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169
1912-1913 169
179
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213
220
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287
309
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312
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xi

373
383
407

xii

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1 98
2
1910 99
1
1912 2 1 ~28 138
1 171
2 174
11929 12 7 6 277
2

1934 4 11 5 280

2008

30
1 2007

2 2008
14,467 156,710 2010
11 17,000
19 3

1
2008 2

http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/20082/28/content_904648.htm2010/
12/8
2
2007 10 28

http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/content/2007/content_830517.htm2010/12/8
3
15 2009 9 18

http://www.moj.gov.cn/index/content/200909/18/content_
1155877.htm?node=73432010/12/8
20
2010 11 23 http://www.gov.cn/jrzg/2010
11/23/content_1751316.htm2010/12/8

19121937

2008
15,234 8,938 4
1/6
1/125

4
2008 9 http://www.bmla.org.cn/

bjlawyers2/xiehuigonggao080903.htm2008/12/30

2008

http://www.lawyers.com.cn/huangye/2008-lxxjgg.htm
2008/12/30
5
http://db.cei.gov.cn
6

2009 11 6366 2009

2009 4 1216
7
http://www.chrlcg-hk.org2010/12/24

1912 9

10

1
1930
21 1932 1

8 Ethan Michelson, Lawyers, Political Embeddedness, and Institutional Continuity

in Chinas Transition from Socialism, American Journal of Sociology, 113: 2


(September 2007), pp. 352414.
2008 240251

2008 6 1621
2004

http://www.court.gov.cn/fyjs/jjjc/lzzd/201006/t20100621_6241.
htm2012/1/7
9

2005 3

4749Jerome A. Cohen, Rough Justice, South China Morning Post, July 9,


2009, http://www.usasialaw.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/2009709-scmp-roughjustice_enlarged2.pdf2010/12/24

2010 10 5457
10

1998 37128

19121937

3.23 5 2004
1 3.6 7 11
1910

12

13 1949
30 14

1987 1930
11 Alison W. Conner, Lawyers and the Legal Profession during the Republican Period,

in Kathryn Bernhardt and Philip C. C. Huang, eds., Civil Law in Qing and
Republican China (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994), p. 230.
2008 4 58
2007 7 46
12 Alison W. Conner, Lawyers and the Legal Profession During the Republican Period,

pp. 225 229. Xiaoqun Xu, Chinese Professionals and the Republican State: The
Rise of Professional Assoiciations in Shanghai, 19121937 (Cambridge, New
York: Cambridge University Press, 2001), pp. 215267.

2008
168237

2009 20140
13

1994 46
497784
14

19491957

2006
77118

15

modernization

1990
alternative modernity

multiple modernities16

15 19451987

2006
36
94 19711990 1971
845 486 1990 1,751
1286 691971 1,839,641
1990 2,646,474 1971 1
2.64 1990 4.86
http://163.29.37.101/pxweb2007-tp/dialog/statfile9.asp
2010/12/24
16

Ambrose Y. C. King, The


Emergence of Alternative Modernity in East Asia, in Dominic Sachsenmaier, Jens
Riedel and Shmuel N. Eisenstadt, eds., Reflections on Multiple Modernities:
European, Chinese and other Interpretations (Leiden, Boston and Koln: Brill,
2002), pp. 139 152. Volker H. Schmidt, Multiple Modernities or Varieties of
Modernity?, Current Sociology, 54: 1 (January 2006), pp. 7797.

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17

18

prospective vision
19
20

17

2000

299321

2007
5193
18

2007 10 6788
19 Philip C. C. Huang, Beyond the Right-Left Divide: Searching for Reform from the

History of Practice, Modern China, 36: 1 (January 2010), pp. 115133.


20
2003

425442

1999 1 4755

1997 6 5057

21

21
1972

15136 37
128
2000

19121937

22

23

barrister

22

1976 205216

1991
125190
2000

297356
23

2007

2008

10

19121937

24

1930

state building

24

Xiaoqun Xu, Trial of Modernity: Judicial Reform in


Early Twentieth-Century China, 1901 1937 (Stanford: Stanford University
Press, 2008), pp. 120131; 188192.

11

1900

25

1900

26
27
25 Jrme Bourgon

2003
220249

26

1988

1178
27

1987 473483

332001 7
2969

12

19121937

1764 29

28
29
17961820

30

28

1970 4

1021

1813 18

1886 1968 49
3116 Melissa Macauley, Social Power and Legal
Culture, Litigation Masters in Late Imperial China (Stanford: Stanford
University Press, 1998), pp. 1858.
29

Melissa Macauley, Social Power and Legal Culture, Litigation Masters in Late
Imperial China, pp. 279324.

1996
189238

2009
933
30

1997 7 18 21b22a

13

professionalization
Alison W. ConnerDaniel Duman

legal profession

31

attribute model

freiberufler freier

31 Alison W. Conner, Lawyers and the Legal Profession during the Republican

Period, pp. 215248.

14

19121937

beruf32
2000
1990

33
2000
34

35
36

32 Xiaoqun Xu, Chinese Professionals and the Republican State: The Rise of

Professional Assoiciations in Shanghai, 19121937, pp. 12, 913, 215267.


33
85122
34
168237

1930 2006 8 4955

2010
5 1819
35

19121937

200319121936

2006

2008
2 2731

2008 6 7380
2955102120
36 Rolf Torstendahl and Michael Burrage eds., The Formation of Professions:

15

profession
37

1919 45

38 5 18
5 22 39

Knowledge, State and Strategy (London, Newbury Park, New Delhi: Sage
Publications, 1990).

37
3
38

1919 4 30 1919

5 18 http://www.lib.kobe-u.ac.
jp/sinbun/2011/11/24
http://www5.ocn.ne.
jp/~ymatsuda/Yoneda-mokuroku.doc2011/11/24

39
1919 5 2223262930 6 67

9 2

16

19121937

40

1926
41 1929

42

1931
5

43

40

1 31919 10

4072
18951919
2006
371
41

1983
1 158
1 170
42
71929 7 24
43
1931 1 1 1 4

17

44

1856
London Missionary Society
James Legge
profession
Robert Morrison
Samuel W.
WilliamsWalter H. Medhurst
profession 45
profession
46 profession

44
1931 1 22 1

4
45

2002 71
46 art, trade or profession calling or professionprofession, vocation or occupation profession

calling, a profession learned profession


Robert Morrison, A Dictionary of the Chinese Language,
in Three Parts (Macao: The Honorable East India Company's Press, 1822), pp. 30,
58, 160, 339. Samuel W. William, An English and Chinese Vocabulary, in the Court
Dialect (Macao: The office of the Chinese Repository, 1844), p. 222. Walter H.
Medhurst, English and Chinese Dictionary (Shanghai: The Mission Press, 1847
1848), vol. 1, p. 187, vol. 2, p. 780, 1011.

18

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47

1942
48

47

1856
253
48

1942 11 1 8

19

49

Bryna

49

1945~1949 24 42007 12
8085

2006

20

19121937

Goodman
sojourning merchants in
ShanghaiShanghai merchants
50

Supreme
Court 1844 10 1
solicitor51

50 Bryna Goodman, Native Place, City, and Nation: Regional Networks and

Identities in Shanghai, 18531937 (Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford: University of


California Press, 1995), p. 216.
51

Paul Ivy SterlingEdward Farncomb


Attorney General
magistrates court

Henry Charles Sirr


James William Norton-Kyshe, The history of the laws and courts of Hong
Kong, tracing consular jurisdiction in China and Japan and including
parliamentary debates, and the rise, progress, and successive changes in the
various public institutions of the Colony from the earliest period to the present
time (London : T. Fisher Unwin, 1898), pp. 16, 55, 6465.

21

52

1865

53 54
1876
55
1870 Inns of Court
56 1880

52 General Regulations, under which the British Trade is to be Conducted at the Five

Ports of Canton, Amoy, Fuchow, Ningpo, and Shanghai


, Treaties, Conventions, etc., Between China and For
eign States (Shanghai: The Statistical Department of the Inspectorate General of
Customs, 1908), vol. 1, p. 196.
53 Order in Council for the Exercise of Jurisdiction in China and Japan, 9th March

1865, in British Parliamentary Papers: China (Shannon: Irish University Press,


1971), vol. 2, pp. 159204.
54 1900 15 14

43
55
1876 2 2

56 1874 magistrates court


Lincolns Inn
1877
1881
1887 solicitor

Linda Pomerantz-Zhang, Wu Tingfang (18421922): Reform and Modernization


in Modern Chinese History (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1992) pp.
4169. G. H. Choa, The Life and Times of Sir Kai Ho Kai, a Prominent Figure

22

19121937

1888
Columbia College
New York State Bar Association
57

1904
Timothy Richard1907
Manchester University 1909
58
59 1911
6

60

in Nineteenth-Century Hong Kong (Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press,


1981), pp. 12, 3943.

57 A Chinese Lawyer. Hong Yen Chang and a colored student admitted to the bar,

New York Times, May 18, 1888, p. 1.

1998
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58
1936 2Sir Ronald
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2003 3 86
59
1903 1 3 3
60
3 5 6 1911 6 2 2 2

3 5 6 1911 6 2
3
2 3 5 6 1911 6
2
3 2

23

1912

1913 2 14
557
61

1915
62

1929 3 63

1900 1912
61
91913 6 95
62
176178354
63
251929 12 35

24

19121937

64
19121926

1913

65

1910

1926

64 Xiaoqun Xu, Chinese Professionals and the Republican State: The Rise of

Professional Associations in Shanghai, 19121937, pp. 3942.

5
65
1914 5 9 1 1

25

1930

14591 66 1/10
67

66

1999 140
67 2000

26

19121937

1920

27