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CHAPTER 1: CHEMICAL REACTIONS & EQUATIONS Section1 Chemical Reaction

Chemical Reaction: A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another, and it cannot be reversed by simple physical means, this type of reaction is known as chemical reaction. Example: Fermentation of grapes, Burning of wood etc. In this reaction we have seen that after burning of wood, coal is formed and we cannot make wood from coal.
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When u burn a magnesium ribbon it burns with a dazzling white flame and changes into a white powder chemical reaction is taking place. Water into Hydrogen Peroxide is another example of chemical reaction.

PHYSICAL REACTION:
A physical change is a type of change in which the form of matter is altered but one substance is not transformed into another, and it can be can be recovered by any means then this type of reaction is known as physical reaction. Example:Conversion water into ice is the
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example of physical reaction because we can water to ice again.

Figure 1-chemical and physical reaction

Writing a chemical reaction


When we are going to write a chemical equation then there will be reactant and product. Left hand side of the equation is called reactant and the right hand side of the equation is called product.
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Example:NH4NO3 ---> N2O + H2O Reactant -- > Product

Balanced Chemical Equations


A balanced chemical equation means that there are an equal number of atoms on both sides of the reaction. Since matter cannot be created or destroyed then there must be the same amount coming out of the reaction as there was going into it. To write balanced chemical equations by adjusting the number of atoms on each side of the equation to be equal.

Example:
1. As an example, the burning of methane would be balanced by putting a coefficient of 1 before the CH4: 1 CH4+ O2 CO2+ H2O
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2. Since there is one carbon on each side of the arrow, the first atom (carbon) is balanced. 3. Looking at the next atom (hydrogen), the right hand side has two atoms, while the left hand side has four. To balance the hydrogen, 2 goes in front of the H2O, which yields: 1 CH4+ O2 CO2+ 2 H2O 4. Inspection of the last atom to be balanced (oxygen) shows that the right hand side has four atoms, while the left hand side has two. It can be balanced by putting a 2 before O2, giving the balanced equation: CH4+ 2 O2 CO2+ 2 H2O 5. This equation does not have any coefficients in front of CH4 and CO2, since a coefficient of 1 is dropped.

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Section-2 Types of Chemical reactions


1. Direct Combination or Synthesis Reaction In a synthesis reaction two or more chemical species combine to form a more complex product. A + B AB

The combination of iron and sulfur to form iron sulfide is an example of a synthesis reaction: 8 Fe + S8 8 FeS
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2.Chemical Decomposition or Analysis Reaction In a decomposition reaction a compound is broken into smaller chemical species. AB A + B The electrolysis of water into oxygen and hydrogen gas is an example of a decomposition reaction:

2 H2O 2 H2 + O2

3. Single Displacement or Substitution Reaction


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A substitution or single displacement reaction is characterized by one element being displaced from a compound by another element.

A + BC AC + B An example of a substitution reaction occurs when zinc combines with hydrochloric acid. The zinc replaces the hydrogen: Zn + 2 HCl ZnCl2 + H2

4. Metathesis or Double Displacement Reaction In a double displacement or metathesis reaction two compounds exchange bonds or ions in order to form different compounds. AB + CD AD + CB
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An example of a double displacement reaction occurs between sodium chloride and silver nitrate to form sodium nitrate and silver chloride.

NaCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) NaNO3(aq) + AgCl(s)

6.Exothermic reaction
An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy .

7.Endothermic reaction
It is a reaction in which energy is absorbed is known as endothermic reaction.

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Table 1-Exothermic and Endothermic process

Exothermic processes Making ice cubes Formation of snow in clouds A candle flame

Endothermic processes Melting ice cubes Conversion of frost to water vapor Forming a cation from an atom in the gas phase

Condensation of rain Evaporation of from water vapor water

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Section-3 OXIDATION:
Oxidation is the gain of oxygen or loss of hydrogen. If a substance gains oxygen during a reaction, it is said to be oxidized. Example: The reaction between magnesium metal and oxygen to form magnesium oxide involves the oxidation of magnesium.

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Reduction:
Reduction is the loss of oxygen or gain of hydrogen. If a substance loses oxygen during a reaction it is said to be reduced. The reaction between magnesium oxide and carbon at 2000C to form magnesium metal and carbon monoxide is an example of the reduction of magnesium oxide to magnesium metal.

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Corrosion
Corrosion is the gradual destruction of material, usually metal, by chemical reaction with its environment. The black coating on silver and the green coating on copper are common examples of corrosion.

Figure 2-Corrosion of silver

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