Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 46

HeatEngines Heat Engines

VKJoshi V K Joshi AsstProf FETR

Contents
Thermalprimemovers Definitions
Heatreservoirs Heatsources Heatsink k Heatengines Refrigerators Heatpumps Heat pumps

CarnotCycle Airstandardcycles
Otto cycle Ottocycle Dieselcycle

Rankinecycle

Thermalprimemover Thermal prime mover


Definition Device i workingoveracycletoconvert theheatenergy(lowgrade) intoworkenergy(highgrade) into work energy(high grade)

Thermalprimemover Thermal prime mover

Thermalprimemover Thermal prime mover

Thermalprimemover Thermal prime mover

Obeysecondlawofthermodynamics Ob dl f h d i
KelvinPlankstatement

Thermalprimemover Thermal prime mover


Classification Internalcombustionengine(I.C.) External combustion engine (E.C.) Externalcombustionengine(E.C.)

Thermalprimemover Thermal prime mover


Classification Internal combustion engine (I C ) Internalcombustionengine(I.C.)
Reciprocating
Four stroke Fourstroke
Petrol Diesel G Gas

Twostroke
Petrol Diesel Gas

Rotary Spaceshuttle

Thermalprimemover Thermal prime mover

Thermalprimemover Thermal prime mover


Classification Externalcombustionengine
R i Reciprocating ti
Steamengine

R t Rotary
Steamturbine Gas turbine Gasturbine

Thermalprimemover Thermal prime mover

Thermalprimemover Thermal prime mover

Thermalprimemover Thermal prime mover

Thermalprimemover Thermal prime mover

Thermalprimemover Thermal prime mover

Thermalprimemover Thermal prime mover

Thermalprimemover Thermal prime mover


Internal combustion engine Internalcombustionengine
Theenergyoffuelisreleased bycombustionoffuelwithair y intheenginecylinderitself

External combustion engine Externalcombustionengine


Theenergyofcombustionisnotreleased insidethecylinder y itistransferredtoaworkingmediumlike steamorgas g

Thermalprimemover Thermal prime mover


Sourcesofenergy Sources of energy Chemicalenergy
Combustionofsolid,liquidorgaseousfuels

Atomicenergy
Energyisreleasedfrom thechangesinstructureofatomicmaterial h h i f i i l Fissionorfusion

Heat energy Heatenergy


Obtaineddirectly Solarradiation Geothermalenergy
gysers

Definitions
Reservoir
Sourceofinfiniteheatenergy Finite amount of heat absorbed or rejected Finiteamountofheatabsorbedorrejected Willnotaffectsitstemperature O Ocean,Atmosphere At h

Definitions
Sink
Absorbsheatfromasystem

Source
Suppliesheattoasystem

Definitions
Heat engine Heatengine
Producework continuously At the expenses of heat input Attheexpensesofheatinput

Heatengine Heat engine


HeatSource

T1
= HeatEngine

Output Input Work Energy E W Q1


Q1 Q2 Q1

W=Q1Q2
HeatSink

T2

Quiz
Aheatengineperforms200Jofwork/cycleand A heat engine performs 200 J of work/cycle and is30%efficient.Howmuchenergyisabsorbed percycle? per cycle? A.200J B.467J C.667J C 667 J D.60J D 60 J

Quiz
Aheatengineperforms200Jofwork/cycleand A heat engine performs 200 J of work/cycle and is30%efficient.Howmuchenergyisabsorbed percycle? per cycle? A.200J B.467J C.667J C 667 J D.60J D 60 J

Quiz
Aheatengineperforms200Jofwork/cycleand A heat engine performs 200 J of work/cycle and is30%efficient.Howmuchenergyisexpelled percycle? per cycle? A.200J B.467J C.667J C 667 J D.60J D 60 J

Quiz
Aheatengineperforms200Jofwork/cycleand A heat engine performs 200 J of work/cycle and is30%efficient.Howmuchenergyisexpelled percycle? per cycle? A.200J B.467J C.667J C 667 J D.60J D 60 J

Quiz
Aheatenginetakesin1000Jofenergyat1000 A heat engine takes in 1000 J of energy at 1000 Kandexhausts700Jat400K.Whatisthe actualefficiencyofthisheatengine? actual efficiency of this heat engine? A.30% B.40% C.60% C 60 % D.70% D 70 %

Quiz
Aheatenginetakesin1000Jofenergyat1000 A heat engine takes in 1000 J of energy at 1000 Kandexhausts700Jat400K.Whatisthe actualefficiencyofthisheatengine? actual efficiency of this heat engine? A.30% B.40% C.60% C 60 % D.70% D 70 %

Quiz
Whatisthetheoreticalmaximumefficiencyof What is the theoretical maximum efficiency of thisheatengine? A.30% A 30 % B.40% B 40 % C.60% D.70%

Quiz
Whatisthetheoreticalmaximumefficiencyof What is the theoretical maximum efficiency of thisheatengine? A.30% A 30 % B.40% B 40 % C.60% D.70% C C. 60 %

Quiz
Howshouldyousettheoperatingtemperatures How should you set the operating temperatures inordertomaximizetheefficiencyofaheat engine? A.MakeTL aswarmaspossible. B.MakeT aslargeaspossible. B Make T as large as possible C.MakeT assmallaspossible. D.MakeT ascoolaspossible. D Make TH as cool as possible

Quiz
Howshouldyousettheoperatingtemperatures How should you set the operating temperatures inordertomaximizetheefficiencyofaheat engine? A.MakeTL aswarmaspossible. B.MakeT aslargeaspossible. B Make T as large as possible C.MakeT assmallaspossible. D.MakeT ascoolaspossible. D Make TH as cool as possible

Definitions
Refrigerator
Operatinginacycle Absorbs heat from a low temperature body Absorbsheatfromalowtemperaturebody Rejectsheattohightemperaturebody At th Attheexpensesofheatinput fh ti t

Refrigerator

Refrigerator
COP=
=

Output Input

Energy Work W k Q2 W Q1 Q1 Q2

Quiz
Howshouldyousettheoperatingtemperatures How should you set the operating temperatures inordertomaximizetheperformanceofa refrigerator? A.MakeTL aswarmaspossible. B.MakeT aslargeaspossible. B Make T as large as possible C.MakeT assmallaspossible. D.MakeT ascoolaspossible. D Make TH as cool as possible

Quiz
Howshouldyousettheoperatingtemperatures How should you set the operating temperatures inordertomaximizetheperformanceofa refrigerator? A.MakeTL aswarmaspossible. B.MakeT aslargeaspossible. B Make T as large as possible C.MakeT assmallaspossible. D.MakeT ascoolaspossible D Make TH as cool as possible

Quiz
Canthecoefficientofperformanceofa Can the coefficient of performance of a refrigeratorbegreaterthanone? A.Yes A Yes B.No B No

Quiz
Canthecoefficientofperformanceofa Can the coefficient of performance of a refrigeratorbegreaterthanone? A.Yes A Yes B.No B No

GoodCOPvaluesforactualrefrigeratorscanbe 3ormore.

Quiz
Anidealrefrigeratorrunsbetween0 Cand25 C. An ideal refrigerator runs between 0C and 25C Itremoves8000kJ/hfromthecoldregion. Whatminimumpowerisrequired? What minimum power is required? A.204W B.320W C.400W C 400 W D.733W D 733 W

Quiz
Anidealrefrigeratorrunsbetween0Cand25C. Itremoves8000kJ/hfromthecoldregion. Whatminimumpowerisrequired? A.204W B.320W C.400W D.733W

ThermalProcess

Quiz

Quiz