Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 12

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES PROJECT

SUBJECT CODE:10B11GE411

SUBMITTED TO:
MR. P.S. BANNERJEE MR. K.N GUPTA PROJECT INCHARGE

SUBMITTED BY:
CHINMAY SHRIVASTAVA 101326 CSE :(BATCH :B4)

WATER TREATMENT
Water treatment describes those processes used to make water more acceptable for a desired end-use. These can include use as drinking water, industrial processes, medical and many other uses. The goal of all water treatment process is to remove existing contaminants in the water, or reduce the concentration of such contaminants so the water becomes fit for its desired end-use. One such use is returning water that has been used back into the natural environment without adverse ecological impact.

The processes involved in treating water for drinking purpose may be solids separation using physical processes such as settling and filtration, and chemical processes such as disinfection and coagulation. Biological processes are also employed in the treatment of wastewater and these processes may include, for example, aerated lagoons, activated sludge or slow sand filters.

PROCESS INVOLVED IN WATER TREATMENT

Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from contaminated water. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is purified for human consumption (drinking water) but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including meeting the requirements of medical, pharmacology, chemical and industrial applications. In general the methods used include physical processes such as filtration, sedimentation, and distillation, biological processes such as slow sand filters or activated sludge, chemical processes such as flocculation and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light.

The purification process of water may reduce the concentration of particulate matter including suspended particles, parasites, bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi; and a range of dissolved and particulate material derived from the surfaces that water may have made contact with after falling as rain. The standards for drinking water quality are typically set by governments or by international standards. These standards will

typically set minimum and maximum concentrations of contaminants for the use that is to be made of the water. Simple procedures such as boiling or the use of a household activated carbon filter are not sufficient for treating all the possible contaminants that may be present in water from an unknown source. Even natural spring water considered safe for all practical purposes in the 19th century must now be tested before determining what kind of treatment, if any, is needed. Chemical analysis, while expensive, is the only way to obtain the information necessary for deciding on the appropriate method of purification.
THE OUTDOOR TRIP TO PAGARA PUMP HOUSE: The campus development has been taken up after adequate care has been taken for sustained water supply. For this water is taken from the channel of Gopi Krishna Sagar Dam Project. A pump house with water storage and treatment is built at Pagara. The treatment facility includes mixing, flocculation, settling, sludge removal and storage. The partly treated water is pumped through 8.2 km long 8" diameter pipe line to JUET campus water treatment facility. The partly treated raw water is pressure filtered, passed through active carbon filter, pH controlled, chlorinated and supplied to the campus. The storage facilities are adequate to meet 7 days requirements when in full strength. The campus is provided with an extensive network of water distribution pipe lines. There are also a few tube wells in the campus

HORTICULTURE

Horticulture is the art, science, technology and business of intensive plant cultivation for human use. It is practiced from the individual level in a garden up to the activities of a multinational corporation. It is very diverse in its activities, incorporating plants for food (fruits, vegetables, mushrooms, culinary herbs) and non-food crops (flowers, trees and shrubs, turf-grass, hops, grapes, medicinal herbs). It also includes related services in plant conservation, landscape restoration, landscape and garden design/construction/maintenance, horticultural therapy, and much more. This wide range of food, medicinal, environmental, and social products and services are all fundamental to developing and maintaining human health and well-being Horticulturist applies the knowledge, skills, and technologies used to grow intensively produced plants for human food and non-food uses and for personal or social needs. Their work involves plant propagation and cultivation with the aim of improving plant growth, yields, quality, nutritional value, and resistance to insects, diseases, and environmental stresses. They work as gardeners, growers, therapists, designers, and technical advisors in the food and non-food sectors of horticulture.

AREAS TO STUDY AND DISCIPLINES TO FOLLOW:


According to some accounts, horticulture involves eight areas of study, which can be grouped into two broad sections - ornamentals and edibles:

Arboriculture is the study of, and the selection, planting, care, and removal of, individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants. Turf management includes all aspects of the production and maintenance of turf grass for spots, leisure use or amenity use]. Floriculture includes the production and marketing of floral crops. Landscape horticulture includes the production, marketing and maintenance of landscape plants. Olericulture includes the production and marketing of vegetables. Pomology includes the production and marketing of pome fruits. Viticulture includes the production and marketing of grapes. Oenology includes all aspects of wine and winemaking. Postharvest physiology involves maintaining the quality of and preventing the spoilage of horticultural crops.

Horticulturists can work in industry, government or educational institutions or private collections. They can be cropping systems engineers, wholesale or retail business managers, propagators and tissue culture specialists (fruits, vegetables, ornamentals, and turf), crop inspectors, crop production advisers, extension specialists, plant breeders, research scientists, and teachers. Disciplines which complement horticulture include permaculture, biology, botany, entomology, chemistry, geography, mathematics, genetics, physiology, statistics, computer science, and communications, garden design, planting design. Plant science and horticulture courses include: plant materials, plant propagation, tissue culture, crop production, post-harvest handling, plant breeding, pollination management, crop nutrition, entomology, plant pathology, economics, and business. Some careers in horticultural science require a masters (MS) or doctoral (PhD) degree.

INDOOR TRIP TO OBSERVE THE HORTICULTURE :