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Method Tutorial with a

CineMonitorHD 3DV i ew

Alain Derobe

All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, in any countries, photocopying, including electronic imaging and any use on the net. A limited license for personal use is given to the user(s) of Transivedo equipment under his (their) responsibility.

Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo



Camera Adjustment during Acquisition: NaturalDepth Method By Alain Derobe. ............ 5 What is a Scenic Box? ......................................................................................................... 5 During projection, the Bcenic Box will look different from each seat. ............................... 5 B. The Story About The Shepherd, The Mountain And The Mouse.............................................. 7 C. How to proceed systematically during acquisition? ............................................................... 14 1. Find The Elements In The Frame .......................................................................................... 14 2. Adjust Angulation According To The Grid Pitch................................................................... 14 3. Adjust Separation Between The Cameras............................................................................ 14 4. Modify Space Between the Cameras ................................................................................... 15 D. A Step-By-Step Detailed Approach. ........................................................................................ 16 1. Example With Figures ............................................................................................................ 16 2. Characters Moving Towards The Camera............................................................................ 17 3. Common Objections.............................................................................................................. 17 3.1 Could different spacing of inter axial distort the natural depth scale? .......................... 17 3.2 Is a miniature or giant-looking appearance the price to pay for cameras spacing larger or smaller than inter ocular distance?........................................................................................ 17 3.3 Is it a natural way, to perform "ocular compasss" changes, and to conceive a display supposed to be presented to the viewer's naturally fixed visual system, the eyes? .............. 18 4. How To Proceed For A Complex Camera Move Setup? ..................................................... 19 5. How To Manage With A Very Distant Subject? .................................................................... 20 6. Elements Coming Out Of The Screen................................................................................... 21 E. Conclusion................................................................................................................................. 22 1. 2.

Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo


The use of a CineMonitorHD 3DView allows the display of the right and left images in perfect overlap, either at the same time or sequentially, with the possibility of flipping either one of them vertically or horizontally in order to adjust the setup of the two cameras. The monitor - displays the two images in complementary colors, which allows an immediate identification of the left and right images. It can display simultaneously as well the relevant analysis tools of the system. (grids and software). The CineMonitorHD 3DView - displays 3D images either with the anaglyphic system or - in full colour with the appropriate active glasses. When the two main stereo parameters, angulation and spacing interaxial are modified, the result is immediately visible on the screen thanks to the size of the colored borders. The CineMonitorHD 3DView can also superimpose calibrated grids over these coloured borders. These grids ensure a perfect control of the two above fundamental parameters, angulation and spacing, hence insuring a total mastering of the wanted stereo effect. This adjustable grid is an absolute requirement for a 3D production: it acts as a gauge for the entire image area. Checking of the stereo amplitude can be done while shooting and offsets can be appreciated and adjusted on the fly, without making any trouble during framing work This revolutionary tool - makes all tables and software useless, and brings the same accuracy in the adjustment of 3D on the monitor as on a full size stereo projection. This dual-tool-in-one allows performing quickly a perfect matching of the optical axis of the cameras. And during the shooting, it drives adjusting and correcting the stereo photography while the scene and the setups evolve.

Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo

A. Camera Adjustment during Acquisition: NaturalDepth Method By Alain Derobe.

NaturalDepth is a systematic approach based on the most successful stereo shots made up to this day. More and more professional stereo consultants agree with this method. It integrates all what we know about our vision system with the unexpected and magic possibility to create a feeling of depth on the flat surface of a screen. Indeed, stereoscopy is an optical illusion among others, created only with a pair of flat images, and a double point of view imposed upon us by the filmmaker. It will never be the reconstruction of real depth, but an interpretation of it, from a single point of view, with a chosen or eventually distorted perspective. In the case of a flat picture reproducing a natural perspective, for each position occupied by viewers in front of the picture will correspond some "distortion" of depth; however, none of the viewers will feel any betrayal of the reality, because the sophisticated human vision system can easily reconstruct the original perspective. It was not obvious that similar visual mechanism would work with stereo 3D, but it does, that is, as much as spacing and perspective are consistent with each other. Because of this surprising existing possibility, stereoscopy lead us to discover some sides of the very complex analysis of vision, without which the display of depth would not work-.

1. What is a Scenic Box?

If some visual analysis rules are implied by the darkness of movie theatres, the same rules will not necessarily be implied in the vision of the real spatial world. It is indeed this difference between visual reactions in these two almost incompatible environments that has interfered with the understanding of these phenomena, and has hidden for such a so long time the possibility to build a coherent method for taking good stereo 3D pictures. Today, there is no other fundamental method than NaturalDepth showing how to connect the depth of the subject to its result on the screen. This is why this method is therefore widely used during stereo training sessions. The NaturalDepth Method will allow to convert the depth of the real world into the most convincing and virtual depth of the "scenic box", which is the virtual box perceived by the audience, which extends from the far rear of the screen all the way up to the forefront of it in a theatre. The Natural depth method will respect the visual limitations of the audience, and will not hurt their fragile eyesight. (Some say : Depth bracket for scenic box ).

2. During projection, the Bcenic Box will look different from each seat.
As it can be easily seen, the scenic box shown during projection will look very different for each viewer's seat. But the paradox is that after a few moments, as we are getting used to it, that scenic box will nevertheless appear as a fair likeness of reality to every viewer, in any seat, and at whatever position! This is fortunate for the future of stereo 3D industry, otherwise who would only sell tickets for one-seat-theatres! Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo 5

On the other hand, the depth of the scenic box is practically never identical to the depth in reality. Its not even proportional to image-size enlargement. Virtual deepness obeys its own rules, which will reveal to be very different from natural seeing. Therefore, it is the comparison between the goal - projecting a scene in a satisfying scenic box, and the real space that is to be recorded during the scene, which will lead us to the proper camera adjustments on the rig, whatever type it is. The scenic box will not necessarily contain an element coming strongly out of the screen, an effect has been too often used up to now, but is not needed for the presentation of a common story. With the example of a short imaginary sequence, we will point out the conversion mechanism that proceeds from real space to the space represented on, or rather through, the projection screen.

Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo

B. The Story About The Shepherd, The Mountain And The Mouse.
But first of all, we have to address a very important question: when two very different scenes in terms of perspective and sizes are being displayed, do they have to be shown with similar scenic boxes, or must the extent of each scenic box be adjusted - according to the subject's real size ? This fundamental question must be clarified before planning any kind of strategy in terms of recording the scenes. Let us imagine two versions of two consecutive shots with a huge difference in perspective, and which are displayed cyclically one after the other on the same screen. On one hand, a wide long shot of a shepherd framed in front of a landscape with- mountains in the far distance (shot A). On the other hand, a tight close-up of a small mouse eating a huge snack on a table close to a wall (shot C). In the first version the two shots have been voluntarily recorded inside two scenic boxes of similar depth extension for the audience. In the second version, the two scenic boxes are different and more or less proportional to the size of the subject for the audience Lets show the two versions one after the other to the audience. Surprisingly, the most convincing version will be when the shepherd, then the mouse will appear at the screen plane, which is to say exactly at the same distance for the audience. And that is the first version, with similar scenic boxes. Even more surprising will be to see that in that case, the mountain in the background and the stone wall behind the table will seem to be both at the same distance behind the screen. Now, how can a nearby wall be shown correctly at the same distance from the viewer as a mountain range, which is supposed to be on the edge of the horizon? And what about this tiny mouse, which dares to put himself exactly where a full size human being was a while before? And still more surprising in that version is that no viewer seems to notice that the depth and the distances displayed on the screen have no relationship with the reality. These surprising property of the scenic box will upset some preconceived ideas Now in order to control this surprising result, lets fumble with the cameras settings, and lets try to decrease to some extend the scenic box of this intrusive mouse who pretends to take as much space as a shepherd and his entire herd! After what can be thought of such a better logical adjustment, the entire audience will feel visually bothered, and will show deep regrets for the rendition of the first version! But, why? Well indeed, after this unfortunate change, two very different scenic boxes will brutally alternate on the screen, and the depth analysis of the viewers will get suddenly upset by the jump cuts, and will ask for some time to adapt to each depth change. Therefore, this time delay will fight with the unavoidable curiosity of our vision system, and will make the audience feel bad at ease at best! Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo 7

Everyone may understand now that we better have to interpret the natural distances, rather than attempting to reproduce them. We can already assert that, as much the subject can match with, the best is to try to fill as much as possible the scenic box amplitude, whatever the real depth scale is. We might think that the two scenes would comply to some equivalent scaling rule! This also is not true, and to be convinced of it, lets try to move the table backward or forward two or three times the initial distance from the wall: It will destroy any possible proportionality to the previous setting. Thus the rule to fill as well as we can the available scenic box will help in any situation. It is indeed a space displayed between a rear solid limit and a front floating limit, in the theatre space, and by no means proportional to reality. (See pictures A and B). As a summary: Compressing or expanding reality width will not be important when compared to the best "scenic box" management allowed by the screen; this management must mainly follow some specific rules when displaying pictures to human vision. Since the goal is defined, let us look how to get it.

Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo

Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo


Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo

Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo



Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo

Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo


C. How to proceed systematically during acquisition?

We will see here that it is fundamental to fully separate the action of rotating horizontally one camera in respect of the other, and the result of it, which is the meeting point of the two cameras axis, called convergence point. In the first step, when rotating cameras axis, we will use the neologism: angulation. Its main outcome - is to position the background in theatres space. Convergence point, depending of inter axial is the second step and a consequence, not an aim. Cameras can be angulated (toe in) without any inter axial, thus avoiding to have to say to converge! Then, lets start by setting the camera rig on the smallest spacing, - i.e. null for beam splitter rigs (B.S.), to calibrate first the background areas, without being disturbed by some offsets of other parts of the two images.

1. Find The Elements In The Frame

Lets find the elements in the frame that are the furthest away and which display details that can be analyzed. (That means not a fully blue sky or a plain fog without any structure in.) These will become the background planes, and both their left and right images have to be offset to simulate a distance as far as possible behind the projection screen, preferably at the back of the scenic box. The viewers' eyes being unable to diverge strongly, this image offset cannot exceed 6.5 cm (2.56") as measured directly on the screen. Consequently, with a given presentation screen size, this offset will represent a constant percentage of the image width. We will choose for instance a 4m (13') or 6.5m (21') or even 10 meters (33') screen width. Do not worry about what will happen for other screen sizes! Conversion is always possible, as you will see further. Calibrating pictures according to screen width will be detailed on the separated board: Recommended background offsets regarding screen width.

2. Adjust Angulation According To The Grid Pitch

Lets remember that in practice, angulation seldom exceeds 1 degree, and is very often below it. It acts just like a very small pan of one camera relatively to the other, sliding the image the opposite way. With such a small angle no noticeable difference between rotation and offset can be perceived on the screen. It is indeed by applying a small angulation that the far plane offset will be correctly adjusted. The colored borders should correspond with the grid pitch chosen according to the final projection dimension. The correct angulation will thus be one that will display the background with a 6.5cm (2.5") offset on the screen (cf. grid calibration in the monitor user manual).

3. Adjust Separation Between The Cameras

With the same angulation untouched, we will search visually, among different cameras spacing, the one that will enable to converge exactly at the chosen distance. Changing the spacing will move back or forth the crossing point of the optical axis, hence positioning forward or backward 14 Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo

the convergence plane, according to the well known triangulation laws. (With some experience one can decide to locate this convergence plane a little in front or behind the main subject.)

4. Modify Space Between the Cameras

In fact, modifying the spacing, and not directly the convergence with angulation change must then do any scene adjustment. The convergence plane that contains the meeting point of the two optical axes, usually called "convergence" is actually the result of two parameters useful to the viewer's visual comfort, and not a goal or an artistic decision. Here is another revelation, very much against preconceived ideas, which will endlessly surprise generations of "stereo 3D makers! It is logical that in the same location, all distant backgrounds such as mountains should not have to move forward or backward shot after shot, with any change of lens, frame, or camera position: Mountains are not supposed to rush towards the viewer or to look pressed - behind the screen plane, at every change of a scene. It follows that with the same kind of background, the correct angulation must not change even if a character moves towards the lens. What the audience must see is identical offsets for the same backgrounds displayed on the theatre screen. The viewer should not notice lens changes and expects backgrounds always at a constant distance from the rear of the screen, hence from himself.

Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo


D. A Step-By-Step Detailed Approach.

A step-by-step more detailed approach will help to understand better. On a mirror rig, with the two optical axis joined together with zero spacing, lets start by overlapping perfectly the two images right and left, with no colored borders. When this double image is displayed on the 3D monitor, the result should be identical to a flat 2D image. Still without any spacing, lets apply the suggested angulation. This corresponds to a tiny pan shot. What will happen on the screen? All the elements undergoing together the same left-to right offset, the entire image will be perceived at the rear of the scenic box, as if being behind the screen (including the foregrounds). Still a flat image, but now perceived globally far behind the screen plane and not on it. Then, as we widen the space between the camera axis, the images of the elements the furthest away will - remain exactly in the same position on the screen, and therefore will seem to stay at the same depth-distance because a few centimeters change of the right-left points of view will not really move elements located several tens of meters (yards) or kilometers (miles) away. It will not be the same with elements closer to the camera rig, for which these few centimeters are going to make a bigger and bigger difference. At some point, the small overall offset on the screen that we have created when we applied the angulation -at spacing zero-, will be compensated by the new spacing of the cameras, and some elements in the frame will now have their two images superimposed again, and therefore will be seen as being on the screen plane, clearly separated from the background, still viewed in the distance. At intermediate distances, elements in the frame will have their original offset more or less reduced depending on their relative nearness from us and thus will have their own depth scaled accordingly. Now with the interaxial distance increasing, we will have not only compensate for the preliminary offset of the forefront areas, but will have largely gone over it, thus creating a reverse offset, and some elements in the frame will clearly come out of the screen. Increasing inter axial spacing means pushing backwards the convergence plane, and increasing the coming-out-of-the-screen effect of the elements in the foreground.

1. Example With Figures

Let us examine a simple example for a 6.5m (21') wide screen. The best focal length for stereo has a field width equal to the distance to this point - which gives a horizontal angle of about 53. By instance that means at 13 meters distance from camera, field is 13 metres large-. By definition this focal length will be 9.5mm for 2/3" chip with a 16:9 ratio or 24mm with the silent or "full gate" frame width of a 35mm movie camera (24mm wide). Actually, this kind of focal length, very appropriate to stereo 3D shots, will also make things simpler. Place the camera rig for a steady shot at 6.5m (21') from the shepherd who will be the closest element of the image. (refer to shot A) With a 1% angulation needed by a 6.5m (21') screen corresponding to the background offset on the screen, and also with a camera interaxial distance of 6.5cm (2 "), the convergence plane will be brought precisely at 6.5m (21'), therefore exactly where the shepherd is standing. We have of course chosen on purpose in this example 1%, 6.5 cm and 6.5m, to take advantage of similar triangles with a 1 to 100 ratio. 16 Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo

We notice at once that if we systematically use the inter ocular distance ( IOD = 6.5cm, 2 ") as the main camera interaxial distance, the convergence plane will be located each time very far away from the audience. It will even be worse if we use longer focal lengths. This will not be practical at all if we want to get closer to characters when we shoot actors ! Then, what can we do?

2. Characters Moving Towards The Camera.

Suppose the rig we use has the possibility to change easily the interaxial distance. If the shepherd decides to walk towards the camera, up to 3.25m (10' 6"), it will be quite adequate to reduce the cameras spacing by half, thus to 3.25cm (1 "). (shot B). By doing this a stereoscopic window error will be thus avoided. Stereoscopic window rule shows that occlusion of part of an element is much powerfull than stereoscopic sense of depth. Called as well stereoscopic window violation (SWV) it forbids to display in theatre space an element of the subject partially concealed by the screen edges, which create a blatant integrity breach of this element.. Whether this modification is made during a static shot following the shepherd's move - or for a separate shot, in both cases the audience will not notice this variation. Background elements will appear neither crushed nor distorted and will seem to remain nicely in their original position. Here is a technique that appears to be against all common sense and seems unnatural, for obviously our personal inter ocular distance remains unchanged while on the other hand our ocular convergence never stops to move! But remember, the camera is not supposed to see instead of us, and even less to explore the frame, but is expected to squeeze in the "Scenic Box" a depth which will be displayed later in very different viewing "conditions" for the audience. This specific way of working, hard to accept at first, yields so many advantages and excellent results that one cant anymore work without, once you have use it.

3. Common Objections
Common objections can be sorted into three main categories

3.1 Could different spacing of inter axial distort the natural depth scale?
Let us point out that from any seat in the theatre, the depth scale is perceived differently and that any lens change during shooting is supposed to retains this supposed "natural" scale. Therefore what can be said about the tremendous variations brought by- various screen sizes in different theaters ! Then which natural depth are we speaking about?

3.2 Is a miniature or giant-looking appearance the price to pay for cameras spacing larger or smaller than inter ocular distance?
Very large or very small interaxial spacing are supposed to simulate a giant's or an insect's point of view, which gives sometimes a miniature appearance of the subject but rarely gigantism. Of Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo 17

course, this sometimes happen, but rather when other elements confirm this scale change. (The same sequence displayed with no stereo shows sometimes the same miniature effect). On the other hand, a miniature or model effect perceived on a specific screen size may disappear when displayed on a much larger screen! Anyway, interaxial distance variations such as by two or by half of the inter ocular distance, go often totally unnoticed to the benefit of giving the opportunity to stage shots that could not be recorded otherwise. We have seen that a stereo window too far away is very disturbing when it cuts off the foreground elements. The best way to bring it closer to the camera will be to reduce the spacing to less than the natural human ocular distance 65mm. On the other hand, very distant scenes filmed in respect to the so called "natural ocular distance will bring so few depth cues that the viewer will never be sure there is any depth on the screen like in shooting aerial shots, for instance. When this occurs, the sudden reduction of the scenic box during projection will upset the audience's vision, as was explained above. Up in the air, or for distant shots, interaxial distances of several tens of centimetres (a foot or more) will be currently used, according to the altitude of the shoot or the distance to the foreground. Also, those who would choose against any logic to modify progressively the angulation when a character is approaching (for instance the shepherd's move forward) and would attempt to maintain him on the convergence plane will be leaded to double the initial angulation (2% instead of 1% to converge at 3.25m -10' 6"). Unfortunately, this would mean the background would have its offset doubled on the screen, and would increase to 13.2cm (5"). Then, three fourth of the audience would not converge the mountain images anymore, and would see them double (diplopia), while the rest of the audience would get away with eyestrain at best, and headaches at worst. This mistake is unfortunately too well spread around and is of course much worse than to undergo the small inconvenience due to interaxial distance variation.

3.3 Is it a natural way, to perform "ocular compasss" changes, and to conceive a display supposed to be presented to the viewer's naturally fixed visual system, the eyes?
Eyes spacing fixed? Not always! When we look sideways without turning our head, our ocular axis are slightly closer while our feeling of depth remains the same. This works because of the very powerful visual function called "constant perceived size" which means that an object coming towards you keeps the same mental dimensions even if its retinal size picture increase. To allow this constant perceived size, the brain disparity function comes into play and in this process, the actual distance between the eyes has little influence ! Some experiment with mirror systems and light paths that increase or reduce artificially the physical distance between the two eyes have been set on patients and they have adapted very quickly to these new visual "calibrations". -Same with microscopic binocular or marine binocular tools-. In a similar way, during a stereo projection on a giant screen, the close-up of a face displayed five meters (16') high is not a monster like Godzilla as seen by an ant with a tiny inter ocular distance, because the same constant-size function restores it to its familiar dimensions. Is our psycho-physiological system really works in a totally relative way ? It is not easy to say, but everything works as if, and we will also work by it. (See on the subject the separate chapter about screen size comparison) 18 Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo

4. How To Proceed For A Complex Camera Move Setup?

Now, how shall we proceed for a complex camera move setup? Lets imagine a long take, linking in a same camera move shot A (shepherd) to shot C (mouse) with in between a follow up of the shepherd at a 3.25m (10'6") from the camera (as in shot B) (See the attached; schematic top view of the set). We have seen that during the shepherd's move forward, it will be advisable to reduce progressively the interaxial distance to 3.25cm (1 "), while keeping of course the same angulation as long as the backgrounds remain at a same far distance. Next, the camera will follow the shepherd, keeping that 3.25m (10' 6") distance, then will enter the house with him, panning at the very end of the movement on the table close to the wall, after the shepherd got out of the frame. When the camera enters the house with no windows - the mountains background is not anymore in the frame and is replaced by the rear wall, which becomes the new background in the picture. We will go on getting closer to it, until we correctly frame a close up of the mouse. We will have then to increase again the angulation to position the surface of the wall at the back of scenic box, repeating what had worked so well with the adjustment for static shot C. This angulation increase will bring the convergence plane a little closer to the camera, but not enough. In addition, we will have to decrease the interaxial distance to some extent in order to converge exactly on the table, which is now very close, and also to avoid as much as possible a stereoscopic window violation. If we were to omit to bring the convergence plane closer, it would intersect the scene well beyond the table that would be supposed to be inside theatre space. But we have seen that any object occulted by the screen edge cant be perceived correctly as a coming out of the screen and will destroy stereoscopic effect. Therefore we have to bring the convergence point closer. All those settings could be laboriously calculated with the help of old tables or formulae, and measured on calibrated graduations, but the Cine Monitor HD3D will drive us easily to set the best adjustments with a single rehearsal. And with it, even rigs without any graduations can work as well. It will be useful however to draw some marks to help make the next takes adjustments. We have seen that for outside shots, the background calibration has been related to the grid pitch whatever interaxial adjustment is. For closer shots, inter axial and angulation will be more interdependent, and that will mean a two-steps adjustment. On the other hand, we know that the absence of colored fringes at borders on the main subject shows that the convergence is perfectly set on that main subject. The camera spacing will be adjusted at each step until a total superimposition is effective, on the shepherd in the first session. Then it will be again modified to superimpose properly the images of the table at the end of the take. This will be done while being sure that the stone wall displays the same offset that the one indicated by the grid. Of course, angulation and interaxial distance adjustments will have to be linked, for they become more and more dependent of each other as distance to the camera shortens. Fortunately, the variation performed is not as critical as a focus change for a flat movie, because human vision withstands very well approximated transitions when they are brief. A delay of one or even a few seconds to make the next adjustment could go unnoticed. To give an idea, in the present case, the angulation can vary progressively of about 1% ( degree) to 3% (1.5) as we come closer to the wall, while the spacing will change first from 6.5cm Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo 19

to 3.25cm (2 " to 1 "), then will decrease again to about 2cm (3/4") when the camera will be close to the table. Registering markers corresponding to the adjustments done with the help of the monitor will be enough to reproduce these variations for each take and even to correct them on the fly if the takes are modified. In case the angulation cannot be accessed or handled during the take, we know that this parameter can by fully corrected during post-production with a small offset and with a few pixels crop in the image width. In the present example, it will be enough to position the angulation at an intermediate value (2%), and then during editing to modify the offset with a trajectory, with two keys following the camera movements. The loss can then be shared by both sides and reduced to less than 10 pixels for each image. During shooting, the monitor can simulate a post production convergence adjustment by an available built-in, sideway-offset function. The exact number of pixels to offset can be displayed to simulate the desired convergence plane, and to recover on the display the stereo window. Note that this possibility is systematically used for special effects, or for those that prefer to work with a "parallel" adjustment. This extreme example allows you to imagine your own answers for each specific problem. Nevertheless, the extent of the variation will have to be reasonable; otherwise it might draw the attention of the viewer. The stereo consultant's work is mainly to evaluate the psychological importance of each scene. She or he will thus present the scenic box sequential amplitudes, as similar as possible, with of course a modulation that suits to narration. This also shows that difficult shoots cannot be anymore performed easily without the help of a stereoscopic displayer

5. How To Manage With A Very Distant Subject?

Are we supposed each time to fill entirely the scenic box, or are there other possibilities? For instance, how to manage with a very distant subject? Suppose now that an additional wider shot is taken from a distant mound, for instance at 32.5m (107') from the shepherd who turns out to be the lonely forefront element in the frame (shot D) . According to what has been said before, we could be tempted to apply a proportional interaxial distance - five times greater than for shot A - while retaining of course the same angulation to keep the mountain range far behind the screen. Actually, what would be 32,5m (107) in regard of kilometres?. For that we will use - a rig with side-by-side cameras and a 32.5 cm spacing. This 32.5 cm interaxial adjustment would be perfectly adequate for a documentary showing successive shots with similar landscapes. But if we want to edit such shots with the shepherds sequence, we will have to respect the likelihood of the geographical location. Indeed, the viewer has clearly felt that the shepherd was on the screen plane when the camera hence the audience were close to him. Now, with a shot taken from this far, it would not be realistic to have the shepherd remain "glued" to the screen plane when we expect him to be a small distant figure isolated in the landscape. But how much far back? That is the main question: how to appreciate the correct value? Fortunately, human vision is lenient enough, and will satisfy itself when there is no obvious contradiction, without minding anymore the actual distance! For instance, we could position the shepherd halfway from the background, with an interaxial distance of only 16.2cm (6 3/8") instead of 32.5 cm (12 "). The convergence plane would then be at 16.5m (54'), a good compromise that would prevent a miniature effect while keeping a 20 Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo

minimum amount of amplitude, necessary to maintain a minimum "scenic box" depth. (fig. C on separate Audience stereoscopic vision board). We graciously admit that the scenic box will then be filled only by half of what it should contain! But precisely, this encroachment to the filling of the scenic box will carry a lack of depth message that will indicate that this particular one is a remote point of view. And it is better an artistic decision and a better 3D grammar matter. Then do we have to position the stereoscopic window a bit more or less than halfway from the background and the foreground? This will depend of course on possibilities offered by some other halfway elements like trees in the frame, which will modify the depth scale. The exact point of view chosen by the director will make the difference.

6. Elements Coming Out Of The Screen.

If the snack the mouse is interested in is a long bread "french baguette" that reaches out from the table to the lens, one of its end can strongly come out of the screen (because in front of stereoscopic window). The offset of the left and right images of the baguettes end, are inverted on the screen while the table stays mainly on the stereoscopic window plane. -Without any offset-. When this inverted offset is equal to the grid's pitch, we can say the element will seem to come out of the screen by half the distance from the viewer to the screen (fig. E of the vision board). If the offset is the double of the grid's pitch, the element coming out of the screen will seem to be at the third of the distance from the viewer to the screen, meaning it is much closer to the viewer (fig. F of the vision board). If the mouse runs to the end of the baguette, the audience will start screaming, especially if the whole baguette starts to fall over them with the mouse on it!!! (See the close drawings of the mouse) . If camera goes on closer and closer, note that the audience sight can easily follow the extreme end of the bread coming deeply into the theatre space, up to a very large ratio of screens distance. (Which is impossible to get with a static shot: that would hurt the viewer vision.) In looking at the stereoscopic display, one can feel as well the big difference between a static and a dynamic coming-out-of-the-screen effect. So, it seems useless to have some visual warning that would twinkle if we go beyond the limits. Which limits? Static or dynamic? Dark or light? With contrasts, details, or not at all? Such warning tools would rather destroy the so essential visual feelings (and decision), so it is better not to have them Nevertheless, the invasion of coming-out-of-the-screen elements rushing into the audience space can divert the attention from the story. It is too frequently used to justify the choice of 3D process. But when it is not relevant, it leads to a challenge for more effects, which is unfortunately a common practice in some dedicated 3D production, using it mainly to hide the fact that the 3D production decision was more of a merchandizing one than motivated by the very story. Please be careful and refrain from using systematically coming-out-of-the-screen effects.

Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo


E. Conclusion
Up to now, stereographers worked "blindfolded" adjusting the cameras settings in regard to the angle of vision for each specific lens, with geometry calculations and by thumbing through many tables, sometimes with the help of specific software. Despite all these hurdles, we managed sometimes to find the best adjustments that fitted each screen size. Unfortunately this procedure is not compatible with the speed of today's productions : we have to manage very fast to any unpredicted variations on the shoot. 3D Stereoscopic language needed some intuitive correction to those calculations results, regarding the nature of the picture, and how to take them into account better than visually, with such a display as the Cine Monitor HD3D. For instance, placing an element halfway between the convergence plane (screen plane) and the fare background is easily dealt with by calibrating the coloured borders at only half the grid's pitch. Now such monitor specific to stereo acquisition exists, there is no more excuse to overcome a faulty workmanship, against the audience's visual comfort. The unavoidable background grid of the CineMonitorHD 3DView, is a guarantee of safeness to audiences vision. Alain Derobe 2009


Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo

Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo


Zone Industrielle 27135 Verneuil sur Avre France Tel +33 2 3232 2761 3D@transvideointl.com http://www.transvideointl.com

Rev 0.0 0ct 14rd 2009


Natural Depth Method Tutorial with the CineMonitorHD 3DView All rights reserved Oct 2009 Alain Derobe & Transvideo