..
is the known location of sensor
s(k), andX
j
(k)=(x
(ky
(k)) is the location of the sensor
Sj(k). Here V (k) is the Gaussian white measurement noise
of the receiving sensors with zero mean and variance R().
To be consistent, when the target can be sensed by
emitting sensor s(k), the measurement equation (3) is also
applicable with the emitting sensor and the receiving sensor
being the same.
Given the estimate X(k I k) of X(k) at time step k,
EK algorithm consists of an prediction update phase to
calculate the predicted state X (k + 11 k) and its
corresponding prediction error covariance P( k + 1 I k) ,
and a measurement update phase to obtain the new state
estimation X (k + 11 k + 1) and its corresponding error
covariance matrix k+llk+l) fom X(k +llk) and
P(k + 11 k) using the sensor measurements Z(+ 1).
The detailed information on EK operations can be
found in [ 1 1] and is omitted here due to the space
limitation.
Based on the state estimation, various measures can be
defmed for the IQ, i.e., the tracking accuracy, such as the
trace or the determinant of the covariance matrix,
eigenvalues of the diference between the desired and the
predicted covariance matrices, and the entropy of the state
estimation distribution. In this paper, the IQ, <(
, at time
step k is defned as the trace of the covariance matrix, i.e.,
(k) = Trace(P(k I k)). (4)
IV. COLLAORTIVE SENSING AND ADAPTIVE SENSOR
SCHEDULING
A. InterSensor Interference and Sensor Scheduling
A serious problem in WSN of active sensors is the
intersensor interference (lSI) when nearby ultrasonic
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sensors emit sound wave simultaneously. Such interference
will result in erroneous sensor readings and must be dealt
with properly. lSI also introduces a new technological
constraint in the design and implementation of a WSN. In
this paper, we assume the WSN is deployed in a small area
where the sensor nodes ae in the interference range of each
other, and only single target tracking is considered. To avoid
lSI, at each time step, only one emitting sensor will be
scheduled and the other sensors will paicipate in joint
sensing with the scheduled emitting sensor.
Periodic sensor scheduling is used in [6, 9] where the
time is divided into periodic cycles. Within a cycle, a
predefmed duation (called time slot) is assigned for each
ultrasonic sensor for sensing, during which it can work
properly without interference fom other sensors.
A critical drawback of periodic sensor scheduling is that a
detection may be missed when a scheduled sensor can not
generate effective joint sensing measurements, which results
in lower tacking accuracy. Tis problem is shown in Fig. 4
for a WSN with six ultasonic sensors. The discretized taget
trajector is displayed as circles with the scheduled sensors
indicated beside the tajector points, with the tajector
point displayed as shaded circle if it can be successflly
detected by joint sensing of sensors, otherwise displayed as
nonshaded circles. In the scheduling cycle i identifed by the
solid ellipse, the sensors ae scheduled fom sensor 1 to
sensor 6. However, only scheduled sensors 1, 3,
5
, and 6
generate efective detections whereas sensors 2 and 4
generate empty detections. For example, the frst trajector
point with scheduled emitting sensor 1 associates with two
measurements by sensors 1 and 6. The second tajector
point with scheduled emitting sensor 2 can not be detected as
it is outside the detection agle of sensor 2. The third
trajector point can be detected by joint sensing of sensor 3
and sensor
5
. Similaly, in te scheduling cycle i+ 1, only
scheduled sensors 2 and 6 generate effective detections
whereas sensors 1, 3, 4, and
5
generate empty detections.
To overcome the above drawback of period sensor
scheduling, we introduce the adaptive sensor scheduling to
select the emitting sensor for te next time step according to
the predicted target location and the sensing region of the
sensors.
Figure 4. Efective and missing detections in periodic sensor scheduling
102
D. Collaborative Sensing
In this paper, collaborative sensing is used to stand for
joint sensing and the joint sensing enabled adaptive sensor
scheduling.
Either centralized or distributed target tracking structure
can be adopted, depending on the fsion centre being the
centralized management centre or the scheduled sensor. At
each time step, the scheduled sensor emits the sound wave
and all other sensor nodes that can perform joint sensing
with the emitting sensor will collect the measurements and
forward the measurements to the fsion centre. The fsion
centre will run EKF to give updates of the state estimation
using the new measurements and schedule the emitting
sensor for the next time step. Then it will inform the
scheduled sensor to perform the emitting operation in the
next time step, together with the state estimation and
covariance matrix information in the distributed structure.
We assume that the fsion centre knows the location and
orientation of each sensor. In the distributed structure, this
means that each sensor knows such information of each
node because each sensor is possible to be the fsion centre.
Diferent measures can be used as the performance
indices to select the emitting sensor, including the joint
sensing detection probability, tracking accuracy, and energy
efciency. However, to calculate these performance indices
under the joint sensing mechanism is not an easy task. For
simplifcation and easy to compare with individual sensing
scheme, in this paper, we schedule the emitting sensor
according to the individual sensor detection probability.
Due to the uncertainties in the taget motion model such
as the taget maneuvering, even using adaptive sensor
scheduling, it is still possible that the scheduled sensor ca
not detect the target. If this happens, the fsion cente will
use the predicted state and its covaiance matrix as the
estimation result.
C Detection Probabilit for Individual Sensing
Suppose S is the emitting sensor, for a given target
location X=(x, y), the target can be detected by S
individually if it is in the detection region of S.
Mathematically the following target detection model is used
p
(x
,
y)
= {I, if (x
,
y) is in the dettionregionof S
;
(5)'
I
0, otherwtse.
Without loss of generality, in this paper, we suppose the
target location is 2dimensional. For emitting sensor
selection, the prediction of the detection probability of a
given emitting sensor is required. Denote the prediction of
the target location and its covariance as
J
and L which
are subvector of X(k 11 k) and submatrix of P(k+llk)
respectively. Then the probability density fnction (PDF)
fnction of the 10cationX=(x, y) will be
fxy) = 112 e ( X Jt r1 (X J) )
. (6)
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l8l pI0lCllOn
IOl Slp k+1
l8lSllm8llOn
8l Sp k
nSOlSj
Figure 5. Predicted detection probability for joint sensing
8pl0lCllOn
IOI Sp k+1
nSOlSj
Figure 6. Approximate the Gaussia distribution by random samples
Fig. 5 shows the current state estimation and state
prediction for the next time step by 3a ellipses, as well as
the sensing region of sensor S. In general, the prediction of
the joint sensing detection probability by using S for the
next time step will be
= [ (x,y)xdy.
(7)
D. Monte Carlo Method for Approximation of Detection
Probabilit
Unfortunately, as shown in Fig. 5, to calculate the joint
sensing detection probability analytically for a given
emitting sensor is diffcult. Therefore, we adopt the Monte
Carlo simulation method to generate random samples to
approximate the Gaussian distribution in equation (6) of the
target location prediction. Fig. 6 illustrates an example for
approximating a twodimensional location Gaussian
distribution by random samples. Suppose the total number
of samples used is K, then the Gaussian distribution is
approximated using discrete probability mass fnction
(PMF) P(Xj,y) with value 11K for each sample location.
Accordingly, the detection probability Ps of S; is
I
approximated as
103
Emitting Sensor Selection
In this paper, the emitting sensor is selected as the sensor
with the maximal detection probability for individual
sensing. Afer the emitting sensor is selected and activated
for emitting wave, for individual sensing scheme only the
emitting sensor can take the measurement whereas for the
joint sensing scheme, multiple sensors ca take the
measurements simultaneously.
N. SIMULATION RSULTS
Simulation experiments are conducted for comparing
between joint sensing and individual sensing schemes, both
based on adaptive sensor scheduling. As shown in Fig. 7,
the monitored feld is 300cm X 300cm square area. The
bottomlef comer of the feld is with the coordinate (0, 0),
whereas the upperright comer is with the coordinate (300,
300). Each ultrasonic sensor has the maximal sensing range
of 300 cm and the maximal measurement angle is 22.
There are eight ultrasonic sensors located along the edge of
the area respectively with coordinates (70, 0), (190, 0), (300,
70), (300, 190), (230, 300), (110, 300), (0, 230) and (0,
110). The orientations of the sensors are respectively 90,
90, 180, 180, 270, 270, 0 and 0 such that the feld can
be covered mostly and any two sensors are not in the
detection region of each other. In this setup, each sensor is
in the lSI region of any other sensor. We assume the
duration of a time slot is 100 ms.
The target moves along a straight line as shown in Fig. 7
with the speed 100cmlsecond. Q is setup at 1.57*1061 where
I is the identity matrix. Periodic sensor scheduling is used
for initial detection of the target and to initiate the tracking
procedure. The initial location estimation of the target is set
to the point along the central line of the beam patter of the
detecting sensor with the distance to the detecting sensor
equal to the initial measurement. The initial velocity
estimation of the target is set to O. The initial covariance can
be set heuristically according to the orientation and
measurement of the detecting target.
Typical estimated trajectories of adaptive sensor
scheduling using individual sensing and joint sensing are
shown in the Fig. 7. Clearly, the estimated trajector by
joint sensing is much closer to the true target trajector as
compared with the individual sensing scheme.
The evolutions of tracking erors, i.e., the IQ, are shown
in Fig. 8. The gain of the joint sensing is observed. The
maximal and averaged tracking eror of individual sensing
are about 25 cm and 10.01 cm respectively, whereas that of
the joint sensing are about 10 cm and 3.66 cm respectively,
a signifcant improvement.
The improvement of the IQ of joint sensing against the
individual sensing is due to the increase of the detection
region and more simultaneous measurements. Fig. 9 shows
the number of sensors used for taking measurements at each
time step. Because the individual sensing is a specifc joint
sensing scenario where the emitting sensor is the same as
the receiving sensor, the number of sensors of the individual
sensing scheme (being one by default) is always smaller or
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equal to that of the joint sensing scheme. We can fmd that
for most of the time steps, the joint sensing scheme has
more than two simultaneous measurements except time step
22 and time step 25 with no measurement and one
measurement, respectively. However, for individual sensing
scheme fom time steps 1624, it does not have any
measurements, except time step 23, although one emitting
sensor is scheduled for each time step. For time steps 1621,
and time step 22, joint sensing has more than two
measurements but individual sensing does not have any
measurements, which demonstrates that the joint sensing
can increase the detection region signifcantly.
VI. CONCLUSIONS
A novel collaborative sensing scheme is proposed for
target tracking application in WSNs by joint sensing and
adaptive sensor scheduling. The proposed scheme can
increase the detection region of an individual sensor and
introduce more simultaneous sensor measurements for a
single sensing operation. It is shown by simulations that the
IQ of the WSN can be improved signifcantly using joint
sensing. Future research issues include sensor scheduling
for joint sensing for large scale WSNs, adaptive tracking
algorithms for high maneuvering targets, joint sensing for
multitarget tracking, as well as real testbed development.
ns Snso
5
::  
True target Irajectory
_Estimated trajectory by individual sensing
:s: Estimated trajectory by joint sensing
nso 7
:::
ts:
nso
:::
s:
: s


:
s::
Figure 7. Estimated trajectories by adative sensor scheduling
10
2
20
"
0
Individual sensing
Joint sensing
Time steps
Figure 8. Evolutions of tracking errors for adaptive sensor scheduling
104
Individual sensing
4.5
Joint sensing
4
3.5
2.5
1.5
0.5
0L0 52 02530
Time steps
Figure 9. Number of simultaeous measurements obtained by adaptive
sensor scheduling
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