catalogue select the first cell of the
second row and Edit > Paste. Save the spreadsheet as hyland in
the c:/data/c_in_g/numbat/hylandhwy directory.
The ultimate extension of this is to create a further export which is
covered in the section A Search Centre for web-based research
and uses the check lists:
- Table 91 named values for the insert in database.html
- Table 92 named formuale for composing engines.js
- Table 93 checks for making a 'search centre'
The future: dedicated catalogue applications
The procedures above are available and working but it would be nice
if the catalogue could be incorporated into a Microsoft PowerPoint
presentation of small figures. Ultimately, the Powerpoint
presentation could be replaced with a catalog file (*.cag or *.mmc)
from Microsoft Clip Gallery 5.0. This will allow the presenter to
download thumbnails via the catalogue file and use them directly in
Microsoft PowerPoint, rather than having to preview, download,
upload and then review again. Currently, there is no way of
preloading these thumbnails but I hope that future versions of the
Windows XP equivalent Microsoft Clip Organiser may do this.
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Time and expense account
Another complication with corporate data and clerks is that at some
stage you will have to allocate your time spent working to different
project accounts. Even when you work for yourself you must
distinguish, for your tax records, the expenses used earning your
immediate living, i.e. operating expense, and that expense put into
research projects, which are not earning income, i.e. capital
expense.
Table 97 expenses incurred by geologists
1

occupation operating expense capital expense
computer geologist computer depreciation
software depreciation
office expenses
travel expenses
trade journals
computer depreciation
software depreciation
office expenses
exploration geologist salary
travel expenses
fuel
drilling
mine geologist salary
fuel
drilling

1
For a discussion of this topic see the chapter Introduction to financial evaluation of mining projects in
White (1997)
b

However, for the computer geologist there is a quick way of doing
this using the automatic journaling function available in Microsoft
Outlook with the ubiquitous office software Microsoft Office. It does
assume that you are filling in Keywords: field of the File >
Properties panel of all your Microsoft Office files, but you should
be doing this for all fields, at least as an example to your clients and
to make your job of file handling easier.
If you have been filling out the keywords field then you can produce
the report, by several stages:
Preparation before the accounting period

b
White, Management of mineral exploration.
Geocomputing Management 302
Export the journal items
Manually add any missing Categories
Configure the Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet
Analyse the report
To help myself to remember how to do this for each tax period I
have made the following checklist, for Microsoft Outlook and Excel,
but you may prefer the longer narrative descriptions of the stages
that follow.
Table 98 Using Microsoft Outlook for tracking project hours
STAGE
milestone tick
1 PREPARATION BEFORE ACCOUNTING PERIOD
Start and practice using Keywords: field
Journaling turned on
Journaling configured
2 REPORT FOR EACH ACCOUNTING PERIOD REPORT
Table 99 check list for calculating project hours

Summarising your work for an accounting period
At the next accounting report period you need to produce an export
of the journal items into Microsoft Excel as per Table 99.
1. Start Microsoft Outlook and use the menus to open the
Journal folder ie: Go To > Journal.
2. Then modify the view to give the spreadsheet like form that
is: View > Arrange By > Current View > Entry List.
3. Now export the journal entries to Microsoft Excel file like the
example of wt102103.xls for all the entries for the 2002-
2003 financial year i.e. File > Import and Export >
Outlook > Export to a file > Microsoft Excel > Journal
> wt102103.xls > Export Journal Entries from folders
Journal > Finish

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Table 99 check list for calculating project hours
start: 1
st
July end: 30
th
June Excel file: total rows:
20 20
STAGE
milestone tick
1 PREPARATION BEFORE ACCOUNTING PERIOD
Start and practice using Keywords: field
Journaling turned on
Journaling configured
2 EXPORT THE JOURNAL ITEMS
Show Journal folder as `View | Change View | Entry List
1

Export to /data/admin/wtdump.xls `File | Open |Import | Export to a file | Microsoft`
1

In wtdump.xls, delete any rows outside of the period of interest
Put the total number of rows above
3 CONFIGURE THE MS EXCEL SPREADSHEET
Take a copy of the previous years worksheet
Edit the file properties (File | Properties )
Save the file (File | Save )
Embed the range of values from wtdump.xls into Journal!A:P
Edit the file properties (File | Properties )
Sort by Subject (Data | Sort by..)
Remove these lines
C;\TEMP\...
C:\Users
C:\Program Files\
Add any missing categories (Keywords:)
Error! Reference source not found. example adjustment of
the journal

Save the file (File | Save )
Add any missing category codes in sheet project!A:B
Table 59 example category to project codes
projects range defined (Edit | Go To | projects )
Add any missing project codes in sheet type!A:B
Table 100 project to expense type examples
types range defined (Edit | Go To | types )
formulas from Equation 58 copied in tally sheet to last row above
check for any #NA() indicating labels are missing from tables
Save the file (File | Save )
5 REPORT THE FIGURES
refresh the data
Options set for percent (Show Values as | % of Grand Total)
Number format set to one decimal place
Geocomputing Management 304
Options set for minutes (Show Values as | No Calculation)
Measured time uncontracted, rounded to nearest percent
capita l: private : work :
% % %
NOTES
1
Before Office 2010 these commands in Outlook were used to extract the journal entries:
`View | Arrange by | Current View | Entry List
File | Import and Export | Outlook
Preparation of the Journal function in Microsoft Outlook
The first step is to turn the journal function on. So in Microsoft
Outlook menu select Tools > Options > Preferences > Journal
Options to bring up the screen shown in Figure 32. The correct
preferences needed to use the journal are marked in this screen
snapshot. I also set the AutoArchive Journal Entries options
to clean out the journal after 18 months, but you may prefer a
shorter period, say bi-monthly, if you are reporting to your corporate
accountant rather than the taxation office.
The limitation is that the times are only recorded for the software
Microsoft Word, Microsoft Access, Microsoft Excel and Microsoft
PowerPoint, but then if you are using these products you will cover
such work as project proposals, licence applications, manuals,
reports, data entry, budgets, and reviews, but that is a fair cross-
section of projects in different stages of life and it will provide a
good estimate of the ratio of the time spent between each form of
work. I am a bit unsure on how useful the journaling is with
Microsoft Access as this is on the file level which is equivalent to a
database in Microsoft Access and most geologists would have many
projects in the one database but you can always allocate this time to
a general overhead which can then be redistributed according to the
ratios on the other programs.
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Figure 32 is the configuration for the Microsoft Outlook
journal function
Configuring your Journal reporting spreadsheet
If you open the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet e.g. wt102103.xls you
find the data there under the sheet named Journal. In the subject
and category columns you will notice the path of the file and its
allocated use to a project of some sort. These will need to be added
to unless you are extremely disciplined when entering the properties
of each of your journalled documents. A schedule of directory versus
project theme, is a good place to get this information, for example
the Computers in Geology scheme is in Table 70 of the Archiving
and Indexing section.
Depending on what you have been putting in the key word areas of
your documents you will need to add another couple of sheets to the
workbook. For example you may need a lookup table of keywords to
convert them into project codes, and then into expense type as in
Table 100. For convenience, I named the two look-up tables:
projects and types respectively. The expense type is to be used to
pick-out your depreciable expense so the is a minmum number for
type is two: private or work, but you can also put aside any capital
Geocomputing Management 306
expense for capital gains calculations on later tax returns by using
the capital code as I have done in Table 100.
Equation 58 Microsoft Excel macros for the sheet tally used
to convert the Journal entries
tally!A1 = project
tally!A2
=IF(ISBLANK(G2),IF(D2="C:\DATA\ADMIN\SHARES.XLS","investment","
administration"),VLOOKUP(G2,projects,2))
tally!B1 = type
tally!B2 =VLOOKUP(A2,types,2)
tally!C1 = count
tally!C2 = Journal!G2
To bring the project codes and the expense codes together,
introduce a new sheet tally with three columns on the far left side
of the Journal sheet, with header rows project, type and count; and
populate the cells with Equation 58.
Table 100 example conversion of project codes into expense
type
project type
11 private
administration work
investment work
Numbat capital
Perentie capital
private private
Santos work
societies work
unallocated private
Wombat capital
ZZZ private
Report the figures for an accounting period
If the substituted values and the Journal entries are in place you
need to make a PivotTable summary of the Journal sheet like Table
101. Using the Microsoft Excel menus the command is: Data >
PivotTable and PivotChart Report.
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Table 101 summary table for work time allocation
Sum of Duration project type
project capital private work Grand Total
administration 0.00% 0.00% 13.34% 13.34%
investment 0.00% 0.00% 5.41% 5.41%
Numbat 19.54% 0.00% 0.00% 19.54%
Perentie 23.00% 0.00% 0.00% 23.00%
private 0.00% 14.77% 0.00% 14.77%
Santos 0.00% 0.00% 0.02% 0.02%
societies 0.00% 0.00% 23.91% 23.91%
Grand Total 42.54% 14.77% 42.69% 100.00%
I feel the trickiest bit here is the formatting, which must be done on
the cell containing Sum of Duration.
1. Use the dropdown menu option Field Settings to give
Figure 33.
2. Then select Options
3. Choose % of total
4. Also set formatting to two decimal places via the Number
button


Figure 33 the Field Settings window
Geocomputing Management 308
An asset catalogue for the built environment
When it came to equipment I have followed the Australian Taxation
Office guidelines and found it all very easy to calculate my
depreciation. However, when it came to the Broadview Freemasons
Centre and setting up a catalogue not so much to calculate a
deduction but to keep an eye on expenses and predict maintenance
of heritage items, it was a bit more detailed. It was time to write
something down about how I was doing the calculations and logging
the equipment, furniture and fittings.
About the time I was addressing the first asset database for the
Broadview Freemasons centre in 2006, the Data Metallogenica
Centre had just been packed away into containers and only the web-
site remained available for perusal. This followed two or so years
after the dissolution of the Australian Mineral Foundation and various
reports on the breakdown of geoscience library collections at various
education and government institutions. The age of centralised
collections was coming to an end. The future of this material lies
with small dispersed collections where the material has not only a
science context but also has social significance and will be protected
and respected by the local community. An example is that hand
specimens from the Burra Mines would never be thrown out if they
were curated at the school library, town hall or heritage centre
within the town, the local peoples pride would be offended.
One of the great strengths of the Data Metallogenica collection was
the chance to compare deposits, but after scanning the plates of
specimens and then matching these to maps provided by the mining
companies and published references it became apparent that this
type of work could be done more efficiently via the web-site
c
.
Therefore, it could be expected that museum catalogues may be
centralised while collections are not. For example beside the
Australian Museum main catalogue
d
, there is an additional catalogue
e

of many museums across the country dealing with Australian
material. For your particular collection the simplest is to make a
Microsoft Excel based asset list that can be simultaneously used for

c
http://www.datametallogenica.com/
d
http://www.amonline.net.au
e
http://amol.org.au/guide/collectionStrengths.asp
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tax, maintenance, cataloguing and insurance purposes. Some of the
key formulae are listed in Table 102 where the following has been
assumed:
no personal use of the associations property
the Australian Taxation Office recommendations for
Depreciation worksheet in Australian Taxation Office (2000)
f

Table 102 formulae and headings for a MS Excel-based built
asset list
named cells for this example
YR_START
2
financial period
=DATE(YEAR(YR_END)-1,7,1) =YEAR(YR_START)&" -"&YEAR(YR_END)
YR_END
2
income
=DATE(x,6,31) =$J$117
header
3
range
sub-header sub-range
formula or primary data description
Date of addition or adjustment $A$8:$E
A. Date of purchase
B. First day of fiduciary year if a pool of assets (=YR_START)
Description of each unit. $B$8:$B
generic name, qualifier by number of items
1

Adjustments $C$6:$D
Details $C$8:$C
A. Sum impr.
B. Describe the improvement on an asset pool
Amount $D$8:$D
A. an example is =-SUM($D8:$D16)
B. cost of the improvement on an asset pool
Cost of plant less adjustments $E$8:$E
A. For pooled assets (=previous closing written down - $D8)
B. actual cost
Opening written down value * $F$8:$F
A. =$E8
B. =(100-(YEAR(YR_START)-YEAR($A8))*$L8)/100*$E8
Opening un-deducted cost # $G$8:$G
=$F8
Disposals $H$6:$K
Balancing Adjustments $J$7:$K
Assessable income $J$8:$J

f
Australian Taxation Office, Guide to depreciation (Canberra, 2000).
Geocomputing Management 310
Assessable sales
=SUM($J$8:$J114) $J115
Less relief offsets against other plant u
4
$J116
losses from other disposals
Amount to be returned as income (do not deduct from depreciation) u
4
$J117
=J115-J116
Deductible $K$8:$K
deductible sales
=SUM($K$5:$K114) $K115
Depreciation $L6:$M
% Rate L8:L
Value of depreciation in whole percent
Closing written down value * $Q$8:$Q
=IF($P8>$F8,0,F8-$P8)
Closing undeducted cost $R$8:$R
=IF($G9>SUM($M9:$N9),$G9-SUM($M9:$N9),0)


1
capitals for a room, * as a prefix for a pool (all at the same depreciation value) and prefix for an item
without a formula that is just being listed for inventory sake, lower case for a single expense item like the
carpet.
2
Specify the year end in a named cell.
3
From Depreciation worksheet in Australian Taxation Office (2000)
g

4
use Format > Font > Wingdings 3 to turn u into a shape so that you can place this label in the cell
to the left of the range cell.
The assumptions to go with Table 102 are:
only items from the same depreciation schedule are pooled
pooled items are depreciated by the diminishing value
method
single entry items are depreciated by the prime cost method
I use a specified year end because when we started the
Broadview Freemasons Centre Association Incorporated,
there was a lot of other business like by-laws and signage to
sort out first, it was several years before I had to get the
asset register in order.
If the assets are numerous like hall furniture, I will pool them and
depreciate as a single value. You replace a certain number each
year, so I keep a line in the sheet with the number of items, but

g
Ibid.
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dont treat them with any formulae. Heritage items are listed in with
the mundane, because you may have to give a copy of the list to the
police and then items of cutlery may lead to recovering an
irreplaceable stone or honour board. I found the quickest way to
provide evidence for this list is to take photographs of each wall of
the room, unload them to a CD-ROM and store this with the deeds of
the hall in the envelope with the bank.
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An asset catalogue for the natural environment
This catalogue is based around a geographical information system
(GIS), built in Golden Softwares MapViewer version 6. It utilises the
function to link a polygon to a file reference, called in MapViewer a
hyperlink, and so create a hierarchy of plans or documents. There
can also be an introduction, explanatory notes, and a conclusion file;
and so this method has general use as indicated by the case studies
in Table 103. HTML is an open standard so the link does not have to
be to and from just Golden Software created files.
Table 103 Using Golden Software MapViewer for mapping
case input working output intro notes summary
Broadview Fm C. emerg. plan *.gsi *.gsm *.wmf *.kml *.doc *.pdf
Broadview Fm C. seating plan n/a *.gsm *.html *.accdb *.doc *.pdf
Comps. In Geol. research areas n/a *.gsm *.html *.kml n/a *.jpg
Comps. In Geol. strat. diagram n/a *.gsm *.html n/a n/a *.jpg
LEGEND
*.accdb Microsoft Access 2010 database format
*.doc I use Microsoft Word 1997 format for compatability with other peoples computer systems
*.html Hypertext Markup Language file for the intranet
*.jpg Joint Photographic Group image file, produced automatically with an HTML export
*.gsi Golden Software interchange file, the native format used to exchange data between GS
Surfer and GS MapViewer.
*.gsm Golden Software mapping file, the native format for Golden Software
n/a : this facility not used in this case
*.pdf Adobe Portable Document format
*.wmf Windows Meta File, the proprietary Microsoft Windows file used for exchanging diagrams
n/a The facility is not used in this example
In the case of the Broadview Freemasons seating plans
(www.grantjacquier.info/download.html) the HTML file is generated
from Microsoft Access. In the Computers in Geology stratigraphic
diagram (www.grantjacquier.info/default.html) the links go to a
range of other web pages. More complex combination of maps and
links is discussed in the later sub-section Google Earth versus HTML
links between plans.
This general technique is commonly used in exploration to store
polygons representing exploration leases, land ownership,
environmental and native title boundaries and provides a
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geographical index to these base documents. Jahshan (2009
i
) sees
the ultimate corporate implementation of this as:
It will start from a dashboard widget that provides a Red,
Amber, Green indicator of the condition of, say,
infrastructure assets to a map that provides a geographic
sense of the problem, and finally to information that will
allow the executive to remedy the situation.
Similarly, we will use it here in a worked example to show the active
areas of research. If nothing else, the diagram will be a location plan
for your later mapping. The steps are:
1. Start with a KML standard file for the introduction
2. Create a world plan or other plan from Table 36 to give the
geographical context or background.
3. Create an Australia plan or other to give the continental
context
4. Link the world plan to the Australia plan
5. Publish the image to your intranet
The software required for this module is:
- Either the Google Earth browser or other HTML browser
- Golden Software MapViewer
- A text editor, I use Microsoft Script Editor which comes with
Microsoft Office, or on my clients Unix or Linux machines I
like nedit.
I also assume that there may be some additional data available from
processing your field measurements. For the example of the
Broadview Freemasons Centre emergency plan, this was an export
from Golden Software Surfer, but it could be Microsoft Excel or other
software. A general check list to make the plans for stages 1 and 5
are given in Table 104.

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Table 104 making a plan in Golden Software MapViewer
date: document files: Plan size:
import file (*.gsi) A2 poster
map file (*.gsm) A3 two page layout
document name: export file (*.html) A4 report page
export file (*.wmf) A6 report figure
notes file (*.doc) D5 pin board
batch file (*.bat): summary file (*.pdf)
title

0 STAGE
milestone tick
2 CREATE THE PLAN

Preparation, page size etc as per Equation 59

Import the working from Golden Surfer

Save as a map file and adjust the batch file (see Appendix in Equation 94)

Table 36 add other boundaries

Adjusted projection

Set the context/location plan as an inset

Altered symbols, added text and hyperlinks

Any additional information incorporated in explanatory notes

Final title and links added to the introduction file

Export full-size plan for adding to a poster via Windows metafile (WMF) format

Print the summary to A4 plaque size
1


In Acrobat Reader set to Landscape, and Shrink to page and print out to A4 sheet

NOTES
1
To create the plaque use:
File > Export
Name: PDF
Print method:



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Google Earth versus HTML links between plans
In 2007 I started using the Google Earth browser in place of
Microsoft Internet Explorer. I find that conceptually Google Earth
gives better background and introduction to sites than the plain or
traditional location map. That is probably too serious a subject to be
discussed fully here, for which I do have a full presentation of slides,
but you can see some of the philosophy behind this in the FAQs
h

(Frequently Asked Questions) of my web-site. Jahshan (2009
i
)
summarises this strength as it is relatively simple to integrate
Googles functions into most modern applications.
Eventually, I will work out how to open the location map in the
HTML browser window of Google Earth at the same time I load up
the base (Keyhole Markup Language) file, so you will find both ways
of introduction to a site, but in either case some preparatory work is
required:
The C:/DATA/Earth directory needs to be mounted
as a virtual directory (http://localhost/Earth) on the
intranet server as per section Setting up an
intranet.
Similarly for the KML example you will need to
mount the directories of photos as
http://localhost/fr2008 and http://localhost/om2008
to allow the Google Earth browser to see the
photographs
The outcome will be an asset catalogue which will answer your
science questions, and in which case you may find these sections
that follow this introduction of some use:
Make a location plan as the abstract
Make a KML file for the introduction
Use photographs as the background
Show your methods by local government area
Plot your results as thematic data

h
Try the question Why is XSL(T) technology becoming a big part of this site? at
http://grantjacquier.info/about.html#q018.
i
Jahshan, 'Changing corporate philosophy', no.
Geocomputing Management 316
Conclude with a map published to the intranet
Make a location plan as the abstract
To create any kind of index plan in MapViewer, start the program
from the Microsoft Windows Start menu and do the commands in
Equation 59. I use a single directory to hold the catalogue because
this allows me to work towards an whole-of-earth model. I also keep
my file names to eight characters to assist when transferring data
files. For example your standard DOS base ftp program will
reinterpret longer files names and you will stumble along when you
have to upload these catalogue files to your web site. I also use an
A6 size page because this is ideal for pasting into reports,
embedding into web pages or using as a location diagram on a
geological map. If you want to make an A0 plan to hang on your
wall, you should increase the settings suggested below by four
times. You may also need to add capital cities and a graticule to give
some texture to the plot. However, when I tried these on A6, it was
just too confusing.
Equation 59 making a plan in MapViewer
Start > Programs > Golden Software MapViewer 6 > MapViewer 6
File > New > Map > OK
File > Page Setup > A6
File > Save As > c:/data/Earth/Earth > OK
Map > Base Map > D:/Boundaries/World Miscellany/World-proj > OK
> OK > OK
File > Save
Map > Convert Projection > Van Der Grinten > OK
Map > Scale > 1 cm:20 degrees > OK
File > Save
Edit > Select All
Property Inspector + Pattern > Solid
Property Inspector + Fill Properties > Foreground > Sand
Apply
File > Save
Map > Map Collar > Default Collar Limits > OK
Map > Map Collar > Collar line/Fill > Foreground > Ocean Green
> OK > OK
Map > Limits > Specify rectangular limits > OK
File > Save
Golden Software provides a number of data files with their program.
As for the projections I have tried to make the best suggestion for
each in Table 37. In all cases, where there isnt an ellipsoid attached
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to the projection standard, I use an ellipsoid of WGS84 as this
matches raw GPS co-ordinates. The files for this example are:
c:\Program Files\Golden
Software\MapViewer6\Samples\World-proj.gsm
c:\Program Files\Golden
Software\MapViewer6\Samples\Australia.gsm
At each stage select one polygon, and colour it with foreground fill of
Red and then under Object description set the hyperlink to the
next file.
Make a KML file for the introduction
I use a KML (Keyhole Markup Language
j
) file world.kml to introduce
the different sites that I am working on. This world.kml file I update
as new documents, that can be located geographically, are added to
my computer hard drive. The beginning of this file is a simple table
of contents, shown in Equation 60, to the other files mentioned in
this chapter which is an alternative to the geographic introduction or
an HTML table based introductions (the heritage.html#gateway
reference in Equation 60).
Equation 60 the initial lines of world.kml showing the table
of contents given in the
<kml><Document><description></description><Docu
ment></kml> element.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!
Put your revision notes here
-->
<kml xmlns="http://earth.google.com/kml/2.2">
<Document>
<name>Computers in Geology research</name>
<open>1</open>
<description>
<p>This complements the MapViewer and table-based index
maps</p>
<ul>
<li><a href="./earth.htm">Earth</a></li>
<li><a href="./greece.htm">Greece</a></li>

j
The KML reference I last used was found at
http://code.google.com/apis/kml/documentation/kmlreference.html#viewvolume
Geocomputing Management 318
<li><a href="./victoria.htm">Victoria</a></li>
<li><a href="./australi.htm">Australian states subject
to research</a></li>
<li><a href="../C_IN_G/extranet/heritage.html#gateway"
>heritage table</a></li>
</ul>
</description>
The circumstances of the particular work described in this section
are that I have just come back from a three week tour to France and
Oman in the year 2008. The photos have been developed and digital
index prints have been returned to me on DVD which I have dumped
to hard disk in the directories C:\DATA\fr2008 and C:\DATA\om2008.
A tip I remembered to use here is that the two digit codes are the
country standards used in URLs on the Internet thus keeping the
directory names below 8 characters making them very easy to use in
scripts and perhaps transfer to other operating systems at a later
time. The intent is to add place markers giving links to the new
folders at the top of the Place marker section as shown in Equation
61.
Equation 61 extract of world.kml showing the first
<Placemark></Placemark> immediately below the
<Style></Style> definitions
<Style id="sh_ylw-pushpin">
<IconStyle>
<scale>10.0</scale>
</IconStyle>
</Style>


<Placemark>
<name>David IRVING's block, early 2008</name>
<description>
I used the gazetteer for world cities found in the MapViewer file
WorldCity.dat
k
to set a <Placemark></Placemark> element with
geographic coordinates corresponding to Lyon, to represent the tour
of France. The third coordinate for the entry for France, shown in
Equation 62, is elevation which for Lyon is round 300 m.
Alternatively, in Equation 62, the <altitude></altitude> tags within
the <LookAt><LookAt> tags describe the viewing height, and while

k
For MapViewer version 7 I found the World.City.dat file at C:\Program Files\Golden
Software\MapViewer 7\Samples
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I find 100 is good for a farm, a city is better represented by 10000
metres, though this is too little for Lyon and too much for Muscat.
For Oman, I used the coordinates for Muscat and repeated the
<Placemark></Placemark> element.
Equation 62 KML entry using the geographic coordinates for
Lyon
<Placemark>
<name>France, April 2008</name>
<description><![CDATA[
<p>The photographs from the tour of France,
centered on Lyon, for the first few weeks
of April 2008 are in the folder
<a href=http://localhost/fr2008
>./fr2008</a> linked here.</p>
]]>
</description>
<styleUrl>#msn_ylw-pushpin</styleUrl>
<LookAt>
<longitude>4.783333</longitude>
<latitude>45.7</latitude>
<altitude>10000</altitude>
<tilt>0</tilt>
<heading>0</heading>
<altitudeMode>relativeToGround</altitudeMode>
</LookAt>
<Point>
<coordinates>4.783333,45.7,300</coordinates>
</Point>
</Placemark>
One last thing I had to do was mount the two directories on the
Intranet so that they would be loaded automatically when referenced
by the HTML link. I was careful to select Directory browsing as an
option when sharing the folder. The commands for this are given in
Equation 63 to give the result of Figure 34 in the next section Use
photographs as the background.
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Figure 34 a list of shared photographs for a location
Use photographs as the background
Photographs including terrestrial, aerial and satellite make
interesting backdrops to any work. Since the introduction of the
painters canvas, picture shows have illustrated natural history talks.
You can create your slide show using your own photographs backed
up by the satellite and aerial photographs from Google Earth. Here is
how to do it, in increasing order of difficulty, so you can get
something up quick and then increase the intensity over time as you
move to the conclusion of your work:
1. Share the folders of your digital photographs on your
intranet
2. Show your photographs as a slide show in Microsoft
Explorer
3. Mount your terrestrial photos against satellite and aerial
imagery in Google Earth.
Share the folders of your digital photographs on your intranet
The first method, of sharing your folders on the web, is the result of
the previous section Make a KML file for the introduction and is
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achieved using Microsoft Explorer with the commands in Equation
63.
Equation 63 sharing the folder om2008 in Windows XP as
http://localhost/om2008
Start | All Programs | My Computer | C:\DATA
om2008
Sharing and Security
Web Sharing
Share on: Default Web Site
Share this folder
Add
Directory: C:\DATA\om2008
Alias: om2008
Access Permissions: Read, Directory browsing
Application permissions: Scripts
OK
OK
File | Close
The folder view created from Equation 63, is just a listing of all the
photographs like that shown in Figure 34, which after using the URL
in Microsoft Internet Explorer (for this example
http://localhost/om2008), you can click each name to see the
photographs for example Figure 35. No thumbnails at this stage, that
is in the next section, but it is the quickest way to get the
photographs into your asset catalogue, and quick enough to do,
before you take off your boots and make dinner, at the end of a field
day.
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Figure 35
http://localhost/om2008/Jacquie008325/000011.JPG
shown in Google Earth
Showing thumbnails with Microsoft Internet Explorer
To increase the level of sophistication of your background in your
own asset catalogue from just a plain list of the photographs, you
may consider presenting those photographs sorted as thumbnail
prints in the window of a browser accessed from your intranet, there
are three steps:
1. Make a batch file for the folder and place in the batch
directory
2. Set the folder to display thumbnails
3. Embed the necessary link in the HTML of KML file we are
using as the introduction.
We introduce a MS-DOS batch file for example angelos.bat, which
contains the example commands in Equation 64, into the batch file
directory C:\DATA\BAT. In the later section Setting up an intranet
this folder is setup with special properties so that scripts and batch
files are allowed to run from that folder, and that is assumed for this
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case. Also described in that later section, the other folders shared on
the web, have that special permission reduced, so as to minimise the
opportunity of a virus programme being injected into your
confidential web pages. And further using a script such as angelos
you dont have to share your image folders at all, that is dont even
worry about Equation 63.
Equation 64 commands to run Microsoft Explorer in a MS-
DOS bat file
REM
REM initialise script variables
REM
REM my_photos=c:\DATA\pictures\mavromatidi
REM my_photos=c:\DATA\pictures\kyamada
SET my_photos=c:\DATA\om2008\Jacquie008325
REM
REM run script logic
REM
ECHO "Starting photos batch script"
"C:\WINDOWS\explorer.exe" %my_photos%
REM
REM close down script
REM
SET my_photos=
ECHO "Photos complete!"
To set the particular folder to show thumbnails you will need to pre-
set the folder characteristics. This, as for Equation 63 is also done in
Microsoft Explorer with the commands in Equation 63.
Equation 65 changing the folder om2008/Jacquie008325 to
be viewed as thumbnails in Microsoft Explorer (Windows XP
edition)
Start | All Programs | My Computer | C:\DATA\om2008
Jacquie008325
Properties
Customize
What kind of folder do you want?
Use this folder as a template: Photo Album (best for fewer
files)
Also apply this template to all subfolders
OK
File | Close
Now to add the link to the Oman 2008 in Google Earth: adapt the
KML code between the <description></description> tags for the
Oman 2008 <placemark></placemark> to match that in Equation
Geocomputing Management 324
66. The full coding of the <placemark></placemark> is shown in
Equation 61 (without this change) and the creation of which is
discussed in the section Make a KML file for the introduction.
Google Earth has the feature of interpreting the <a></a> tags
directly while other HTML tags should be enclosed in
<![CDATA[]]>
l
, both programming styles are shown in Equation
66.
Equation 66 the <description></description> with a
reference to oman2008.bat
<description>
<![CDATA[
<p>The photographs from the tour of Oman, centred on
Muscat, in the last week of April 2008 are in the
folder <a href="http://localhost/om2008">./om2008</a>
linked here.</p>
]]>
<a href=http://localhost/cgi-bin/om2008.bat
>Picture Show for Oman 2008</a>
</description>
The results of Equation 66, give a HTML link in the Google Earth
browser which starts up another window for Microsoft Explorer to
give the view in Figure 36.

l
I found this dual capacity of Google Earth discussed at
http://code.google.com/apis/kml/documentation/kmlreference.html#description
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Figure 36 the Photo Album folder template for Microsoft
Explorer
Mount the photographs in Google Earth
The steps in mounting your photographs as objects in Google Earth
are similar to the procedure for setting up a SearchCentre as per the
example Make a Search Centre for web-based research:
1. Mount a folder of digital images such as
/DATA/om2008/Jacquie008325
2. Generate om2008.xml, in the EndNote XML extract file
3. Prepare an om2008.xsl XML translation filter file
4. Prepare an om2008.HTM template file
5. Output an om2008.txt (rollback is om2008_old.txt), then
rename the om2008.txt to om2008.kml (rollback is
om2008_old.kml)
6. Cross-reference the om2008.kml file from the master KML
file, world.kml, created in the previous section Make a KML
file for the introduction.
7. Cross-reference the om2008.kml file from the index of your
website, such as index.HTM#gateway
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The following check lists will help with this work:
Table 96 check list for making a catalogue of files
Table 81 key aspects of an HTML file
Show your methods by local government area
In this exercise I show how to create a plan of local government
areas shaded by their areal extent to signify the larger councils who
would be interested in remote sensing approach to monitoring land
use changes. This is typical of any plan to explain the context of
research, based on existing government or other published data for
regions. The classic examples circa 1990 were regions which did not
have native title in dispute, because this would allow an accelerated
exploration programme. Alternatively you may consider linear
distance issues such as the more classical distance from ports,
alternatively target areas based on geophysical parameters, but
neither is covered here. The steps are:
1. Create a state plan or other from Table 37 to give the
geographical context
2. Shade the polygons based on data available as an attribute.
3. Add a legend
As in the exercise An asset catalogue to create any kind of plan in
MapViewer, start the program from the Microsoft Windows Start
menu and do the commands in Equation 59. Again I follow the
simple data management rules:
1. I use a single directory to hold all plans for the project
because this allows me to work towards an whole-of-earth
model.
2. I also keep my file names to eight characters to assist when
transferring data files. For example your standard DOS base
ftp program will reinterpret longer files names and you will
stumble along when you have to upload these catalogue
files to your web site.
3. I also use an A6 size page because this is ideal for pasting
into reports, Microsoft Powerpoint presentations, and web
pages or using as a location diagram on a geological map.
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You may also need to add capital cities and a graticule to give some
texture to the plot. However, when I tried these on A6, it is just too
confusing.
Equation 67 making a context plan in MapViewer
Start > Programs > Golden Software MapViewer 6 > MapViewer 6
File > New > Map > OK
File > Page Setup > A6
File > Save As > c:/data/Earth/Victoria > OK
Map > Base Map >
D:/gis/arcview/state/administrative/municipalities > OK > OK >
OK
File > Save
Map > Layers > New Layer >OK
Map > Base Map > samples/oceania > OK > OK > OK
Property Inspector + Pattern > Solid
Property Inspector + Fill Properties > Foreground > Sand
File > Save
Map > Convert Projection > Albers Equal Conic > Settings
Ellipsoid > GRS 1980 / IUGG 1980
False Northing(m): -4500000
False Easting(m): -2500000
Latitude Origin: 0
Standard Parallel 1: -36
Standard Parallel 2: -38
OK > OK
Map > Scale > Scale method: representative fraction scale
Scale 1: 10000000 > OK
File > Save
Map > Limits > Specify rectangular limits
X-Min: 140 X-Max: 152
Y-Min: -41.5 Y-Max: -33.5
OK
Map > Map Collar > Default Collar Limits > OK
Map > Map Collar > Collar line/Fill > Foreground > Ocean Green
> OK > OK
Graticules > Graticule units: Kilometers > Apply
File > Save
In this example the data is from the Victoria Geoscientific Data CD,
which like much data from the geological surveys, who appreciate
the problems of geoscientists, is available free on application from
the Department of Primary Industries, Victoria at the Internet
address in Equation 68.
Equation 68 URL for Department of Primary Industries,
Victoria
http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au
Geocomputing Management 328
Plot your results as thematic data
There are thematic databases included in the MapViewer directories.
Some of the items, which I think are generally useful, are:
c:\Program Files\Golden
Software\MapViewer6\Samples\WorldCap.dat
c:\Program Files\Golden
Software\MapViewer6\Samples\WorldCity.dat
c:\Program Files\Golden
Software\MapViewer6\Samples\World.dat ()
The first file is geographical co-ordinates for the capitals of
countries. The second has geographical co-ordinates and populations
of major cities. Finally the third file is the 1997, 1990, 2000, 2010
population; land area; population density, birth/death rates, life
expectancy for 1997; infant deaths, total fertility; population for
1997 by children, adults and the aged.
To include additional thematic information such as Australian cities
from the world cities database:
1. Copy the thematic database to your work area and
make corrections to the data.
2. Make a preliminary plan and exclude information
outside the geographical scope of your plan
3. After saving the plan, reload it as an additional Pin
map layer on your location plan.
4. Alter the symbol and text sizes to match the location
plan as per Equation 71.
Because there are so many elements in thematic data, it is never
100% correct. In the WorldCity.dat database the capital city of the
state of Tasmania, Hobart, has been left out of the 286 cities listed.
Also I am careful to leave all the other cities in the database so that
I only have one place to store them. The last thing you want to have
to do is to change one co-ordinate or spelling in half a dozen files.
The commands to add Hobart to the world cities database are in
Equation 69.
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Equation 69 adding Hobart to the cities database
Start > Programs > Golden Software MapViewer 6 > MapViewer 6
File > Worksheet
File > Open > Samples\WorldCity.dat
File > Save As > C:\Data\Earth\WorldCity.dat > OK > OK
Edit > Insert > Hobart Australia 147.3 -42.9
File > Save
Window > Map1
The next stage is to prepare the theme layer for overlying our
existing location plan. Assuming we have returned to the Map1
window after Equation 69 use the following commands.
Equation 70 selecting Australian cities
File > Page Setup > A6
File > Save As > c:\data\Earth\Caps > OK
Map > Pin Map > OK
Analysis > Query > <SID> = "Australia" > OK
Edit > Invert Selection
Edit > Delete
File > Save
File > Close
The Caps layer needs to be added to the location map.
File > Open > c:\data\Earth\Australi.gsm > OK
Map > Base Map > Caps > OK
Then you will have to adjust the symbols and position.
Equation 71 setting capital city pins
Edit > Select All
View > Managers > Property Inspector
Symbol Properties > Symbol > 12
Symbol Properties > Fill Color > Green
Symbol Properties > Line Color > Black
Symbol Properties > Size > 0.05 in
Conclude with a map published to the intranet
The highest level plan you have can become the summary when
published to the Intranet and then by re-using the graphic file (JPEG
format file) created from the Export process you can place the same
map as the background to your Desktop. If the plan you choose to
make your summary is in A6 size, as you would be for a location
Geocomputing Management 330
map out of a journal article, consider expanding the page size and
scale to take it out to A4 Landscape (MapViewer commands are
given in Equation 72). The resulting output image has more pixels
and the text will look smoother when displayed at full screen size.
Equation 72 MapViewer commands to scale an A6 location
plan into a A4 full-screen summary for your Intranet
File > Page Setup
Paper Size: A4
Orientation: Landscape
OK
Map > Scale
Scale method: Representative fraction scale
Scale 1: 150000000
OK
Map > map Collar
Units : Page Centimeters
X Min : 1
Y Min : 1
X Max : 28.5
Y Max : 20
OK
Map > Move /Size All Layers
To begin with, any plan needs to have a title and some kind of
explanation added before publishing it to the Intranet. Use the
MapViewer command Draw > Text and adjust the window to match
Figure 37. Then repeat this to add a copyright clause.
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Figure 37 map label for MapViewer
I prefer to expand the background to encompass these new text
boxes, rather than leaving them hanging in white space above or
below the plan. I can do this by the command Map > Map Collar and
adjusting the limits. To add the specifications of the plan use the
Map > Scale bar command and adjust the window as shown in
Figure 38.
Geocomputing Management 332

Figure 38 add projection details in MapViewer
After you have placed you may have to adjust the Scale Bar
Properties.Description (to give the projection details), Scale Bar
Properties.Cycle Spacing (units) and Text Properties.Points in the
Property Inspector window, to fit on your map. One extra feature it
took me half-a-dozen times to perfect is to put yellow pins on each
area of research, a bit like Google Eareth, as I found Greece and the
United Kingdom polygons are not obvious even when coloured, a big
yellow pin sticking into hem solves the problem and summaries the
areas of research: the number of pins equals the numbers of areas.
The trick is to only copy the regions of interest to a new layer and
use that to drive a Symbol Map (theme map). For the data set use
pairs of the region name (Australia, Greece etc) and some kind of
research parameter, I used year-of-last-research ( 2009, 2001 etc).
The settings for the symbol are shown in Figure 39. This is a very
sexy combination because the size of the pin indicates how recent
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the research and the picture as a whole, tells a story. When you add
more research to the ports.txt file, copy across the particular regions
into the research layer then in MapViewer `File > ReLoad data, and
not only do the new regions have pins up but the pin sizes are
adjusted for any re-activated areas (providing you have altered the
year entry in the ports.txt file).
Equation 73 MapViewer commands to put little yellow pin
icons on your areas of research map
Edit > Select/Deselect from List
Edit > Copy to Another Layer
New Layer
Map > Thematic Maps > Symbol Map > Data
Data source and columns:
C:\DATA\Earth\ports.txt
PID : Column A: depart
Variable: Column C: year
Global Data
OK
Map > Thematic Maps > Symbol Map > Symbol Options


Geocomputing Management 334

Figure 39 the settings for those little yellow pins on a
research summary map
With these extra features on the map we can now publish it to the
intranet. Use the Mapviwer menu command `File > Export` and
adjust the Export window as in Figure 40 then take the defaults that
follow. Use the resulting earth.jpg file from the same directory as
your Desktop background ( In Microsoft Windows XP the command
to load up the JPEG file are `Start > Control Panel > Display >
Desktop > Browse`). The Desktop background is just a picture but
the intranet version (e.g. earth.htm) has active links, and if you
entered hyperlinks into the MapViewer details you will now be able
to double-click the mouse on the hotspots and load into the browser
the more detailed plans.
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Figure 40 MapViewer intranet publishing
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A GIS for an investigation site
This exercise is about making a geographic information system for a
flat, level site in Golden Software MapViewer 6. The aim here is to
manage physical objects that may move within the site area, but
maintain their shape and properties. Examples for geologists are:
slope monitoring devices
piezometers
crib rooms (toilets/lunch sheds)
archaeological artefacts
roads
meteorological stations
capture cages
sample frames
Compared to a raster map you dont have to remake the hyperlink to
the associated details page every time you move the object. Also
you can maintain and check suitable buffer zones (toilets from
excavations etc, meteorological stations from roads). In this
procedure the software you will need is:
Golden Software MapViewer
Microsoft Notepad (or Microsoft Script Editor if you bought
the complete Microsoft Office).
Microsoft Internet Explorer
The stages of the work are:
1. Survey the site
2. Layout the site in the GIS
3. Find and write down the objects properties
4. Draw the objects
5. Set the properties for each object
6. Multiply the object
7. Test the buffer
8. Plot the outcome
The example here is one of the simplest in concept, a bunch of
rectangles in a larger quadrangle. In this case the model represents
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the trestles in a supper room, but it could be equally sample frames
for an environmental impact statement. The buffers in the example
represent the minimum amount of space required for a wheelchair,
whereas in the alternative it is the minimum distance between
frames before a bias is introduced to the sampling. The estimates for
the example are:
A square perimeter of 9m by 9m
A plinth at the southern end of 2 x 4 metres and 50 cm high
Trestle of dimensions 0.5 x 1.3 metres and 0.75 metres
high.
No benchmark to bring the survey into geographical
coordinates.
In MapViewer there are a range of different formats in which you
export the picture and I have found PNG the best of the ones I have
used. JPEG made the labelling go fuzzy. However if your client is
using Internet Explorer you can re-export the objects as Atlas
boundary files and use them in a Vector Mark-up Language (VML)
file made as per the check list in Table 81. The following section
describes these files in more detail.
Manipulating Atlas boundary files
Manipulating Atlas boundary files
To create the site boundary for the example above, any features
(the plinth in this case) and an example object (the trestle) you will
need to add this data to a text file to be loaded into Golden Software
MapViewer. The first step is in a text editor, such as Microsoft
Notepad, type in the data shown in Equation 74.
Equation 74 coordinates for suprm01.bna
"","",5
0,0
0,9
9,9
9,0
0,0
"","",5
3,0
3,2
7,2
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7,0
3,0
"","",5
1,1
1,1.75
2.3,1.75
2.3,1
1,1
Save the data shown in Equation 74 to a text file named
suprm01.bna, where the .bna indicates an Atlas boundary file
format. Then import the file as base map into MapViewer using the
commands in Equation 75.
Equation 75 Loading an Atlas boundary file
File > New > Map
Map > Base Map > suprm03.bna.txt > Open
BNA Atlas boundary (.bna) > OK > OK
Projection: Orthographic
Input data units: Meters
OK
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One-significant-figure company tracker
Microsoft Access is included in the professional edition of Microsoft
Office. It is generally used for making custom databases in business.
it features:
data storage in tables
automatic report writing
Just out of the box it is not much use but with a bit of configuration
as in my example one_sf.mdb, where you can produce a database to
track the performance of companies that you have shares in and
organisations for which you pay membership fees. For the scientist
and builder you could also use it for:
monitoring acquisition targets
reporting on joint ventures, individual mines or construction
projects
As an example in I update for 2006, a listing of entities, ranked by
performance; and then using Microsoft Publisher link the image file
on the Computers in Geology intranet on the Corporate governance
and reporting page.
Equation 76 producing a company rankings report
Start > All Programs > Microsoft Office > Microsoft Office
Access 2003
File > Open > C:\DATA\ADMIN\one_sf.mdb
Reports > Company rankings
File > Print
Name: Microsoft Office Document Image Writer
OK
c:\DATA\C_IN_G\HOME\orgrank.MDI
Save > Yes
File > Exit
File > Close
File > Exit
Start > All Programs > Microsoft Office > Microsoft Office
Publisher 2003
File > Open > C:\DATA\C_IN_G\HOME\default.pub
Edit > Go To
Page: 2
OK
Hyperlink
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Address: http://localhost/C_IN_G/HOME/orgrank.MDI
File > Save
File > Publish to the Web
OK
default.htm
Save > Yes > OK
File > Exit

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Simple cash flow model with scenarios
In the example of this exercise is the cash flow analysis needed in
2006 for the disposal of the assets acquired by the South Australian
branch of the Australian Geoscience Information Association (AGIA-
SA) for the salvage of the significant bibliographic database, the
Australian Earth Science Information System (AESIS). The salvage or
disposal plan depending on your point of view included five
components of work:
finding other library collections which could make use of the
references
tossing out any rubbish like old brochures stored in the
materials
take a copy of the hard drives and dispose of the computer
system
transport to Geoscience Australia library in Canberra, the
photocopies of hard to get articles, code named reprints,
that are referenced in the bibliographic database.
Offer any historic material, from the now defunct Australian
Mineral Foundation, to the archives in order of: history
department, the University of Adelaide; the South Australian
Archives; and the Basser Library of Science and Technology
at the Australian Academy of Science, Canberra.
The cash flow analysis formed part of the business plan that at the
least, will be given to the AGIA national executive as explanation of
what has happened to the assets, but also it may be required to
request funding in one of the forms:
debentures from the committee
advance on payment by Geoscience Australia
approach to the national AGIA committee for bridging funds
The cash flow statement has general use in development projects
where the return is delayed with respect to expenditure, and other
examples include:
mine development
building and construction
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environmental impact investigation by consultants
The general intent is to make sure you have enough money in the
bank to cover all expenses until you get your payment in full. It
complements the budget which determines only whether you will
make a profit or loss IN THE LONG TERM and does not answer if you
will the money to pay your monthly bills. The financial context of the
cash flow analysis is described in Chapter 10: Introduction to
financial evaluation of mining projects in White (1997)
m
.
The stages in setting up a cash flow analysis in a Microsoft Excel
spreadsheet, making special use of Scenario function, are:
1. list your assumptions
2. type in the structure for one scenario
3. alter the settings to use the Scenario function
4. add the figures for each of the other scenarios
5. print out all the scenarios into the business plan.
The assumptions for this example are:
cash flow on a week basis
no consideration of net present value
costs are the five components of the work:
income is confined to the payment from Geoscience
Australia
This example is worked up into the example spreadsheet on the
Computers in Geology website which can be found at the URL in
Equation 77.
Equation 77 Student exercises in Microsoft Excel
http://www.grantjacquier.info/StudEx.xls
The formulas for the spreadsheet are given in Equation 78. This
structure doesnt match Whites illustration, but has the totals at the
top of the columns, rather than at the bottom for a typed or hand
drawn table. I quite like to put the totals at the top when I do a

m
White, Management of mineral exploration.
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spreadsheet because it allows the summary to be there when you
first open the spreadsheet and the main table entries can grow to
several tens of thousands of entries, when you can implement the
Data > Filter > AutoFilter to help manage the rows under the table
titles.
Equation 78 Formulae for a simple cash flow model
title cell/s formula
BUDGET
total capital expenditure
D6:D6 =SUM(D16:P16)
total operating expenses.
D7:D7 =SUM($E$21:$P$21)
total income
D8:D8 =SUM($E$19:$P$19)
Profit (or Loss)
D9:D9 =D8-SUM(D6:D7)

minimum operating capital required D11:D11 =IF(MIN(E17:P17)>0,0,-
1*MIN(E17:P17))

amount of debenture to be returned D12:D12 =IF(D11=0,NA(),D11+D9)

cents in every dollar raised E12:E12 =IF(D11=0,"",D12/D11*100)
CASH FLOW ITEM versus PERIOD NUMBER table

capital expenditure D16:D16 scenario value
1


cumulative cash flow E17:P17 =D17+E18

net cash flow by month E18:P18 =E19-E21

* MONTHLY INCOME E19:P19 =SUM(E20)

- Geoscience Australia E20:P20 scenario values
1


* EXPENSE TOTAL E21:P21 =SUM(E22:E27)

- taxation E22:P22 scenario values
1


- p-shrink E23:P23 scenario values
1


- rubbish bin E24:P24 scenario values
1


- library placement E25:P25 scenario values
1


- history archive E26:P26 scenario values
1


- AusGeoRef total E27:P27 =SUM(E28:E30)

record extraction E28:P28 scenario values
1


personal-use license E29:P29 scenario values
1


reprints E30:P30 scenario values
1

1
Changing cells are: $D$16:$P$16,$E$20:$P$20,$E$22:$P$26,$E$28:$P$30
To use the scenario tool inbuilt in Microsoft Excel, the scenarios are
entered via the menu: Tools > Scenarios. However this function has
a limit of changing cells, 32 cells as for Microsoft Office Excel 2003,
and so I copied and pasted each total scenario (cells A1:Q31) in to a
separate table in the appendix of the Microsoft Word report. If I
need to rebuild that scenario I have to be careful to only bring back
the cells that dont have formulae as only the values are recorded in
Microsoft Word. In the AESIS project I summarised the results of the
Geocomputing Management 344
cash flow model with a graph in Figure 41 which showed that we
probably under-priced the sub-license by about five to ten thousand
dollars.

Figure 41 cash-flow analyses plotted against risk-reward
curve
-10000
-5000
0
5000
10000
0 50 100
r
e
w
a
r
d

(
$
)

increasing risk
Scenario A
Scenario B
Scenario C
risk-reward ideal
Log. (risk-reward ideal)
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Transfer of a computer system
Every five years, after your current computer system has
depreciated, you will have to transfer your data and applications to a
new system. Apart from recovering a failed computer system,
purchasing and setting up a computer system is the most
challenging exercise in this book. Hopefully if you are using this
section it is not your first exercise with a computer. There are many
stages to this work but in two parts before and after acceptance
testing as shown in Table 105. It also takes me three months to do
this transfer, with on average one check list per week, as I cant stop
my business just to change computers. You should do it in about half
the time becaue you are not adjusting the check lists after the
activity, as I do.
Before you start you need to first think of a name to give to your
computer. Occasionally, the configuration will ask for a name, either
for storing settings or connecting to the network. The name should
be no more than eight characters long and consist only of lowercase
letters and perhaps one or two numbers at the end. Usually, in an
organisation there is a theme and you will have a name allocated by
the chief information officer. In the past I have used girls names but
these days I use character names from the Beauty and the Beast
cartoon. Any other documentation is found in Table 106, and
discussed in the section Documenting your computer
Other information that will be asked for during the configuration
process will be the region you are working in, the language you are
going to use, time zone you are going to be working in and the
keyboard type. Examples are shown in Table 107 and discussed in
the section Cefore acceptance activities.

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Table 105 the three main activities of moving to a new
computing system
Computer given name (eg:mrspotts): date start: Date complete:

0 PART
description tick
1 BEFORE ACCEPTANCE

write the request for proposal (Table 28 is a shopping list)
review of your old system (perhaps starting with Table 20)
Compare the quotes with the exercise A comparison of vendor quotes
final check of the winner, order and pick up the new system (Table 34)
2 ACCEPTANCE TESTING OF THE COMPUTER
print out computer details in Table 106
Table 107 check list for accepting a computer system
Table 120 check list for peripherals
for each of these games, install and try
DirectX simulator e.g. Activision Caterpillar Construction Tycoon
Adobe PDF e.g. Geological Monuments of South Australia
32 bit executable file, e.g. IL2 Sturmovik
16 bit executable file, e.g. Flight Lite
Macromedia compatibility, e.g. Making of Australia
Configure the DVD drive (PAL region 4 x 5)
VOD compatibility, play Planets DVD
Table 24 record details of driver files
3 AFTER ACCEPTANCE
transfer the system as per Table 108
finalise the basic system
prepare Microsoft Office
move application software
cut-across to the new system
test the system for sign-off
clean out old software as per Table 114
deleted old data, performed security clean
Clean and box the old computer as per Table 33
dispose of the old components
Documenting your computer
The fact sheets listed in the check list in Table 109 record the
necessary facts to re-build or re-install components of your
computer. The fact sheets can be found in the sections
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- Return the computer to Internet use
- Return the computer to printing documents use
- Return the computer to editing documents use
- Return the computer to book-keeping use
- Return the computer to communications use
There may be other fact sheets to add to your display folder for
example Table 24 when you know you have a finnciky device to
connect to the computer and you have to have exactly the right
driver file. However, at the least you should fill Table 117 out before
you have a problem, it is best to do this as part of the original
installation of the computer system such as the exercise
Transferring a computer system, and then use the steps in other
sections when you do have that problem.

Geocomputing Management 348
Table 106 facts for a new computer
Computer given name (eg:mrspotts): Date:


Model name (eg:Inspiron mini 1012): Make eg: HP


serial number:
or service tag::
Product Number:
Part Number:
Microsoft operating system Activation Key (on the bottom of your laptop)
Windows XP Windows 7 Starter other:
Vista Windows 7 Home Prem.
eg: ABCDE-FGHIJ-KLMNO-PGRST-UVWXY

warranty registration web-site (e.g. www..ap.dell.com/retail )

Technical support web-site cable lock number:
www..support.dell.com
www..hp.com/support hours of charging:
www.mytoshiba.com.au/support
other:

input power, required from transformer or inverter
other: 19.5V @ 6.5A - 120W 15V @ 4A
19.0V @ 1.58A
NOTES

Before acceptance activity
The first five items of Table 105 are considered in the section
Where can I get a computer?. For item 6, checking all the bits are
there, you can use the checklist in Table 34. I do this as I am
unpacking and assembling the components. There are additional
steps for the transfer and test of each application and these are
given in Table 112.
Generally, the health and safety warnings you have read in the
leaflets accompanying the new system are straightforward and
obvious. The only doubtful one is in regard to heat stress and dust
on the computer, which you have to ignore to some extent.
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Generally, be reassured the tighter the device is put together the
less likely that dust, heat or humidity will affect it.
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Table 107 acceptance check list for a computer system
Computer given name (eg:mrspotts): Date:


STAGE
milestone tick
1 ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH AND SAFETY CHECKS
read warranty
notebook backpack is in working order
read security lock instructions
configured and tested security lock
written down the security lock combination
attached security lock to PC
read addendums, corrections, licence agreements, extended warranty
read the safety manual
attached all warranty and warning stickers
2 CHECK THE NEW SYSTEM AGAINST THE ORDER AND ASSEMBLE
All equipment present as per equipment checklist in manual
All ports identified
Computer brochure put as cover of flip-file folder
vendor business card in inside cover of flip file
safety manual and addenda stashed in flip-file folder
licensing agreements and codes stashed in flip-file folder
computer on charger for required period
fill out Table 118 network activation details
printout and fill out details in Table 117
3 OPERATING SYSTEM ACTIVATION
started computer and completed prompts
placed network and OS details as start sheets in display folder
read operating manuals from card (stash in folder afterwards)
Use the menu option to download the manual from the card
Automatic updates occurred
played games OK
played CD/DVD OK
checked the Internet connection
additional drivers for peripherals loaded
Make system recovery drive
NOTES

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After acceptance testing
After acceptance testing, you start to personalise the computer
which can include:
Custom data directories (see to make a Library in Equation
79)
Your business processes (DOS BAT files)
Your intranet
Your e-mail accounts
I also like to attach all the warning and warranty stickers to the lid of
the notebook. I know this makes it ugly but it helps when I am in a
panic and anything you do to make your notebook distinctive and
ugly will discourage someone stealing it. At some later date you
should get your drivers licence number (pre-fixed by the first letter
of your state) engraved on the body and the screen of the laptop to
discourage thieves further and assist the police with recovering your
goods. The full list of things I do is given in Table 108.
Equation 79 Making Libraries to speed up searches for
documents in MS Windows 7
Computer > Libraries > Documents
Documents > properties
Include a folder
C_IN_G\LETTERS
ADMIN
REPORTS\regency
Remove
Public Documents

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Table 108 check list for cutting across to a computer system
Computer given name (eg:mrspotts): date:


STAGE
milestone tick
1 FINALISE THE BASIC SYSTEM
Panic and other stickers on
licence number engraved on the computer
Microsoft Windows registered.
Un-install nuisance modules
Sun Java
Windows Live essentials
configure and send fax tor vendor reporting status
Set My Location on Fax
send fax to vendor reporting status
2 PREPARING MICROSOFT OFFICE
Take a copy of DATA directory (cp C:\DATA E:\. )
Take down MS Office details in Table 121
Put DATA directory on new machine (cp d:\DATA c:\. )
Put DOCS directory on new machine (cp d:\DOCS c:\. )
Set up MS Office as in Table 110
Put Table 121 in the display folder
Set up intranet as per Table 113
3 MOVE APPLICATION SOFTWARE
Check backup available on CD
DoTable 126 for each of the following applications used in RUN.BAT
Table 68 batch script software
Made Alterations to RUN.BAT
Link map into Making of Australia
4 CUT-ACROSS TO THE NEW SYSTEM
On previous machine Documents & Settings make folders visisble
Make Transfer DVD of previous machine
mv C:\DATA to C:\DATA_TEST
Data files transferred (cp d:\DATA c:\. )
DOCS directory refreshed (rm C:\DOCS; cp d:\DOCS c:\. )
Make Backup DVD
Archives transferred (cp d:\archive* c:\. )
Music transferred (cp D:\MUSIC C:\.)
Holding directories transferred (cp d:\holding3 c:\. )
Make libraries for Music
Configure e-mail as in Table 111
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Computer given name (eg:mrspotts): date:


STAGE
milestone tick
Start your journal of good and bad points on the new system
5 MODIFY WEB SUB-NET INDEX PAGES
http://localhost/C_IN_G/HOME/index.html
C:\DATA\BAT\robozeme.bat
C:\DATA\BAT\stratcol.bat
C:\DATA\BAT\saver.bas
6 TEST THE CONFIGURATION FOR SIGN-OFF
Check for presence of Oxford Dictionary (circle Yes / No)
FTP in DOS window working
Internet Information Service (intranet) working
Splash page written to intranet directory
Link between local Web Pages & Microsoft Access still working
Mail merge working OK
5

Delete C:\DATA_TEST
NOTES
1
The list is given on my web-site at www.grantjacquier.info/develop.htm
2
The img2tif.pif was previously found on the Luminiere system at:
C:\PROGRAMS\GRASS\translat\img2tif.pif
5
For collecting the necessary addresses see Equation 48.

Make your own Panic sticker
The Panic Sticker is for putting on your laptop lid as a reminder
where to find these notes:
Panic Sticker
See the PANIC SHEET for this
.. computer in the
display book | asset folder
(circle which are applicable)
DONT PANIC
Figure 42 panic sticker
Table 109 is given as an example of an emergency plan, you can
make up your own panic sheets from this matrix and these sections
help with specific tasks before you do have a failure:

Geocomputing Management 354
Table 109 the Computers in Geology recovery plan

RESORATION STAGE tick
X X X X X X Table 106 hardware details
X X X X X X Table 117 operating system
X X X X X X Table 118 Internet connection
X X X X X Table 120 your peripherals
X X X X Table 122 your documents
X Table 124 your accounting
X Table 125 your e-mail
X Intranet operational
X Table 126 EndNote etc
DATA STORES tick
Current backups are available for restoration of:
X C:\archive1
X C:\archive2
X C:\archive3
X X X X C:\DATA
X X C:\DOCS
X X X C:\Documents and Settings
Stage of recovery tick
Computer suitable for Internet use
Computer suitable for printing documents
Computer suitable for editing simple documents
Computer suitable for regular book-keeping
Computer suitable for marketing
Computer suitable for desktop publishing
computer name date completed


Installing Microsoft Office data
Microsoft Office though ubiquitous contains an enormous amount of
your day to day information and if you configure it correctly in the
first instance it will save you lots of wasted time on trivialities. The
rough steps are:
1. Load the software
2. Configure general Microsoft Office options
3. Transfer data for special software
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This is also time for a bit of artistry and fun. For instance for
Computers in Geology the blends, mosaic and wildflowers
corporate livery, has a symbolic significance in that it reflects the
emphasis on the blending or integration of data and software to
produce a whole-of-earth data model (in speculative freemasonry
the mosaic pavement is the earth) and the wildflowers are the field
geologists who as seeds blow seasonally across the land, then drill
their roots down into the substrate and then form structures and
beauty (knowledge) from what they find. It helps if you have the
bottle of red wine handy. Whoops, sorry, I forgot to mention that
the bottle of red wine is the most important instrument to have on
hand, one glass per installation round. The other aids I can provide:
- An installation check list at Table 110.
- Microsoft Outlook is probably the most intricate of the
productivity programmes and there is a separate check list
at Table 111.
- Table 121 a list of all the parameters you require for an
emergency

Geocomputing Management 356
Table 110 Installing and customising Microsoft Office
computer: Personal name: date:

Account name:
glj hgr krj SL other:
STAGE
milestone tick
1 LOAD THE SOFTWARE
Logged on as Administrator eg. cing as recorded on Table 121
Check for Microsoft Office pre-load
Load Microsoft Office
Start Microsoft Word
Enter the activation key and record on Table 121
Read licence conditions
Load Business Contact system
Download Office File Converter Pack
2 SET THE GENERAL CONFIGURATION
Set default MS Office language, e.g. English (Australia), and recorded in Table 121
Microsoft Office speech recognition selected over hardware SR
Trial MS Office on existing documents
3 INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNT CONFIGURATION
account name written above and logged in
Transfer background to C:\WINDOWS directory and recorded below
Select custom login icon (e.g. gtoolkit/logoi.tiff) and record above
setup Document ibraries
Test implementation with Microsoft Excel
Install updates only
Microsoft Word to define Proofing tools, Microsoft General
1

Table 55 Grammar & Style configuration in MS Office
Custom Dictionaries to be included as below:
Company styles still exist in MS Publisher or give alternative
Layout theme set and recorded (eg Blends
9
):
CD/DVD-ROM design identified below (eg Mosaic
9
):
Font set identifed as default and recorded below (e.g. Capital - Perpetual Titling)
Colour scheme as default and recorded below (eg: Wildflowers
2
):
Custom dictionaries used (see Table 78 for the check list to create these):
glossary.dic c_in_g.dic PropNames.dic Other:
MS Publisher layout themes,colour scheme, font set and CD-DVD template:
Blends Wildflower CAPITAL Perpetua Titling Mosaic template
other: other: other: other:

Background file: Icon file (e.g. gtoolkit/logoi.tiff):

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NOTES
1
try the menu commands File > Options > Proofing.
2
The blends, mosaic and wildflowers are the Computers in Geology corporate livery.

Transferring Microsoft Outlook data
Updating Microsoft Outlook is a bit of a trial and you may want to try
the Files and settings transfer wizard but I like to take advantage of
the improving data management features and put more of the data
files in the c:\DATA structure and conform to my document
management policy in Table 29. The checks are given in Table 111.

Geocomputing Management 358
Table 111 Configure additional e-mail other accounts,
signatures
date: From computer To computer

STAGE
milestone tick
0 PREPARATION FOR MICROSOFT OUTLOOK CONFIGURATION
Searched web-site for Business Contact Manager add-in
Marked Windows Live account details on Table 125
Downloaded Business Contact Manager Add-in
Read the instructions for migrating BCM data
Marked location of executable in new Table 125
Installalled the Business Contact Manager Add-On
Table 125 e-mail details
Identify the location of the previous working files
Table 125 for the previous computer
Make exports of the Business Contact Manager data
Make a BCM back up
Export Accounts to Microsft Outlook pst file
Export Contacts to Microsft Outlook pst file
Export Accounts to CSV
Export Contacts to CSV
Copy Accoutn etc to a new Personal Folder and save
Backup, exports and working files transferrd to new computer
1 INITIATE POSTMASTER ACCOUNT
Configure and test e-mail account for postmaster as per Table 125
User account information entered
Server information entered
Logon information entered
remember password turned off
used coresp.pst as default
Altered name of e-mail stream (Advanced Settings | General)
Tested account
Set up each supplementary folder
Table 69 check list post files vs e-mail
Journal archive set to 18 month cycle
Archiving set to file in Table 125
2 INITIATE SUPPLEMENTARY ACCOUNTS
Set up Business Contact Manager
Try restoring backup
Try loading specifc contacts exports (.pst)
Try loading specifc accounts exports (.pst)
Mount Personal Folder
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date: From computer To computer

STAGE
milestone tick
Copy accounts/contacts into BCM
Try loading specifc contacts exports (.pst)
Try loading specifc accounts exports (.pst)
Set up each supplementary e-mail account
Table 69 check list post files vs e-mail
3 CHECK WORKING FOLDERS
The General folder should contain the following folders
1

Table 65 check list of sub-folders
Address Book looks at contacts in right order
3

Personal Folder file for copy of business contacts
CinGeol.pst temp.pst Other:
NOTES
1
Show All Folders
File > Import and Export > Export to File > Personal Folder File (.pst)
2
For importing mail data see Equation 80
3
Tools > Address Book > Tools > Options
The method for setting up the postmaster is in Equation 80. With
Micrsoft Office 2010, you need to repeat Equation 80 for all your
supplementary accounts, there is no distinction between the primary
and secondary accounts. The best way to test the completed
database is via a mail merge as described in the exercise A
newsletter.

Equation 80 configuring Microsoft Outlook
All Programs > Microsoft Office > Microsoft Office Outlook 2010
Next
Would you like to configure an e-mail account : Yes
Click on Manually configure server settings or additional
server types
Internet e-mail
Next
User information:
Your Name : Computers in geology
Email address : gljacquier@bigpond.com
Server Information
Account type : POP3
Incoming mail server : mail.bigpond.com
Outgoing mail server (SMTP) : mail.bigpond.com
Logon information
Geocomputing Management 360
Account gljacquier
Password : leave blank
De-nominate remember password
Test Account settings
Deliver new messages to
Existing Outlook file
C:\DATA\Profiles\default\Outlook\correspo.pst
More Settings
General
Mail Account
ADSL Account
Reply Email
compsingeology@bigpond.com
OK
Next
Close
business data
The Business Contacts Manager add-in provided with micrsoft
Outlook is ideal for managing the sale and quote of work for a
scientist. However with Office 2010, migrating the data was quite
confusing. I found none of the export options available in BCM for
Outlook 2003 any good and I had to resort to copy the contacts and
accounts into a temporary personal folder (*.pst file) and then
copying that to the new computer, and mounting it in Outlook.
After importing the folder you may like to transfer some of the sub-
folders to the Business Data Manager. This is a bit ricky in the
Outlook 2010 version, you can only copy the contacts across using
the mouse menu as per Equation 81. So you first need to highlight
the particular folder you want and then transfer to the BCM folders.
Unfortunately, I found with this migration, you lose all your business
history and the arrangements between the accounts and the
contacts. This is only commercial data and is not as critical as the
true archives of reports. If you are cautious, and make a new
Business Data Manager database such as C_in_G (Computers in
Geology) just in case the transfer is faulty, you will need to delete
the original empty one as in Equation 81.
Equation 81 Setting up the Business Contacts Manager and
removing the supplied business database
start > All Programs > Microsoft Office > Microsoft Office
Outlook 2010
Computers in Geology > Accounts
{right mouse button] Copy Contacts
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Computers in Geology > Accounts
{right mouse button] Copy Accounts
File > Business Database > Properties
MB????
Delete
I f everything is being kept in the BCM, the only business data I
would keep with your personal data is your journal, of what files are
being used and when, and this is for tax reasons. The journal in
Microsoft Outlook is an easy way to calculate how much private use
your computer has, which then affects your depreciation and other
expenses claims. The method for doing this is given in the example
in Time and expense .
On the problem of Microsoft Office Outlook 2010, where the
Business Contact Manager was left out of the release, an apology is
given in Equation 82 and a link provided to download a compatible
Busiess Contact Manager via the Windows Live shopping website and
quoting the product key.
Equation 82 URL for the apology for leaving Businaess
Contact Manager out of Microsoft Office Professional 2010,
and the download instructions
Business Contact manager Team Blog: Outlook 2010 with Business
Contact Manager: You Spoke, We Listened
http://blogs.msdn.com/b/bcm/archive/2010/09/23/outlook-2010-
with-business-contact-manager-you-spoke-we-listened.aspx
http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/FX102040110.aspx
correspondence received
For personal data, such as your flat-mates e-mail, you are better off
to keep it in the general Outlook area where it is easily found. With
Microsoft Outlook 2003 you can put this folder in their section of the
data file system, so when they move out you can give them just
their file system on CD. Whereas with the Business Data Manager
you would have to do a special dump from the database.
Equation 83 importing a personal mail folder and then
renaming it
Go > Mail
File> New > Outlook data file > Office Outlook Personal
Folders File (.pst)
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C:\DATA\HRICE\Outlook Express\Outlook.pst
Helen Rice
Compression encryption
OK
File > Import and Export > Outlook > Import from another
program or file > Personal Folder File (.pst)
C:\transfer\helen.pst
Helen
Data File Properties
Advanced
Name: Correspondence
OK
The Equation 84 above is good where you wish to agglomerate
details from several Outlook files, but for most examples you simply
need to mount the file, and you can move to wherever you want
before your do it. The details for mounting *.pst files are given in
Equation 84 with the archive.pst example.
Equation 84 mounting an archive folder in MS Outlook
Run
cp D:\Documents and Settings\Grant JACQUIER\Local
Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Outlook\archive.pst
C:\Documents and Settings\Grant JACQUIER\Local
Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Outlook\.
OK
Start > All Programs > Microsoft Office 2003 > Microsoft
Outlook 2003
File > Open > C:\Documents and Settings\Grant JACQUIER\Local
Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Outlook\archive.pst
For updating an existing folder, consider the example for the
Personal Folder in Equation 85. This is especially useful where you
are carrying across your calendar and other material from an active
Outlook file.
Equation 85 restoring your Personal Folder into MS Outlook
Run
cp D:\Documents and Settings\Grant JACQUIER\Local
Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Outlook\Outlook.pst
C:\TEMP\.
OK
Run
rename C:\TEMP \Outlook.pst C:\TEMP\temp.pst
OK
Start > All Programs > Microsoft Office 2003 > Microsoft
Outlook 2003
File > Import and Export > Outlook > Microsoft Outlook (*.pst)
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C:\Documents and Settings\Grant JACQUIER\Local
Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Outlook\temp.pst
File > Open > C:\Documents and Settings\Grant JACQUIER\Local
Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\Outlook\temp.pst
Edit > Select All
Edit > Move to Folder
Temp
Edit > Delete

Loading and configuring software
The following procedure applies to specialist software such as listed
in www.granjacquier.info/develop.htm. The steps involved are
repetitions of:
1. load software
2. configure software
3. test software
The check list for this work is given in Table 112. An alternative
check list for Microsoft Office is shown at Table 110 and one
specially for Microsoft Outlook part of Microsoft Office but requiring
additional configuration) is at Table 111.

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Table 112 Checklist for transferring any science software
Application:
STAGE
Milestone tick
1 FIND DOCUMENTATION AND DISKS
For each component disk
Table 116 locations fo disks
Cartons, disks and manuals retrieved from storage
Found license number
2 INSTALL SOFTWARE
System roll back
Scanned disk for viruses
Turn off wireless link
Turned off virus checker
Used Add or install programs
Turned virus checker back on
Turned on wireless link
Registration done
Automatic updates done
3 TRANSFER CUSTOMISATION (details in Table 126 )
Special file types allocated
File locations adjusted to local data structure
Any Add-Ins to Microsoft Office products included
Add-In preferences selected
4 TEST APPLICATION
Application on start menu
Application starts up from menu
Add-in menus present in Microsoft Office software
Links in whole-of-earth model still present
5 UNINSTALL PREVIOUS APPLICATION
Application not on start menu
Application not in file structure C:\Program Files
Application not in file structure C:\PROGRAM
Setting up an intranet
Since the Personal Web Server (PWS) was included as a special
option in Microsoft Windows 98, I have made a trial web site and
intranet on my laptop. It only starts up when you turn on the laptop
and you are using all the standard configuration of your Microsoft
Windows, so any time you spend configuring, will also help solve
problems with word processing and other regular software. It
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provides the flexibility to link narrative material in Word documents
and HTML pages with database material by using the links to HTML
pages that are built into Microsoft Access database that comes with
Microsoft Office professional edition. I can also now write and try out
any scripts to serve data on the web, like you see on geological
survey web sites on Internet.
The PWS has been superseded by Internet Information Service (IIS)
in Microsoft Windows XP, and this section is the procedure to get it
all running. The stages necessary in this work are:
1. Install Internet Information Service
2. Setup Microsft Access mounts
3. Mount directories
4. Publish intranet splash page
5. Modify web sub-net index pages
However in this list I have assumed that:
The internet firewall software has been installed. I bought
and use Norton SystemWorks, but Microsoft has a firewall
for free in their Windows XP service pack 2, which can be
downloaded as an update.
The work files (e.g. C:\DATA\*.*) have been brought across
from the old computer.
Microsoft Internet Explorer has been installed and
configured.
Microsoft Publisher is working and the layouts, colours etc
checked and sorted out.
The checklist in Table 113 gives a clearer picture of what is required
overall but the sub-sections below that give details of particularly
tricky parts. The following procedures from the stages in Table 113
are given in the sections below:
Setting ODBC data names
Making a splash page
Cleaning out specific disk references
Geocomputing Management 366
Table 113 check list for setting up an intranet
Machine name (otherwise use localhost): Latest facts db (eg geotime4.mdb)

STAGE
Milestone tick
1 INTERNET INFORMATION SERVICE (IIS) INSTALLATION
Logged on as Administrator
All IIS options nominated
1

IIS (intranet) start page present at http://localhost/iisHelp/
http://localhost/ registered as intranet site in MS Internet Explorer
Security at most medium-low in MS Internet Explorer for intranet role
2 MOUNT DIRECTORIES
Mount C:\DATA\C_IN_G\ as http://localhost/C_IN_G/
Mount C:\DATA\BAT as http://localhost/cgi-bin/
2

Mount C:\DOC\ as http://localhost/library/
Mount C:\DATA\Pictures\ as http://localhost/Pictures/
Mount C:\DATA\HRICE\ as http://localhost/HRICE/
Mount C:\DATA\FAMILY\ as http://localhost/Family/
Run the MS-DOS terminal tp test c:\DATA\BAT\grimoire.bat
Set up the MIME type for bat files
3 MOUNTING MS ACCESS DATABASES
Read the Microsoft Access documentation for IIS mounts
4 PUBLISH THE INTRANET SPLASH PAGE
Splash page previously created (C:\DATA\C_IN_G\webpub\Default.pub)
Intranet home page (Default.html) present in root page as below
Addresses working in link page (http://localhost/ )
C:\inetpub\. ( Intranet root page i.e. http://localhost/)
.\wwwiinet .\wwwroot .\wwwroot\default Other:
1
Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs > Windows Components > Internet Information
Service and then as per section Installing the IIS service
2
For this directory dont tick Directory browsing
Installing the IIS service
The Internet Information service has to be started first. With
Windows XP the commands went something like Equation 86.
Equation 86 initiating Microsoft IIS (Internet Information
Service) in Windows XP
Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs
Add/Remove Windows Components
Internet Information Service
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Details > FTP Services > Next.
For Windows 7 this was more like Equation 87. However, I couldnt
set up the permissions correctly so that when I use the Developer
Tools and save a HTML file back to disk it keeps general ownership
so that the nominal guest user acting from IIS web-browser can still
see the file.
Equation 87 initiating Microsoft IIS in Windows 7
Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs
Turn Windows features on or off
Internet Information Services
FTP server
Web management Tools
World Wide Web Services
Also for Windows 7 you have to configure the IIS as in Equation 87.
Specifically setting the the root of the web site over the directory
with the existing templates. In Windows XP I used to publish the
web page (to wherever IIS put it) but in Windows 7 it is more
sophisticated.
Equation 88 specifying the base directory for Microsoft IIS
in Windows 7
Start > Control Panel > Security
IIS Manager
Sites > Default Web Site
Actions > Basic Settings
Physical Path: C\DATA\C_IN_G\webpub
OK
Mounting directories on the intranet
The method to mount directories on the Intranet for Windows XP is
given in Equation 89
Equation 89 mounting a directory on the Intranet in
Windows XP
Start > My Computer > C:\DATA\FAMILY
Share this Folder > Web Sharing
Share on: Default Web Site
Share this folder
Add
Alias: FAMILY
Geocomputing Management 368
Read: tick
Directory browsing: tick
Application permissions: Scripts
OK
OK
The method to mount the Virtual Directories in Windows 7 is in
Equation 90:
Equation 90 mounting a directory on the Intranet in
Windows 7
Start > Control Panel
System and Security
Administrative Tools
Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager
Add Virtual Directory
Connections
MITZI sites- Default Web Site
Add
Alias: FAMILY
Read: tick
Directory browsing: tick
Application permissions: Scripts
The tricky thing with Windows 7, and shown in Equation 91, was to
create a MIME type for the Microsoft DOS batch files so that these
would start up from the web.
Equation 91 creating a MIME type for bat in Windows 7
Start > Control Panel
System and Security
Administrative Tools
Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager
MIME Types
[Left mouse button] > Add
File name extension: bat
MIME type : application/cmd

Mounting Microsoft Access databases on the intranet
With Windows 7 I lost the ability to mount a Microsoft Accee data
page on the Intranet. This previously had been accounted for by
setting up an ODBC driver, and then publishing that link as what was
called a DSN. Originally in Windows 98 this was like:
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1. Logon as administrator.
2. Run the ODBC administration toll with Start > Control Panel
> Administrative Tools > Data Sources (ODBC) > System
DSN > Add
3. Pick the Microsoft Access (*.mdb) driver and then choose
the file C:\DATA\FAMILY\geotime3.mdb
Later for Windows XP I had the alternative data access pages:
1. Log on as Administrator
2. Set up system DSN for Family from e.g.
c:\DATA\FAMILY\geotime4.mdb
3. Test file available (e.g. http://localhost/FAMILY/index2.htm)
4. FactFict.asp published on web site.
5. Test the connect with http://localhost/FactFict.asp
In transferring to Windows 7 I had to remove data access pages as
in the steps below as well as converting to a new Micross Access
database format. Unfortunately at this stage I cant see how web-
pages from this format can be mounted on the IIS-type intranet, as
these new web-pages are inteded for a new multi-computer
network system using Windows Sharepoint. One of the services of
Windows Live is to provide a mount point for a databse if you are
interested in that service. The conversion was helped by the Wizard
given in Equation 92.:
1. Default values altered
2. Distinguish conversion confusion
3. Nominate primary indexes
4. Alter complex data types like convert OLE to Attachments
5. Change List to Combo boxes
6. Delete data access pages
Equation 92 converting geotimes4.mdb databse (Access
2000 format) to a geotimes5.accdb (Access 2010 format)
File > Save & Publish > Access Services > Check web
compatibility
Web compatibility services
Geocomputing Management 370
Making a splash page
The steps in making the splash page are given below with the
necessary commands in Equation 93.
1. Use the Microsoft Publisher program to open the splash page
master file Default.pub.
2. Make any changes, remembering to have all relational links
in the form of ..\C_IN_G\HOME\index.html, rather than any
absolute reference to the drive name.
3. Also the standard Publisher links page sits in the
http://localhost/Default_files/ directory level so a double dot
is needed to reference files at the http://localhost/ level, for
example the Active Server help page for IIS has the URL of
../iishelp, so double-check these references.
4. Save the changes to the master document.
5. Publish the document to a Web Page format file to be
referenced at http://localhost/Default
Equation 93 creating a splash page for the Intranet
Start > All Programs > Microsoft Office 2003> Microsoft
Publisher 2003
File > Open > c:\DATA\C_IN_G\webpub\Default.pub
File > Save
Publisher File > Publish to the Web
http://localhost/Default.htm
OK
Cleaning out specific disk references
In Microsoft Wordpad open up the index page from the original
location on disk, because any changes you make there will be
reflected on the intranet. Use the Edit > Replace command to
replace any disk based references such as inFigure 43. This will
cause these links to work on both the intranet and in the disk based
file system. Then with Microsoft Internet Explorer dont forget to
refresh the page before trying these links.
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Figure 43 the Find and Replace screen from Microsoft
Wordpad
On the subject of Microsft WordPad in use with the intranet, when
using Microsft Office 2003 a very good editor, the Microsoft Script
Editor, came with it. In Windows 7 this was superceded by the
Developer Tools in Microsft Internet Explorer 8, which are superior
for debugging HTML scripts as I quickly found several mistakes, but
unfortunately the save option removes the commenting and layout
of the commenting that I have previously enjoyed. I use these
comment sections as a work journal keeping track of anything
outstanding. Therre are alos some minor automatic changes to the
HTML coding, whereas the Micrsoft Script Editor kept everything as
you made it. So for the future we can see us continuing to use
Microsoft Wordpad. Other changes include going from Microsft Word
97-2003 documents to OpenDocument Text files.
Preparing a computer for disposal
Even if you are going to throw your old system out, you should go
through the process of deleting your data, clean and de-fragmenting
the disk to keep your client records safe from being accidentally read
by a scavenger. And dont forget to throw out the packaging you
have been keeping in case you had to ship the computer for fixing.

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Table 114 check list for tidying up after a new computer
Computer given name (eg:mrspotts): date:


STAGE
milestone tick
1 PRODUCTIVITY SOFTWARE
For each user account
Table 115 cleaning out Microsoft Office
Re-prepare Microsoft Office
Re-install missing Microsoft Office modules
2 REMOVE THE SYSTEM SETTINGS (as Administrator)
Logged in as administrator
Rescue any odd templates, and then uninstall from the system
Table 68 browsers used on the system
Remove all entries from start menu
Turn off the IIS internet system (deselect IIS from Windows Components)
Take a final CD-ROM copy of these:
Your templates and other IP (e.g. C:\DATA\ C_IN_G\ )
Missed working documents (e.g. glj/My Documents )
Your guests missing documents (e.g. hgr/My Documents )
Any special data sets (e.g. C:\FAM )
Any bespoke programs (e.g. C:\TOT )
3 REMOVE THE CUSTOM FILE SYSTEMS
Delete these folders
Archive1
Archive2
DOCS
Any bespoke program directories
Any special data sets
Holding3
Delete the entries in the TEMP directory
Delete all folders in DATA directory
4 CLEAN THE DISK (as Administrator)
Logged in as administrator
Make a new account with administrator privilege ( e.g. mrspots )
Reset home directory in Internet Explorer
Log in and inspect the new account
Delete all previous users from system
Log out and inspect the new account a second time
Used Microsoft Disk Clean Up
Used Analyzed diskas per the anlayzer below
Defragmented disk with Microsoft Defragmenter
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Computer given name (eg:mrspotts): date:


STAGE
milestone tick
5 CLEAN OLD SYSTEM (as Administrator)
Shipping cartons isolated for this system
System packaged then dumped or sold (see Table 33 for list of components)
Invoice or disposal request issued as record
Depreciation table adjusted
Remaining cartons returned to storage
Choose a disk space anlayzer
Microsoft Scan with Thorough setting Microsoft Scan
Microsoft Defragmenter with Analayze other:
NOTES

Removing Microsoft Office data
When it comes to de-installing the Microsoft Office software, I do
stick to coffee, as you want to do this as quickly as possible, and you
dont want any false steps. This is part of the framework of Table
107 Check list for transferring a computer system but there is a
supplementary check list in Table 115 for the three steps of:
1. Clean out the data
2. replace any modules left out of the original install
3. change all the folder references to the neutral c:DATA in
preparation for removing the DATA folders
The intent is to remove all references that might give a hint of what
prospects you have been working on. The only thing I havent yet
worked out how to do, is to remove the list documents previously
accessed.

Geocomputing Management 374
Table 115 cleaning out Microsoft Office before resale
Computer name: Computer account date:


STAGE
milestone tick
1 MICROSOFT OUTLOOK
In the Mail view, Delete all the items in each of the special mail folders
Inbox
Drafts
Journal
Pending
Sent items
Contacts
In the Folders view, close all extra mail files
e.g Table 69 check list of sub-folders
Show then delete the Business Manager entries ( Edit > Select All > Delete)
Business Tools > Accounts
Business Tools > Contacts
Business Tools > Opportunitess
Display Calendar items and delete all
1

Remove e-mail accounts
2

Empty the deted items in the Delete folder
2 MICROSOFT WORD
Tools > Options > File locations
Documents to C:\DATA
Templates to C:\DATA
AutoRecover files to C:\DATA
Tools > Options > User information
Name to your name
Initials to abc
3 MICROSOFT EXCEL
Tools > Options > General
General: Default File location to C:\DATA
Save : Autorecover save location to C:\DATA
4 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT
As for the Word section
5 MICROSOFT PUBLISHER
Tools > Options > General
File Locations to C:\DATA
Edit > Personal Information
Name to your name
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Computer name: Computer account date:


STAGE
milestone tick
NOTES
1
Calendar items are tabled by View > Arrange By > Categorie`
2
E-mail accounts are edited by Tools > Email Accounts > View or change existing e-mail accounts`
Geocomputing Management 376
Recovery from a computer failure
This is the section you need to take note of, if like me you go to
water, when your computer doesnt run exactly the way you wont it
to. There are several sections:
Glossary: words you should weave into any wild raving when
you talk to technicians, relatives or members of your lodge
Computer details: what you told Microsoft before, and what
you need to do say again, so the web-site wont refuse your
re-registration details and other things you are sure to have
forgotten like the administrator password.
Do this if you are panicking! This is a prioritised list of
double-checks to minimise the damage you do to your
system as well as to try and identify the problem to find the
necessary person to fix it.
Panic sticker: this is a sticker you can put on your computer
to remind you not to panic, but also it has written out the
name of your computer and where to find these PANIC
INSTRUCTIONS so you can panic properly.
The computer details section has an added advantage in that it
allows you to document the important files in your business, in
preparation if you should you get killed or incapacitated. It is the
ideal place for your spouse, or in my case my parents, to start
working through the process of handling my estate. This has always
concerned me since I was an engineering geologist on a working
mine, perhaps one of the most dangerous peacetime professions,
but those people working in agriculture and construction are also in
environments more dangerous than the average, and will make use
of these forms.
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Table 116 the disks for the recovery in the order they are
needed
A description of the box for your application software:
eg: cardboard box covered in Australia contact film in the sideboard, with glass

Software disk mine yours tick
Microsoft Windows XP CD R
Norton Internet Security 2007 USB D
Microsoft Office 2003 CD X
Thompson Endnote X CD S
Oxford Dictionary CD X

LEGEND
CD: CD-ROM, can be found in a jewel case, sleeve, a cardboard booklet/envelope or a DVD or CD folder
USB : the USBs are stored in the display folders
DVD: DVD, can be found in a jewel case, sleeve, or a DVD folder
S: SHELVED, the current software disk is in the book case in a DVD or CD folder,
R: RACKED, the current software disk is in a jewell case in the CD rack
X; BOXED, the current software disk is found in the box of application software
D: DESKED, the software disk is on the desk in its cardboard booklet folder (usually virus software)

Glossary of panic
These are some particular phrases that you will need to know when
having a PANIC about your computer not working.
asset folder
The file where you keep the receipts from the purchase of the
computer, your original functional specification, your software license
agreements, your warranty and any other commercial information,
especially that which would be relevant to depreciation calculation
and a tax auditor.
diagnostics
This is a program pre-loaded by the computer manufacturer, which
gives you a bit more information about where the problem lies with
your computer. On two occasions, in 2002 and 2007, I had memory
Geocomputing Management 378
chip failures, unfortunately in the second instance I didnt run the
diagnostics and I erased my disk when I neednt have because I
thought I had a device, virus or BIOS chip error. The Toshiba
diagnostics would have ruled out at least one of those, and would
have shown up the real culprit, the add-on Legend memory.
display folder
A display folder costs a few dollars, but it is one of the best
computing investments you can make. You stick all the sale
brochures, manuals, warning notices or any other documentation
that comes with your computer and peripherals or devices. It is all in
one place and it is the type of thing you pull out when you have a
more technically minded friend come over and help you customise
the computer.
However, dont send it with the computer to be repaired because
you wont get it back. These original technical documents are like
gold to technicians trying to bring back to life old equipment. Make
sure you hand the whole folder over to whoever takes over the
computer when you are finished with it, then go out and buy a new
display folder for the new computer.
DSL
DSL is the broadband connection to the Internet. In Australia we call
it ADSL and I have a Siemens Speedstream modem, which provides
the ADSL2+ protocol. In Windows prompts they call it DSL. The
Speedstream modem has wireless, USB and 100baseT Ethernet
connections so it is quite versatile. The Ethernet connection is more
secure so I sit on the dining room table next to the stereo where the
modem sits and use it to configure the computer until at least I have
the virus checker in place and then I can switch across to wireless
for more flexibility where I work.
OEM
Original equipment manufacturer, the people who have made your
computer and have purchased special licenses of Microsoft Windows
and other software to come pre-loaded on your computer.
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recovery disk
The disk in shrink-wrap that comes with a computer that has the
software pre-loaded such as Toshiba, HP and Dell laptops so if you
have a disk crash you can reload the pre-loaded software.
universal serial bus (USB)
The universal serial bus (USB) is the connection system from your
computer to your Apple Ipod or mobile phone. You can also find
hard disk drives, floppy disk drives, keyboards, track balls and other
computer mice with this fitting. The hook-up connector is flattish
with a thin white insert inside. If you use an extension, as with a hub
of other connectors, the device end of the cable has a square fitting.
Do this if you are panicking!
These are the items you should do in priority to solve a problem with
your computer:
1. DONT PANIC
2. Read PANIC STICKER for location of your PANIC SHEET, which
has your computers details
3. Run the OEM diagnostics from the location given in the
PANIC SHEET
4. Run OEM recovery disk from the disk drive only, that is
after boot up. This will give you a chance to restore
damaged drivers. Toshiba and HP recovery disks both
have this option as well as Windows XP software
purchased separately.
5. Run the recovery disk from a boot start, eg for Toshiba
Satellite M30: you put the disk in, turn off, turn back on and
then push F12 to select that boot comes from the CD disk
and then it re-formats your disk to enable to you begin from
scratch (and of course deleting all your data and carefully
constructed configurations). Check your manual in your
display-book that you made up when you received your
computer. The Japanese enjoy a good panic; they invented
the word kamikaze, so they always have instructions on
what to do in the worst case, but nothing about what to do
Geocomputing Management 380
in the intermediate cases. But this is the last entry in the Do
this if you are panicking section, so it is time for your own
personal sacrifice.
If you have panicked do this!
These steps are for when you have had the computer sent to the
workshop and it has been returned. This process is intended to
return you to full working capacity as quickly as possible. There are
several stages:
I. Return the computer to Internet use
II. Return the computer to document printing use
III. Return the computer to standalone document updating use
IV. Return the computer to regular commercial use
V. Return the computer to marketing use
The following sections give the information and steps you will
require, a checklist is shown in Table 117.
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Table 117 operating system activation details
activation date: computer name

PC-cillin Norton Internet Security other:
Virus software licence key (eg: ABCD-EFGH-IJKL-MNOP-QRST):

your nuisance email address (eg: CompsInGeology@bigpond.com):

category of questions
respone tick
Microsoft or manufacturer Windows registration details
supplier updates (prefer Yes): Yes No
usage to supplier (prefer No): Yes No
First Name (prefer Sir):
Mr Sir other:
Last Name (e.g. JACQUIER):
item mine yours
Address: Computers in Geology
40 St Anns Place
City: PARKSIDE
State: SA
Post code: 5063
work e-mail address added (as above):
support updates and drivers (prefer Yes): Yes No
automated PC tune-up (prefer Yes): Yes No
usage to supplier (i.e beta-testing, No): Yes No
use manuafacturers desktop (prefer Yes): Yes No
Virus software registration
First Name Computers
Last Name In Geology
turned off the file sampling
Anti-virus software activated and updates downloaded.
location of diagnostic software (usually : Start | All Programs | make of computer )
Utilities | PC Diagnostic Tool other:
Support Assistant

Return the computer to Internet use
This stage is intended to allow you to use the Internet and browse
documents, perhaps check your web-mail or logon to your clients
Geocomputing Management 382
computer. The details you require for this section are in the Table
117 but the process comprises:
1. Check the rebuild computer system, if you can printout the
notes and check lists from the Grimoire of Geological
Computing.
2. Locate your specification list for the computer (that is the
section Computer details of this section.
3. Re-read your description of the problems you had on the initial
installation of the software. I like to put together a fax or e-
mail to the supplier just to give them some feedback on what
to tell future customers and how I liked the product. I think if
you treat salesman as professionals then they will react as
professionals. I file the fax or e-mail in the asset folder.
4. Plug in the modem telephone jack
5. Run the recovery disk, using the details in Table 1.
6. Set the Language in Microsoft Windows XP and reboot
afterwards. Set the colour quality on the driver to the highest
eg: Start | Setup | Display | Settings | Color quality | highest
32 bit.
7. Check and change the date and time if necessary. The
technicians if they removed the battery or reset the computer
they may well have altered the time. The Microsoft Update
program requires that your computer uses the current date
and time.
8. Plug the Ethernet cable from your computer into your DSL
modem. I dont load the wireless modem at this stage because
with Windows XP it is important to load Windows XP service
pack 2 first, which is a normal part of the upgrade process.
Microsoft Windows XP service pack 2 has the major fixes that
prevent people breaking into your computer while you are
using the wireless network.
9. Run the Internet and Networking Wizard to check your
internet settings
10. Update Windows and then re-boot
11. Update it again and reboot. Some of the updates have to be
layered so keep running the update- reboot cycle until you get
the message that all current updates have been loaded except
the ones that you dont want to have such as the Genuine
Advantage which is a callous misnomer as it has no
advantages at all to you and just clogs up your computer.
12. Turn-off and disconnect your Ethernet connection from the
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computer to the DSL modem.
13. Load your virus software, including at least one restart to
implement the software.
14. Turn-off the system, and reconnect the Ethernet cable to the
DSL modem
15. Restart the computer and update the virus software.
16. Register the virus software
17. Scan the disk with the virus software
18. Set up the WiFi link
Geocomputing Management 384
Table 118 network activation details
activation date: computer name network domain name

Administration account name
glj cing other:
Wi-Fi WEP key (26 characters = 128 bit decryption):
eg: ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

category of questions
respone tick
basic IO system prompts
item mine yours tick
region: Australia
language: English (Australia)
keyboard: US
Computer as a network node prompts
entered administration account name:
Computer name e.g MRSPOTS:
Computer description: eg: mother for Computers in Geology

Administrator password (leave blank):
domain: (eg. compsingeology)
Read the licence terms:
Use recommended settings (try Yes)
Local Area Network details
Mobile phone netwok options in Table 119
timezone eg: Adelaide:
Chosen network name (e.g. SpeedStream9671)
Entered in network key
Network type (Work network)
Work Network Home Network Public Network


Mobile phone network
For the future we can look at distributing data over the mobile
phone. In increasing complexity you can consider:
1. Wireless application protocol (WAP) services
2. GPRS services
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The Table 119 following gives the critical settings to set up these
services.
Geocomputing Management 386
Table 119 check list for configuring a mobile phone for data
sharing
manufacturer model


settings
Recommendation provided by service provider (eg: Telstra)
1

Recommendation provided by mobile phone maker (eg: LG)
component
variable value tick
enable the phone for wireless application protocol WAP (GSM only)
Home page www.telstra.com X
Connection type temporary X
Secure setting off X
1
These details taken from A quick guide to our mobile services Telstra.
2
These details taken from GPRS Phone, users manual Model: G1500 LG.

Return the computer to printing documents use
This stage is intended to allow you to print off documents from disk
and web sites. The details you require for this section are in Table
120:
1. Make a TEMP directory and other configurations
2. Set up the additional user accounts
3. Set up the devices for example, floppy disk drive,
mouse, and printer hub.
4. Set up the printer and printout the specifications from
the PC Diagnostics and the setup for the WiFi

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Table 120 peripherals and plotting software details
work date: computer name

category of questions
respone tick
1 OPERATING SYSTEM FINE TUNING
MS Windows updates downloaded
Refine MS Windows regionalisation
3

Numbers > Digit grouping symbol is blank
Currency > Digit grouping symbol is blank
Find DVD eject button
TEMP directory made
2 WHO WILL USE THIS COMPUTER?
For each account
Print out Table 110
User account nominated on Table 110
3 USB CONNECTIONS
driver file source
III web-site
II. load from supplied disk as per Table 24
I. attempt to use supplied Windows driver
device
mouse
trackball
disk drive
hub
modem
tape drive
joystick
4 PRINTER CONNECTION
HP Designjet HP Deskjet EPSON LX
HP Photosmart HP Officejet
series: driver version: network name:

NOTES
3
To change the regional settings try either (Start > Control Panel ):
Regional and Language Options
Regional and Language
> Customise >
Clock Language and region
Change the date,time or number format; Format > Additional settings

Geocomputing Management 388
5. Install Microsoft Office 2003 from the disk recorded in
Table 116 and reboot.
6. Install Business Contact Manager for Outlook 2003 and
reboot
7. Set the language settings for Microsoft Office 2003
8. Run the Microsoft upgrade (in 2007 it was three time)
until there are no more upgrades to be had, rebooting
after each set. This will pull down the security upgrades
for Microsoft Office 2003 as well.


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Table 121 Microsoft Office installation details
Computer name:: region (eg Australia): date:

language:

English (Australia) Greek French other:
Microsoft Windows Office Activation Key (inside the case)
OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer MLK Media-less licence key
FFP Retail licence of
eg: ABCDE-FGHIJ-KLMNO-PGRST-UVWXY


Technical support web-site, http://
support.microsoft.com/office2010 answers.microsoft.com/office
www.office.com/officesetup other:
Product key support web-site, http://
support.microsoft.com/kb/2002262 other:
Microsft Outlook support web-site, http://
support.microsoft.com/kb/2002261 other:
Damaged DVD web-site, http://
www.office.com/backup other:
Extra configuration, http://
www.office.com/compatibility other:
www.office.com/language
NOTES


Return the computer to editing documents use
This stage is intended to bring your computer to the stage where
you can edit stand-alone or simple documents such as Excel
spreadsheets, and Word documents not linked into Thompson
EndNote bibliographic databases or particular style sheets. The
details you require for this section are in Table 122. The reference to
archives is where you have enough data to full a complete CD_ROM
or DVD disk, but you are not using that data any more, so I take it
out of the standard DATA structure where it could be accidentally
modified and setup separate folders which I lock down and backup
every time I open a new packet of CD-ROMs or DVDs. I do this
because the amount of time that an image will remain on the disk
Geocomputing Management 390
before getting corrupted has more to do with the disk
manufacturers process, than it has to do with the media you are
using. By putting copies across different manufacturers and process
batches I minimise the chance of losing the data.
9. Bring down the data directories from latest backup as
per Table 122.
10. Transfer any relevant data from the latest backup of
Documents and Settings as per Table 122.
11. Run a backup of the DOCS, Documents and Settings and
DATA directories.
For the best guess on what should be recovered from the
Documents and Settings directory see Table 123.
Table 122 restoring your documents
activation date: computer name

category response
question mine yours
Data directories to be restored from backup
Backup date 7 March 2007
documents D:\DATA
First archive D:\archive1
Second archive D:\archive2
Third archive n/a
Fourth archive n/a
Settings directories to be restored from backup
Backup date 7 February 2007
Administrator Administrator
All Users All Users
Your name Grant JACQUIER
2
nd
User Helen RICE
3
rd
User Santos Limited



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Table 123 checklist for recovering critical data from the
default folders
Computer name date

recommendations to recover data
Your recommendation:
What I used in 4/2007
folder system
Documents and Settings//.
Cookies N
Desktop N
Favourites N
Shared Documents
1
N
Start Menu N
?????? s Documents as per Table 94
user account 1. N
user account 2. N
user account 3. N
user account 4. N
UserData
2

3XSVG3V6 N
4BRI43JA N
ETIJLVOZ N
VW0XQOJK N
Index.DAT N
WINDOWS
2

system
NTUSER.DAT
1
N
LuResult.txt N
LEGEND
N : nothing copied from this folder
: some things copied from this folder
Y : whole folder copied to C:\Documents and Settings\ on rebuilt disk
X : copied to that particular persons data directory e.g. c:\DATA\HRICE\.
NOTES
1
Found only in C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\ folder system
2
Not found only in C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\ folder system
3
Found only in C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator\ folder system
4
If you have purchased Microsoft OneNote, to use as an exploration journal, you will need this
directory as it has the OneNote database.
Geocomputing Management 392
Return the computer to book-keeping use
This stage is intended to bring your computer to the stage where
you can carry on the commercial side of your business in the manner
you were, previous to the computer failure. The exception to this is
where the accounts are coming by e-mail, so in the future it will be
more important to restore the e-mail system first.
The steps, in bringing the commercial system up, are as follows:
12. Open the expenses journal as per Table 124 and enter
any expenses, not recorded. That is the difference
between the last entry in the journal and the latest
receipt held.
13. Update the expenses journal with any outgoing
payments
14. Open the income journals specified in Table 124 and
again reconcile the latest entries with your existing
paper record.
15. Update the income journals with any receivables you
have been holding over.
16. Check that the backup register is not corrupted, add any
outstanding backups. Then do anything else that your
accountant requires to meet your accounting standard.
17. Run a backup of the DOCS, Documents and Settings and
DATA directories

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Table 124 restoring your accounting system
category of questions response
question mine yours
Accounts for payment
1

payments journal jour0607.xls
Last entry #2007-02-03
Last receipt #2007-02-03
Accounts receivable
services income ./AMS/payslips/*.MDI
last invoice
1
t2007034.MDI
fees journal ./AMS/payslips/*.pdf
last payment
1
20070222.pdf
Investment income ./ADMIN/SHARES.xls
Last number used
1
100115
latest advice filed
1
100115
Financial statements
1

Latest statements Bal0506.xls
Last updated 5/12/2006
Last printed 7/11/2006
Accounting standard compliance
Backup register ./ADMIN/backreg.xls
Location of the digital certificate for authenticating macros
2
:


NOTES
1
These will need to be filled in at time of failure
2
I havent quite worked out how to keep a certificate available. I seem to go through the process
each time for every spreadsheet, when really I should just have one for Computers in Geology as
the publisher.
Return the computer to communications use
OK, this is where you get e-mail running again. The steps, in
bringing the communications system up, are as follows:
16. Setup the initial base user account in Microsoft Outlook
17. Copy and mount your outlook archive files as per the
commands in Equation 84 from the details in Table 125.
18. Copy your personal folder into the C:\TEMP holding
directory, and import objects into the new Personal
Folder stub as per Equation 85.
19. Mount the backup personal folder in C:\TEMP and move
any other items which werent imported in the first go.
Geocomputing Management 394
20. Mount the remaining folders in Table 125 as per
Equation 84.
21. Create a Business Contact Manager file. Turn off or
unplug any network activity (wireless LAN or Ethernet),
and restart the computer so it doesnt lock the dummy
business manager files. Copy the backup up business
manager files over the dummies.
22. Run a backup of the DOCS, Documents and Settings and
DATA directories
23. Double check the system with 8. TEST THE
COMPONENTS in Checklist for transferring a computer
system in the Grimoire of Geological Computing and
then continue as for the initial installation.

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Table 125 restoring your e-mail system
date machine

region.
Australia Other:
language.
English(Australia) Other:
Time zone.
Adeaide Other:
incoming mail server type and address, in my Telstra case POP3.
POP3 mail.bigpond.com (Telstra)
IMAP Other:
outgoing mail server type and address, in my Telstra case SMTP.
SMTP mail.bigpond.com (Telstra)
Other:
News server server type and address (in the Telstra case SMTP).
NNTP news.bigpond.com (Telstra)
Other:
category of questions response
question mine yours
Your basic e-mail account
name post-master
Email address grantjacquier@bigpond.com
Mount each of your report and archive folders
e.g. Table 69 e-mail address versus file
SUPPORT
Windows Live e-mail:
compsingeology@bigpond.com Other:
Windows Live Personal mnemonic:
first artificer in metals Other:
WORKING FILES
/ : e-mail working files; O : business working files; X : both sets of files
Root directory:
C:\Documents and Settings\. Other:
C:\DATA\Profiles\.
account:
Grant JACQUIER Other:
Default
subdirectory:
.\Local Settings\Application Data\Microsoft\.. .\. (none)
other
application:
Geocomputing Management 396
date machine

.\Outlook\. Other:
.\Business Contact Manager\.
Files (select as many as you are using )
1
:
Outlook.pst archive.pst Personal Folders.pst
archive1.pst CinGeol2.??
Corresp.pst Archive.pst CinGeol.mdb; CinGeol.ldf
X16-55886.exe Archive2.pst
other

Technical support
Telstra help desk 133 933 Office.com
Telstra dial-up number 0198 308 888
other
Windows Live:
compsingeology@bigpond.com Other:
First artificer in metals
NOTES
1
The X16-56886.exe file is the downloaded Business Contact Manager add-in and is stored with the
Outlook working files for emergency use in re-installing Business Contact Manager.
Restart the science data processing
This is where you get the automatic batch files working. The key
software here is the Microsoft command batch files, which start
Microsoft Office programs and several scripting programs. You can
use the general checks inTable 112 with the specifics of Table 126.

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Table 126 science data processing software customisation
date machine
EndNote version details
X2 X4 Other:
XXXXX - XXXXX - XXXXX - XXXXX - XXXXX
- - - -
1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 0
Previous serial number 5
This serial number 5
Golden Software scripter details Packaged with
Ver.4.0.9 Ver. 10 Surfer disk
Other: Other: MapViewer disk

A X 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 a a
serial number - -
0 SCIENCE SOFTWARE
aspect tick
1 THOMPSON ENDNOTE
Specifics of the diskwritten above
Updates occurred
do nothing for default library (Edit > Preferences > Libraries)
Alter the Folder locations (Edit > Preferences > Folders)
C:\DATA\EndNote other
Style Folder
Filter Folder
Connection Folders
2 GOLDEN SOFTWARE SCRIPTER
Logged on as administrator:
Update done
3 MS-DOS COMMAND FILE
Follow discussion in RUN.BAT (something like Equation 94 )
1
Special file suffixes in use are: *.img, for ERDAS Imagine files, manually set to be viewed by
Geomatica Freeview; *.dat, various data files, automatically set to Golden Software products.


Geocomputing Management 398
Chapter 5 CONCLUSION
Since beginning to write this book I have made advances in the work
such as rewriting the preface of this manual to match the format of
the computer help books that you can buy in any bookshop. This
chapter considers the future direction that geocomputing may take
by considering:
1. significant texts that have not been incorporated in the
book;
2. programming tasks that have been identified during the
preparation of these examples.
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Further research
These other references I have found inspiring to read but I have yet
to weave them into the narrative:
ABERCROMBIE C. M. 1989. Computer-based ore resource/reserve estimates traps
and pitfalls. In: Computers in exploration, pp 45-48. Australian Institute of
Geoscientists Bulletin No. 9.
ANONYMOUS 1996. Oil and gas info on line. The Miner. September 1996 pp 54.
ANONYMOUS 1998a. Living with the Super Pit. GIS user. Issue 28 June-July 1998 pp
42- 43.
ANONYMOUS 1999a. A tool for asset teams. PESA News. February/March 1999 pp
66 - 69.
ANONYMOUS 1999b. Data management continues to improve. PESA News.
December/January 1999 pp 30.
ANONYMOUS 1999c. PIMS Nos 1 & 2 now on the web. PESA News.
August/September 1999 pp 68.
BELPERIO A. P. 1993. Advances in geoscience data access using GIS. In: Gatehouse
C. eds. Geoscience Computing Update. Australian Geoscience Information Association,
Adelaide, South Australia.
BENNET T.1988 The hidden costs of CAD!. Drafting Reprographics and Typesetting.
April 1988, pp 24-25.
BOLT R. C. 1992. Transaction processing vs decision support? A three tiered
architecture provides a compromise between decision support and transaction
processing. DBMS. September 1992.
BOWLER J. 1987. Why the Macintosh? A case study. Geobyte.Vol. 2(4) .
BRITTEN C. 1994. PANCON: Getting down to business. Computers In Mining
Catalogue. October 1994 pp 8-9.
CLOUGH B. 1993 Geoscience Data Standards - a draft proposal for standard format
for drillhole and rock sample /geochemical data. In: Gatehouse C. eds. Geoscience
Computing Update. Australian Geoscience Information Association, Adelaide, South
Australia.
CLOUGH B., JENKINS G. & NICHOLS G. 1993 South Australian Exploration Initiative
Drillhole / Geochemistry Data capture Project using PC Paradox. In: Gatehouse C. eds.
Geoscience Computing Update. Australian Geoscience Information Association,
Adelaide, South Australia.
CHIMBLO R. D., DASGUPTA S. N. & FOOTE J. T. 1992. E & P information
management: a users view. Journal of Seismic Exploration. No 1 1992 pp 337- 345.
DANGELO J. & TROY B. 2000. Managing your assets. Harts E&P. June 2000 pp 337-
345.
DOWNEY W. M 1998. Predicting the future, should we learn from astrology or
astronomy. PESA News. August/September 1998 pp 21.
EGGO A. J. & HARVEY B. E. 1989. Field computing strategy in a large exploration
company. In: Computers in exploration, pp 17-22. Australian Institute of Geoscientists
Bulletin No. 9.
FROST M. A.1997. Information technology - leverage to add value. PESA Journal. No
25 1997 pp 112- 120.
JAMES R. J. , WINSOR C. N. & CLARK I. 1993. Computer aided learning (CAL)
software used to enhance the presentation of structural geology to tertiary level
Geocomputing Management 400
students. In: Gatehouse C. eds. Geoscience Computing Update. Australian Geoscience
Information Association, Adelaide, South Australia.
GASMIER D. 1987. The use of computers in modern mineral exploration programs.
Equipment in the Minerals industry: Exploration, Mining and Processing Conference.
Kalgoorlie, WA October 1987. AUSIMM, Kalgoorlie, Western Australia.
GERDES L., & EBERHARD B. 1993. RMLS - a new system for managing records in the
Department of Mines and Energy South Australia. In: Gatehouse C. eds. Geoscience
Computing Update. Australian Geoscience Information Association, Adelaide, South
Australia.
HEYMINK B. 1988 Micrographics: the cure to your records management problems?
Drafting Reprographics and Typesetting. April 1988 pp 20.
HOLLOWAY 1999. Australia to be moved 200 metres Northeast. PESA News.
February/March 1999 pp 44 - 46.
JONES T. A. 1988 Modeling geology in three dimensions. Geobyte. February 88 pp
14-20.
LOSTE-BROWN S., GOODWIN L. & SCRIFFIGANO J. 1998. Miners and greenies. GIS
User. Issue 28 June-July 1998 pp 33-38.
LAUGHTON C. A. 1994 Exploring in hyperspace: Getting more out of your database.
4
th
National Conference on Geoscience Information and Management. Australian
Geoscience Information Association, Adelaide, South Australia.
MCCORMACK S. 1994 Why orange DOS beats durian Unix. The Australian. Tuesday
March 1 1994 pp37.
MADIGAN T. & MAYNARD M.1999 Managing exploration industry reports in the
Northern Territory. The Great Australian Byte. Volume 5 Part 1.
MILLER B. M. 1988 Future applications of expert systems for the evaluation of energy
resources. The Journal of Petroleum Technology. March 1988.
MITCHELL G. 1989. Integration of CAD systems into an exploration computing
environment. In: Computers in exploration, pp 67-69. Australian Institute of
Geoscientists Bulletin No. 9.
MORRIS P. H. 1988 Application of statistics in geotechnical engineering an example
from earthquake data. 9
th
Australian Geological Convention, GSA Abstracts. No 21.
MORRIS W. G., BETTENAY L. F., & DUDLEY R. J. 1989. Computer-based ore
resource/reserve estimates traps and pitfalls. In: . Computers in exploration
Where we are now and where we are going, pp 23-30. Australian Institute of
Geoscientists Bulletin No. 9.
PEARSON D.1999 The hidden costs of data integration. CIO. June 1999, pp 64-69.
PEEBLER R. P. 1999. Leveraging knowledge through information technology. The
Leading Edge. October/November 1996 pp 1132 - 1140.
ROCK N. M. S. 1989. Statistics and data analaysis in geology: Problems, progress, and
prospects. In: Computers in exploration, pp 71-75. Australian Institute of
Geoscientists Bulletin No. 9.
RUTTAN D.1994 When do you hire a computer specialist?. Australian PC World. July
1994, pp 10, 14.
RYBURN R.1994 The Pros and Cons of corporate geological databases charting a
course through the minefield. AGIA lecture series. 1994. Australian Geoscience
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SCHULZ Y., FISHER D. & CURTIS T. 1999. PPDM manages oil & gas data better,
faster. PESA News. October/November 1999 pp 45 - 48.
SNOWDEN V. 1989. Estimating recoverable reserves Developments in applied
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going, pp 31-34. Australian Institute of Geoscientists Bulletin No. 9.
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SUGDEN S. 1999. GIS document and metadata management. GIS User. Issue 36
October-November 1999 pp 26-27.
WALTHO A.1999 Preparing personal computers and data for the Year 2000. The
Australian Geologist. Newsletter No 110, March 31, 1999 pp 24-25.
WEST L. J. 1999. IHS achieves milestone in effort to integrate Petroconsultantsand
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WHITFIELD S 1993. Trade off. PESA News. March/May 1993 pp 18.
WHEATLEY M. 1989. Expert systems for geologists. In: Computers in exploration, pp
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YOURDON E. 1995 When good enough is best: The design for client/server systems
should be a realistic and ongoing - process Byte. September 1996, pp 85-90.
Orphaned references
The references below have yet to be incorporated as footnotes and
the citations remain in the narrative. It is sorted by the first authors
name and has more extensive details. It is also a demonstration of
the automatic bibliography generation provided by Thompson
EndNote.
Ross Ackland and Simon Cox, 'Markup mapping.', GIS User no. 47 (2001),
pp. 28-31.
Elinor Alexander, 'Geothermal energy exploration in South Australia',
PESA News no. 73 (2005), pp. 39-52.
Julian F. H. Barnes, 'Exploration computing in a small company
environment. ,' in Computers in Exploration - Where we are now
and where we are going, Seminar No. 7, Australian Institute of
Geoscientists Bulletin No 9 (Perth: Australian Institute of
Geoscientists, 1989).
S. J. D. Cox and K. D. Covil, 'Accessing Australian geodynamic
information: the AGRC website', Australian Journal of Earth
Science vol. 49, no. 4 (2002).
Aston Embry, 'Coming to grips with sequence stratigraphy', The Australian
Geologist no. 128 (2003), pp. 21-22.
Jon Fairall, 'Mobile mapping: What is it good for?', GIS User no. 47 (2001),
pp. 27-31.
William Featherstone, 'An updated explanation of the Geocentric Datum of
Australia (GDA) and its effects upon future mapping', The
Australian Surveyor (1996).
T A Gouldie, 'To tender, re-negotiate or partner: Strategies for contracting
service companies. ,' in APOGC 94 SPE 28745 (Houston, Texas:
Society of Petroleum Engineers, 1994).
R. D. Hilton et al., 'Comparison of digital elevation models over Australia
and external validation using ERS-1 satellite radar altimetry.',
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences vol. 50, no. 2 (2003).
Geocomputing Management 402
A. L. Jaques, S. Jaireth, and J. L. Walshe, 'Mineral systems of Australia: an
overview of resources, settings and processes', Australian Journal
of Earth Science vol. 49, no. 4 (2002).
Michael Jenkins, 'Managing Data with Topology', Position no. 12 (2004),
pp. 63-64.
Joseph Leach, 'Stages of a remote sensing investigation,' ed. Grant Leslie
Jacquier (Parkville, Victoria: 2001).
D. R. Mason, 'Thermodynamic modelling of lode gold deposits in Archaen
granitoids: Woodcutters and Lady Bountiful mines, Kalgoorlie
region, Western Australia.', Australian Journal of Earth Sciences
vol. 51, no. 3 (2004).
Fred R. McFadden and Jeffrey A. Hoffer, Data base management
(Redwood City, California, 1991).
Venessa O'Connell, 'Surveying in paradise', Position no. 7 (2003), pp. 49-
50.
Merrin Pearse, 'The Third Dimension', Position no. 6 (2003), pp. 75-77.
G. P. Price and P. Stoker, 'Australian Geodynamics Cooperative Research
Centre's integrated research program delivers a new minerals
exploration strategy for industry', Australian Journal of Earth
Sciences vol. 49, no. 4 (2002).
D. Pullar, 'Using VRML to visualise landscape change and process',
Cartography vol. 31, no. 1 (2002).
M. H. Tagestani, 'Landslide susceptibility mapping using the fuzzy gamma
approach in a GIS, Kakan catchment area, southwest Iran.',
Australian Journal of Earth Sciences vol. 51, no. 3 (2004).
R. M. Tennant (ed.), Science data book (Edinburgh, 1971).
Andrew. H. White, Management of mineral exploration (Moggill, Qld.:
Glenside, S. Aust., 1997).


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Future scripting or purchases
In this section there is outlining of applications that would address
the most immediate issues in improving the data flow between the
software and speed up the work in general. The most pressing
developments for me are:
1. I keep purchasing upgrades to MapViewer because I need
the extract to HTML to limit to the mapped extent not the
extent of the database files.
2. I have found that I need an asset database which includes
not only amortisation and depreciation but also has forms for
inventory of myriad cultural artefacts and physical records
such as cores, microscope slides, rock samples, digital media
and books.
3. I need to sort out a separate style sheet to make a web
page suitable for using on the small screen of mobile
telephones, so my clients can view my existing web pages in
the field as well as the office.
4. I need to write a larger compendium of existing cartographic
specifications for commonly available maps so that I can
easily generate land use and geological overlays for road
and geographic maps in atlases.
5. I hope that there will be continuing development of the
reporting aspects of EndNote perhaps to the extent that it
will be a document server. Some of this facility is available
with the EndNote Web option which I havent had
opportunity to test.
The following Table 127 indicates how these particular developments
would affect your business, by compiling the improvements it would
make to each of the methods given in Chapter 4 and 5. Finally there
are the longer term goals, which are discussed as themes below that
table, that may be solved by future purchases:
1. Generating a catalog file
2. Converting image files to Grid files

Geocomputing Management 404
Table 127 the impact of proposed development on the work
flow
development
Data cropping in MapViewer HTML export
More extensive compendium of cartography specifications

Revised preface to the Grimoire of Geological Computing

More sophisticated reporting from Thompson EndNote

Methods from Chapter 5

A minimalist bibliography system Y Y - -
Mailing newsletters - Y - -
Make a Search Centre for web-based research ? Y - -
Making a catalogue of files Y Y - -
Time and expense allocation - Y - -
Make an asset catalogue for the built environment ? Y - -
Make an asset catalogue for the natural environment Y Y Y Y
Making a GIS for an investigation site - Y Y ?
Legend:
Y: this method will be improved by this development
N: this method will be made more difficult by this development
?: this method may be improved by this development
-: this improvement will not improve the method

Generating a catalog file
Replace Geomatica FreeView browser with a catalog file (*.cag or
*.mmc) from Microsoft Clip Gallery 5.0. This will allow a farmer or
other client to download thumbnails via the catalog file and use them
directly in Microsoft PowerPoint, rather than having to preview,
download, upload and then review again. The Windows XP
equivalent Microsoft Clip organiser may do this.
Converting image files to Grid files
The conversion of Imagine (*.img) or GeoTIFF files (*.tif) to grid
files (*.asc) for loading into Golden Software Surfer will allow them
to be treated as a plane of measurements and incorporated with
other ground measurements rather than just as a drape. It will also
allow the use of kriging to either predict soil moisture level
measurements (co-kriging) or summarise several pixels into facies
for bushfire prediction.
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Appendix SCRIPTS
The scripts written in full and ready to be used are:
poster.bat
(Equation 94 )
MS-DOS batch file for project management
projlib.xsl
(Equation 95)
an XSL script to compile a table of references hyperlinked to digital files

The steps to get these scripts running are:
1. open a blank Notepad document,
2. cut and paste the script in total into the Notepad
3. then save it as a file called delme.txt,
4. before renaming delme.txt to the file name given above,
taking special care to get the suffix correct.
Geocomputing Management 406
poster.bat
The Microsoft MS-DOS batch script in Equation 94 and the example
specified there are referred to from several sections of the Grimoire
including:
Making an HTML file to run a batch file
Using a Microsoft Batch file for project management
Making a poster for a convention

Equation 94 MS-DOS batch file for project management
ECHO OFF
REM poster.bat
REM
REM (c) Computers in Geology 2005-2006
REM
REM A wrapper for running the files for working on
REM the "poster for West Gippsland catchment monitoring" and
in the
REM right order.
REM
REM This is just so wonderful, it has been an absolute
REM pain in the bottom remembering the most current
REM versions for EndNote and Word, but not having several
REM versions to give a roll back agenda would be such a
REM disaster.
REM
REM This technique fits in so well and is quite simple
REM and shouldn't be too hard to maintain. Time will tell.
REM
REM instructions (from Windows):
REM 1. DOS Command prompt
REM 2. cd c:\DATA\BAT
REM 3. poster
REM
REM instructions (from Intranet):
REM 1.
http://localhost/C_IN_G/HOME/default_files/numbat.htm
REM 2. Click on phrase "West Gippsland catchment
monitoring poster" in
REM the developments
REM
REM assumptions:
REM * following environment variables are being set
automatically
REM in a cmd session
REM - ProgramFiles (directory containing the programs)
REM
REM revisions:
Geocomputing Management 407
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REM * GLJ 21 Mar 2006
REM - copy grimoire.bat to poster.bat
REM - MyBiography=C:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2006025.doc
REM - replace j2006025.doc with c2006026.doc
REM - c2006022.enl (j2001209.enl + part
c2006021.enl)
REM
REM * GLJ 21 Mar 2006
REM - copy grimoire.bat to poster.bat
REM - add c2005061.doc with c2006018.doc
REM - replace j2002092.ppt with c2006019.ppt
REM
REM
***************************************************************
*
REM
REM initialise script variables
REM
REM MyLetter=c2005061.doc
SET MyLetter=c2006018.doc
REM
REM MyDatabase=C:\ARCHIVE\REPORTS\UNIMELB\j2001209.enl
REM MyDatabase=C:\DATA\REPORTS\AMS\j2002133.enl (part only)
REM MyDatabase=C:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2006021.enl (upgrade of
j2002133.enl)
SET MyDatabase=C:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2006022.enl
REM
SET MyJournal=numbat.ppt
REM
REM MyBiography=C:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2006025.doc
SET MyBiography=C:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2006026.doc
REM
REM MyPoster=C:\DATA\C_IN_G\NUMBAT\Modelc\j2002092.ppt
REM MyPoster=C:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2006019.ppt
REM MyPosterDraft=C:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2006027.pub
REM MyPosterDraft=C:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2006028.pub
SET MyPosterDraft=C:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\c2006031.pub
REM
REM run script logic
REM
START "C:\Program Files\EndNote 8\EndNote.exe" %MyDatabase%
START "C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\OFFICE11\POWERPNT.EXE"
C:\DATA\C_IN_G\HOME\%MyJournal%
REM START "C:\Program Files\Microsoft
Office\OFFICE11\POWERPNT.EXE" %MyPoster%
START "C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\OFFICE11\MSPUB.EXE"
%MyPosterDraft%
START "C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\OFFICE11\WINWORD.EXE"
%MyBiography%
"C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\OFFICE11\WINWORD.EXE"
C:\DATA\C_IN_G\LETTERS\%MyLetter%
REM
REM close down script
REM
SET MyLetters=
SET MyDatabase=
Geocomputing Management 408
SET MyJournal=
SET MyPoster=
SET MyPosterDraft=
SET MyBiography=
ECHO "Poster alterations complete!"
Geocomputing Management 409
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projlib.xsl
The projlib.xsl script reformats an EndNote XML extract to give a
catalogue of electronic documents in an HTML page, see the section
Making a catalogue of files.
Equation 95 an XSL script to compile a table of references
hyperlinked to digital files
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!--
name : projlib.xsl
author: Grant JACQUIER
notice: (c) Copyright Computers
in Geology 2007
All rights reserved
Description:
This is based on the script on page 597 of Ray and Ray

* assumptions:
- XML file to be accessed is of the type
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<source-app name="EndNote"
version="10.0">EndNote</source-app>

* Reference
Ray & Ray 2002: Mastering HTML and XHTML; SYBEX Inc, Alameda,
California.
-->
<xsl:stylesheet
version="1.0"
xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform">
<xsl:template match="/">
<h3>All projects cross-reference</h3>
<table border="1">
<tr>
<th title="This has the value of the
Research Notes that don't qualify">check</th>
<th title="Project Fruit Bat">FB</th>
<th>electronic document</th>
</tr>
<xsl:for-each select="xml/records/record">
<tr>
<xsl:choose>
<xsl:when test="research-
notes='Project Fruit Bat'">
<td>-</td><td>X</td>
</xsl:when>
<xsl:otherwise>
<td>X<xsl:value-of
select="research-notes" /></td><td>-</td>
</xsl:otherwise>
Geocomputing Management 410
</xsl:choose>
<td><xsl:element name="a">
<xsl:attribute
name="href"><xsl:value-of select="urls/related-urls/url"
/></xsl:attribute>
<xsl:attribute
name="title">Reference is found in record <xsl:value-of
select="rec-number" /> of <xsl:value-of select="database"
/>.</xsl:attribute>
<xsl:value-of
select="titles/title" />
</xsl:element></td>
</tr>
</xsl:for-each>
</table>
</xsl:template>

</xsl:stylesheet>
Geocomputing Management 411
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Appendix - GLOSSARY
Geocomputing Management 412
0. Preface

USE
This work, The glossary of geological computing, is intended to provide a
resource of definitions, explanations and contact addresses for ordinary
geologists.
Each description has the following:
headword (category) description. c.f. related head words.
The categories are:
association - A non-profit organisation.
file format - The layout of data in secondary storage.
hardware - Computers, printers, sensors, instruments and the measures
used to judge the performance of those devices.
industry - Government surveys, research organisations and service
companies.
mathematics - The logic or alogorithm used in an application.
software - Computer software.
system - A method or organised work to achieve a certain outcome.
COPYRIGHT
Copyright 1994, 1996, 2002 and 2004. Computers in Geology.
All rights reserved. This publication may be reproduced and distributed free
to any individual, institution or corporation provided that this preface is also
reproduced. It is also published in ISI Research Endnote to allow easy
customisation.
Computers in Geology is the registered name of Grant Jacquier - Computer
Geologist,
registered office: 14 Third Street, Wilmington SA 5485, Australia.
WARNING
These definitions are not taken from other references but rather my
personal experience and perceptions. Hence, many of these DEFINITIONS
will be INACCURATE and more suitable alternatives have been OMITTED.
Please note any opinions expressed here are assuming general conditions
that will not be valid for all cases. Therefore readers should seek
professional advice on their particular situation before implementing any
suggestions.
ADVERTISEMENT
Grant Jacquier - Computer Geologist
Consulant for the design, integration, and support of geoscientific computer
systems.
CompsInGeology@bigpond.com
286, compatible (hardware) c.f: IBM PS/1.
386, compatible (hardware) c.f: IBM PS/2.
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3rd National Conference The third national conference and trade
exhibition on the management of geoscience information and data. Held at
the Australian Mineral Foundation, Adelaide, 18-20 July 1995.
486, compatible (hardware) c.f: IBM PS/2.
9 track tape (hardware) A tape format used for secondary storage. c.f:
secondary storage.
access life (mathematics) The maximum average time you can expect to
be able to read data from an archive media. Here are some examples:
floppy disks - 5 years
9-track tape - 10 years
QIC tapes - 5-10 years
Exabyte tapes - 10-15 years*
DAT tapes - 15-20 years*
CD-ROM (WORM) - 20-25 years*
CD-ROM (stamped) - 50 years*
* guess, haven't been invented that long
advanced very high resolution radiometer (hardware) The Advanced
Very High Resolution Radiometer is a five band multi-spectral sensor,
mounted in a TIROS platform and launched as a satellite with an orbit of
102 minutes (14 orbits per diem), re-imaging the same area every 12
hours. The intended use is for cloud mapping with pixels of 4 x 4 km. The
bands are:
1: 580 to 680 nm
2: 730 to 1100 nm
3: 3550 to 3930 nm
4. 10 000 to 11 500 nm
5. 11 500 to 12 500 nm
AESIS (system) Australian Earth Science Information System, The
Australian geoscience bibliographic database run by the Australian Mineral
Foundation and distributed on CD-ROM.
Anno Mundi (mathematics) The father of flood studies, Archbishop James
Ussher, the Anglican Primate of all Ireland,published in 1650 in his famous
book "Annales veteris testamenti a prima mundi origine deducti", the origin
of time at the creation of the earth, Anno Mundi. Assuming he worked in
the Julian calendar this corresponds to 12 midday October 4 (Julian), 4 004
BC. However, he was an advocate of the millenia and believed important
events occurred on the roound 1000 years. c.f: Gregorian calendar; Julian
(original) calendar; Julian calendar; French 1792 calendar; Microsoft Excel
date number; Mayan calendar; Islamic calendar; Jewish calendar; Metonic
Cycle. Source: , 89.
Apple Macintosh A personal computer initially using the Motorola 68000
processor, 64Kbyte of RAM and 3.5 inch floppy disk drive. This machine
Geocomputing Management 414
evolved through a series of phases to the Mac Plus with 1Mbyte RAM and a
hard disk drive.
application (software) A computer program and a use for it. ie application
= software + use.
Applied Terravision Systems Software vendor producing a series of
petroleum exploration and production applications based on the Public
Petroleum Data Model.
archiving Putting away data that you may need in an emergency. For
computers this is downloading your old files to a tape then shipping them
to Brambles for secure storage. Alternatively it could mean microfiching all
documents before you burn them, or making a CD-ROM of all your old
geophysical data before the original tapes fall apart (about 10 years by the
way).
arrow keys (hardware) These are keys of the keyboard usually situated to
the right of the letters or as part of the numerical keypad. They are used to
move the cursor around the computer screen and position the cursor over
the required command or object. The command or object is started by
pressing the enter key. Many of the functions of the aarow keys have been
simplified with the use of a mouse. c.f: mouse; stylus.
Ashton Tate dBase III (software) The database software produced by
Ashton Tate that became the default standard for PC based databases and
business software. It was so popular in the late 1980's that it became the
mostly wide used application in the world. See also Xbase.
AT An IBM DOS computer c.f: IBM AT (compatible); IBM PC.
AT, compatible c.f: IBM AT.
AT&T UNIX One of the two major variants of the Unix operating system,
the other being SYSTEM V. The AT&T standard was refined at the AT&T
Berkeley Research Laboratories in the United States. Hence, it is also
known as Berkeley UNIX. c.f: UNIX.
ATS See Applied Terravision Systems.
Australian Earth Science Info. System c.f: AESIS.
benchmark A standard test that is applied to a range of computer
systems to determine which is superior. There are benchmarks for
processor speed, disk access speed, screen clarity and you can make your
own. Popularised by the magazines devoted to computing as it makes them
appear unbiased. Their major advertisers are still satisfied because by good
fortune the benchmarks chosen show their products to advantage.
Berkeley UNIX c.f: AT&T UNIX.
CAD c.f: Computer Aided Drawing.
Carpel Tunnel Syndrome An inflammation of the tendons inside your
wrist that takes many years of rest to get back to what it was. It is thought
to be due to bad typing technique. It can be prevented by having the
Geocomputing Management 415
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keyboard at the right height and doing stretches every 15 minutes. see
also RSI.
cassettes c.f: secondary storage.
CGM c.f: Computer Graphics Metafile.
CGM+ A version of the Computer Graphics Metafile graphical programming
standard that uses binary rather than ASCII files. For further information
see Computer Graphics Metafile.
character c.f: file.
Codd Ted Codd, the inventor of relational theory, has 12 rules that define
the degree that a database is relational. It relies heavily on the
normalisation theories developed by Boyce and the usual form of data that
is ready for a relational database has been normalised to what is known as
the Boyce-Codd normal form.
Computer Aided Drawing Alternatively Computer Aided Drafting or
Design. A program used by a drafter to draw a plan. It is computer aided
because there often features to create little sub-drawings that represent
parts of the house or machine. These then can be counted a price attached
and the cost of the article determined automatically. Or alternatively one
part may be substituted for another in one action.
Computer Graphics Metafile A programming language for graphical
images. Generally known as CGM it is the primary graphics file used in
SunOS and IRIX operating systems. The images are stored as a series of
vectors (objects) within an ASCII file though a binary file equivalent CGM+
is available.
computer system The programs, the computers, the people fixing the
computers, the people using the computers, their supervisors, and the
procedures that connect all these together.
computing power This refers to the speed at which programs are run. It
is dependent on at least three things, the processor clock speed eg
100Mhz, the data bus size ie AT 16bit, IBM PS/2 32bit, Sun SPARCserver
has 64bit, and often overlooked but especially vital to database applications
is the disk access time eg: 9 nanoseconds. To compensate for slow disk
read/writes, programs use paging, in which case memory becomes a
factor.
confidence map a plan of the project area showing regions of different
accuracy eg: air photinterpretation only, air photo interp plus some
traverses, fully mapped. c.f: metadata.
consistency (mathematics) The degree of conformity of data collection
and processing attitudes or practices over the whole data set collection
period. c.f: relevance; continuity; timeliness. consistency.
Consolve Incorporated c.f: SiteManager.
continuity (mathematics) The actual area of coverage of a spatial data set
Geocomputing Management 416
compared to the area that could possibly be covered. c.f: relevance;
consistency; timeliness. continuity.
controlled conditions When you archive stuff to tape or microfilm, it will
survive longer if it is in an air conditioned, dust proof room at the optimum
temperature and humidity. This is what you pay for when you send it to
Brambles or other secure data services (well if you don't count the fire
proof rooms).
coverage diagrams where a particular survey has been run a little sketch
is provided to show the area covered with respect to the whole project
area. See also metadata
Crimson A multi user mini computer, built by Silicon Graphics, using the
IRIX operating system. Intended as a server (mother computer) for the
Silicon Graphics range of workstation type computers.
CSIRO (industry) An Australian government, semi commercial, applied
scientific research, authority. CSIRO is an anagram of Commonwealth
Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. c.f: SARAT.
data c.f: data base.
Data Administrator (person) The person responsible for defining and
maintaining the standards and general philosophies required for an
efficient and practical data base.
data base (system) A formal collection of indexed data though not
necessarily on a computer. This can be digital data, documents, images,
drawings, records or computer files. If the data is stored and indexed by a
computer the data base can be more specifically termed a database.
data base management The rules and techniques used to maintain a an
efficient and practical data base. It can be broken into two major tasks -
Data Administration and Data Base Administration. c.f: also Data Base,
Data Administrator,
Data Base Administrator.
data dictionary c.f: metadata.
Data Manager c.f: Data Administrator.
data security service Security companies like Brambles and Mayne-
Nickles offer a service where a guard will drive to your office, collect a copy
of your data either on tape or disk, and then take it to a locked, fireproof
warehouse where it is properly catalogued and stored. Then if there is a
fire at your office which destroys your records, you ring them and they
quickly retrieve the copy you gave them so you can replace the lost data.
database A computerised data base. c.f: data base.
Database Administrator (person) The person responsible for running a
database, including program maintenance, user access and data security.
Database Integration To combine one or more databases into a single
entity. However, the unified database may (and should) be made up of
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physically discrete databases. The integration is the elimination of duplicate
data, application of a consistent model or philosophy (see Data
Administrator) and linked access to all databases simultaneously (see
Database Administrator).
Database Manager c.f: Database Administrator.
DEC The company that makes VAX, VAXstation and DECstation computers.
They also develop the VMS and ULTRIX operating systems.
DECstation A computer by DEC (Digital) that uses a UNIX variant ULTRIX
as its operating system.
Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria
(industry) Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria
includes the divisions of Agriculture; Minerals & Petroleum; and Land
Victoria.
desktop PC A computer for use by a single person on their own desk. PC
or Personal Computer used to mean this but now with portable PCs, laptop
PCs, palmtop PCs, workstation PCs and PC servers the original meaning
needs to be qualified. See also mobile computing.
differential flow meter An instument to measure the velocity of a fluid
flow in a pipe. It is particular useful in mine monitoring because it is
abrasion resistant and can be read electronically.
digitise The process by which lines on a plan, map are chart are converted
to coordinates so that a computer may process the lines. Originally done on
a digitising board with a puck. Now the article is scanned, the resulting
image file is loaded into the program as a backdrop and then the relevent
features traced on the computer screen using a mouse.
digitiser (hardware) A table like apparatus on which a geologist places a
map or figure and then places a puck over the point of interest. The
coordinates of the puck are determined electronically and scaled to a
position relative to the coordinates of the map or figure. c.f: digitise.
DLIS c.f: LIS.
DOS The operating system used by IBM PCs and compatible computers.
There have been 6 versions as of 1995. Some classic vintages were Version
3, which became the standard system for text based programs and led to
the PC boom. DOS 5 was the base for Windows 3.1 which led to the boom
in Windows style computing. Finally there was 6.2 which was the last
before Windows95 replaced DOS altogether (but it is still under the hood).
download The process by which data is summarised and transported from
one computer to another by electronic means rather than retyping the
information.
downtime The amount of time that is lost when a piece of equipment is
broken.
EDGE Environmental Data Grab and Export. A database application
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developed by the environmental consultant group Woodward-Clyde to store
analyses and hydrological records. This was the prototype for the
commercial program SiteManager.
entity c.f: schema.
ERDAS Inc (company) The manufacturers of the image processing
software Imagine. Part owned by Leica Geosystems. c.f: Leica Geosystems.
Ethernet (hardware) The electrical, electronic and signal standard for
cables connecting two or more computers so that they appear to be one
big computer. When added to the basic software standard TCP/IP it forms
the standard for the interconnection of computers using the UNIX
operating system. c.f: network; UNIX.
ETM+ (hardware) A hyperspectral sensor used on the, National
Aeronautical Space Agency of the United States of America, Landsat 7
satellite. c.f: Landsat; MSS; Thermal Mapper.
EXABYTE (secondary storage) c.f: secondary storage.
facies (mathematics) General appearance or nature of one part of the rock
body as contrasted with other parts. c.f: radio-facies. Source: , 155.
fax/copier/printer (hardware) A facsimile machine, a printer and a
photocopier share some of the same components. So manufacturers have
been producing machines which have all three built in. The more expensive
is for home-office use and uses laser printing technology. The second type
uses thermal printing and is for portable use.
field (mathematics) A sub-component of a record in a file. The physical
equivalent of an attribute in a tuple of a relation (logical) or the cell in a
spreadsheet (implementation). c.f: file.
file (mathematics) general: The smallest amount of data that can be read
or written to secondary storage.
data base management: Physically a database is considered to be
composed of FILES which comprise RECORDS which have FIELDS which
have CHARACTERS. c.f: data base; field.
floppy disk (hardware) c.f: secondary storage.
French 1792 calendar (mathematics) The calendar used by revolutionary
scientists. Declared in 1792. The rules are:
- 12 months of 30 days each
- five special days at end of the year
- extra special day every four years c.f: Gregorian calendar; Julian
(original) calendar; Julian calendar. Source: , 140.
geographic information system (system) A Geographic Information
System is a program which does geographical operations on data such as
'Show me all mines which are in this permit?', 'Show me all oil storage sites
within 50 kilometres of this well head?', 'Show me all factories that are
upslope of this river system?'
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A GIS often has a map like screen presentation which has symbols
representing items of interest displayed in the context of a cartographic
projection. Each symbol has related to it properties usually text or numbers
but it can also be figures. Mathematical algorithms can then reference
these properties. What is peculiar is the mathematical algorithms are
principally spatial and questions like which two items are closest? and how
far to the next one? are easily answered as compared to other types of
software.
It is based on strings of points which can be linked to give lines and
polygons. Each point is given a location in terms of two coordinates and a
projection. These points have additional information attached such as
'upstream point' or 'inside fill' which allow vector mathematics to be
applied.
Geolog Log processing software developed by MINCOM Pty Ltd. It was
sold in the late 1990s to an Israeli company, Paradigm Geophysical. see
MINCOM
GIS in Geoscience The GIS in the geosciences conference run by the
Australian Geological Survey Organisation and held in Canberra in March of
1995.
G.I.S. or GIS c.f: Geographic Information System.
Global Positioning System A computer that uses military navigation
satellites to calculate the position, in three orthogonal geodic coordinates,
of the attached receiver.
GPS c.f: Global Positioning System.
Gregorian calendar (mathematics) The calendar generally used for
scientific purposes. A new calendar to replace the Julian calendar was
proposed by Christopher Clavius which Pope Gregory XIII proclaimed in
February 24 (Julian), 1582 AD .
Rules are:
1. 365 days in the year
2. Months in order are January (31 days), February (28 days but 29 in leap
years), March (31), April (30), May (31), June (30), July(31), August(31),
September (30), October(31), November(30), December(31).
3. A leap year every fourth year except those which fall on the centuries
which are not divisible by 400.
4. The origin is the night of December 31, 1 BC/ morning of January 1, 1
Anno Domini (AD).
Features of the calendar are:
- departs from the solar year by 25.96 seconds per year
- The Catholic world, changed from the Julian calendar on the evening of
October 4 (Julian) 1582, resulting in 10 days, October 5 to 14 , not being
used, the next day being October 15 (Gregorian).
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- Adopted by the British Empire, in the evening of September 2 (Julian) /
morning of September 14 (Gregorian) 1752, from the Julian calendar which
left 11 dates, September 3 to 13, not used. There is a possible exception
the island of Foula? which retains the Julian calendar.
- Abandoned temporarily by the French Republic from 1792.
- Adopted by the Russian Republic in 1918 from the Julian calendar. c.f:
Julian calendar; Julian (original) calendar; French 1792 calendar; Anno
Mundi; Jewish calendar; Islamic calendar; masonic calendar; Metonic Cycle.
Source: , 140, 144-150.
grouped response unit (system) The grouped reponse unit (GRU) is
several zones of a water catchment which are modelled as having the same
hydrological behaviour. c.f: RMU. Source: ,
hard disk c.f:: secondary storage.
hardware The computer and associated equipment including power
supplies, screens, keyboards, printers, telephone connections, cabling and
repeaters to other computers
hute resolution visible The multi-spectral sensor Hute Resolution
Visible (HRV) is found on the SPOT series of satellites numbers 1 to 4. The
band combinations are:
X1: 500 to 590 nm
X2: 610 to 680 nm
X3: 790 to 890 nm
P: 510 to 730 nm c.f: SPOT.
heat stress (safety) Heat stress is the technical name for the failure of an
electronic component due to over heating or repeated over heating.
Domestic electronic components are designed to operate between
temperatures of 15 to 25 Celsius. They can tolerate for short periods (an
hour) of time temperatures outside that range in the range of 0 to 35
Celsius. In Australia this is a significant problem for field equipment.
HTML c.f: hypertext mark-up language.
hypertext (software) A type of database that uses ordinary pages of text.
Rather than being one page after another, a highlighted keyword in the
first page is clicked on to go to the next. This allows a very flexible
structure that is very useful in conveying information. The Help in Microsoft
Windows programs and World Wide Web pages on Internet are examples
of hypertext. c.f: HTML.
hypertext mark-up language (file format) A annotated text file used for
displaying text and images, such as on the world wide web. Files in this
format are usually suffixed with HTM or HTML. c.f: world wide web.
IBM AT The term IBM AT ( or compatible) refers to a computer with one
5.25 inch floppy disk drive, 640 kbytes of RAM, an Intel 8086 processor, a
Monochrome Display (MDA) or Colour Graphics (CGA) Adapter.
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IBM PC The term IBM PC ( or compatible) refers to a computer with one
or two 5.25 inch floppy disk drives, 32 to 512 kbytes of RAM, an Intel 8088
processor, a Monochrome or Hercules Display Adapter driving the screen.
c.f: also PC.
IBM PS/1 The term IBM PS/1 ( or compatible) refers to a computer with
one 5.25 inch floppy disk drive, 1 Mbyte of RAM, an Intel 80286 processor,
a Colour Graphics (CGA) or Extended Graphics (EGA) Adapter to drive the
screen. This machine had a choice of operating systems either PC-DOS
(MS-DOS) or OS/2.
IBM PS/2 The term IBM PS/2 ( or compatible) refers to a computer with
one 3.5 inch floppy disk drive, 2 - 16 Mbytes of RAM, an Intel 80386 or
Intel 80486 processor, an Extended (EGA) or Very Extended (VGA)
Graphics Adapter driving the screen. This machine had a choice of
operating systems either PC-DOS (MS-DOS) or OS/2. Unix variations such
as Xenix and SCO Unix could also be run on this machine.
IBM XT The term IBM XT ( or compatible) refers to a computer with one
5.25 inch floppy disk drive, a 10 Mbyte hard disk, 512 kbytes of RAM, an
Intel 8088 processor, a Monochrome Display (MDA) or Hercules Adapter
driving the screen.
IEEE (organisation) Pronounced Eye Triple Eee, this was formerly the
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, a professional body of
scientists and engineers based in the United States. IEEE promotes
standardisation and has a specialist group, Geoscience and Remote
Sensing Society, concerned with geophysical equipment, satellite sensors
and associated processing. c.f: JPEG. 217.
information super highway (system) The Bill Clinton, the former
president of the United States of America publicised this phrase when
trying to comercialise the Internet which until that time had been mainly
research and defence oriented. It implies a great resource of information
on computer and freely available to ordinary people
Information Technology (management practice) A broader term than
MIS it refers to all forms of new technology for information storage
including microfiche, scanning, bar coding etc. Information technology is
the generic name for computers and the use of them. Historically, called
Management Information Systems (MIS) and Data Processing (DP) before
that. Technically speaking there are specific differences between these
terms but this is not necessarily appreciated even by the people who label
their own work as such. For the geologist there is no practical difference.
Unfortunately, it has been used to rebadge unsuccessful MIS departments
in the belief that a new name will resolve the department's narrow
mindedness. This is not a new concept many unsuccesful MIS departments
were originally called Data Processing.
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inkjet printer A printer which uses fine nozzles to squirt ink from
disposable cartridges on to paper. It produces a very nice finish and colour
plots take the same time as black and white because the colour nozzles
squirt at the same time as the black one. Lighter and cheaper than laser
printers but not as robust as dot matrix printers. Ideal for geological
drafting.
Internet Explorer c.f: Microsoft Internet Explorer.
Iris Indigo An entry level version of the Personal Iris. c.f: also Personal
Iris, IRIX.
IRIX The operating system for the Silicon Graphics Personal Iris, Crimson
and Indigo machines. See also AT&T UNIX, UNIX.
Islamic calendar (mathematics) The Islamic calendar, based on lunar
orbits rather than the solar orbit is used by Muslim scholars.
The rules are:
- Months include Ramadan
- origin is associated with the life of Mohammed and the Christian
equivalent falls within the 7th century of the Gregorian calendar. c.f:
Gregorian calendar; Julian (original) calendar; Julian calendar; French 1792
calendar; Microsoft Excel date number; Mayan calendar. Source: , 154.
IT c.f: Information Technology.
Jewish calendar (mathematics) The Jewish calendar, based on lunar
orbits rather than the solar orbit is used by Talamud scholars.
The rules are:
- The year is of 354 days, 384 in a leap year, 385 in a special leap year.
- There are 12 months to a year except in a leap year when an extra leap
month (30 days) is added.
- leap months are added based on the Metonic Cycle, after the fifth century
B.C Athenian astronomer, Meton, which adds a the leap month in seven
out of nineteen years. For the Jewish calendar this third, sixth, eighth,
eleventh, fourteenth, seventeenth and nineteenth years. Five of those leap
months have 31 days to count for the five day shortfall in the original
Metonic Cycle. c.f: Gregorian calendar; Julian (original) calendar; Julian
calendar; French 1792 calendar; Microsoft Excel date number; Mayan
calendar; Islamic calendar. Source: , 153-154.
JPEG (standard) A computer file formatting standard, designed by the
Junior Pictorial Engineering Group of the IEEE, for raster images that allows
multiple layers and is read by most Internet browsers. This makes it
especially useful for geological maps and satellite images. c.f: Netscape
Navigator; Mosaic; Microsoft Internet Explorer; IEEE; raster.
Julian calendar (mathematics) The calendar used by Eastern Orthodox
monks, Renaissance, and medieval scientists. B